• Children Museum of Manhattan, New York (~500 000 visitors

Сomentários

Transcrição

• Children Museum of Manhattan, New York (~500 000 visitors
Ο Καθηγητής της Έδρας Φυσικής του Διαστήματος του Πανεπιστημίου Αθηνών κ.
Ξενοφών Μουσάς, έχει μελετήσει σε βάθος τον Μηχανισμό των Αντικυθήρων και έχει
δώσει σχετικές διαλέξεις σε πολλά μέρη της Γης :
• Children Museum of Manhattan, New York (~500 000
visitors)
• NASA Kennedy Space Center (at launch of Juno spacecraft)
• UNESCO, Paris (International Year of Astronomy 2009)
• Uppsala Gustavianum Museum, 2009
• University of Birmingham 2014
• University of Reading (Museum of Archaeology) 2014
• University of London, Goldsmiths College, 2014
• six English Schools and Colleges
• Library of Alexandria
• Drexel University, USA
• Munich
• University of Ebora, Portugal
• Institute of Astronomy of the Slovak Academy of Sciences,
• Olsztyn Planetarium (Copernicus observatory), Poland,
• Krakow University , science fair, Poland,
• The Technical University, Budapest
• Constantine, Algeria (7ème Salon National d’Astronomie,
2008)
• Istituto Veneto per Science, Lettere ed Arte, Venice, Italy
• Averofian Greek School of Alexandria
• Abetian Greek School of Cairo
• Numerus exhibitions all around Greece (the Ionian Center,
Athens; University of Athens; University of Patras; Stadium
Eirinis and Filias, Athens; very many schools and summer
schools)
Στα επόμενα δημοσιεύονται μερικές από αυτές τις διαλέξεις του κ.
Καθηγητή στα Αγγλικά και Γερμανικά, τις οποίες ευγενώς
προσέφερε στα Αντικύθηρα και τους Αντικυθήριους.
Antikythera Mechanism Exhibition
by XENOPHON MOUSSAS,
[email protected]
National and Kapodistrian University of Athens
The Antikythera Mechanism is the oldest
known astronomical instrument
and
Computer,
a Mechanical Universe
and possibly
an astronomical clock
that we have in hands, probably made
between 150 and 100 BC, by a Greek
astronomer and mechanic with excellent
knowledge of mathematics.
Today is an excellent educational device
The three largest fragments of the mechanism
at the National Archeological Museum, Athens
2
The Antikythera Mechanism
3
The Antikythera Mechanism,
the grand father of all high tech and
a great attractor of children
to science, technology, mathematics, history and philosophy,
an excellent educational device
4
7
George Smoot and David Gross,
Nobel Prize winners for Physics
8
George Smoot Nobel Prize winner
for Physics
9
David Gross, James Cronin, Nobel Prize winners for Physics and
famous cosmologists, Gabrielle Veneziano, George Efstathiou,
Alexei Starobinsky, Dimitra Rigopoulou, I. Iliopoulos,
Demosthenes Kazanas, Elias Kiritsis, Tom Krimigis, Kyriakos
10
Eftsthiou
The Antikythera Mechanism
11
The Antikythera Mechanism
13
The Antikythera Mechanism
14
15
16
17
18
19
20
Exhibition components
• a minimum of 5 panels (up to 21 panels) describing
the Mechanism
• two interactive computer programs with simulations
of the Mechanism
• a short movie (4.5 min)
• and possibly a longer movie (15 to 30 minutes)
• a series of interactive 3D photographs of the
Mechanism
• a real model of the Mechanism, made of bronze
Exhibitions around the world
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
Children Museum of Manhattan, New York (~500 000 visitors)
NASA Kennedy Space Center (at launch of Juno spacecraft)
UNESCO, Paris (International Year of Astronomy 2009)
Uppsala Gustavianum Museum, 2009
University of Birmingham 2014
University of Reading 2014
University of London, Goldsmiths College, 2014
six English Schools and Colleges
Library of Alexandria
Drexel University, USA
Munich
University of Ebora, Portugal
Institute of Astronomy of Slovak Academy of Sciences,
Olsztyn Planetarium (Copernicus observatory), Poland,
Krakow University , science fair, Poland,
The Technical University, Budapest
Constantine, Algeria (7ème Salon National d’Astronomie, 2008)
Istituto Veneto per Science, Lettere ed Arte, Venice, Italy
Averofian Greek School of Alexandria
Abetian Greek School of Cairo
Numerus exhibitions all around Greece (the Ionian Center, Athens; University of Athens;
University of Patras; Stadium Eirinis and Filias, Athens; very many schools and summer schools)
22
23
24
next to Miro, UNESCO, Paris
25
The
Exhibition
of the
Mechanism
at NASA
26
27
28
29
30
31
32
33
The Mechanism is a great attractor
of children to philosophy and
science
34
35
36
37
38
39
40
41
42
43
Algeria, 7eme salon d’ astronomie
44
The Library of Alexandria
45
46
47
Exhibition on the Antikythera Mechanism
and the history of Greek science.
