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HISPANIA JUDAICA BULLETIN
HISPANIA JUDAICA BULLETIN
Articles, Reviews, Bibliography and Manuscripts on Sefarad
Editors: Yom Tov Assis and Raquel Ibáñez-Sperber
No 9 5773/2013
Hispania Judaica
The Mandel Institute of Jewish Studies
The Hebrew University of Jerusalem
Contents
Editorial
1
English and Spanish Section
Articles
SIMCHA EMANUEL, The Struggle for Provençal Halakhic Independence in the
Thirteenth Century
DAVID M. BUNIS, The Whole Hebrew Reading Tradition of Ottoman
Judezmo Speakers. The Medieval Iberian Roots
JOSÉ HINOJOSA MONTALVO, Indumentaria y signos de identidad entre los
judíos valencianos
RICARDO MUÑOZ SOLLA, Padrones y antroponimia judía del Condado de
Treviño en el siglo 15
ERIC LAWEE, Aharon Aboulrabi: Maverick Exegete from Aragonese Sicily
YOM TOV ASSIS, From Netilat Yadayim (Washing of the Hands) to the
Baptismal Font: A Hebrew Inscription from a Sefardi Synagogue to
the Church in Siculana, Sicily
SUSANA BASTOS MATEUS & JAMES W. NELSON NOVOA, A Sixteenth Century
Voyage of Legitimacy: The Paths of Jácome and António da Fonseca
from Lamego to Rome and Beyond
JUAN IGNACIO PULIDO SERRANO, Pedro de Baeça, un empresario de origen
judío: La administración de las aduanas españolas hacia 1600
LUIS GÓMEZ CANSECO, Lope hebraizante: La Jerusalén bíblica en la
Jerusalén conquistada
JOSÉ ALBERTO RODRIGUES DA SILVA TAVIM, “A Lover³s Discourse: Fragments”.
The Peninsula, Portugal and its Empire in the Iberian Jews³ Discourse:
$)HZ([DPSOHVZLWK6RPH5HÀHFWLRQV
KENNETH BROWN, From Sepharad to Ashkenaz, from a Picaro to a Schlemiel:
The Distinctiveness of 17th and 18th Century Sephardic Creative
/LWHUDWXUHLQ+DPEXUJDQG(QYLURQV
5
15
69
97
131
163
169
193
233
Bibliography and Manuscripts
BIBLIOGRAPHY
NITAI SHINAN, Spanish Manuscripts of Works by Fifteenth Century Spanish
Authors
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Contributors
333
359
365
367
Hebrew Section
LIUBOV CHERNIN, 6RFLDO&RQÀLFWLQWKH/LWHUDWXUHRI0LUDFOHV(SLVWOHRI
Severus, Bishop of Menorca
SHALOM SADIK, The Structure of the Soul and Freedom of Choice in the
Thought of Rabbi Yehudah Halevi
HANNAH DAVIDSON, :RPHQDQG*DPEOHUVLQ6SDLQLQWKHth Century
YOCHEVED BEERI, Portuguese Judaizers³ Prayers in 17th Century Spain:
Continuity or Creativity?
Č
Čė
ĒĘ
ĒĚ
From Sepharad to Ashkenaz, from a 3tFDUR1 to a
6FKOHPLHO࣠2: The Distinctiveness of 17th and 18th Century
Sephardic Creative Literature in Hamburg and Environs
(1600-1764/1766)
Kenneth Brown3
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KXQGUHGDQGVL[W\VL[\HDUVRI6HSKDUGLFOLWHUDU\FUHDWLYLW\VWDUWLQJ
in 1600 and ending in 1766) in the Hanseatic League city of
+DPEXUJ *HUPDQ\ ,W H[WHQGV DQG FRPSOHPHQWV .%
V WKUHHSDUW
monograph that appeared in the journal Sefarad (CSIC) in 1999 DQGLV GLYLGHG LQWR WZR GLVWLQFW VHFWLRQV WKH ¿UVW GHDOLQJ
with the history of Sephardic literary presence in Hamburg, the
VHFRQGD¿YHSDUWDSSHQGL[FRQWDLQLQJQHZSURVHDQGSRHWLFWH[WV
1
2
3
J.A. Cuddon (revised by C. E. Preston), Dictionary of Literary Terms & Literary
Theory, London 1998, p. 666, “Picaresque novel (Sp pícaro, ‘rogue’): It tells the life
of a knave or picaro who is the servant of several masters. Through his experience this
picaroon satirizes the society in which he lives. The picaresque novel originated in 16th
c. Spain, the earliest example being the anonymous Lazarillo de Tormes (1553)”.
According to the Merriam Webster’s Collegiate Dictionary, 10th HG 6SULQJ¿HOG
0DVDFKXVHWWVSE³VFKOHPLHOQ><[email protected]\
bungler”.
I wish to express my most sincere appreciation to my colleague at the University of
Calgary, Dr. Reyes Bertolín Cebrián, for greatly assisting me in the translation to English
of the Latin texts cited and included in the present study. Appreciation also goes out
to Michael Studemund-Halévy for sharing with me a copy of the printed broadsheet,
VKHOÀLVW(EO&EHORQJLQJWRWKH(WV+DLP6HPLQDU\/LEUDU\$PVWHUGDPWRWKH
library staff at the Staats und Universitätsbibliothek Hamburg Carl von Ossietzky for
facilitating my in situ research there on two separate occasions (1995 and 2006), to the
Herzog August Bibliothek Wolfenbüttel, Germany, for assisting me in my research
during my extended sojourn there in 1998, to Maria Leonor Pinto, Librarian at the
Academia das Ciências de Lisboa, for kindly providing me a digital photographic
copy of Ms. 581 azul in 2012, to the staff at the Biblioteca Nacional de Lisboa, for
providing me a photocopy of ms. Collecção Pombal 132 in 2011, and, last but not
least, to Profa. Ana Maria Ramalheira, of the Universidade d’Aveiro, Portugal, for
assisting me in deciphering the meaning of Habilho’s less than academic Portuguese.
She was a Researcher-in-Residence at the Herzog August Bibliothek, Wolfenbüttel,
Germany, during Fall 1998, as was I, and demonstrated kindness enough to render
a more exact understanding of the text than I had originally prepared for the 1997
publication.
[Hispania Judaica௑@
Kenneth Brown
to substantiate the argument presented in the previous section. The
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humor characterizes the major works analyzed and reproduced, a
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Introduction
The past six years have afforded me the opportunity to reevaluate my publications
on what I once deemed “The Sephardic Parnassus in Hamburg” (See below). I have
also had occasion to familiarize myself with the publications of others, as well as
review many years of personal notes taken and accumulated papers, in addition to
acquiring copies of library and archival documents belonging to European library
and archival collections. From this quasi-holistic approach, the argument I am now
able to present is a more precise understanding of such a rich cultural phenomenon
than previously rendered. The series of my published studies on the topic of “The
Sephardic Parnassus in Hamburg” include the following: 1) the critical edition,
µ7KH 6SDQLVK DQG 3RUWXJXHVH *ROGHQ$JH 3DUQDVVXV LQ +DPEXUJ -HR>[email protected]~DK
Habilho’s “Colección Nueva´ௗ¶ 2) the essay, ‘El Parnaso Sefardí y sus
cancioneros, siglos 17-18’;5 3) the trilogy with editions, ‘Spanish, Portuguese,
and Neo-Latin Poetry Written and/or Published by Seventeenth, Eighteenth,
and Nineteenth century Sephardim from Hamburg and Frankfurt’;6WKHHVVD\
µ*HQLR\¿JXUDGHVHLVSRHWDVVHIDUGtHVGH$PVWHUGDP+DPEXUJ\/LYRUQRGHORV
siglos XVII-XVIII’;7 5) and the philological note, ‘Libri Amicorum from the Dutch
Royal Library Containing Documentation about Seventeenth Century Sephardic
Intellectuals in German-Speaking Cities and University Circles’.8 Tangentially
important is another trilogy of studies, ‘A New Collection of Seventeenth-Century
Spanish and Portuguese Poetry from Italy and its Sephardic Connection’,9 ‘Rimas
5
6
7
8
9
In Michael Studemund-Halévy, ed., Die Sefarden in Hamburg: Zur Geschichte einer
Minderheit, 2nd vol., Hamburg 1997, pp. 781-878.
In Jules Wicker, ed., Actas del XII Congreso de la Asociación Internacional de
Hispanistas, Birmingham 1995, 1998, tome II, Estudios Áureos I, pp. 60-69.
In Sefarad,SSSSSS
In Judit Targarona Borrás and Ángel Sáenz Badillos, eds., Jewish Studies at the Turn
of the 20th CenturyYRO,,/HLGHQ%RVWRQ.|OQSS
In Andreas Brämer, Stefanie Schüler-Springorum, Michael Studemund-Halévy, eds.,
Aus den Quellen, Beiträge zur deutsch-jüdischen Geschichte, Festschrift für Ina
Lorenz zum 65. Geburtstag, München and Hamburg 2005, pp. 130-136.
Kenneth Brown and Mariano Gómez Aranda, Romance Philology 52 (Fall 1998), pp.
[[email protected]
From Sepharad to Ashkenaz, from a Pícaro to a Schlemiel
inéditas de Lope en letra hebrea transliterada y en plena época suya’,10 and ‘More
Spanish Poems and Fragments in Hebrew aljamiado’.11 In these last studies, the
poetic manuscript’s scribe and protagonist, Shelomo Abudiente, was the adopted
“son” of the distinguished and internationally extended seventeenth-century
Hamburg-based Abudente/Abudiente family.
Additionally, I have been able to to test out a new study in progress,
Colectánea Sefárdica Europea. 17th and 18th Century Manuscript and Printed
6HSKDUGLF /LWHUDU\ 7H[WV IURP $PVWHUGDP DQG +DPEXUJ LQ WKH 6WDDWV XQG
Universitätsbibliothek Hamburg (=BUH), Germany; the Herzog August
Bibliothek (=HAB), Wolfenbüttel, Germany; and the Magyar Tudományos
Akadémia Könyvtára (Library of the Hungarian Academy of Sciences=HAS),
Budapest, Hungary. Some of these recently exhumed, “new” literary documents
will be alluded to in the present study.
My topic is ‘From Sepharad to Ashkenaz, from a Pícaro to a Schlemiel:
The Distinctiveness of 17th and 18th Century Sephardic Creative Literature in
WKH+DPEXUJDQG(QYLURQV¶&RPPHQFLQJLQ,SODQWR
expand by eighteen years the initial stage of Iberian-Jewish literary productivity
in Hamburg originally established in my 1999-2001 series, add a score of new
names to the Hamburg Sephardic author list as well as a handful of new literaryrelated works to the scant bibliography, argue for the amusing, comic uniqueness
of two crowning achievements of the Sephardic literary output penned in
the wondrous German city, and then reproduce in the Appendix 1) diplomatic
editions of Diogo de Sousa Camacho’s 1600 Hamburg literary academy satire, his
“vexame” (in Portuguese) or “vejamen” (in Spanish); 2) his extensive, supposedly
autobiographical narrative poem, the Ottavas ... a sua vida picaresca; 3) four
KLWKHUWRXQHGLWHGVRQQHWVDWWULEXWHGWRKLPDOWKRXJKRQHWKH¿UVWDSSHDUVQRWWREH
RIKLVDXWKRUVKLSDSRHWLFHQLJPDLQVL[6SDQLVKRFWDYHVDSSDUHQWO\UHDG
and deliberated for a literary contest held in Hamburg and connected to a Simhat
Torah celebration at which two of the Nação’s male community’s bridegroom
members were accorded the supreme honor of carrying the Torah; and 5) the entire
autobiographical “Schlemiel novel” in Portuguese verse that Jeossúah Habilho
included in his Spanish titled Colección nueva de canciones lýricas (Hamburg
Fourteen years ago, as my announced lecture date was fast approaching for
a Lesung, humorously entitled ‘Hotdogs and Hamburgers in Sephardic Literary
History’ (a presentation that would eventually evolve into the three-part study
published in the journal Sefarad), given at the Ana Vorwerk Haus, on the campus of
the Herzog August Bibliothek, Wolfenbüttel, an American colleague in residence
10 Idem, Anuario Lope de Vega,;SS
11 Idem, Romance Philology 63 (Spring 2009), pp. 95-108.
[[email protected]
Kenneth Brown
put the following question to me quite bluntly, with exclamatory intonation rising
at question’s end: “But, is it [referring to the Sephardic poetic literature written
[email protected] good?” Taken aback, my response was a meek and defensive
³<HV´7KDWPHHNQHVVKDVUHPDLQHGZLWKPH,QIDFWLQWKH¿UVWSDUWRIP\
WULORJ\ RQ WKLV VDPH WRSLF , SUHVHQWHG P\ ¿QGLQJV LQ DQ HYHU DSRORJHWLF
tone, begging forgiveness for Hamburg’s Nação’s inability to delve into and create
FHUWDLQOLWHUDU\JHQUHVVXFKDVWKHWKHDWUHWKHQRYHOWKHHVVD\DQGZLWW\¿FWLYH
like correspondence; it evidenced a weakness that made the Frei Stadt’s Sephardic
literary productivity culturally subservient in quality and quantity to Sephardic
Amsterdam’s and Venice’s. This led me at the time to pose the following rhetorical
question: “Is the Sephardic Parnassus in Hamburg and Frankfurt merely an aside
in the Sephardic literature of exile from Spain and Portugal, an anecdote in the
history of Iberian provincial letters, a footnote to Spanish colonial literatures?”12
What followed was my apologetic response:
7KH DQVZHU XQGRXEWHGO\ LV LQ WKH DI¿UPDWLYH >@ WKDW LV WKH +DPEXUJ
and Frankfurt-based Sephardim ... attempted to recreate but also create a
distinct nature of Spanish and Portuguese Golden-Age poetry in the north
of Europe. This poetry had its own newly created mythology, replete with
DFDGUHRIIUHVKPDUW\UVDQGKHURHV±DVHFRQG0RVHV13DUHYLYHGÀHVK
and-blood David, a new Isaac,15 a Jewish “Apollo”.16 ... This literature
boasted a new Hebrew grammar that contained comparative sections from
Spanish and Portuguese verse writing; it counted new translations of the
“classics” (in this case, of the Psalms). This Sephardic poetry told the story
of a new way of life, one never entirely divorced from a former one in
inquisitorial Iberia. Its story was new and mature enough to recount the
coffeehouse adventures of the picaresque Jeossúah Habilho, whose poetic
chapbook was so aptly titled Colección Nueva ..., because its piyyutim ... in
Spanish, its Bildungsroman or Schelmenroman in Portuguese, and its mise
en musique in any one of several European and classical languages was, in
fact, incredibly novel IRU17
12 Brown, ‘Spanish, Portuguese, and Neo-Latin Poetry’, p. 16.
13 Doctoris Jacob Rosales ad Librum Ode, in Brown, Ibid., noSSY-RVHSK
Francês, Entre as chamas corruscantes,ELGQRSYYZKHUH0RVVpK
refers to Mosés Gidhon Abudiente as well as to the greatest Jewish patriarch.
In a sonnet by an anonymous friend to David Abenatar Melo, translator of the Psalms,
in Brown, Ibid., no. 6, p. 27, v. 9, and, also, no. 12, “David Abenatar Melo to God’.
15 ,QWKHDQRQ\PRXVSRHP1DFHHOKRPEUH\GHODFXQD,ELGQRSSVWURSKH
12, v. 2.
