11.4. bankTaSorisi angariSsworeba

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11.4. bankTaSorisi angariSsworeba
ირაკლი კოვზანაძე, გოგი კონტრიძე - თანამედროვე საბანკო საქმე: თეორია და პრაქტიკა
monawilis wminda sadebeto an sakredito poziciis Sesabamisad.
amis Semdeg saboloo angariSsworeba wminda poziciebis mixedviT
xdeba ukve „fedvaieris“ sistemis mier.
am ori sistemiT xorcieldeba aSS-is Sida bankTaSorisi angariS­
sworebebis absoluturi umravlesoba.
cnobilia aseve iseTi sagadamxdelo sistemebi, rogorebicaa: CHAPS
(Clearing House Association Payments System) did britaneTSi, SIC (Swiss
Interbank Clearing) _ Sveicariis sakliringo sistema da sxv. gansakuTrebiT
aRsaniSnavia evroSi gadaricxvebis sistema TARGET (Trans-European Automated Real-time Grosssettlement Express Transfer), romelic warmoadgens RTGS
sakliringo sistemas. Tavisi struqturiT TARGET aris decentralizebuli sagadamxdelo sistema, romelic Sedgeba nacionaluri RTGS sistemebisa da evropis centraluri bankis sagadamxdelo meqanizmisagan.
sainteresoa, rom TARGET sistemis teqnikur platformad gamoyenebulia SWIFT. dRes ukve moqmedebs TARGET-is modificirebuli sistema
TARGET2.
11.4. bankTaSorisi angariSsworeba
bankTaSorisi angariSsworeba da misi meSveobiT ganxorcielebuli
gadaxdebi warmoadgenen nebismieri qveynis ekonomikisa da misi sabanko
sistemis safuZvels, romlis gareSec warmoudgenelia maTi funqcionireba.
bankTaSorisi angariSsworeba xorcieldeba sakorespondento
urTierTobebis meSveobiT da warmoadgens bankebs Soris xelSekrulebiT gaTvaliswinebul urTierTobas angariSsworebisa da gadaxdebis
ganxorcielebis Sesaxeb, romlebic warmoebs erT-erTi maTganis mier
meores saxsrebiT da davalebiT.
roca komerciuli bankis klienti axdens raime valdebulebis Sesrulebas, anu kontragentisaTvis fulis gadaxdas, mas aqvs ori alternativa: gamoitanos Tavisi angariSidan naRdi fuli da gadauxados mas an
gadaricxos mis angariSze. ra Tqma unda, gadaricxvis operacia bevrad
swrafi, usafrTxo da komfortulia da bankis momsaxurebaSi myofi klientebis absoluturi umravlesoba asec iqceva. saqme isaa, rom gadaricxvis drosac SeiZleba dafiqsirdes ori SemTxveva:
1.saxsrebis gadamricxavi da misi kontragenti (beneficiari, anu
saxsrebis mimRebi) arian erTi da imave bankis klientebi;
2.saxsrebis gadamricxavi da beneficiari arian ori sxvadasxva bankis klientebi.
pirvel SemTxvevaSi saqme martivadaa da davalebis mimRebi banki
erTi angariSidan meore angariSze tranzaqciis ganxorcielebiT asrulebs operacias, anu CamoaWris pirvel klients angariSidan Tanxas da
Cauricxavs meores.
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Tavi 11 - unaRdo angariSsworebis sistema
rogor unda moiqces banki, romelic miiRebs Tavisi klientis davalebas saxsrebis gadaricxvis Sesaxeb da aRmoCndeba, rom beneficiars angariSi aqvs sxva bankSi? swored aseTi SemTxvevebi warmoSobs sakorespondento urTierTobebis aucileblobas da aseT drosac banki asrulebs
operacias sxva bankSi gaxsnili Tavisi sakorespondento angariSebis meSveobiT, Tumca aqac or SemTxvevasTan gvaqvs saqme:
1. davalebis mimReb banks (banki A) gaxsnili aqvs sakorespondento
angariSi beneficiaris bankSi (banki B);
2. davalebis mimReb banks (banki A) ar gaaCnia sakorespondento angariSi beneficiaris bankSi (metad rTulia, banks hqondes sakorespondento angariSi msoflioSi arsebul yvela bankSi).
pirvel SemTxvevaSi komerciuli banki A CamoaWris davalebis mimRebs angariSidan gadasaricx Tanxas da qmnis axal davalebas imave Tanxaze Tavis korespondenti bankisadmi (banki B), rom man, Tavis mxriv, CamoaWras misi, anu bank A-s sakorespondento angariSidan Sesabamisi Tanxa da
Caricxos igi beneficiaris angariSze amave bankSi (banki B).
meore SemTxvevaSi, roca klienti moitans davalebas da aRmoCneba,
rom bank A-s ar gaaCnia sakorespondento angariSi beneficiaris bankSi
(banki X), igi uars ar eubneba klients am mizeziT momsaxurebis gawevaze,
aramed eZebs gamosavals Tavisi sakorespondento angariSebis saSualebiT. kerZod, igi mimarTavs Tavis mokorespondento bankebs da aucileblad „ipovis“ bank X-s maTi meSveobiT. am procesSi damxmared SWIFT-is
sistema gvevlineba. qveynis SigniT angariSsworebisas aseT „Suamaval“
bankad umetesad gvevlineba centraluri banki, sadac kanonmdeblobiT
yvela komerciul banks unda hqondes sakorespondento angariSi.