by Xenophon Moussas
Professor in Space Physics, Faculty of Physics, School of Science
National and Kapodistrian University of Athens
Panepistimiopolis, GR 15783 Zographos, Athens, Greece
tel +302108828967, mobile 30 6978792891
e-mail: [email protected], [email protected], [email protected],
General Description
It is an exhibition on the
History of Science
addressed to pupil and the
general public. If you
have such an exhibition it
will be for the benefit of
the pupil, students,
scholars, and people
interested for Science,
Astronomy and Physics in
particular and Philosophy.
The exhibition attracts
pupil to science,
philosophy, astronomy, technology and history.
I had had several exhibitions or contributed to exhibitions: NASA (Kennedy
Space Center, Cape Canaveral, Florida), New York (Children Museum of
Manhattan, 500000 visitors, mainly children), UNESCO (Paris, beginning of the
International Year of Astronomy, Uppsala Gustavianum Museum (the exhibition
doubled the number of visitors since then), Drexel University (USA), Library of
Alexandria, Institute of Astronomy of the Slovac Academy, Olsztyn Planetarium
(Copernicus observatory in Poland), Crakow, Technical University Budapest, the
Greek School of Cairo, the Greek School of Alexandria (Egypt), Constantine
(7eme salon d' astronomie) Algeria, the University of Reading UK, the
University of London(Goldsmiths College) UK, the University of Birmingham
UK, The Observatory of Toulouse France, the Goethe Institute Toulouse France,
a French School, Munich Germany, the
University of Ebora Portugal, many
colleges and schools in England, the
University of Cyprus, the University of
Nicosia and Limassol in Cyprus and many
in Greece (Ionian Center, The University of
Athens, University of Patras, the
Archaeological Museum of Castoria, the
Archaeological Museum of Lamia, the
Archaeological Collection of Elateia and at
numerous Greek schools) and I have
contributed to the excellent exhibition at
the National Archaeological Museum
Athens, Greece. We have an excellent
educational programme at the Laskarides
Foundation in Piraeus Greece.
In all exhibitions the feedback was
excellent. It increased the number of
visitors of the museum ever after, The
director of the Archaeological Museum of
Uppsala told me that the Exhibition of the
Mechanism doubled the
number of visitors of the
Museum and that the visitors
came back to the museum
again and again for other
exhibitions, the number of
visitors of the National
Archaeological Museum in
Athens doubled too. We had
had very good impact to the
children at schools. In some
schools we introduced
educational programmes and
the children participated in an excellent way.
The Mechanism is a great attractor of children to Science, Technology,
Mathematics, History, Astronomy and Philosophy.
What is the Antikythera Mechanism?
The Antikythera Mechanism is the oldest known scientific instrument,
made around 150 to 100 BC. It is also the oldest [analogue] computer
and the first known Mechanical Universe, i.e. the first planetarium.
The Mechanism works with bronze gears perform mathematical
operations, giving the position the Sun and Moon, the phase during the
month, predicts eclipses. Maintains calendars based on the Meton’s
period (19 years) and Callippus period (76 years), determines the dates of the Olympic and other Games, the Pythian,
Isthmian, Naa, Nemean. It predicts the solar and lunar eclipses based on a
long tradition of previous observations and on two types of lunisolar
cycles, the Saros and Exeligmos (3 Saroi cycles) and Meton's and
Callippus cycles. The Saros gives the date and the Meton and Callippus
cycles give the exact position on the sky with respect to the stars that was
essential for an exact prediction of the longitude on the Earth that a solar
and even lunar eclipse will occur and where it will be visible.
The exhibition consists of:




Some 20 panels describing the Mechanism and giving the history
og science in Greece,
two interactive programs with simulations of the Mechanism,
a short movie (4.5 minutes) and a longer one (35minutes, but I can
make it in English)
Several interactive 3D photographs of the Mechanism.
We need:
 4 to 10 computers and
 Two DVD player with large plasma display or a computer
with data projector for the videos.
Any old computer can run the computer applications. They run on MS Windows (old or new).
Each panel is made of a poster (usually printed at a width 70 cm, height 1m, or 1 m X 1.40m if
the exhibition area permits). Ideally we could be using stands for the panels.