16 Ibid., pp. 16-17.
17 Ibid., p. 16.
[[email protected]
From Sepharad to Ashkenaz, from a Pícaro to a Schlemiel
In Hamburg (as in Amsterdam, Leghorn, Pisa, and Venice, but in varying
degrees of intensity) Sephardic creative literature would experience a rebirth, a
³5HQDLVVDQFH´WKDWZRXOGÀRXULVKIRUPRUHWKDQWZRKXQGUHG\HDUVIURPDVHDUO\
as 1600 to as late as a tombstone inscription dated 1813. Not only was there an
outpouring of creative writing for purely aesthetic and personal reasons, but also
for philological and religious purposes; by the year 1633, and in the Frei Stadt on
the Elbe River, thanks to the preparation and subsequent publication of Mosséh
Gidhon Abudiente’s Gramática Hebraica, Hebrew, albeit theoretically, was
revived as a Jewish lingua franca, a language of international communication, a
medium for study and literary productivity, competitive in importance to and with
Portuguese and Spanish, which were the international languages of European high
culture, empire, and commerce at the time. Once established, it would also serve
as the foundational keystone for the perennial “Jewish” argument or question,
calling for an eventual return of the ten tribes to Erets Yisrael. A call of this nature,
not unlike that to be expected in a nascent pre-Zionist movement, can already
be detected in Joseph Francês’ Portuguese-language décimas,18 titled Entre as
chamas corroscantes: “Foi recebendo Israel, / cabalística a doctrina / já quasi a nos
clandestina / no cautiveiro cruel; / mas nêste horror de Babel / em vez de em Sinay,
permite / Déus que esta arte facilite / quanto o galutGL¿FXOWDHRTXHGH0RVVpK
sepulta, / outro Mosséh rescucite”.19 Likewise, he communicates a comparable
message in his Spanish-language sonnet, which begins “Éste en que el mismo
amor campea tanto, / en años mozo, en ciencias dilatado, / gloria os hace a Israel
y al mundo espanto”.20 The return to Israel is also recalled in Rehuel Jessurun’s
ballad, Se em Sinay ponho os olhos, as well as in his surname.21
It is crucial to note that one-hundred forty-two years after Mosséh Gidhon
Abudiente’s Gramática Hebrea appeared in print, Abraham Meldola’s Nova
Gramática Portuguesa (Hamburg 1785) signals a return to the academic
Portuguese idiom common to those eleven brave engenhos or ‘literary talents’
18 Ten line, octosyllabic strophes rhyming abbaaccddc.
19 ,ELGQRSYY
20 Reproduced in Brown, ‘Spanish, Portuguese, and Neo-Latin Poetry’, no.17, pp. 33 YY 7KLV WHUFHW DQG WKH VRQQHW¶V DGGLWLRQDO HOHYHQ YY LQFOXGHG LQ 0H\HU
Kayserling, Sephardim: Romanische Poesien der Juden in Spanien (Ein Beitrag zur
Literatur und Geschichte der Spanisch-Portugiesischen Juden), Leipzig, Hermann
0HQGHOVVRKQ5HLG+LOGHVKHLP1HZ<RUNRULJSSVHUYHGDV
a prefatory piece to David Coen de Lara’s 1633 Amsterdam printed Spanish translation
of Elyá ben Moshé Vidas’ Tratado del Temor Divino.
21 Brown, Ibid., no. 22, p. 36. In the “Song of Moses” (Deuteronomy 32:15), the name
-HVVXUXQLV¿UVWHPSOR\HGDVDPHWDSKRUWRGHVLJQDWHWKH/DQGRI,VUDHO6HHLa Torá,
ed. Daniel ben Itzjak, Barcelona 1999, p. 328.
[[email protected]
Kenneth Brown
ZKR HVWDEOLVKHGWKH¿UVW TXDVL6HSKDUGLFOLWHUDU\VSDFHLQ +DPEXUJ LQ WKH\HDU
1600. Their story will follow further on in this paper.
Seventeenth and eighteenth-century Hamburg was a time and place for
Iberian-and Italo-Jewish physicians and scientists, men of commerce and their
devoted wives, would-be poets, philologists, translators, an imperial notary: all
of whom able to carry on the tradition of Iberian high culture in letters by making
their creative contributions compatible with the tenets and built-in restrictions
GH¿QLQJQRUPDWLYH6HSKDUGLFUHOLJLRXVRUWKRGR[\7KHFLW\ZRXOGKRVWWKH¿UVWRI
numerous Portuguese literary academy sessions, known as the Jornadas às Côrtes
do Parnaso (Sessions at the Courts on Mount Parnassus), a meeting enshrined
and perpetuated in written text and patterned after an Italian Renaissance model,
one that would gain considerable widespread European renown a decade later as
DUHVXOWRIWKHSXEOLFDWLRQRI0LJXHOGH&HUYDQWHV¶Viaje al Parnaso.22 The
¿UVWVXFKUHFRUGHGOLWHUDU\DFDGHP\FHOHEUDWHGLQ+DPEXUJDSSHDUVWRKDYHEHHQ
a predominantly crypto-Iberian-Sephardic and/or converso enclave, attended by
some liberal professionals en route to what would become a successful aliyah or
ascent, an eventual true return to normative Sephardic Judaism. Another semiliterary get-together in the same city, such as a Simhat Torah religious ceremony,
would be graced by the occasional and playful rhymed enigma, presented on
behalf of two bridegrooms, and reproduced in Appendix IV.
At the time, secular literary creative productivity in Portuguese and Spanish,
as well as in neo-Latin, still distinguished the noble in man and woman, by
concretizing the emblem of intellectual superiority in a rapidly evolving European
world, one in which mercantile capitalism was beginning to erode the vestiges
of old-world class-regulated signeurism. During the course of two-hundred
years, Hamburg’s Sephardic literature would evolve from a neo-pagan discourse,
cherished by Iberian university-based Humanism and its Greco-Roman classics,
WRDJORUL¿FDWLRQRIHa-Shem and the classics in the appropriate and respective
YHUQDFXODULWZRXOGFRPPHQFHLQPDQXVFULSWIRUPDWRQO\WRQDWXUDOO\¿QGLWVZD\
into the printed medium. One can arrive at this conclusion merely by reviewing
my publications devoted to this phenomenon.
But perhaps the greatest distinction of the small-in-number Sephardic
community resident in Hamburg was the international notoriety garnered by a
handful of its more distinguished members, be they temporary or more-or-less
22 See Valeria Tocco, ed., Diogo de Sousa, Jornada às Côrtes do Parnaso, Bari 1996, pp.
HVSHFLDOO\SS$FFRUGLQJWR&HUYDQWHVLQKLV³3URORJXHWRWKH5HDGHU´
in the 1613 princeps ed. of his 1RYHODV H[HPSODUHV, his direct literary model was
Cesare Caporali di Perusa’s (1531-1601) Viaggi di Parnaso (1582). I have consulted
Miguel de Cervantes, Novelas ejemplares, ed. Juan Bautista Avalle-Arce, Madrid,
Castalia, 1982, vol. I, p. 63.
[@
From Sepharad to Ashkenaz, from a Pícaro to a Schlemiel
SHUPDQHQWUHVLGHQWV*DOLOHR*DOLOHLDQGWKH+HU]RJ$XJXVW-XQLRU
(1579-1666) exchanged epistolary correspondence with the Sephardic man of
VFLHQFHDQGOHWWHUV-DFRE5RVDOHVRU/LVERQ±RU)ORUHQFH23
DVGLGWKH'XWFKSK\VLFLDQ-RKDQQHV%HYHURYLFLXVDQGWKHSK\VLFLDQ
$EUDKDP=DFXWR the Swedish intellectual Cornelius Ullefeld (ca.
1653)25DQGWKHSK\VLFLDQ%DUXFKGH&DVWUR$PVWHUGDP26
In all, the potential author count now rises from my original tally of fourteen
PHQWRQRZDVPDQ\DVWZHQW\¿YHPDOH6HSKDUGLPUHVLGLQJDQGZULWLQJLQRUIURP
Hamburg during the 17th, 18th, and 19th centuries who wrote poetry, penned creative
correspondence, and collected literary works. It also includes individuals whose
PHPRULHVKDYHEHHQSUHVHUYHGLQUK\PHGWRPEVWRQHLQVFULSWLRQV7KHWZHQW\¿YH
ZHUH,VKDN$EiV-DFRE$EiV6DORPRQ$EiV'DYLG$EHQDWDU0HOR
Jeosúah Abendana; 6) Daniel Abudiente; 7) Mosséh Gidhon Abudiente; 8) Jacob
Álvares de Vargas; 9) Eliaú Semuel Israel Baruch; 10) Manoel Bocarro Francês /
Jacob Rosales; 11) Eliachim Castiel; 12) Baruch de Castro; 13) Estevão Rodrigues
GH&DVWURWKHKD]DQ-DFRE5HSKDHO&RKHQ%HOLQIDQWH-RVHSK)UDQFrV
Jeossúah Habilho; 17) Rehuel Jessurun / Paulo de Pina; 18) Abraham Meldola; 19)
Binjamín Musaphia Fidalgo; 20) Emanuel Nehamías; 21) an anonymous author;
22) Abraham Gómez de Araujo, of Amsterdam; 23) possibly Dr. António González
GH /LPD SRVVLEO\ 'U /XLV 1XQHV DQG 6KHORPR $EXGLHQWH 6LPmR
5RGULJXHV1DYDUUR$GGWRWKHVHPDOHPLQLRQVWKHHFKRHVRI¿YHZRPHQ¶VYRLFHV
inscripted on funerary lapidaries that speak to us obliquely from the tomb: those of
1) Ángela Miriam Abendana Mendes; 2) Rahel Hana Abudiente; 3) Sara Miriam
23 For Galileo and Manoel Bocarro Francês, see Francisco Moreno-Carvalho, ‘A Newly
Discovered Letter by Galileo Galilei: Contacts between Galileo and Jacob Rosales
(Manoel Bocarro Francês), a Seventeenth-Century Jewish Scientist and Sebastianist’
Aleph: Historical Studies in Science & Judaism, 2 (2002), pp. 59-91. For the most
complete bibliography on Rosales, see Michael Studemund-Halévy and Sandra Neves
Silva, ‘Tortured Memories. Jacob Rosales Alias Imanuel Bocarro Francês. A Life
from the Files of the Inquisition’in The Roman Inquisition, ed. Stephan Wendehorst,
/HLGHQ SS DQG 0LFKDHO 6WXGHPXQG+DOpY\ HQWU\ IRU ³5RVDOHV
Jacob”, in Idem, Neue Deutsche Biographie Berlin 2005, pp. 38a-39a. Regarding
Bocarro Francês and the Herzog August, see Brown and Bertolín Cebrián, ‘Spanish,
3RUWXJXHVHDQG1HR/DWLQ3RHWU\¶SS
In Brown and Bertolín Cebrián, Ibid., (2001), p. 28 and note.
25 ,ELG SS ,Q Cérémonies et Coutumes des Juifs, traduit de l’Italien de Leon
de Modena, La Haye, Adrian Moetjens, 1682, appendix containing the ‘Catalogue
des livres de Adrian Moetjens, Tant de ceux qu’il a Imprimé, que de ceux dont il a
QRPEUH¶ S WKHUH LV FLWHG D SULQWHG ERRN E\ ³&RUQL¿[ 8OHIHOGL ´ LQFOXGHG
therein.
26 6HH%URZQDQG%HUWROtQ&HEULiQ,ELGSS
[[email protected]
Kenneth Brown
&RURQHO6DUD0D]DRGDQG5DKHO5RGULJXHV0HQGHV27 Albeit indirectly and
VXSHU¿FLDOO\VXFKZRPHQ¶VYRLFHVDUHDQWKURSRORJLFDOO\DQGVRFLDOO\VLJQL¿FDQW
for Sephardic Amsterdam’s count of known women poets is limited to four names
and their corresponding works: Rebeca Isabel Correa, Isabel Henriques, Branca
Roiz / Rodrigues, and Beatriz de Fonseca.28
Let us commence the one-hundred and sixty-plus years of this present literary
tour in the year 1600, in the playful atmosphere of a Hamburg-based Baroque
literary academy, where elevated Portuguese was the lingua franca. We shall then
migrate to the mid-1760s, in the company of Jeossúah Habilho’s mishpaha or
Iberian-Jewish nuclear family and circle of acquaintances, where autobiographical
crazyness supersedes any major attempt at seriousness. In Habilho’s verses,
academic Portuguese will defer to a curious local Lusitanian patois, the deciphering
RIZKLFKDWWLPHVGH¿HVFODVVLFLVWLQWHOOHFWLRQ
Traditional German literary criticism cites the born-Jew Heinrich Heine’s
Die Lorelei as the quintessential poem in praise of the Rhine; yet, as we shall
see, a handful of conversos, most likely soon-to-be-converted-to-Judaism literary
academy members in very early 17th century Hamburg, and Jeossúah Habilho,
later on in the mid-18thKDGDOUHDG\LPPRUWDOL]HGWKHÀXYLXP¶VSUDLVHVQRWLQKLJK
German, but in the Portuguese tongue. Habilho would ingeniously go so far as to
rhyme the toponym Rim (i.e. Portuguese for Rhine) with Hebrew-sounding and
LQWHQWLRQDOO\VXI¿[HGZRUGVVXFKDV¿P, FRQ¿P, sim and seraphim, thus creating
a conceptual and, to a degree “assimilating” lexical bridge between both cultures
and their respective languages, their means of communication: “Com tão boms
SULQFtSLRVYyVYHUHLVSRU¿PTXHGR5LPYyVJUDGXDVHXFRQ¿P³6DwUDLVFRP
tal brazão / que direis no coração, / isso sim, / e vivir qual seraphim”.29
The Demographic and Statistical Argument
0LFKDHO 6WXGHPXQG+DOpY\ SURYLGHV WKH IROORZLQJ SRSXODWLRQ ¿JXUHV IRU
Hamburg’s Sephardic community: in 1600, 150 Sephardim resided in the city; in
LQLQLQLQLQ
and in 1938, 85. Thus, we can assume that at no time were there more than 1,250
Iberian Jews resident in the Frei Stadt. Such statistics are tellingly and pathetically
27 ,ELGSSQRVDQG
28 See Kenneth Brown, ‘La poetisa es la luna que con las de Apolo viene: nuevos datos
sobre y textos de varias poetisas sefardíes de los siglos XVII y XVIII’, in Monika
Bosse, Barbara Potthast, and André Stoll, eds., La creatividad femenina en el mundo
EDUURFRKLVSiQLFR.DVVHOYRO,,SS
29 Included infra.
[[email protected]
From Sepharad to Ashkenaz, from a Pícaro to a Schlemiel
LURQLF +DPEXUJ¶V 6HSKDUGLF FRPPXQLW\ ZDV ERUQ RI RQH WUDJHG\ ± WKDW LV WKH
6SDQLVK 3RUWXJXHVH DQG 5RPHEDVHG ,QTXLVLWLRQV ± RQO\ WR EH REOLWHUDWHG
E\ \HW D IDU PRUH HI¿FLHQW 6KRDK LQ WKH WZHQWLHWK FHQWXU\$QG \HW ZLWK WKLV
DSSDUHQWO\LQVLJQL¿FDQWPLFURSRSXODWLRQWKHFLW\¶V6HSKDUGLPVWLOOZDVDEOHWR
produce an Iberian-Jewish literature characterized by its bi- or multilingualism
and intense ingenuity. The members of the Hamburg-based Nação would publish
DSSUR[LPDWHO\ WKLUW\ SULQWHG ERRNV LQ VHYHUDO GLVWLQFW ODQJXDJHV ± +HEUHZ
3RUWXJXHVH6SDQLVKDQG1HR/DWLQ±DQGDXWKRURUWUDQVODWHDOHVVHUQXPEHURI
manuscripts that, unfortunately, would never appear in print in their time.30
Let us compare this extremely productive Hamburg-based minderheit
with the Jewish population where I live, Calgary, Alberta, Canada,31 a frontier
city of more than one-million people, with four synagogues and about 8,000
synagogue-registered Jews. The languages of the hearth spoken here, aside from
the predominant English, are Hebrew, Russian, Ukranian, Lithuanian, Latvian,
Yiddish, French, Polish, Rumanian, Magyar, German, Dutch, Afrikaans and
Ladino, in addition to normative Spanish and Portuguese. Yet with all these healthy
numbers and such diverse and exotic languages, in addition to the advanced levels
of academic preparedness of the Community’s members, nothing in Hebrew,
Yiddish, Russian, or any other language other than English makes it into print.
At least one rabbi does communicate his letter writing in Hebrew. The sole
publications are less-than-highly-creative English-language newsletters. More
high-brow multilingual studies are undertaken at the University of Calgary, in
the occasional book discussion group, but always in English. An exception to this
monolingualism are my lectures and publications, prepared and then presented in
Spanish, and then directed from time to time to a tiny group of university students
and faculty.
This comparison is not at all exceptional. The dual Texas cities of Dallas
-HZV DQG +RXVWRQ WKDW ERDVW ODUJH -HZLVK FRPPXQLWLHV IRU
instance, have not one Yiddish or any other foreign-language newspaper published
by its congregants.32 In a city like New York, all the activities organized to revive
30 See Michael Studemund-Halévy, ‘Sephardischen Buchdruck in Hamburg: erster
Teil’, Lusorama 32 (March 1997), pp. 85-101; ‘Hamburger Autoren und ihre Bücher.
Sephardische Buchdruck in Hamburg: zweiter Teil’, Lusorama 33 (June 1997), pp.
µ6HSKDUGLVFKH%FKHUXQG%LEOLRWKHNHQLQ+DPEXUJ¶Menora 8 (1997), pp.
150-180; ‘Zwischen Amsterdam und Hamburg: Sephardische Bücherschicksale im
17. Jahrhundert’, in Spanien und die Sepharden: Geschichte, Kultur, Literatur, N.
Rehrmann and A. Koechert eds., special issue of Romania Judaica 3, pp. 69-92. Also
refer to my publications.