qveynis farglebs gareT angariSsworebis drosac Tanamedrove teqnologiebis ganviTarebam gaadvila es saqme da beneficiaris bankis migneba martivad xdeba bankebs Soris arsebuli sakorespondento qselis
meSveobiT. aseTi sakorespondento qselebis sakvanZo rgolebs warmo­
adgens udidesi msoflio bankebi, romelTanac TiTqmis yvela, maT Soris, qarTul banks, aqvs sakorespondento urTierTobebi. es bankebia:
CITIBANK, Deutsche Bank, JPMorgan Chase Bank da sxv.
rogorc wesi, patara da saSualo zomis bankebi sakorespondento
angariSebs xsnian zemoaRniSnulis msgavs did bankebSi. msoflio sabanko gigantebi metad daintersebulni arian, mcire da saSualo bankebma maTTan gaxsnan sakorespondento angariSebi da konkurencias uweven
erTmaneTs am mimarTulebiT. maTi daintereseba, upirveles yovlisa,
ganpirobebulia im saxsrebiT (depozitebiT), romlebic inaxeba sakorespondento angariSebze.
sakorespondento angariSi _ esaa angariSi, romelsac erTi banki
xsnis meoreSi da romelic gamoiyeneba bankebs Soris angariSsworebisaTvis. rogorc wesi, qveynis kanonmdeblobiT, centralur bankSi sakorespondento angariSis gaxsna savaldebuloa konkretul qveyanaSi moqmedi yvela komerciuli bankisaTvis. garda amisa, komerciuli bankebi
uflebamosili arian sakorespondento urTierTobebi daamyaron imden
bankTan, ramdensac saWirod Tvlian, rogorc qveynis SigniT, ise qveynis
gareT.
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ირაკლი კოვზანაძე, გოგი კონტრიძე - თანამედროვე საბანკო საქმე: თეორია და პრაქტიკა
saqarTveloSi moqmedi kanonmdeblobiT, saangariSsworebo operaciebis sawarmoeblad saqarTvelos teritoriaze ganTavsebuli yvela
komerciuli banki sabanko licenziis miRebis Semdeg savaldebulo wesiT
xsnis erT sakorespondento angariSs erovnul bankSi. bankis filialis
sakorespondento angariSis gaxsna erovnul bankSi akrZalulia da maT
sakorespondento angariSi esxnebaT mxolod saTavo bankSi. sakorespondento urTierTobebis damyarebisas mxareebs Soris ideba xelSekrulebebi, romlebic gansazRvravs saangariSsworebo momsaxurebis, operaciebis ganxorcielebis, sabuTebis gacvlis, momsaxurebis anazRaurebis
wesebs, uflebebsa da valdebulebebs. dauSvebelia erTsa da imave bankSi
erTsa da imave valutaSi erTze meti sakorespondento angariSis gaxsna.
rogorc vxvdebiT, komerciul banks SeiZleba hqondes ramdenime
bankSi gaxsnili sakorespondento angariSi da aseve masTan SeiZleba ramdenime banks hqondes sakorespondento angariSebi, anu gvaqvs ori Sem­
Txveva:
• angariSis ganmkargveli bankis (banki A), anu banki-respondentis,
mimdinare angariSs bank-korespondentSi (banki B) ewodeba nostro angariSi da asaxulia pirveli maTganis (banki A) aqtivebSi,
Sesabamisad _ meore maTganis (banki B) pasivebSi;
• bank respondentSi (banki A) bank-korespondentis mier (banki B)
gaxsnil mimdinare angariSs ewodeba loro angariSi da asaxulia
pirveli maTganis (banki A) pasivebSi, Sesabamisad _ meore maTganis
(banki B) aqtivebSi.
sxva kuTxiT Tu mivudgebiT, banki-korespondenti _ esaa banki,
romelic uxsnis sakorespondento angariSs (pasiur loro angariSs)
sxva banks (banki-respondenti), xolo banki-respondenti _ esaa banki,
romelmac gaxsna sakorespondento angariSi (aqtiuri nostro angariSi)
sxva bankSi da aris am angariSis ganmkargveli.
TvalsaCinoebisaTvis: saqarTvelos erovnul bankSi qarTuli
bankebis mier gaxsnili sakorespondento angariSebi aRiricxeba TiToeuli bankis aqtivSi da warmoadgens nostro, aqtiur angariSebs, maSin,
roca saqarTvelos erovnuli bankisaTvis yvela es angriSi aris loro,
pasiuri angariSi. saqarTvelos erovnuli banki am SemTxvevaSi aris banki-korespondenti, xolo komerciuli bankebi _ banki-respondentebi.
rTuli araa imis gageba, rom sakorespondento angariSi warmoadgens mimdinare angariSs da is Tavisi arsiT asrulebs imave funqciebs,
rasac kompaniebisa Tu fizikuri pirebis angariSsworebis (mimdinare) angariSi, oRond bankis saqmianobis specifikis gaTvaliswinebiT. aRniSnuli specifika ki isaa, rom banki iyenebs iseT sakorespondento angariSebs
rogorc sakuTari, ise klientebis operaciebis warmoebisaTvis, romlebic didi mravalferovnebiT gamoirCevian. Tu mxedvelobaSi miviRebT,
rom yovel banks aqvs ramdenime sakorespondento angariSi, TiToeuli
maTgani gamoiyeneba sxvadasxva mimarTulebiT.
sakorespondento urTierTobebis momsaxurebisaTvis TiToeul komerciul bankSi Seqmnilia Sesabamisi samsaxurebi, romlebic gamoirCevian usafrTxoebis maRali xarisxiT da dasaqmebuli TanamSromlebis saTanado kvalifikaciiT.
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