To construct a panel we glue every panel-poster, printed on good quality plastic fabric, on kappamount (sandwich of
Styrofoam with thin cardboard), or similar material, suitable for panel. We can fix the posters on the kappamount if
have every poster printed on a larger surface material with a 7cm margin (border) all around then we fold around the
kappamount or the hardboard. Alternatively we can glue the poster (70X100cm) on a much larger hardboard leaving a
very large border all around the poster. Naturally if we can afford we van have much better results if we use a
specialist for exhibitions.
If no stands are available we can use the walls. I've done in several exhibitions.
On the walls we can use small nail and hangers in each panel, or double faced tape, masking tape etc.
We need at least 4 and up to 8 computers.




1st computer or DVD player and a large plasma display) in the first we have a little movie showing
how the Mechanism is made. The model is based on a graphics made by Mr Nikos Giannopoulos,
digital artist. It plays well with a DVD player or PC. If a big screen (plasma) is available is even
better.
2nd computer) is a 3D interactive model of the Mechanism (based on mathematics and programming
in C), made by the Prof. Manos Roumeliotis of the University of Macedonia at Thessaloniki. A visitor
can play with the model, it can turn it, it can enter into the mechanism and see how it works. It
displays well the four gear train of the lunar anomaly (what I call Kepler's second law approximation.
3rd computer) has a 3D interactive model (based on graphics) made by Mrs Amalia Porligki, digital
artist. A visitor can play with the model, it can turn it around.
4th-8th computers) has an interactive program that displays three-dimensional interactive photos
made by Dr Tom Malzbender, HP (Palo Alto California). It illuminates the object (with mathematics)
from any point the user wants. It allows to take off the rust of the ancient object (using mathematics)
and to see clearly the surface detail, e.g. the writings of the computer manual, which is embedded in
the Mechanism.
It allows the display of the unit vectors perpendicular to the surface (with colors).
We have many 3D interactive photos that are displayed in this way.
a) the manual of the Mechanism, which is a text written on bronze
sheets
b) the wheel of the Sun that runs the Mechanism
c) the display (pointer and cycle) of the Moon
d) the concentric circular scales of the ecliptic and the zodiac
together
with the year scale.
e) the spiral scale of Meton’s 19 year period
We can print the panels in Greece or locally. I glue the poster (printed on
good quality plastic like paper) and then I glue it on kappamount (polyurethane foam sheet sandwiched with
hardboard) with liquid glue. I print the poster with a white margin of the order of 7cm all around. Then I cut the
corners, glue the poster on the kappamount and turn the margin all around. Then I add a hunger at the back.
The files for the panels are large. I can send them one by one my e-mail, or by mail in a CD. The computer programs
with the data and the movie can be in the same CD.
We will have a bronze model of the Mechanism made by Dionysios Kriaris on loan for our exhibition.
Xenophon Moussas, PhD
Professor in Space Physics
National and Kapodistrian University of Athens,
Address: Panepistimiopolis, GR 15783 Zographos, Athens, Greece
Tel +30 6978792891, home +302108828967
Der Mechanismus von Antikythera
Prof. Dr. Xenophon Moussas
Lehrstuhl für Astrophysik, Astronomie und Mechanik, Fakultät für Physik
Nationale und Kapodistrias-Universität Athen
Panepistimiopolis, GR 15783 Zographos, Athen, Griechenland
mobile +306978792891 e-mail: [email protected], [email protected]
"... Der Urquell aller technischen Errungenschaften ist die göttliche Neugier und der Spieltrieb des bastelnden und grübelnden Forschers und
nicht minder die konstruktive Phantasie des technischen Erfinders....",
Albert Einstein, Radio-Rede anlässlich der Eröffnung der 7. Deutschen Funkausstellung und Phonoschau in Berlin, 1930.
Der Mechanismus von
Antikythera ist bisher das
älteste hoch entwickeltes
wissenschaftliches
Instrument
und
astronomischer Computer,
der vermutlich zwischen
150 und 100 v. Chr . von
griechischen
Wissenschaftlern
entworfen und konstruiert
wurde. Der Mechanismus
wurde
durch
Schwammtaucher
nahe
der kleinen griechischen Insel Antikythera in einem großen alten Schiffswrack
gefunden, welches aus dem 1. Jh. v. Chr. stammt.