31 My source of information are personal conversations in Calgary (Fall 2006) with
Rabbis Moshe Saks and Howard Voss-Altman.
32 Population statistics derived from Glenn Dromgoole’s article, ‘Jewish Population
[[email protected]
Kenneth Brown
Yiddish have not translated into a major revival of that language. Were it not for
Columbia University’s Department of Jewish Studies and the YIVO Institute for
Jewish Research, literary Yiddish in the city would be almost defunct. Concerning
Calgary, the argument put forth for its lack of literary productivity in “Jewish”
languages is that the Jewish population here is more likely to quickly assimilate
to an Anglophone majority culture, as a victim to the “Tragedy of cultural
mainstreaming”.33
Hamburg’s 17th, 18th, and 19th century miniscule Sephardic Community
accomplished so much more, yet with fewer resources and considerably more
social obstacles to overcome.
Bento Guilhermo Rahmeyer’s Collecção curioza de poesias & em prosa
(ca. 1780)
%HQWR%HQLWR*XLOKHOPR*XLOKHUPH*XLOOHUPR5DKPH\HU¶V>RU5DWKPH\HU¶[email protected]
late 18thFHQWXU\PDQXVFULSW+DPEXUJ8QLYHUVLW\/LEUDU\&RGLFL+LVSDQLFLLV
a part factitious, part unitary miscellany, containing some prose and much poetry;
it was obviously copied from various manuscript and/or printed broadsides and
other publications. Rahmeyer (1705-ca. 1785) is documented as a Hamburgbased merchant long-time resident in Portugal, collector of manuscripts and rare
books abroad as well as at home, some of which today form part of Hamburg
University’s Special Collections. Among other documents, the Collecção curioza
6PDOOLQ1XPEHU/DUJHLQ,QÀXHQFHLQ7H[DV¶0DUFKDYDLODEOHRQOLQHDW
http://www.reporternews.com/news/2007/mar/11/Jewish33 Cfr. Kenneth Brown, ‘Poesía e historia de los judeoibéricos de Nueva Ámsterdam y
Nueva York’, in América y los judíos hispanoportugueses, Fernando Díaz Esteban ed.,
Madrid 2009, pp. 191-219.
“Rahmeyer, Benito Guilherme (1705-nach 1785) Die Staats- und Universitätsbibliothek
Carl von Ossietzky verdankt einen wichtigen Teil ihrer kostbaren portugiesischen
+DQGVFKULIWHQ GHU 6DPPHOOHLGHQVFKDIW +DPEXUJHU .DXÀHXWH LQ 3RUWXJDO 6R ]XP
Beispiel dem Kaufmann Benito Guilherme Rahmeyer. ... (> /H[LNRQ%LEOLRWKHNHQ)”.
$ EODFN FDPHR SUR¿OH RI WKH JHQWOHPDQ PDGH LQ 2FWREHU DFFRPSDQLHV
this entry. For his collection, posthumously catalogued, see Catalogus bibliothecae
lectissimae & nitidissimae defuncti Benedicti Guilielmi Rahmeyeri / Benedictus Guil.
Rahmeyerus, Hamburgi, Eckermann, 1791, copy at the Göttingen Staatsbibliothek,
shelf listing HG-FB HLL XI, 3036. There is little indication among the almost 3,000
bibliographical entries of printed works contained in this Catalogue to indicate
anything extraordinarily Jewish about Rahmeyer. If one can rely on the collection
as providing a mirror to the man, Rahmeyer´s printed book collection evidences a
penchant for books dealing with European current events, European and world
history, the most current European belles lettres, questions concerning Christianity,
[[email protected]
From Sepharad to Ashkenaz, from a Pícaro to a Schlemiel
(The Curious Collection) contains a great deal of mid-17th century burlesque or
licentious poems in Spanish and Portuguese, that predate the eventual printing in
1728 of the canonical poetic anthology, $)pQL[5HQDVFLGD (Lisbon), in which they
ZRXOG¿QDOO\DSSHDU7KHVHSRHPVZHUHH[FKDQJHGDWERWK+DPEXUJDQG/LVERQ
literary academies. The Collecção curioza also includes several prefatory poems
in Portuguese and Spanish authored at a January 3, 1600 meeting of a Hamburg
literary academy, in addition to a virulent anti-Jewish sermon accompanied by its
equally virulent anti-Christian retort, and both anti-semitic as well as philo-semitic
and/or converso or Jewish-authored poems. These last works are unique, one of a
kind, to my knowledge, and hitherto never before catalogued and therefore known
to exist. They are to be included in my Colectánea Sefárdica Europea study.
7KH HDUOLHVW HQWU\ LQ WKH PLVFHOODQ\ LV LWV ¿UVW GDWHG ³ GH -DQHLUR Amburgo”, the Jornada às Cortes do Parnaso (A Day Session at the Courts on
Mount Parnassus); it is accompanied by six complete, inter-related and satirical
prefatory poems. In all of the ten other recorded extant copies of this same
manuscript work, besides three printed editions, no more than three prefatory
poems appear, two of which almost identical yet at the same time incomplete and,
as such, highly inferior to Rahmeyer’s testimonies (e.g., Juan de Bobadilla’s silvas
DQGDOOEXWWKH¿QDOVL[RI(VWHYmR5LEH\UR¶V> 5RGULJXHV¶"@WZHQW\décimas.35
The third poem, Fernão Lopes’ three redondilhas “to the author”, was obviously
penned many years after the fact, for he states that all literary activities took place
in an academy that had gathered in times gone by: “Quando êste grande poeta / foi
às cortes tão remotas” (Refer to Appendix I).
The Jornada’s manuscript and printed tradition seems disjointed, at best.
Its introduction, containing a satirical description of the initial day-long session
on Mount Parnassus, must be chronologically sixty years prior in time to the
remainder of the poetic activities recorded in the factitious manuscript text and
is divided as follows: (1) Dedicatória (p. 1); (2) Prólogo ao Religiozo Leytor
SSDQGSUHIDWRU\SRHPVSS,QIDFWKHUHRQSDWWKHERWWRP
5DKPH\HUVLJQDOVDGH¿QLWHFKURQRORJLFDOEUHDNDWWKHYHU\HQGRIWKHSRHPVE\
informing his Hamburg (and Jewish?) reader that he was including poems as well
as other curiosities unfortunately excluded from $)pQL[5HQDVFLGD: “2ª Parte, ou
-XGDLVP DQG ,VODP ZLWK D VSHFL¿F FROOHFWRUV LQWHUHVW LQ SXEOLFDWLRQV GHDOLQJ ZLWK
Protestantism. The Collecção CuriozaGRHVQRW¿JXUHWKHUHLQ
35 For instance, in Juan de Bobadilla’s poem, v. 11 is missing the word “hermano”: “Y
si acaso, hermano, te agradare”; Estêvão Ribeiro’s décimasDUHODFNLQJWKH¿QDOVL[
vv., making this a crucial omission, for it excludes the reference to the Flemish people.
One must bear in mind that Catholic Flanders, and then Lutheran Hamburg and
several other Lutheran cities in the Hanseatic League, as well as Calvinist Amsterdam,
represented the major route in the Sephardic diaspora map to freedom in northern
Europe at the end of the 16th century and the beginning of the 17th.
[[email protected]
Kenneth Brown
Tomo 2º de Poezias jocozas, que por tães se não imprimirão na )pQL[, & outras
FXULRVLGDGHV>«@$V-RUQDGDV3DUWHV¿FmRMiFRSLDGDVQRSULPHLUR/LYUR¿
>«@DWKp>[email protected]>«@VXSSRVWRHVWHMmRLPSUHQVDVQRž7RPRGR)pQL[: mas cortada,
& diminuta no jocozo, principalmente todo o princípio da 2ª parte”. What follows
is an indication to the interested reader to skip to p. 129, so as to read on: “Nº
±DFRQWLQXDomRSiJ±´36 The Hamburg manuscript, fortunately, conserves
a cohesive, complete, as well as faithful extant testimony to the Portuguese,
Spanish, Latin and macarronic Italian language, quasi-Jewish literary academy,
the founding of which was obviously held in the Frei Stadt of Hamburg on that
fortuitous date of January 3, 1600.370HHWLQJWRLQDXJXUDWHWKH¿UVWZLQWU\DFDGHP\
session, the entity’s eleven brave engenhos or witty members must have included
Old and New Christian members of the Portuguese diplomatic mission, as well as
Old and New Christian (soon-tobeconverted-to-Judaism) merchants and liberal
professionals. The collection’s comic and lightly satirical prefatory poems revolve
DURXQG ERWK WKH VKHSKHUGSRHW /HUHQR ZKRP 7RFFR LGHQWL¿HV DV WKH cristão
novo Francisco Rodrigues Lobo (ca. 1580 Portugal-1621 Portugal)38. Tocco also
includes the possibility that the anonymous “Vós” is the selfsame individual. Her
argument is not entirely convincing nor satisfactory, for in the ‘Prologue to the
Religious Reader’, terms abound referring to a long pilgrimage, a long distance
transmigration, populating Mount Parnassus in Turkey, Holy Land toponyms,
and some form of conversion: “Poeta Peregrino”, “larga peregrinação”, “Pastor
peregrino” (p. 1); “se mudou toda esta fábrica” (p. 2), “se forão todos povoar a
Parnazo” (p. 3); “Palestina”, “Judea”, “Jafa”, “metamorfósio” (p. 3); “pois não era
muito convertérem-se os homens em pedras” and “são converções facilíssimas”
SHPSKDVLVPLQHDOORIZKLFKSRVVLEO\DOOXGLQJDQGUHIHUULQJWRGLDVSRULF
conversos, the pelegrinosZKRKDG¿QDOO\DUULYHGLQUHODWLYHO\³VDIHVHFXUH´DQG
free Lutheran Hamburg, where they could release themselves from their Roman
Catholic identities, which they sustained in the form of their pseudonyms and dual
personalities (i.e. converso as well as Catholic). In the Frei Stadt they would seek
freedom of expression and thought in addition to subsequent religious conversion
and return. Add to the above listed lexical repertoire the term transmigrações (i.e.
‘metamorphoses’ and ‘wanderings’ > ‘wanderer’), applicable to Lereno as well
36 This crucial information goes wanting in the Tocco, Diogo de Sousa, pp. 57-85,
HVSHFLDOO\
37 Printed editions are as follows: Diogo Camacho, Jornadas às Côrtes do Parnasso /
(PTXH¿FRXODXUHDGRSRU$SROOR, Lisbon, João António da Silva, Impressor da S.
0DJHVWDGH DQG 9DOHULD 7RFFR Diogo de Sousa. I have also consulted Alcir
Pécora, organizer, and João Adolfo Hansen, “Introdução”, 3RHVLDVHLVFHQWLVWD)rQL[
renascida & Postilhão de Apolo, São Paulo 2002.
38 Tocco, Diogo de Sousa, pp. 8 and 11.
[[email protected]
From Sepharad to Ashkenaz, from a Pícaro to a Schlemiel
as to the anonymous Vós in the poetic verses, and the possibility of a “Converso
Code” in the literary satire becomes even more compelling. One can not fail
to recall Menasseh Ben Israel’s wandering pilgrim as the emblem for his early
and mid-17th century Amsterdam printing press, or the Spanish converso author
Antonio Enríquez Gómez’ “Peregrino” in his Siglo Pitagórico y Vida de Don
Gregorio Guadaña 5RXHQ)UDQFH397KXVDVLJQL¿FDQWFRQWLQJHQWRIWKLV
¿UVWDFDGHP\¶VDXGLHQFHDQGLQWHOOHFWXDOOHDGHUVKLSPXVWKDYHEHHQ3RUWXJXHVH
marranos or conversos en route to their subsequent conversion/return to Judaism.
Lereno, be he in fact Francisco Rodrigues Lobo, Diogo de Sousa Camacho, or
someone else, as I shall summarily propose, is the Jornada’s ‘wandering shepherd’
(Pastor Peregrino).
7KH RI¿FLDO Dedicatória reads as follows: “Jornada de Fr. Diogo Camacho
às Cortes do Parnazo Anno de 1600. dedicado à Lereno Pastor Peregrino”. Its
next sentence appears to allude to this Portuguese language academy’s devotion
to a pagan (i.e. Greek) and, at the same time, perhaps Mosaic godhead, healer of
Jewish women (i.e. gynecologist): “Apolo, Déos de Rebeca, (amigo Lereno)”.
Does this opening phrase indeed refer to “Apollo, God of Rebecca”, as reads
the formulaic phrase in verbatim Hebrew sans Apollo, part of the 21st century
Reformed Jewish liturgy and service ĐĘĠŕ, “ĐģčĤ ĕĐĘČ” (“Elohei Rivqa”, 7H¿OODK),
referring to one of the four matriarchs of the ancient Hebrews: Sarah, Rebecca,
/HDKDQG5DFKHO"2ULVWKLVDSXUHO\SDJDQPXVLFDOUHIHUHQFHWRµ$SROOR>@*RGRI
the rebec’, as commentators of the Jornadas have assumed? Is this confusion and
ambiguity deliberate? May this intentional ambiguity be some sort of linguistic
code employed to disguise an overt converso text? In Tocco’s competent, though
39
Antonio Enríquez, El siglo pitagórico y Vida de don Gregorio Guadaña, ed. Teresa de
Santos, Madrid 1991.
As related by Tocco, Diogo de Sousa, p. 8, João Franco Barreto, in his unpublished
Biblioteca Lusitana (ca. 1665/1670), doubtfully writes the following (fol. 362v):
“Diogo de Sousa, natural de Coimbra e alj contemporáneo de Estevão Rodriguez
PpGLFRHIDPR]RSRHWD>«@Ir]DOJXDVREUDVMRFRVDVTXHVHQmRLPSULPLUmRDOJXQVOKH
atribuhem a Jornada do Parnaso que o poeta Fr. Diogo Camacho fêz às cortes em que
Appolo laureou, dirigida al Pastor Peregrino, em duas partes impressas em Amburgo
SRU5REHUWR0D[JUR$QQRSRUTXHDVVLPDQGDLQWLWXODGDQmRSRUTXH>«@R
fosse) cujo Prólogo comessa: Appolo Deos da Rabeca, amigo Lereno, em às últimas
cortes que celebrou no Parnaso, etc. Mas hé couza muito duvidoza”.
Tocco, for instance. See Jornada, poem 3, vv. 10-11 in Diogo de Sousa: “pois lhe
tangem as vivas com rabeca / nas vodas celebradas no Parnazo”. These vv. refer both
to a “Rabeca” as well as marriage ceremony (i.e. “vodas” = “bodas”).
See Colbert I. Nepaulsingh’s Apples of Gold in Filigress of Silver: Jewish Writing in
the Eye of the Inquisition1HZ<RUNS³>«@DFRQYHUVRWH[WLVFXOWXUHFRGHG
in such a way that its hidden meanings remain opaque to those who, if they were
capable of discovering those hidden meanings, would persecute the author, while at
[[email protected]
Kenneth Brown
incomplete, edition, she reads and interprets this last phrase as “Déus da Rabeca”,
that is ‘God of the rebec’, a term based on the Portuguese rabeca, likely derived
from the Provençal rebec, a late medieval lute-like instrument; in so doing, the
“Apollonian Art” is ascribed not to curative powers, but exclusively to melodic
ones, with Apollo as musical ‘Father to the Muses’. Nepaulsingh, though, reminds
us that a reference to the Muses, las or as Musas in Spanish and Portuguese,
respectively, is often used in conversoWH[WVWRUHÀHFWWKHQDPHRI0RVHVϣϮγϰԻ
0njVDLQ$UDELF5DKPH\HU¶VKDQGFOHDUO\UHFRUGV±³$SROR'pXVGH>RU³GD´@
Rebeca” (p. 1) and “Dios de la Rebeca” (poem 5, v. 2). The reading ‘Apollo, God
of Rebecca’, if intentionally Judaic, would then be a reference to the beautiful
virginal Rebecca (Genesis 22:23-28), an “independent, strong-willed, and a worthy
matriarch”. Louis Jacobs informs us that “The blessing given to Rebecca by her
IDWKHUDQGEURWKHUDVVKHVHWRXWWRPHHWKHUIXWXUHKXVEDQG*HQHVLVLV
recited in traditional communities before the wedding ceremony, when the groom
SODFHVWKHYHLORYHUWKHEULGH¶VIDFHDV5HEHFFDYHLOHGKHUVHOIZKHQVKH¿UVWVDZ
KHUKXVEDQGWREH*HQHVLV´
,W LV FUXFLDO IRU WKLV OLQH RI DUJXPHQWDWLRQ WR EHDU ZLWQHVV WR WKH À\VKHHW
accompanying an autographed letter by the Hamburg resident and Sephardic
physician Dr. Abraham Zacuto Victoria to the equally celebrated man of medicine
and Hamburg resident Dr. Rodrigo de Castro. The letter was penned from
Hamburg; the Herzog August Bibliothek’s cataloguer (probably Leibniz) endorsed
the following bibliographical note: “Domino doctori Roderico a Castro, medico
eruditissimo, expertissimo, Appolineaeque artis antesignano maeritissimo [[email protected]
salutem. Amburgum”. µ5HJDUGV WR \RX WHDFKHU >[email protected] 5RGULJR GH &DVWUR
the same time these opaque meanings are clear to a select group of subtle readers”.
See also Gregory B. Kaplan, The Evolution of Converso Literature: The Writings of
the Converted Jews of Medieval Spain, Gainesville 2002, chapter 2, ‘The Theoretical
Parameters of the Converso Code’, pp. 32-39.
José Pedro Machado, Dicionário Etimológico da Língua Portuguesa, 3rd ed., Lisbon,
vol. V, p. 28, 1st-2nd cols., 1977.
Nepaulsingh, Apples of GoldS,WUHPDLQVWREHFRQ¿UPHGZKHWKHUWKLVK\SRWKHVLV
can be applied to the Spanish converso author Antonio Enríquez Gómez’ Academias
morales de las musas%RUGHDX[3HGURGHOD&RUWH
R.J. Werblowsky and Geoffrey Wigoder, 7KH 2[IRUG 'LFWLRQDU\ RI WKH -HZLVK
Religion, New York and Oxford 1997, p. 575, 1st col.
Louis Jacobs, The Jewish Religion: A Companion, New York and Oxford 1995, p.
st col.
The superlative adjective “maeritissimo” does not exist in Latin; the correct form
would be “meritissimo”.
The letter is reproduced in Brown and Bertolín Cebrián, ‘Spanish, Portuguese, and
1HR/DWLQ3RHWU\¶SS6KHOIPDUNLV&RG*XHOI*XG/DW,QIROLR
According to Dr. Christian Heitzmann, Curator of manuscripts, incunabula and
[[email protected]
From Sepharad to Ashkenaz, from a Pícaro to a Schlemiel
most erudite physician, most expert professional, most worthy leader in the
Apollonian art. At Hamburg’.) Music, by its very nature in pagan culture, was an
“Apollonian art”, but so was medicine, and some of its most avid and published
practitioners in 1600 Hamburg were the Iberian conversos Estêvão Rodrigues de
&DVWURDQG5RGULJRGH&DVWUR,QGHHGE\WKH\HDU
Rodrigo de Castro had already seen published in Hamburg at least one of his
treatises on disease, only to become an accomplished gynecologist later on in the
Frei Stadt; he was a veritable “Apollo, Déus de Rebeca”. And so would Rodrigues
de Castro, hailing from Italy. Their distinct, separate personalities are still a
PDWWHURIKLVWRULFDOFRQWHQWLRQWKHPDQ\SHUVRQDODQGSURIHVVLRQDODI¿QLWLHVWKH\
VKDUH FDVW GRXEW RQ WKHLU LGHQWL¿FDWLRQ ZLWK WZR GLIIHUHQW LQGLYLGXDOV RI DOPRVW
identical name.
The Jornada’s poetic discourse is couched in that same satirical style
reminiscent of the early 17th century Iberian literary academies, where friendly
sorts would exchange not-too-poisonous satirical barbs at each other for manly
as well as aesthetic amusement.50 In this instance, though, the action, with its
50
special collections at The Herzog August Bibliothek, Wolfenbüttel, Germany, this
manuscript originally belonged to Marquard Gude, whose collection was acquired by
the duke Anton Ulrich when Leibniz was librarian at the HAB Wolfenbüttel (Personal
correspondence from C. Heitzmann to K. Brown, dated December 20, 2006). The
À\VKHHW LQVFULSWLRQ DSSHDUV LQ WKH $SSHQGL[ WR WKLV VWXG\ &XULRXVO\ HQRXJK 7KH
Hispanic Society of America’s copy of Francisco de Castro’s Metamorfosis a lo
moderno)ORUHQFHLQFOXGHVWKHIROORZLQJKDQGZULWWHQDQQRWDWLRQRQLWVLQVLGH
FRYHU³'RQDWRGHOOLDXWRULHFRQVXDOLFHQ]DVFULWWDGH)LRUHQ]DSHUL¿JOLDGHOIX>"@
ser Francisco T_____ Castro D_____ il medico portoghese”. (“Given by the authors
ZLWKWKHLUZULWWHQSHUPLVVLRQIURP>[email protected])ORUHQFHE\WKHVRQVGDXJKWHUVRIKH>ZKR
[email protected])UDQFLVFR>[email protected]&DVWUR>[email protected]\VLFLDQ´)UDQFLVFRGH&DVWUR
was Rodrigo de Castro’s son.
Refer to Brown and Bertolín Cebrián, ‘Spanish, Portuguese, and Neo-Latin Poetry’
(2000), pp. 229n.-230n.
For a standard bibliography of 17th and 18th century Portuguese literary academies, see
Elze Maria Henny Vonk Matias, Guia ilustrativo das académias literárias portguesas
dos séculos XVII e XVIII/LVERD>1RHGLWRULDOVWLSXODWHGEXWLWLVSUREDEO\DI¿OLDWHG
ZLWK WKH 8QLYHUVLGDGH GH /LVERD 7KLV LV D GRFWRUDO GLVVHUWDWLRQ SXEOLVKHG DV [email protected]
YROV6HHHVSHFLDOO\3DUWH,FDSSSIRUWKH$PVWHUGDPDQG
Leghorn Sephardic academies. The CôrtesGRQRW¿JXUHLQKHUGLVVHUWDWLRQ*HUPDQ\
is not included in the study, and the earliest academies in Portugal listed are 1625, the
Académia de Coimbra, I, p. 195; 1628, the Lisbon-based Académia dos Singulares,
I, p. 251; and 1615-, the Evora-based Académia dos Ambientes, I, p. 315. See also
João Palma-Ferreira, Académias literárias dos séculos XVII e XVIII, Lisboa 1982,
who also fails to include mention of this academy. That notwithstanding, on p. 16
he provides information concerning the Académia Bracarense (of Braga, Portugal,
founded in 1581), “more a Jesuit school than an Italian academy”, and makes a brief
[[email protected]
Kenneth Brown
Hamburg / German lands-based academy members, transmigrates from ancient
Greece, crosses the River Helicon in Macedonia, and then proceeds onward to
Mount Parnassus in Turkey where the eleven male and academy members pretend
to profess the Islamic religion. In the ‘Prologue to the Religious Reader’, the
narrative voice even offers to provide light to allay the wintry darkness of January
1600:
Reverendo Leytor: para que pela concavidade dêste laberinto, não caminhe
Vossa ReverênciaVHPOXPHOKHTXHURVHUYLUGHWRFKDSRUTXHVHD>[email protected]
QmRI{UWHPRTXHVHSHUFDDFDGDSDVVRDV>[email protected]
Vossa Reverência, que Apolo, Déos dos Poetas, desde o dia em que nasceo,
athé êste em que estamos, custumava celebrar côrtes, no Monte Helicona
DWRGRVRVVHXVV~EGLWRVGHHPDQQRV>@$JRUDVHPXGRXWRGDHVWD
fábrica, para o monte Parnazo, aonde as Muzas pela pouca vergonha dos
Turcos, mudarão fato, & cabana sendo Helicona seu verdadeiro domicílio
reference to a “D. Diogo de Sousa no Colégio de S. Paulo”. Palma-Ferreira’s listing
and subsequent history commences at mid-17th century. António José Saraiva, in his
classic História da literatura portuguesa/LVERQ>"@>[email protected]\
three generally informative paragraphs to the matter, “As académias e a cultura laica”
(pp. 120-121). For Madrid-based and other Hispanic literary academies and their
respective activities, see Giovanni Cara, Il “vejamen” in Spagna. Juicio y regocijo
letterario nella prima metà del XVII secolo, Roma 2001; Abraham Madroñal, “De
grado y de gracias’. Vejámenes universitarios de los siglos de oro, Madrid 2005;
Kenneth Brown, ‘Aproximación a una teoría del vejamen de academia en castellano
y catalán en los siglos XVII y XVIII: de las academias españolas a la Enciclopedia
Francesa’, in De las academias a la Enciclopedia, Evangelina Rodríguez Cuadros
ed., Valencia 1993, pp. 225-262; Idem, Anastasio Pantaleón de Ribera (1600-1629).
Ingenioso miembro de la república literaria española, Maryland 1980; María Soledad
Carrasco Urgoiti, ‘Notas sobre el vejamen de Academia en la segunda mitad del siglo
XVII’, Revista Hispánica Moderna, XXXI (1965), pp. 97-111; Willard F. King, Prosa
novelística y academias literarias en el siglo XVII, Madrid 1963; and José Sánchez,
Academias literarias del Siglo de Oro español, Madrid 1961. For Sephardic academies
and the satires presented, refer to Kenneth Brown and Harm den Boer, eds., El barroco
sefardí: Abraham Gómez Silveira (Arévalo, prov. de Ávila, Castilla 1656-Amsterdam
1741). Estudio preliminar, obras líricas, vejámenes en prosa y verso y documentación
personal, Kassel 2000; Harm den Boer, La literatura hispano-portuguesa de los
sefardíes de Amsterdam en su contexto histórico-social (siglos XVII y XVIII),
$PVWHUGDPSSDQG-XOLD5HEROOR/LHEHUPDQ(OWHDWURDOHJyULFRGH
0LJXHO'DQLHO/HYLGH%DUULRV1HZDUN'HODZDUHSS)RUDFDGHP\
satires in Catalan, see Kenneth Brown and Vicent Melchor, eds., Vida i obra de Joan
de Gualbes i Copons, Barcelona 1995; Kenneth Brown, ‘Text i context del Vexamen
d’acadèmia de Francesc Fontanella’, in Llengua & Literatura, 12 (1987), pp. 173-252;
and K. Brown, ‘Aproximación a una teoría del vejamen de academia’.
[@
From Sepharad to Ashkenaz, from a Pícaro to a Schlemiel
At the time, the Turks as a people and empire and Islam as their religion were
abhorred by European Christiandom; this opportune guise may be a veiled
metaphor for Sephardic Judaism.
What follows is Brother Ferdinand Barbatus’ indication that all seriousness
can be left behind in a bottomless beer stein at the tavern: “O Vós Piérides, quae
nunc Helicone relicto / Parnasi eolitis lubrica tectas Dei / Dum Bachus fugiet
limphas, humidus quae tabernas / Intrabit: numos, & bibet ille suos”.51
The next in line, the mock Italian bard Bertin Berturei de Bergamo, dedicates
two octaves to Lereno, in festive, would-be macarronic Tuscan: “Divin Poeta,
che vasiando Spagna / sol por vedir in corte la poezia / posio beviste en Francia,
& en Alemagna / ... / le ha cinto el cano del viruelo pieno, / ... / che aquel muse
del Tracie bionde / che te ha fatto passar sin su galeno /”. Lereno, the literary
shepherd, nothwithstanding Tocco’s arguments favoring the converso Francisco
Rodrigues Lobo, who appears to have never left his native Portugal, may well
be the Hamburg physician and poet Dr. Estêvão Rodrigues de Castro, who, in
turn, may also have been Rodrigo de Castro, of Jewish name David Namias.52
+LV FRPSDQLRQ DQG FRQ¿GDQW ³9yV´ LV SHUKDSV$ORQVR 1~xH] GH +HUUHUD WKH
renowned Jewish cabbalist, whose Jewish name was Abraham Cohen de Herrera.
%RWKLQWHOOHFWXDOVZRXOGHYROYHLQWRWZRRIWKHIRXU¿FWLRQDOFKDUDFWHUV±)LODOHWR
(XGR[R6LQFHURRU5HVDLQR±WKDWLVWKHLQWHUORFXWRUVLQ5RGULJXHVGH&DVWUR¶V
>"@+DPEXUJSXEOLVKHGTratado de Herem. The terms vasiando=‘saliendo
de’=‘departing’ or ‘pouring out’ (v.1), posio=‘poción’=‘potion’ (v. 3), viruelo(a)
µ6PDOOSR[¶ (v. 10), and galeno=‘Galen’=’physician’ Y DUH DOOXVLRQV DQG
references to the world of medicine and disease; and the humorously erroneous
macarronic Italian seems to be an attempt to make the former Portuguese-born
intellectuals from Italy feel more at home in the Germanic Frei Stadt.
As stated above, in these Hamburg-based “Sessions at the Courts on Mount
3DUQDVVXV´LWVHOHYHQPHPEHUV±)UH\RU%URWKHU'LRJR&DPDFKR/HUHQR9yV
Frey / Brother Fernando/Ferdinand Barbato, Álvaro Peres Andrade, António
Ferreira Buzaranha, Púrio Cório, Bertin Berturei de Bérgamo, Juan de Bobadilla,
Estêvão Ribeyro, and, perhaps, Apollo, too (all the names of which likely
academy lettres de plume, with the exception of Diogo de Sousa Camacho, who
is faintly documented and who indeed maintained relationships with conversos
51 Refer to note 73, in Appendix I.
52 For David Namias, alias Dr. Rodrigo de Castro, see Michael Studemund-Halévy,
%LRJUDSKLVFKHV/H[LNRQGHU+DPEXUJHU6HIDUGHQ, Hamburg 2000, pp. 678, 1st col.st col. Considerable confusion exists as to the identity of Dr. Rodrigo de Castro
and Dr. Estêvão Rodrigues. See Brown and Bertolín Cebrián, ‘Spanish, Portuguese,
and Neo-Latin Poetry’ (2000), pp. 229-230, note 7.
[[email protected]
Kenneth Brown
and/or professing Jews, possibly being a converso himself53) shared Portuguese,
Spanish, Latin, and a smattering of Italian as they pretended to profess a detested
Islam. Juan de Bobadilla’s Spanish-language poem to the author, Lereno, gives
evidence of the group’s heretical religious adherence to Islam, which may, as
stated above, be a veil for an equally heretical adherence to Judaism (at least as
LW SHUWDLQHG WR 6SDQLVK DQG 3RUWXJXHVH &DWKROLFLVP DQG WKH +RO\ 2I¿FH RI WKH
Inquisition): “Poeta hermano, pues supistes tanto / que el Dios de la Rebeca te
halló dino / de te entregar su hija y prenda amada, / yo quiziera tener de cuervo el
canto / para atronar con lloro peregrino / la tierra que de nadie es habitada, / mas,
SXHVQRSXHGRQDGDORVGLH>]@FRQFLOLDULRVGHO,Q¿HUQREXHOWRVHQJUDMRVFRQ
su canto tierno, / tu fama alaben tan descompassada; / los Poetas menores / de
PXJUHFXEULUHPRVVXVORRUHV\VLDFDVRKHUPDQRWHDJUDGDUHQXHVWUDPXJU>[email protected]
enta, y suzia Poezía, / tú serás alabado eternamente, / haremos que tu nombre
nunca pare, / antes vaya, y venga en romería / a la Casa de Mecca penitente”. Are
we to understand the academy (“la academia”) as Apollo’s, that is to say Lereno’s,
metaphorical daughter (i.e. “su hija y prenda amada”)? Or has the “Poeta hermano”
recently become engaged to the supreme god’s (i.e. Apollo’s) daughter, a young
woman perhaps named Rebecca/Rivqa? Was the 1600 Hamburg academy session,
with its prose and poetic literary satire or YH[DPH (Port.) / vejamen (Span.) in fact
DSUHQXSWLDOFHOHEUDWLRQJHQHULFDOO\DI¿OLDWHGZLWKWKH+DPEXUJEDVHG6HSKDUGLF
orthodox as well as secular literary celebration that produced the poetic enigma
dating in 1679 and reproduced in Appendix IV of this present study?
António Ferreira Buzaranha’s satirical sonnet to the author follows. His
patronimical Portuguese language surname, Buzaranha, deriving from Buz,
meaning ‘one who adulates via the mouth’, is evident of Spanish Baroque satire.55
Yet the sonnet’s discoursive power, transmitted in Gongorine (i.e. culteranista)
esdrújulas, with their phonological stress on the ante-penultimate syllable, are an
attempt to scoff at both Lereno and Vós, while evidencing at the very same time
blatant medical terminology: tempo cálido=‘heat’ (v. 1), rostro pálido=‘pale face’
(v. 5), membros secos=‘dry body parts’, a licença ética=‘ethical license’ (v. 6),
53 He is mentioned in Jean Colomès, Le Dialogue “Hospital das Letras” de D. Francisco
Manuel de Melo, Paris 1970, p. 18: Bocalino: “É este por quem disse Diogo de Sousa,
no seu ‘poeta até o embigo; os baixos prosa’ ” (“poet from his head to his navel; from
the waist down a prosist”). It would appear that de Sousa was considered a serious poet
but a satyrical prosist. On p. 175, Colomès adds comments concerning this individual.