Der Mechanismus arbeitet mit exakt konstruierten und sorgsam hergestellten
bronzenen Zahnrädern. Die Bewegung der Zahnräder steuert die verschiedene
Zeiger auf beiden Seiten des Mechanismus. Die eine Seite (A) des Mechanismus
weist zwei konzentrische Skalen auf, die den Tierkreis und das Sonnenjahr
darstellen. Die andere Seite (B) des Instruments ist mit verschiedenen Zeigern
und Skalen ausgestattet. Auf der ersten Seite (A) ist die Position der Sonne am
Himmel im Laufe des Jahres durch einen Zeiger mit einer kleinen, goldenen
Kugel, sowie auch die Phase des Mondes und sein Ort am Himmel während
eines Monats mit einer kleinen,
silbernen Kugel angegeben, und
vermutlich auch die Position der
klassischen Planeten. Auf der
anderen Seite (B) werden durch
verschiedenen Zeigern und Skalen
die
Finsternisse
(Eklipsen)
angezeigt, basierend auf der SarosPeriode und der Exeligmos-Periode,
die Wiederholung der Mondstellung
mit der gleichen Phase und am
gleichen Ort am Himmel unter
Verwendung des Meton-Zyklus und
des Kallipischen Zyklus, sowie auch
der
Jahresrhythmus
der
panhellenischen
Spiele.
Der
Mechanismus
ist
mit
einem
Anwenderhandbuch ausgestattet.
Die Verwendungsmöglichkeiten des
Mechanismus sind vielfach, und erfassen die Messung der Höhe eines Himmelskörpers über dem Horizont und die
Winkeldistanz zwischen zwei
astronomischen Objekten, die
Kalenderrechnung,
die
Bestimmung der Position des
Mondes am Himmel und
seiner Phase, die Ermittlung
der Stellung der Sonne am
Himmel, die Angabe der
Mondbewegung, mit guter
Annäherung
an
das
2.
Keplersche
Gesetz,
und
vermutlich die Messung der
geografischen Breite und der
geografischen Länge (notwendig für Kartografie und Navigation). Der Mechanismus ist gleichzeitig ein
Astronomischer Computer, ein Meteorologisches und Klimatologisches Gerät, eine Astronomische Uhr, und ein
Lehrmittel.
Der Mechanismus von Antikythera besitzt einen hohen didaktischen
Wert. Der interdisziplinäre Zugang, benötigt für seine Konstruktion,
bietet eine große Möglichkeit, Schüler, Studenten, Wissenschaftlern und
Kinder jeden Alters für Wissenschaften, Technik, Mathematik,
Philosophie, Geschichte und Sprachwissenschaft zu begeistern. Die
Simulation der astronomischen Phänomenen (Prodiktion und
Retrodiktion) beruht auf die Realisierung der Existenz der
fundamentalen Prinzipen der Kausalität in der Natur, der physikalischen
Gesetzen, und auf ihre mathematische Formulierung. Die astronomischen
Phänomenen werden gleichzeitig verstanden, erläutert, und vorausgesagt.
Die Ausstellung wurde gezeigt in New York (Children
Museum of Manhattan), bei der UNESCO (Paris, zum
Beginn des Internationalen Jahres der Astronomie, 2009),
am Upsala Gustavianum Museum (die Ausstellung
verdoppelte die Besucherzahl im Jahr), in der (neuen)
Bibliothek von Alexandria (Ägypten), am Institut für
Astronomie der Slowakischen Akademie, am Olsztyn
Planetarium (Copernicus Sternwarte in Polen), in der
Krakauer Universität, in Budapest, an der griechischen
Schule von Kairo,
an der griechischen
Schule
von
Alexandria
(Ägypten),
in
Constantine
(Algerien;
7eme
salon' astronomie)
und mehrmals in
Griechenland (am
Ionischen Zentrum,
in der Universität
von Athen, in der
Universität
von
Patras,
in
verschiedenen Schulen).
Die Ausstellung besteht aus ca. 20 Tafeln, zwei interaktiven Softwareprogrammen, einem kurzen Film und
verschiedenen interaktiven 3D Fotografien des Mechanismus. Benötigt werden 4 bis 7 Computer und eventuell ein
DVD-Player mit großem Plasmadisplay. Jede Tafel besteht aus einem Poster (Breite 70 cm, Höhe 1 m oder 1 m x 1,40
m). Im Idealfall sollten Stellwände für bis zu 20 Tafel zur Verfügung stehen.