Refer to Appendices II and III.
The surname Bobadilla is a toponym in Andalusian Spain. Here it seems that the
author uses it as a pun derived from the adjective “Boba” or “silly”.
55 See Herman Iventosch, ‘Onomastic Invention in the Buscón’, Hispanic Review XXIX
(1961), pp. 15-32, and ‘Spanish Baroque Parody in Mock Titles and Fictional Names’,
Romance Philology XV, 1 (August 1961), pp. 29-39.
[[email protected]
From Sepharad to Ashkenaz, from a Pícaro to a Schlemiel
and mijar como remédio válido=‘urination as an understood and reputable cure’
(v. 8): “Senhor Poeta, que por tempo cálido / na mula ruça mui peripatética / fôstes
as Cortes da nação Poética / a ver Poetas do Inferno escálido; / e alí vistes com
seu rostro pálido / & membros secos a licença ética / & huma Musa já por vós
frenética / vos fêz mijar como remédio válido”. Furthermore, the term “nação” is
also suspect, and the vv., “Vós, & Lereno Peregrinos lúbricos / por ter corrido tanta
terra aspérrima” (vv. 9-10), must refer to ‘wandering pilgrims who have come
IURPDIDUDQGKDYHFURVVHGGLI¿FXOWWHUUDLQ´LHWKHWZRDIRUHPHQWLRQHGFU\SWR
Jewish intellectuals from Italy, Dr. Estevão Rodrigues de Castro and Abraham
Cohen de Herrera.
In last position enters a sonamed Estêvão Ribeyro, who, in his Portuguese
language Décimas provides a window into the composition of the literary
academy’s religiously and ethnically mixed membership. En route, there is an
REOLTXHFRPPHQWDU\±³TXHFRPHWXGRRPRQGRQJR´Y±RQWKRVHZKRHDW
unclean, i.e. non kosher food: “Poeta bravo, & bárbaro / que por milagrozo cazo /
I{VWHVQRPRQWH3DUQDVVRSRU$SRORODXUHDGR>@YLYHPXLWRFRQ¿DGRTXHTXHU
faça calma ou chova / o teu verso, & a tua trova, / a pezar da mã ventura, / será de
PXLSRXFDGXUDHQWUHJHQWHFKULVWmQRYD>@PDHQWUHDFKULVWmYpOKLFHTXHFRPH
tudo o mondongo / durará por tempo longo / como todas a parvoisê / ”.56
56 Tocco, Diogo de Sousa, p. 10, cites Vítor Manuel Pires de Aguiar e Silva, Manierismo
e barroco na poesia lírica portuguesa, Coimbra 1971, pp. 128-132, who notes that
in MS. 581 azul or “blue” in the library of the Royal Academy of Science, Lisbon,
there is a poem attributed to Diogo de Sousa and directed to a “doctor Arias”, Jewish
DVWURORJHU³FRPSDGUHHDPLJRPtR´³FRUHOLJLRQLVW>"@DQGIULHQGRIPLQH´7KLVDQG
additional poems of his are included in my Appendix III infra. Aguiar e Silva also
considers Estêvão Ribeiro’s ballad “To the author” “come il commento stizzito di
un cristão-novo verso un altro cristão-novo
TXHVHWHULDEDQGHDGRFRPRVFULVWmRV
velhos (entrando numa ordem religiosa, por exemplo)”. Such interpretation seems
FRPSOHWHO\ XQMXVWL¿HG )XUWKHUPRUH WKH +DPEXUJ EDVH RI RSHUDWLRQV RI WKLV ORQJ
lasting literary academy is quite obvious from textual references evident throughout
the extensive poetic anthology contained in Rahmayer’s manuscript; these references
are to the University of Coimbra, to Jewish character and physical traits, to normative
Jewish religious practices, such as dietary laws, to the appearance of a cabbalist, and to
*HUPDQ\DQGWKLQJV*HUPDQ)RULQVWDQFHSSátira a Nicolão de Oliveira, Juiz
da Moeda, feita pelo Dr. Gregório de Mattos Guerra: “Dem com êlle no alto da forca /
GRQGHR¿GDOJRWHUiSHUDV\TXHKpRPDLVHVWLUDGRGHTXDQWRVPLMmRQR'RXUR
bebem no Rhin”; (p. 98) “Mira si entre aquessas luzes / alguna Toscana encuentras /
que son los rubios celajes, / Alemanes las estrellas”. ; (p. 105) “A Déos, Coimbra
LQLPLJD´S³DTX\VHFRPHWXGRDREUXWHVFRTXHDVVLPRPDQGDDUHJUDD
EHELGDKpPX\FRQIRUPHDRSULPHU7XGHVFR´S³¿]OKHKXPDSHWLomRWRGD
em Tudesco / & aprezenteilhe hum grande toucinho / que êlle estimou por singular
UHIUHVFR´S³QREHPGHVXDLGDGHIR\OHYDGDDFD]DGH'DYLG5H\GH-XGHD
DOê FRP VDQWRV YHUVRV DQLPDGD 0RUWR 'DYLG D PRoD TXH DUUHFHD ¿FDU HQ WHUUD
[[email protected]
Kenneth Brown
In summation and conclusion, the January 3, 1600 initial gathering of the
Jornadas às Cortes do Parnaso DSSHDUV WR EH WKH YHU\ ¿UVW TXDVL6HSKDUGLF
literary activity held in Hamburg. The academy was a place for linguistic, literary
and religio-ethnic camaradery and mirth, as well as for autobiographical memories
of the Sephardic diaspora from Inquisitorial Iberia and Italy. The Jornadas, a prose
and verse academy satire, was Hamburg’s as well as the Nação¶V¿UVWDVFHQWXSWKH
now (in 1600) Turkish and “Islamic” Mount Parnassus, and, as evidence from the
success of its textual history, it was successful, but also one that would quite rapidly
lose its Jewish, converso and broad Mediterranean context by returning to Portugal,
its presses, and its mainstream Lusitanian literary tradition. Also, in Hamburg the
early tradition of those brave poets on Mount Parnassus would eventually defer to
the “Parnassim”, or ruling members of the Sephardic congregation, as secularism
would devolve into normative orthodoxy. The intentional pun may have a real
basis in the Nação’s historical evolution.
One Quick Glance at Jeossúah Habilho’s Colección nueva
In Portuguese is Jeossúah Habilho’s picaresque novel in verse, a story reconstructed
HSLVRGLFDOO\LQ¿IWHHQSRHPVQRV;;;,,;/,,DQG;/,9;/9,,UHSURGXFHGLQ
Appendix V) of his Colección nueva57 No doubt should be cast as
to the choice of the celebrated Iberian narrative genre nor the festive tone of the
work, for Habilho quite explicitly employs unambiguous generic terminology: “O
deixeis por picaraso SRU TXH HP ¿P GH WDO DVQDVR QmR VH HVSHUD JDODUGmR´
SRHP;;;9SYY³&HUWRVFULVWRHPVFRPIHVVDUmRFRPYH]LWDU
lhes hia / e que ella lhes dará amão, / certo e grave picardia´;;;9,,,SYY
36-39); and “pícaro mau, / quem vós derá de pancadas / com hum pau!” (XXXIX,
SYYHPSKDVLVPLQH7KHQRYHOHWWH¶VFHQWUDODFWLRQVUHYROYHDURXQG
Habilho’s familial squabbles and internecine bickering among the members of
Hamburg’s Nação: anyone willing to listen to the ranting, raving, and gossiping
will have an earful. Naturally, being a Jew in mid-eighteenth century Hamburg’s
Germanic Christian society is central to the episodic tale: “Por isto vós escrevo,
FRP -XGHX´ SRHP ;/,9 S Y $QG WKH ¿UVW SHUVRQ DXWRELRJUDSKLFDO
narrative minces no words when relating antisemitic acts perpetrated by a business
director against the poet’s son (poem XLV, pp. 859-61, especially vv. 9-16), who,
for observing the Jewish Sabbath, was unjustly mistreated: “Logo me mandou a
DRQGH VH QmR FRPH /HPEUH FRHOKR SRUFR QHP ODPSUHD´ ³$SROOR YrQGR D ¿OKD
tão palrreira / & que de pura doudice, & vaydade / não queria em Judea ser tendeira”;
(p.153) “feito as pazes, veyo hum cabalista”.
57 Refer to note 3, supra.
[[email protected]
From Sepharad to Ashkenaz, from a Pícaro to a Schlemiel
par do Director / o qual me ressebeu com muito amor, / ditto me preguntou, ‘Com
ERQMXGHXRQGHVHGHWHYHDPDGRVHQKRUPHX"¶5HVSRVWDOKHGêTXHQmRSXGLD
FKHJDUSRUTXHHUD6DEDWKIX\IRUoRVR¿FDUFRPLUDUHVSRQGHXµ1mRSRVVR
occupar, / pois quem quer ser judeu, não quero ajudar!’
What overrules all of this pessimism is the zany nature of this Iberian nurtured,
but Hamburg developed creative spirit: a Sephardic one. To achieve such an
end, the narrative overwhelmingly deals with merrymaking at Hanukah, Purim,
and Passover. For instance, nothwithstanding all other calamities befalling
the Hamburg Sephardic community at the time, a real lament is registered that
hamantaschen (“as orelhas em Purim”) are eaten at Purim festivities but not to
celebrate Hanukah: “Se deffende en Hanucá / as orelhas de Aman / porque como
cauza o vinho / dar orelhas em Purim / Hanucá não quer que tenha / tais orelhas
VHXIHVWLP´SRHP;;;,,,SSYY
Characteristic of the novelette’s many verses is syntactic concision, the
proliferation of nonsense words, the use of a Portuguese argot so distant from
the cultivated Lusitanian tongue of the Lisbon academies that deciphering
LW GH¿HV UHDVRQ %XW WKHUH LV DOVR D NHHQ UHOLDQFH RQ PXOWLOLQJXDOLVP ± 'XWFK
*HUPDQ 6SDQLVK 3RUWXJXHVH +HEUHZ <LGGLVK DQG (QJOLVK ± DV ZHOO DV DQ
interdisciplinary approach to composition, that extends from ethnomusicology (the
Colección Nueva’s “Vida de Jeosúah Habilho” (Life of Jeosuah Habilho), contains
20 songs from the Pan-European repertoire, among which are tunes adapted from
the Hebrew liturgy, such as the Yigdal and the Hodú)58 to stuff for the avid postmodernist: e.g., the less-than-virtuous Jewish widow, who preys on unsuspecting
male victims, goes to the extreme of cross-dressing in order to deceptively extract
favors in the form of food, while the truly needy are suffering from hunger: “Muy
sutil deve ella ser, / que de mulher vestio de homem / buscándosse bem de comer /
HRXWURVTXHPRUmRDIRPHP´SRHP;;;9,,,SYY59 Apparently,
58 The bibliography on this subject is scant: Edwin Seroussi, Spanish-Portuguese
Synagogue Music in Nineteenth-Century Reform Sources from Hamburg. Ancient
Tradition in the Dawn of Modernity, Jerusalem. Also see related fenomena in
Idem, Diversity within Unity. Some Historical Aspects of Dutch Synagogue Music,
Amsterdam 2008; Israel Adler, Le-El Elîm. Cantata by Abraham Casseres (Caceres).
From the Repertoire of the Portuguese Jewish Community of Amsterdam (part of the
series Oeuvres du repertoire de la communauté portugaise d’Amsterdam: From the
Repertoire of the Portuguese Jewish Community of Amsterdam, 6 vols., 1965- ), Tel
$YLY,GHPLa Pratique Musicale Savante dans quelques Communautés Juives
HQ(XURSHDX[;9,,HHW;9,,,HVLqFOHV, Mouton, París-La Haye 1966.
59 Cross-dressing was/is a proscription articulated in the Torah (Deuteronomy 22:5)
and reiterated in Maimonides’ Mishne Torah / Hilkhot Yesodei Ha-Torah, ed. Rabbi
(OL\DKX7RXJHU1HZ<RUN-HUXVDOHPSQR³)RUDZRPDQQRWWRZHDU
a man’s apparel”.
[[email protected]
Kenneth Brown
such reprehensible and lamentable behavior is a lesson gleaned from Francisco de
Quevedo’s masterful picaresque novel, La vida del Buscón (Zaragoza 1626), book
III, chapter 2,60DQGWKHQUHPROGHGWR¿WDVRPHZKDWWKRXJKQRWHQWLUHO\GLIIHUHQW
set of circumstances and characters (i.e. in Quevedo’s novel, the perpetrator is
a male pícaro or trickster of “dubious antecedents and conjectural progeny”).
Habilho’s Schlemiel novel’s drammatis personae hail almost exclusively from the
membership of Hamburg’s Nação: 1) Isaque Benveniste; 2) Isaque Benveniste’s
son-in-law, Abraham, 3) Mestre Mor (‘Master Death’), the teacher at the Beit
Midrash, a stereotyped miserable teacher patterned after the Quevedo’s Licenciado
Cabra, in the Buscón,WKHmidrashim students; 5) an anonymous certo moço;
6) Habilho, the autobiographical “I”, as both young and old man; 7) his brother-inlaw; 8) his sister-in-law; 9) his son Jeossúah; 10) Viuvinha, that is Rivca Jessurun;
11) an anonymous Enemigo; 12) Isaque Tovar, who suffers from tuberculosis;
5LFD3DUD7RYDU¶VZLIHDQDQRQ\PRXV6KHWRZKRP+H+DELOKRKDG
made amorous, not always gentlemanly, advances; 15) anonymous Sephardic
community members (algums senhors da nação); this, in addition to 16) not very
bright Tudescos (German Christians); 17) Mardi Gras mummers; 18) the Dutch
Prince of Nassau; 19) belleguins or sheriff’s deputies; and 20) an enigmatic “Little
Miss Muffett”.
Jeossúah Habilho embodies the gemeine spielleute (the popular singer of
songs) of the minhag sefaradí, who communicates a veritable Sephardic folk
spirit, a Volksgeist, that captures the essence of Sephardic life in mid-18th century
Hamburg. According to one academic author, Jewish literature, if there be such
a distinct phenomenon, draws on “liturgy, Torah, Talmud, traditional religious
texts, exile, sacredness, religion, language, art, multilingualism and diglossia”.61
Jeossúah Habilho combines many of these same ingredients as he creates a new
kind of Jewish literature in exile, poetry expressed in the Portuguese tongue
and communicated in an amusing and funny vein that takes center stage in the
mercantile city on the Elbe.
Conclusion
What makes 17th and 18th century Sephardic creative literature in Hamburg and
HQYLURQVVRGLVWLQFWLYHDQGXQLTXH",QWKH¿UVWSODFHLWLVIRUWXQDWHWKDWVRPXFK
has survived from so few. The one hundred and sixty six years of our literary
60 Ed. cit., Francisco de Quevedo, La vida del Buscón, ed. Lázaro Carreter, Salamanca
1980, 2nd ed.
61 +DQD:LUWK1HVKHUµ'H¿QLQJWKH,QGH¿QDEOH:KDWLV-HZLVK/LWHUDWXUH"¶LQWhat is
Jewish Literature?HG+DQD:LUWK1HVKHU3KLODGHOSKLD-HUXVDOHPSS
[[email protected]
From Sepharad to Ashkenaz, from a Pícaro to a Schlemiel
journey, starting in 1600 and extending to 1766, with its original point of departure
Sepharad and endpoint the Frei Stadt in Ashkenaz, are circumscribed by heightened
creative wit and picaresque humor. This truism is crucial in importance, for all was
not hardship, discrimination, doom and gloom for the former Iberian Jews in the
Protestant cities of northern Europe during our period of analysis. To the contrary,
some Sephardim and early wannabes were able to laugh at themselves while
depicting at least one pícaro and even a schlemiel, and could set to verse, song
and music their misfortunes when the moment and occasion presented itself.62 We
learn that Jewish humor, some of it self deprecating to say the least, was not the
exclusive domain of the 19th century Ashkenazim functioning within an exclusively
Yiddish context. Once upon a time, not so very long ago, literary creativity among
the Sephardim in Hamburg was wie witzig, wie spaßig, wie komisch.
Appendices
Appendix I63
Jornada de Fr. Diogo Camacho às Cortes do Parnazo Anno de 1600. dedicada a Lereno,
Pastor Peregrino 6WDDWV XQG 8QLYHUVLWlWVELEOLRWKHN +DPEXUJ VKHOÀLVW &RGLFL +LVSDQLFL
DEDICATÓRIA
Apolo, Déos de Rebeca (amigo Lereno) nas últimas Cortes que celebrou no Parnazo, me
62
63
Hillel Halkin, “Why Jews Laugh at Themselves”, in Commentary $SULO QR SS
RQ S E WUDFHV ZKDW )UHXG FDOOV ³-HZLVK KXPRU´ ³WR +HLQH´ KH FLWHV )UHXG¶V Wit
and its Relation to the Unconscious³7KH\>[email protected]\-HZV
DQGDLPHGDW-HZLVKFKDUDFWHULVWLFV>[email protected]
jokes, aggressively or mockingly against the Other but rather against one’s own group, that
is, against the Jews themselves. Moreover, such a joke is truly Jewish only when its Jewish
WHOOHULGHQWL¿HVZLWKWKLVJURXS,IPHFKDQLFDOO\UHSHDWHGE\D*HQWLOHRUDQDVVLPLODWHG-HZLW
would no longer be the same joke.” Yet “Sephardic-Jew and converso jokes” abound in the 1600
picaresque Jornada às Côrtes do Parnazo, as do the zany, self-deprecating stories of relatives and
Sephardic congregationists in Habilho’s 18th-c. verse schlemiel novel. Halkin, p. 52a, following
R. R. Wisse’s The Schlemiel as Modern Hero, Chicago, U. Chicago Press, 1971, traces this
FKDUDFWHULQ&KDPLVVR¶VThe Wonderful Story of Peter Schlemiel (Nürnberg), explaining
thus: “Schlemiel jokes ... depend on a «balanced humor that cuts simultaneously into the
character and into those belittling him”. Schlemiels, though invariably “powerless and unlucky”,
are “psychologically, or, as one used to say, spiritually, the victims in defeat”. Examples of
schlemielish behavior are H.’s poems XXXV, XXXVII-XLII and XLIV-XLVI.
The appendices that follow include diplomatic editions of the original texts. These texts appear as
they do in the original, except that I have modernized punctuation, facilitated visual presentation
and subsequent reading, added verse, folio and page numbers, included necessary revisions or
additions within parentheses, where needed, and added at each poem’s end a critical apparatus
FRQWDLQLQJGLI¿FXOWUHDGLQJVDWWKHLPPHGLDWHHQGDQGFODULI\LQJLQIRUPDWLRQLQIRRWQRWHV
[[email protected]
Kenneth Brown
fêz algumas mercés, & esmolas, que Vossa Reverência durarem mais, me obrigou a fórralas com Tercetos de Vaca. E como isto não sejão socos, nem cothurnos, se não hum novo
modo de alparcates; foi-me necessário, buscar pés limpos, & de poucos pontos, a quem
¿]HFHP HX RV RIIUHFHFH HQWUH PX\WRV HVFROKL RV YRVVRV SRU PXLWDV UH]}HV GDV
quães por Charidade, vos pesso o uçais cinco. A 1a porque sendo eu Poeta Peregrino, por
minha larga peregrinação, & esta obra peregrina, a ninguém podia acudir que com mais
charidade a agazalhace, que a hum Pastor Peregrino, pois VLPLO>[email protected]
±$ D SRUTXH GL] R FyPLFR 7HUpQFLR JDOOLQDUL TXRTXH LQVWLWXW>[email protected] GH UHUXP GLYLVLRQH
quae cujus est totum ejus est pars.65 $V>[email protected] sendo eu todo vosso, & esta obra parte
minha, de jureVHKDYLD>[email protected] está dedicado o todo. A 3a por me
não desviar d’aquêlle comú provérbio, em nossos tempos tão mal cumprido que D¿UPD
Amicorum omnia esse comunia.66 $D3RUTXHHVWDQGRHP3DUQD]RIDODQGRPH$SRORHP
vós, & jurando-me fé de Fidalgo, que como Poeta escoimado, determinava laurear-vos nas
primeiras Cortes; pareceo-me que êste acto de minha coroaçam a nenguém se devia dedicar
se não a hum laureado Poeta, pois praecingendus habetur propraecinctho.67 A 5a (que
IHFKDFRPRFRIUHÀDPHQJRKpSRUTXHTXDQGRMRJDPRVDRVGDGRVPHWRSDLVUHSDURVDGH]
& a onze, couza que me leva a boya ao fundo. Pella delicadeza destas rezões vireis (amigo
Lereno) em conhecimento da muyta, que teve Apolo em me laurear, & das que me moverão,
para pôr esta obra a vossos pés, para que a coices a defendais, se quizerdes, & senão amigos
como d’antes. Amburgo 3 de Janeiro 1600.
PRÓLOGO AL RELIGIOZO LEYTOR
Reverendo Leytor: para que pela concavidade dêste laberinto, não caminhe Vossa
Reverência sem lume, lhe quero servir de tocha, porqueVHDV>[email protected] se
SHUFDDFDGDSDVVRDV>[email protected] Reverência, que Apolo Déos
dos Poetas, desde o dia em que nasceo, athé êste em que estamos, custumava celebrar
Cortes, no Monte Helicona a todos os seus súbditos de 23 em 23 annos, porque numero
Deus impari gaudet,68 & nellas se davão leys, regras, pregmáticas, decretos, estatutos,
para viver bem, & poéticamente, & se concedião indultos, privilégios, inmunidades, &
izenções, a aquêles, que tinhão a vea mais grossa, & no último se laureava por votos de seus
concelheiros aquêle, que nemine discrepanti,69 era por único aprovado.
Agora se mudou toda esta fábrica, para o monte Parnazo, aonde as Muzas pela
pouca vergonha dos Turcos, mudarão fato, & cabana sendo Helicona seu verdadeiro
domicílio, com bem declara aquêle Poeta, que chegando alí alta noite, & chovendo estando já
fechada, lhes dice: Pandite nunc Heliconae Deae>@70 & lhe não pareça a Vossa Reverência
65
66
67
68
69
70
“One seeks out one’s equal”.
“Instituted with henish division about things”.
“All things among friends being common”.
“It is right that he be crowned by the one who was crowned prior to him”.
“God rejoices in the uneven number”.
“Without dissent”.
“Goddesses of Helicon (Muses) now play”.
[[email protected]
From Sepharad to Ashkenaz, from a Pícaro to a Schlemiel
o que pareceu a Ptolomeu, que jurou aos Santos Evangélios que>[email protected]]RH+HOLFRQD
era tudo hum, sendo diversos e mui distantes: porqueVLWXDQGRrOOH+HOLFRQDQRRFOLPD
dândo-lhe a linha por zenith, está ella em nossos tempos em 203 grãos chegados ao Polo,
quazi71FRPRHVWUHLWRGH0DJDOKmHV$V>[email protected]¿DGr9ossa
Reverência mais crédito a experiência do que vio, do que a habilidade de quem escreve.
Verdade hé que Helicona, & Parnazo forão já tão vezinhos, que se emprestavão, sal, azeite,
vinagre, carvão, fugareiro &a reliquia utilia,72 agora porém estão distantíssimos hum, do
outro & se Vossa Reverência dezeja saber a cauza, alargue as orelhas, & ouça. Mahomet 2o
do nome, & 8o Imperador dos Turcos, despois que tomou a Constantino último Imperador
Grego a cidade de Constantinopla, passou a ella sua Côrte, & ouvindo dizer, que o monte
Helicona era morada das Muzas, & queDOêVHRXYLDGHFRQWtQXRKXPDVXDYHPHORGLDFRPR
homem afeiçoado a Música, com máquinas de engenhos, que lhe custarão hum pouco de
ouro, fêz arrancar o Monte / de seus fundamentos, & com todo o resguardo, para que não
quebrasse, trazê-lo, & situá-lo, para junto dos muros de Constantinopla pegado cõ o seu
Serralho (“Passos”, em nosso vulgar) os quães, têm para a banda do Mar Negro, naquela
parte, a que os antigos chamarão Bósphoro Trácio, & deles fêz hum paçadiço, pelo qual
hia todas as manhãas de Abril, & Mayo com os seus queridos Bardajos, ouvir a armonia,
que as Muzas fazião de madrugada, ajudadas de bufos, mochos, & corujas, que nêlle se
criavão, & como, os súbditos, tomem com grande facilidade o costume dos príncipes, ou
pelo menos, os dezejem imitar, deram todos os bachãs, Sanjacos, & genízaros em madrugar
SDUDRXYLU>[email protected]+HOLFRQD0DVFRPRHVWDFDQDOKDWrPSRUSUHFHLWR
do Alcorão fazer 7 vezes no dia sua maldita sala, & para isso, seja necessário ágoa com
queVHSXUL¿TXH>[email protected]+HOLFRQDQmRKDYLDRXWUDVHQmRDGDIRQWH&DEDOLQDPHWLmR
se nella & enxaugando os profanados, & nefandos membros, & lavando as rabadilhas,
juntamente, com algumas mijadelas, em pouco tempo, tornarão a ágoa como se for a
infundite. As Muzas mortas de sede, & enfadadas da conversação Turquesca, por ordem de
Apolo escondidamente se forão todos povoar a Parnazo, aonde vivem com mais descanço,
ainda que com muito custo; porque toda a ágoa (a que por natureza são inclinadas, digo
afeiçoadas) lhe trazem de carreto do Rio Eurites, & custa cada cântaro hum olho da cara.
(VWDKp>@5everenGROH\WRUDFDX]DGDWUDQVPLJUDomRGH+HOLFRQDTXHVHDV>[email protected]
dar Fr. Pantaleão a cidade de Pedra que vio em Palestina, nem Vossa Reverência (Senhor
OH\WRUQHPRXWURDOJXPFUtWLFRRXFHQVRUGRWHPSRRWD[DUmRSRUIDEXOR]RSRUTXHVHDV>[email protected]
im como êlle entrou pelo certão da Judea, entrará pelo metamorfósio, souberá, como depois
que Perseo matou a Gorgona Medusa, cuja vista tornava os homens em pedra, metendo a
cabeça em hum saco, & cavalgando no cavalo Pegaso, que era nem mais, nem menos como
Hipogrifo de Astolfo, vindo pelos ares costeando a Fenícia, chegou ao porto de Jafa, onde
a gentil Andrómeda nua como sua Mãi a parió, estava para ser comida da orca, atada à
coluna que o Pae Frare Panta- / OHmRDOêDLQGDDFKRXPDWDQGRRPyQVWUXRGH]DWDQGR
D GDPD QXD DV>[email protected] FRPR HVWDYD D FDYDOJRX QDV DQFDV GR VHX FDYDOR YRDQGR FRPR
KXPD DQGDULQKD HP PHQRV GH WUrV KRUDV FKHJRX >[email protected] DTXHOD FLGDGH GH Tue historiador
nenhum fêz menção: os moradores de lá, vendo semelhante portento asestarão nêlle toda
71
72
Tocco, in Diogo de Sousa, prefers the reading “quazi pegado como o estreito”.
“The rest of the utensils”.
[[email protected]
Kenneth Brown
a sua artilharia, que tinhão pelos muros, & baluartes, & cevando suas espingardas, &
mosquetes lhe derão tal sorriada de artilharia & mosquetaria, que a Perseo não ter acordo
parD VH OHYDQWHU HP DOWR PDLV GH TXLQKHQWDV EUDoDV R ¿]HUmR>[email protected] HP VDO HP FLQ]D
escandelizado, com tudo, de tão atreiçoado atrevimento, abrindo o saco, tirou a cabeça
de Gorgona, que tanto que RV GH EDL[R D YLUmR ¿FDUmR FRQYHUWLGRV HP SHGUD QDTXrOOH
menejo, & postura do corpo em queRVWRPRXDYLVWDGHOOD>@UH]mRTue o pobre Religiozo
não alcançou parD PHWHU WDIXOKR>[email protected] QD ERFD GRV LQFUpGXORV SUDJXHQWRV SRLV QmR HUD
muito convertérem-se os homens em pedras, que segundo a opinião dos perapatéticos,
são converções facilíssimas, pois procedem de hábito ad privationem,73 já que em nossos
tempos, vemos pedras convertidas, em homens, que se têm por couza impossível, pois
procede de privatione ad habitum. E não me pique Vossa Reverência (Senhor leytor)
que soubrando dos feixos & dispararei com mais de dúzia & meya, dêstes milagres; & se o
¿]HUQmRPHWLUDUD9ossa Reverência hua pública disciplina com voz de pregoeiro por ruas
costumadas. Pelo que não querendo importunar, se dezeja saber o que passou no Parnasso,
siga-me, & não cance, & se hé Poeta anima-ce, para alcançar grãos semelhantes, & se o não
hé, também siga-me que folgará de ouvir novidades MX[WDLOOXGRPQLDQRYDSODFHQW75 Vale.
(1) Frater Ferdinandus Barbatus Carmelita Poeta laureates: Poetae laureato
Hyastichon.
O Vos Pierides, quae nunc Helicone relicto
Parnasi colitis lubrica tecta Dei
Dum Bachus fugiet limphas, humidus que tabernas
Intrabit: numos, & bibet ille suos
Verba coronati vatis, nomen que manebunt
& Phoebo tanti nominis auctor erit.76
(2) Alvarus Peres Andrade Poeta laureatus in Turcas Heliconas mergentes.
Saphicum.
Turcae77 fontes Heliconis altis
mentulae, sectae lotio canino
proh dolor Musis puditos egistis
omne per aevum
Ipse Mahoma veniens ab orco
deferat secum latices amores
73
75
76
77
³IURPKDELW>[email protected]´
³IURPSULYDWLRQWRKDELW>[email protected]´
“besides that, everything new pleases”.
“The Carmelite brother Ferdinand Barbatus, wreathed poet, to the wreathed ones, poet: an
Hyastichon. Muses of Pieria, you who now dwell in the slippery abodes of the god of Mount
Parnassus, having abandoned the Helicon, while Bacchus escapes the waters, and he, wet, enters
WKHWDYHUQVKHZLOOGULQNIURP>[email protected]\LQKLVRZQSXUVHDQGWKHZRUGVRIWKHFURZQHGSRHW
and the name will remain, and he will be author of a great name for Phoebus”.
The manuscript reads “Turcae qui fontes”, which in Latin is meaningless.
[@
From Sepharad to Ashkenaz, from a Pícaro to a Schlemiel
quos bibas turpo omnis Acherontis
stercore mixtus.78
(3) De António Ferreira Buzaranha Poeta laureado: ao Autor. Soneto.
Senhor Poeta que por tiempo cálido
na mula ruça mui peripatética
fostes as Cortes da nação Poética
al ver Poetas do Inferno escálido.
E alí vistes com seu rostro pálido
& membros secos a liçença ética
& huma Musa já por vos frenética
vós fêz mijar com remédio válido.
Vós, & Lereno Peregrinos lúbricos
por ter corrido tantos Reinos vários
& ter andado tanta terra aspérrima
Mereceis dous mil açoites públicos
dados por dous algozos temerários
& esta sentença fôra celebérrima.
3~ULR&yULR>«@3RHWDRFFXOWRDR%RUGROHQJR3RHWDFXOWR6RQHWR
Vaite, oh vate illustre, pois tems mula
& se não mais de humo, hua te basta
virá nella a noiva, e sem casta
a muitas noivas diga: e tu lula!
As Musas te farão mil fula, fula& se Apolo teu sogro muito gasta
só com ver netos seus da tua casta
haverá que pôde dar qualdrapa a chula.
Morra Homero, & viva o Bordolengo
pois lhe tangem as vivas com rabeca
nas vodas celebradas no Parnazo.
Desfácase tangendo o Déos Framengo
a ruça exceda em fama ao Babeca
& a noiva vista já veludo, & razo.
(5) De Bertin Berturei de Bérgamo Poeta laureatus: Poetae laureato. Outavas
Divin Poeta, che vasiando Spagna
sol por vedir in corte la poezia
78
“$OYDUR3HUHV$QGUDGHFURZQHGSRHWDJDLQVWWKHHQJXO¿QJ7XUNLVKPXVHV. Turkish springs at
WKHKHLJKWVRI0RXQW+HOLFRQ¶VSHQLVHVFXWRII>[email protected]\GRJZDVKLQJLQVWHDGRI>E\@WKH
empty Muses, the pain of eternal shame for Mohammed himself who comes from Hell, mixed
ZLWK¿OWK\H[FUHPHQWZLOOWDNHGRZQZLWKKLP>[email protected]$FKHURQRIZKLFK
you shall drink”.
[[email protected]
Kenneth Brown
posio beviste en Francia, & en Alemagna
& volvendo anco bever più en Ungria,
al Bassa che atendato era in campagna
gli chi e diste licencia en cortezia
e il te la concesse, y por su tolo
te corono di corno, el viondo Apolo.
(5)
Poi che si bella è si la grave fronde
le ha cinto el cano del viruelo pieno,
delite no temar la túrbeda onde,
no de tempestad fulgore ne baleno:
che aquel muse del Tracie bionde
che te ha fatto passar sin su galeno
tendro el tuio nome inmortal eterno
a dispieto del diável del inferno.