Copyrigth: Xenophon Moussas, 2015
Übersetzung durch Michael A. Rappenglück 2010, Panagiotis Papaspirou
Xenophon Moussas, PhD
Professor in Space Physics, ex-Head of Space Physics group, ex-Director of the Astrophysics Laboratory, exDirector of the Observatory of the University of Athens,
National and Kapodistrian University of Athens,
Address: Panepistimiopolis, GR 15783 Zographos, Athens, Greece
Tel +30210 7276853, +30 210 7276854, Mobile: +30 6978792891, home +302108828967, +302108843877
Former Head of the Department of Astrophysics, Astronomy and Mechanics,
Former Deputy Head of the Faculty of Physics, Former member of the Senate House of the University of
Athens
Former visiting senior research fellow of Imperial College of Science, Technology and Medicine (for two
decades)
Visiting professor at the University of Mexico (UNAM) for three months.
e-mail: [email protected]
http://www.cc.uoa.gr/artemis/ http://www.antikythera-mechanism.gr
Research interests:
1. Space physics:
a. Participation in Ulysses mission EPAC/Keppler experiment (team member)
b. Participation in STEREO mission and WIND/WAVES, SWAVES experiment (co-investigator and
team member)
c. Space weather
d. Study of the heliosphere in 3 dimensions
e. Energetic particles in the heliosphere, Shock acceleration
f. MHD theory and analysis of interplanetary magnetic field and plasma data
2. Cosmic ray modulation and the heliosphere
3. Magnetospheric and planetary studies: Mars ionosphere and magnetosphere, Jovian Magnetosphere,
Saturn and Titan (atmosphere), Enceladus (volcanoes), Comet ions.
4. Solar physics:
a. Solar radio burst studies with ARTEMIS IV, the Digital Radio Spectrograph (7m diameter) at the
Thermopylae Station, Greece (French-Greek collaboration)
b. STEREO/waves experiment (co-investigator), WIND/waves experiment (team member)
c. Non-linear RLC models of the solar cycle, Sunspot evolution model
5. Stellar winds/ astrophysical flows (theoretical work)
6. ROSAT (Röntgensatellit), construction of the magnetic shield of the U.K. wide field camera
7. Chaos, non-linear phenomena
8. History of Astronomy, study of the Antikythera Mechanism, the oldest computer and planetarium (2nd c
BC) and Ancient Greek Celestial Spheres (8th c BC).
Supervisor of 18 Ph.D. students (13 have completed their studies), many M.Sc. theses of undergraduate
students (more than 250).
Teaching: Astrophysics, Astronomy, and Space Physics (undergraduate and MSc level) courses.
Publications:
1. author of "Antikythera Mechanism, the oldest computer and mechanical Cosmos", Greek Physical Society
Publishing House, Athens, 2011.
2. Co-author of "Space Physics", Greek Open University Publishing House, Patras, 2003.
Notes for students: Astrophysics, Laboratory Exercises for Astrophysics, Space Physics, University of Athens.
3. Approximately 110 articles in international Journals and many in conferences.
4. Book review in international Journal, many book reviews and presentations in Greek scientific magazines
and daily papers.
5. More than 150 articles in encyclopedias (all the astronomical articles in the Ekdodike Athinon Thematic
Encyclopedia).
6. Many popular science articles
7. Many Radio and TV programs and interviews
Co-Editor (1979-81) of "Physicos Cosmos", the popular science magazine of the Greek Physical Society.
Editor (1997-99) of "Hipparcos", the Hellenic Astronomical Society bulletin.
Awards:
1) Geophysical Research Letters editor’s citation for excellence in refereeing in Space Physics, American
Geophysical Union, Boston, 2001
2) NASA award for participation in EPAC/Ulysses experiment, 2009
3) Hipparchus award, Arcadia Cultural Organization, Athens, Greece, 2010
Exhibitions: Many exhibitions concerning the Antikythera Mechanism and the History of Greek Science
I have made or contributed to many exhibitions on the Antikythera Mechanism, the oldest computer and the History
of Greek astronomy is addressed to pupil and the general public. We have had several exhibitions or contributed to
exhibitions: New York (Children Museum of Manhattan), the NASA Kennedy Space Center during the launch of Juno
spacecraft, Drexel University, Slovakia, Slovenia, University of Birmingham, University of Reading, University of
London (Goldsmiths College) at UNESCO (Paris, beginning of the International Year of Astronomy 2009, Upsala
Gustavianum Museum (the exhibition doubled the number of visitors in the year), Library of Alexandria, Institute of
Astronomy of the Slovac Academy, Olsztyn Planetarium (Copernicus observatory in Poland), Warsaw University,
Budapest, the Greek School of Cairo, the Greek School of Alexandria (Egypt), Constantine (7eme salon' astronomie,
Algeria), Moscow, Instituto Veneto per Science, Lettere ed Arte (Venice), Portugal, Toulouse, and very many in
Greece, at the Ionian Center, The University of Athens, University of Patras, at the Stadium Erinis and Philias at
numerous schools (in Greece, The U.K., France and Egypt) and summer schools.
I am planning several exhibitions including one at CERN.

Documentos relacionados