(10)
(15)
'H-XDQGH%REDGLOOD3RHWDODXUHDGRDO$XWRU>[email protected]
Poeta hermano, pues supistes79 tanto
que el Dios de la Rebeca te halló dino
de te entregar su hija y prenda amada,
yo quiziera tener de cuervo el canto
para atronar con lloro peregrino
(5)
la tierra que de nadie es habitada,
PDV>@SXHVQRSXHGRQDGD
ORVGLHVFRQFLOLDULRVGHO,Q¿HUQR
bueltos en grajos con su canto tierno,
WXIDPDDODEHQWDQGHVFRPSDVVDGD>@ los Poetas menores80
de mugre cubriremos tus loores
y si acaso, hermano, te agradare
QXHVWUDPXJU>[email protected]\VX]LD3RH]tD
W~VHUiVDODEDGRHWHUQDPHQWH>@
KDUHPRVTXHWXQRPEUHQXQFDSDUH>@
antes vaya, y venga en romería
DOD&DVDGH0HFFDSHQLWHQWH>@
y ansí de gente en gente
otras vezes también de mano en mano (20)
como bronze sutil, plomo liviano,
baxando irá a la región caliente
a dó embuelto en nieblas
del color quedará de las tinieblas.
(7) De Estêvão Ribeyro Poeta laureado al Autor Décimas
Poeta bravo, & barbado
que por milagrozo cazo
fôstes no monte Parnasso
SRU$SRORODXUHDGR>@
YLYHPXLWRFRQ¿DGR
que quer faça calma ou chova
o teu verso, & a tua trova
a pezar da mã ventura
79
80
será de mui pouca dura
HQWUHJHQWHFKULVWmQRYD>@
mas entre a christã-vélhice
que come tudo o mondongo81
durará por tempo longo
como toda a parvoisê:
por tanto vive felicê
(15)
Supistes=supiste or sobiste=subiste? Either the poet is rewarded for his knowledge or his
climbing (i.e. poetic) skills.
Tocco, Diogo de Sousa, prefers the reading “nos, poetas menores”, which is senseless in Spanish.
[[email protected]
From Sepharad to Ashkenaz, from a Pícaro to a Schlemiel
cantará gente framenga
porque a trova Bordalenga
lhe deu Apolo êste dom.82
& bébe-se, e tens bom
que o teu verso com seu som
79
80
79
80
(20)
8182
Appendix II
&ROOHFoDPGH9DULDV3RHVLDVDQWLJDVHPRGHUQDV3RU'LIHUHQWHV$XWRUHVT>[email protected]
DMXQWRXDFXULRVLG>[email protected])UHLUHGH0RQWHUUR\R0DVFDUHQKDV7RPR6HJXQGR
/ Lisboa / Anno de 1726 6KHOÀLVW PV &ROOHFomR 3RPEDO %LEOLRWKHFD 1DFLRQDO GH
Lisboa.83
2WWDYDVT>[email protected]'LRJRGH6RXVDIHHVDVXD
vida picaresca
Os Portuguezes peitos não domados
FDQWHRFRUWHUHDOGLJQRGHHVWLPD>@
os mares só por êlles navegados
oHOHEUHR&DP}HVFRPJUDYHULPD>@
as mágoas e os amores delicados
(5)
$OFLGRFDQWHMXQWRGRVHX/LPD>@
mostre Pereira a quem não sabia
o sangue inda fresco em Berberia.
Ma quem desta alma tem a milhor parte
e a quem são todos mui inferiores
(10)
mostre no que quizer engenho e arte
diz e ganhe parDVLGLJQRVORXYRUHV>@
81
pinte a seu gosto sanguinoso Marte
RXIDVDDOHJUHVULPDVSRUDPRUHV>@
diz que eu não canto de amor nem
gentileza
PDVFKRUDUHLPLVHULDVHSREUH]D>@
(15)
Depois de naser nuu sendo criado
em tal pobreza qual me não convinha
passei da vida o pueril estado
HPVDUDPSmREH[LJXDV>@IDULQDH
WLQKD>@
depois de juvenil sendo chegado
e querendo provar a sorte minha
o reyno desprezando e pátria terra
RH[HUotFLRVHJXLGDGXUDJHUUD>@
“mondongo” are the intestines and stomach of the animal with all their blood; it is commonly
called “callos” in Spanish. Estêvão Ribeyro writes that Old Christians eat this non-kosher,
unclean food for the poor.
82 MS. G contains the following poem in redondilhas (i.e. 8 syllable verses rhyming
abba, cddc, effe): De Fernão Lopes, poeta laureado ao Autor: “Quando êste gran
poeta / foi às cortes tão remotas / levou umas boas botas / com sua capa de baeta. / E
OiPRVWURXWDOWDOHQWRTXHRVSRHWDVGRLQIHUQRSDVPDUDPGrVWHPRGHUQR>@WHUQR
casco pouco vento. / E assí Apollo por seu logro / sem camisa e sem faldilha / nua lhe
HQWUHJRXD¿OKDHVHSUH]DGHVHXVRJUR´
83
Reproduced herein with the permission of the Biblioteca Nacional de Lisboa. According to
Tocco, Diogo de SousaWKH¿UVWWRPHRIWKHPostilhão de Apollo contains the same poem, but is
anonymous. The entire title and accompanying bibliographical information of this last work is
as follows: Eccos que o clarim da fama dá: Postilhão de Apollo, montado no Pegazo, girando
RXQLYHUVRSDUDGLYXOJDUDRRUEHOLWWHUiULRDVSHUHJULQDVÀRUHVGDSRH]LDSRUWXJXH]DFRPTXH
vistosamente se esmaltão os jardins das Musas do Parnaso, Joseph Magarelo de Osan, Lisboa,
Francisco Borges de Sousa, t. I, 1761; t. II, 1762. Indications of the probable converso origin of
6RXVD&DPDFKR¶VZLWKLQWKLVSRHPDUHHYLGHQFHGLQYWKHLQFOXVLRQRIDUHIHUHQFHWRWKH
matriarchal Sarah) as well as in the picaresque thematic. In sonnets 2 and 3, however, the poet
appears far more cognizant of Judaism.
³2FWDYHV'LRJRGH6RXVDZURWHFRQFHUQLQJKLVSLFDUHVTXHH[LVWHQFH´
[[email protected]
Kenneth Brown
(QrOOHFRQVXPLVHWWHRXPDLVDQQRV>@ RVPLOKRUHVGHWRGDPLQKDLGDGH>@
sevando as esperansas com enganos
HORXYDQGRGDYLGDDOLEHUGDGH>@
SRULVVRQmRWHPLDJUDYHVGDQQRV>@
mortes, perigos, nem adversidades
(30)
porque por tudo passa sem reçeo
humOLXUHSHLWRGHSREUH]DVFKHR>@
RUDGHVSLGRQXX>@RUDVHPERWDV>@
attée que de misérias enfadado
determinei tomar humQRYRHVWDGR>@
Êste foi tal qual hé minha ventura
(65)
pois não no tomar nunca fôra aserto
e fôrame milhor na sepultura
HVWDUGDK~PLGDWHUUDLDFXEHUWR>@
porque humDIRPHHPR¿QDSXUD
me tem sercado e posto em tal aperto (70)
que vivendo todo homem porque come
eu vivo sóo por sóo morrer de fome.
Zombado ditto do villão praguento
e se não zomba dalhe seu castiguo
DRPHVWLVR¿GDOJRHDYDUHQWR
queWXGRIXQGDHPVHXVDQJXHDQWLJR>@
se de temor carese o fundamento
descobre sem temor de algum perigo
com valor que á todo o mundo exçede
lhe prova vir de Sarra ou
>[email protected]>@85
Açanha com hua líçita ouzadia
o fumo do fantástico escudeiro
que tem por honrra só na estrebaria
humTXDVLPRUWRHPLVHURVLQGHLUR>@
HVHQGRDOPRWDoHSRUTXDOTXHUYLD
provêe pero o xastre ou çapateiro
e deixa ao pobre posto que honrrado
VHPYLQKR>@FDUQH>@SmRHVHmSHVFDGR>@
Me manifesta causa dêste danno
e doutros momentos malos que padeso
ser estudante se me não engano
(75)
QDWHUUDRQGHQDVLHVHLVHXSUHVR>@
a culpa minha hé pois de anno em anno
ando para fugir que bem conheso
mas temme tam atado ao sofrimento
que sofre oje hum nésio, a meu
KDoHQWR>@
Hum jura que me vio forsar donzellas
e outro quePHYLRURXEDUDOWDUHV>@
o meu delicto tem semPLOTXHUHODV>@
WRGDVDVQRLWHVPDWRKRPHVDSDUHV>@
DVS~EOLFDVPDWUDFDVGHLGDVVHOODV>@ GHRXWURVGHOLFWRV¿VVHmPLOPLOKDUHV>@
O rústico villão que com torpeza
ou suor de seu rosto se fês nobre
(50) a insignes perlados virtuosos
¿VWRUSHVYHUVRVED[RVHRGLRVRV
não aguardando o tempo, a vileza
GRSD\RVDQJXHHDYR]ORJRGHVFREUH>@
Outros me tem por nésio impertinenWH>@
estima só primor e gentileza
RXWURVSRULQIDPHHPPDVFDUDGR>@
o honrrado venera ainda que pobre
e iurão não ser lícito e desente
que não se há de honrrar sóo pella
emmascararse hum homem se hé
renda
(55)
DYL]DGR>@
que honrrado naçeo e sem fazenda.
assi que a ávida hé qualquer agente
mas a morte hé de fome, e hum honrrado
Tras desta liberdade fui gastando
não há, que por vedar tão grandes
os annos por provínçias mui remotas
males
(95)
a vida de contino arriscando
me encha a vazia bolsa de reales.
por terra em esquadrões, por mar em
IURWWDV>@
Então ver humJUmRQpVLRGHHQIDGDGR>@
comendo humGLDPXLWRXLHMXDQGR>@
TXHUHUFRUWHVmRVHUHGDUSUHoHLWRV>@
85
Literary characters representative of Judaism and Islam. Compare with the Jornada.
[[email protected]
From Sepharad to Ashkenaz, from a Pícaro to a Schlemiel
e sóo por estudante e bom letrado
fallar por gerigonsas com mil geitos (100)
hé para mim hum cazo tam pezado
quePHWHPERIHVHItJDGRVGHVIHLWRV>@
e assim que a fome pura e o tal madraso
DYLGDPHWHPSRVWDQRHVSLQKDVR>@
DFDUQHPHDSUH]HQWDPDOFR]LGD>@
a salva lhe tomo eu com puro gosto
HDFKRDRXVDOJDGDRXPDOFR]LGD
mas como sou da boca bem disposto
e não tenho para que poupar a vida
a carne como logo la tigella
e sorvo a ágoa chifrra queYDLQHOOD>@
Se tivera êste tal seu apozento
(105)
6HDPLJRPHFRQYLGDKpHVFXVDGD>@ qual tenho o meu sem banque nem
a fábrica e o custo em que se mête
FDGHLUD>@
que huma sua sóo breve consoada
e passara qual eu com meu tormento
hé parDPLPVSOpQGLGREDQTXHWH>@
servíndome de cama humDHVWHLUD>@
a ditta trago sempre regulada
VHOKHIDOWDUiHP¿PRPDQWLPHQW
comendo como eu sempre hazeira
(110) pello pouco que a ditta me promette (150)
e assi não faço cazo da comida
on verá de fazer mil desatinos
pois fome que a outros mata, á mim dá a
FRUULGRDFDGDSDVRGRVPLQLQRV>@
vida.
(HXDWXGRLVWRDQGRSDLUDQGR>@
mas tudo hé por demais que quanGRHQWUR>@ Assi ia de viver desesperado
na pobre caza entro suspirando
(115) SRURXWUDYLDFDPLQKDUSURFXUR>@
astrólogo serei mui consumado
(155)
por não ter queFRPHUGDSRUWDDGHQWUR>@
HR¿RURPSHUHLGRIDGRGXUR>@
então com grande angústia vou buscando
os olhos porei sempre no estrelado
GDHQJLOKDGDEROVDRIXQGDPHQWR>@
HFULVWDOLQRoHRVHUHQRHSXUR>@
se topo algum vintem com alvoroso
nas mãos o metto do faminto moso. (120) láa miderei do sol curso e caminho
pois cáa midir não posso pão ne
O qual com ligereza não uzada
YLQKR>@
me tras quatro de pão pello costume
A vida passarei contando estrelas
seis de ovos, com mais dous de huma
SRUQmRRXYLUGDPLPPLOIDOVLGDGHV>@
sellada
satisfarei a fome sóo com vellas
HGRVRYRVVHIRLKXPSHOOROXPH>@
contemple a alma devota é tal jornada (125) HFRPJR]DUGHVXDVFODULGDGHV>@
e quem me vir tratar tão sóo com ellas (165)
e todo o queGHViELRSUHVXPH>@
dirá em que lhe pées do çéo verdades
Quê fará com tanto pão e ovo e meo
e se algum então por si for destraido
humJUDQGHYHQWUHGHiJRDIULDFKHR>"@
a causa não serei eu em ser perdido.
Outras vezes também por brevidade
quem della amigo fou agora aprenda (130) Não me daram então por culpa e erro
aquillo queQmR¿VQHmVHUiGDGR>@ vai o moço com grão veloçidade
á minha pouca ditta tal desterro
HHQWUDORJRQDSULPHLUDYHQGD>@
TXDOOKHTXL]HUmRGDUPDVVHKpIRUVDGR>@
e dis a taverneira a puridade
que nenhumGRVFLUFXQVWDQWHVRHQWHQGD>@ DYHUHXGHPRUUHUDVDQJXHRXIHUUR>@
“Dêes de carne me dai senhora minha (135) déixemme antes morrer de laserado
que não pôde a morte darme mor
HHQFKHLEHPDWLJHOODGHFR]LQKD´>@
tormento
(175)
No mesmo instante com alegre rosto
que a fome tomar sóo por instrumento.
[[email protected]
Kenneth Brown
E quando com isto não se contentarem
e quizerem quePRXUDSRUPR¿QR>@
a traça lhes darei para acabarem
GHFRPSULUVHXGHVHMRRXGHVDWLQR>@ a ves para que mui bem fartarem
êste meu ventre de comer indigno
desta prezente vida logo parto
TXHHXQmRSRVVRPRUUHUVHQmRGHIDUWR>@
¿P
Diz João Pires Reigo
Y >EH[LJXDV EH[LJDV Y >FKHR FKHLR Y >SUDJXHQWR ¢HVFDUQHFLGR" Y [Açanha = ¿Façanha?; v. 55 [pellarenda = pela renda, ‘according to income’; v. 61 [iejuando
MHMXDUµIDVWLQJ¶WRIDVW¶Y>PR¿QD!PRIR PRXOGY>KD]HLUD ¿]HLUDY
[pairando = ‘hovering’; v. 118 [engilhada = engelhada, Portuguese for ‘full of wrinkles’;
Y>WLJHOOD WLJHODµERZO¶Y>DFKRD DQFKRYDµDQFKRY\¶Y>SRXSDU µWR
VSDUH¶ Y >FKLIUUD FKLIUDU µWR WZRWLPH¶ Y >VyR EUHYH FRQVRDGD VRQ EUHYH
consolada, ‘a short consoling sound’.
Appendix III
83 85
6RQQHWVE\'LRJRGD6RXVD>&[email protected]ÀLVWPVazul, Library of the Academia das
Ciências, Lisboa.86
1. Alábase el atrevimiento
Por Diogo de Souza
Nunca daño en amor atrevimiento
IDYRUHFH)RUWXQDODR]DGtD>@
que suele la encogida cobardía
servir de piedra al libre pensamiento.
4XLHQVXEHDOHVWUHOODGR¿UPDPLHQWR
DODWLHQHVXHVWUHOODTXHOHJXtD>@
que el bien que encubre en sí la fantezía
son illusiones que las lleva el viento.
86
Reproduced herein with the permission of the Academia das Ciências, Lisbon, Portugal. Ms. 581
contains only 159 ff. of sonnets, many anonymous, but others by a Don Thomas, João Galvão,
Francisco de Vasconcelos, António Télez, a certain Palma, Carlos Correa da Silva, the Conde
de Salinas, Vasco Mourinho, Fernão de Sampaio, Fernão Correa de Lacerda, Estevão Roiz, Dr.
0DQRHO3LQWR$UQDXWRU$VQDXV$QWyQLR%DUERVD%DFHODUWKH&RQGHGH(QMLHQD>"@$QGUH>[email protected]
Rois de Matos, Manoel Ferreira Leal, António Gomes de Oliveira, Fernão Roiz Lobo, António
Rebelo de Brito, Manoel Ponce de León, Francisco Nunes de Ávila, Jorge de Araujo, Diogo
de Souza Ferraz (fol. 122r), the Conde de Villamediana, the Duque de Osuna, Juan de España,
Francisco de Melo, Francisco de Sáa e Menezes, Diogo de Sousa (Camacho), and the Conde
de Portalegre. Because of the serious tone of this sonnet, it may have been the work of Diogo
de Sousa Ferraz and not Diogo de Sousa Camacho. The manuscript is of one elegant hand, and
by the abbreviations and spelling appears to date from the mid- to late-17th century. Numerous
poems by Francisco Manoel de Melo and Antônio Barbosa Bacelar appear in Alcir Pécora,
Poesia seiscentista, cit.
[[email protected]
From Sepharad to Ashkenaz, from a Pícaro to a Schlemiel
$EULUVHGHYHHOSDVVRDODYHQWXUD>@
QLQJXQRVLQVtPLVPRVHUiGLFKRVR>@
sólo la suerte los principios mueve.
$WUHYHUVHHVYDORUWHPHUORFXUD>@
que pierde por cobarde el venturoso
el mismo bien que a la Fortuna deve.
2. Ao Doutor Arias
De Diogo de Souza
'RFWRU$ULDV>@FRPSDGUH\DPLJRPtR>@
QRSURQRVWLTXHPRV>@TXHPHDPRKtQD>@
pues que siendo Doctor en medicina
la conseqüencia vale, ergo, judío.87
>[email protected]\GHVYDUtR
del hombre que por astros adivina
WDQWDGROHQFLD\PXHUWHUHSHQWLQD>@
WDQWDKDPEUH\FDORU>@QDXIUDJLR\IUtR
£'H[HYLYLUSOHEHRVFDYDOOHURV>@
PXJHUHVUH\HVSUtQFLSHV>@PRQDUFDV>@
(Q¿Q>@£'H[HYLYLUHOSREUH\FKLFR
Y si lo haze por tener dineros
\>[email protected]>@
¡Dios le maldiga, y nunca sea rico!
3. Al mismo
Por el mismo
6HxRU'RFWRU>@VL-RQiVHOSURSKHWD88
IXHUDYXHVWUDPHUFHG>@ELHQPHHVWXYLHUD>@
que al pueblo christiano le advertiera
le amenaçava Dios con su saeta.
0DVVLHQGRVXRI¿oLRHQODQoHWD
mandar abrir la vena a la primera
vizita, y después de sangre fuera
mandas que coma el pobretón dieta,
¢'HTXpVLUYHFRQPXHUWHV>@UDLRV>@WUXHQRV>@
TXHSXHGHQQRYHU>[email protected]>@
y a los mortales, dar angustia y pena?
Si los de Cádix89IXHURQKRPEUHVEXHQRV>@
87 ³>,[email protected]'RFWRULQPHGLFLQHLVHTXLYDOHQWWREHLQJ-HZLVK´$OWKRXJKWKHSRHWIHLJQV'U
Arias’ friendship, the satire condemns the physician’s astrological methods and avarice.
88 Narrative recounted in the Jewish Bible, Book of Jonah / Sefer Jonah.
89 &DOL] &iGL]>"@ 7KLV WHUP PXVW UHIHU WR WKH ELEOLFDO 7DUVKLVK LH &iGL] 6SDLQ 7KH VDWLUH
appears to blame the Jewish/converso physicians for their avarice and poor medical procedures,
although they appear on the surface good-natured.
[[email protected]
Kenneth Brown
¿Cómo a Jonás le echaron en el mar90>@
y los cangreios fueron sus balenas?
Y>EDOHQDV>[email protected] EDOOHQDVµELJ¿VKRUZKDOH¶
A Miguel de Cervantes
Do mesmo
&RPRDPLJRORDYL]R>@$OyQ91dHUYDQWHV>@
TXHD3DUQDVRQRED\DRWURFDPLQR>@
TXHDI¿UPDFDSRUDOHOSHULJULQR>@
que aquél les hizo una ama de estudiantes.
¡Vaya con Don Quixote y Pança andantes!(5)
Verá ganar el yelmo de Mambrino
y verá huradar cueros de vino
y dar la rota a disciplinantes.
<QRVHYDLD>@TXHHVQRWDEOHFD]R>@
DOPRQWHGHODVPX]DV>@VLQFRQVHMR>@
estando alterada la Turquía.
>[email protected]>@TXHHVWH9LDJHGH3DUQDVR92
no lo puede hazer un hombre viejo:
¡Poeta de arrombadas, y cruxía!
v. 3 [caporal. A problematic reading, which means the military term “corporal” in Spanish,
but also “principal” and “rooster”, that is ‘the one who shouts off his mouth’. It appears to
function adverbally, that is “like a rooster”. See Diccionario de Autoridades, ed. facsímil,
YROV0DGULG*UHGRV>[email protected],VY&SDY>SHULJULQR>[email protected]
>KXUDGDU KRUDGDUµWRPDNHKROHVLQVRPHWKLQJ¶Y>DUURPEDGDV 3RUWXJXHVHWHUPIRU
³SURVWLWXWHVZRPHQZKRKDYHEHHQEURNHQLQWR¶´Y>FUX[tD FUXMtD$FFRUGLQJWRDA,
cit., vol. I, s.v. C, p. 666b, this word appears in the Quijote: “CERV. Quix. tom. 2. cap. 63.
Passóse el Cómitre en cruxía, y dió señal con el pito, que la chusma hiciesse fuera ropa”. .
DA also includes the expression, “Passar FUX[tD”, that is a ‘Vulgar phrase meaning someone
is poorly treated and living in misery. It especially alludes to the lives of soldiers on the
Spanish galleys as they were meted out corporal punishment’.
90
91
92
Defective rhyme. The previous (v. 10) “sobresalto” rhymes only partially with “mar”.
Curious meshing of Alonso Quijano and Miguel de Cervantes > Alón Çervantes.
Reference to Cervantes’ extensive narrative poem, Viaje al Parnaso WKHDFWLRQRIZKLFK
WDNHVSODFHRQ0RXQW3DUQDVVXVLQ7XUNH\6HHSSDQGsupra, for the thematic connection
to Diogo de Sousa Camacho’s 1600 academy satire. In his acidic satirical sonnet, a young Diogo
de Sousa Camacho de Sousa, posing as Cervantes’ close friend (as in the previous two biting
sonnets), is attacking an aged Miguel de Cervantes for his miserable life experiences as well as
KLVSRRUFKRLFHRIWRSLFVDQGORZO\IHPDOHFKDUDFWHUVLHYYDQGLQWKHQRYHO'RQ4XL[RWH
(vol. I, 1605, vol. II, 1615). Yet he advises Cervantes not to stray from the lowly realm of Don
Quijote and Sancho Panza. He also admonishes him for attempting his poetic Viaje al Parnaso at
such an advanced age.
[[email protected]
From Sepharad to Ashkenaz, from a Pícaro to a Schlemiel
Appendix IV
%LEOLRWKHHN(WV+DLPSDUWRIWKH3RUWXJHHV,VUDsOLWLVFKH6\QDJRJXH$PVWHUGDP6KHOÀLVW
Ebl. C-87.
ÆNIGMA
(QFHOHEUDFLyQGHOD¿HVWDGHORV6HxRUHV1RYLRV0RVVpK1~xH]+HQUt
TXH]+DWiQ7KRUi>@\,VDFN,VUDHO%UDYR+DWiQ%HUHVLWKHFKRSRU
$EUDKDP*yPH]GH$UDXMRHQ+DPEXUJR$QQR93
La pintura es.
Una muger ricamente vestida con bordados de oro y plata, mirando para
la mar, con la mano derecha levantada, y un pedaço de hierro en ella.
>[email protected]
$O¿QGHODVDQGDQoDVGH1HSWXQR
el que me ignora, experto norte llama:
de lúcidos planetas sí soy, uno
HQHO2UEH>@¢QRYHVTXHQRPHDPD"
De varios sepultados yo me aúno,
(5)
\HQGHVDFLHUWR>[email protected]\TXLHQPHSLVDHQÀDPD
luego en dos mundos: fuerte es quien me alexa,
cuyo tirar a vezes dan por quexa.
Sin el troço que en mí noto exaltado,
pluralizada, me hallo en himeneo:
(10)
si andar a lo holandés me es otorgado,
con tal vigor y intrepidez me veo,
que en cuenta a la que sigue al pez sagrado,
a un rey cercavan, sabe lo Morpheo:
PDV¿QDOPHQWHVLDSHWLWRWHQJR
por capaz a cubrirte al punto vengo.
Si acaso en más latino me transformo,
REURTXDOUHGDOEHUJXHV>[email protected]
y a frágiles atuendos me conformo;
y así, ese antojo si a mudar apelo
por mi segunda en trueque, tal me formo,
que humildes sitios al instante anhelo,
VLHQGR>@DXQTXHJUDYH>@WDQHQYLOHFLGD
93
(20)
Presented for the autumn 1679 festival of Simhat Torah, where both the Hatan Torah and Hatan
Bereshit dance around the synagogue or in the open air each one carrying a Torah scroll.
This artistic, visual description must be the enigma that required deciphering.
[[email protected]
Kenneth Brown
que el dar en mí es cosa aborrecida.
Apocado mi ser si se declara
entro en la cristalina compostura:
HQDQWHVGHPL¿QTXLHQPHSUHSDUD
podrá entablar su obra más segura:
si se me da mi cabo, Hespaña aclara
en parte, de un poblado la escritura:
más de mil con dos tercios, ceja, y ojo,
el dar en mí sera nocivo arrojo.
6LtPSHWXVGHODOLVPL¿QFRURQD
¿Qué humanos cognomino? Luego miro:
quando mi terminar se desmorona
\DHQFRUSRUDUPHFRQHOIUDQFRDVSLUR>@
guardo lo que trocado se pregona:
mas si usa esa persona de retiro
y a ocupar su lugar llegare yo,
QRKDYUiFLXGDGTXHQRPHWHQJDQR
(25)
(30)
(35)
Notando mi entidad sólo algo errada
y que mi seis en cinco venga a dar,
arbórea me veré y ajusticiada,
\HQORTXH'LRVPDQGyQRGHIUDXGDU>@
SRUD>[email protected]]DJXiQHVWR\YDULDGD
“passión” en portugués vendrás a hallar:95
mas quien a ese uno quarto más le advierte,
en bruta, vil y lana, me convierte.
௑4XDWUR>[email protected]~QJDURVGHSUHPLR>[email protected]\SRUTXHYHDV
௑௑&RPRGHOFXHURVDOHQODVFRUUHDV96
Appendix V
3RHPV ;;;,,;/,, DQG ;/,9;/9,, IURP WKH &ROHFFLyQ QXHYD GH FDQFLRQHV OêULFDV
unas colegidas de los más célebres ingenios y otras compuestas por Jeosúah Habillo, A
&RVWDGHO$XWKRU(Q+DPEXUJR(Q&DVDGHO&RQUDG-DFRE6SLHULQJN6KHOIPDUN
R31888, Biblioteca Nacional de España, Madrid.97
;;;,,>5RPDQFLOOR6SDQ%DODGD3RUW%DOODG([email protected]$KXP7RP,QJOr]Celia no
more complain98
95
96
97
98
In Portuguese, the term is “paixão”.
Popular Spanish refrain in the era, “Del cuero salen las correas”. The “húngaros” must refer to
valuable silver coins or some form of ornate silverware originally from Hungary.
The following edition is a much revised rendition of the same poems included in Brown, ‘The
Spanish and Portuguese Golden-Age Parnassus’.
“To the English tune ...”. This tune must be Caelia’s Complaint or The Irish Howl >[email protected] [@
From Sepharad to Ashkenaz, from a Pícaro to a Schlemiel
[Habilho’s description of Purim festivities: exotic pastries, masqueraders, theatrical
dancing to music. Those who spend the most are the Beit Midrash students. Tha advice is
to save money for Passover. In fact, the Ashkenazim say, “Spend on Purim, but don’t forget
Passover”. All this sung to the tune, The Irish [email protected]
Quanto dinheiro leva
a festa de Purim
em sonhos, e fatias99
TXHFXVWmRERPVÀRULPV
Pastelinhos de Anjo100௑
e bom vinho do Rim
assados e melinas101
com outras couzas mil.
Oh! Como a muitos deixa
DEROVDVHPIDUGLP௑
querer pôr nobre meza
qualquer vilão ruim.
99
100
101
102
103
105
106
Com justa cauza uzão
na festa machachims
que em todos o
GLVIDUFH௑
se admira no Purim.
Porém dos que mais
JDVWmR௑
da gente do candil
são só os estudantes
que vão aos Medrassim.105
Da caza fazem outros
theatro baylarim
com baixos e rabecas
gastando seu tintim.102௑
Que como levão todos
GLQKH\URGH3XULP௑
tão sedinho106 lhes entra
como torna a sair.
Com fausto desmarcado
FRQYLGmRKXPVHP¿P
que comem seu dinheyro
e zombão103 do festim.
“Guarday vosso dinheyro
que a páscoa que há de vir
YyVUDSDUiGRFRXUR௑
os pelos sem sentir”.
ZLWKLQFRPSDVVRIDÀXWH>[email protected]**J´E\*HRUJH9DQ%UXJKH&LWHG
in The Catalogue of Printed Music in the British Library to 1980, vol. 57, London: K.G. Saur,
Snd col.
“Sonhos” are a type of cruller (Span. masa frita; Heb. sufganiyah > (pl.) sufganiyot / ĐĕĕĜĎĠŅĝ >
ŕđĕĜĎĠŅĝ. “Fatias” are “slices” of some sort of pastry.
“Pastelinhos de Anjo” = d’anjo or, possibly, d’Anjou. The former would be fried pastries
¿OOHGZLWKFDUURWRUVZHHWSXPSNLQVKDYLQJV'LFFLRQDULRGHDXWRULGDGHVHGIDFVtPLOYROV
Madrid, Gredos, 1979, vol. 1, s.v. CAB, p. 15a: “Cabellos de Ángel. Es la conserva que se hace
de zanahorias, la qual se parte de unas listas delgadas, y porque después de hechas conserva
quedan de color rubio, como lo es la zanahória por dentro, y las hebras son tan delicadas, de aquí
debieron de llamarse cabellos de Ángel”. From this point onward in this study, this dictionary
will be designated by the initials DA. If the term were “Pastelinhos d’Anjou”, it would then refer
to some sort of 18th-century French-style pastry. In fact, there exists the delicate dessert dish
made with cottage cheese and raspberries, Coeur à la crême d’anjou, from the French Anjou
region. See http://www.sbs.com.au/food/recipe/95/Coeur-a-la-creme (accessed 13 June 2012).
It is quite possible that this is a similar French dish because the poetic voice speaks of French
“fricacés” in poem XXXIII, v. 16.
Span. “melindres”: fried dough rings with honey. See poem XXXIII, v. 15.
Portuguese for “Cheers!” This must mean “spending their drinking money”.
From the Port. “fazer zombaria”; this refers to the light merrymaking by the masqueraders at
Purim festivities.
,Q6SDQLVKDVZHOODV3RUWXJXHVHWKLVH[SUHVVLRQPHDQV³FDUHIXOO\FKRVHQ´DA, 1, s.v. CAN,
p. 113a: “Escogido à moco de candil. Se dice de las cosas que se buscan cuidadosamente.
&RYDUU>[email protected][RSDUWLFXODUPHQWHGHORVKXHYRVTXHPLUiQGRORVjODOX]VHFRQRFHQ
si son, ò no frescos. Lat. Luce nitida probatus, examinatus. Quev. Cuent. Que toda era gente
honrada, escogida à moco de candil ..”. .
Heb. ęĕĺĤďĚ, that is, “the institutes for learning” or Beit midrashim, where the students would
learn biblical Hebrew language, about Jewish festivals, and Torah.
sedinho < cedinho < cedo = immediately.
[[email protected]
Kenneth Brown
Bem ajão os Tudescos107
que dizem do Purim,
“Fazer Purim bem pôdes,
mas Páscua has de
FXPSULU´௑
;;;,,, >6H[WLOODV 6H[WLOKDV 6H[WHWV @ $ KXP 7RP )UDQFr] ³3DU ERQKHXU RX SDU
malheur”.108
[A delightful description of Chanukah festivities, as a prelude to Purim. Alas, there are no
KDPDQWDVFKHQWRHQMR\6XQJWRD)[email protected]
Hanucá no seu festim
hé prelúdio do Purim,
porque quanto se dispende
em Purim, com larga mão
Hanucá que vêm
SULPHLUR௑
nos dibuxa a introducção.
Mas porque direis terá
oito dias Hanucá?
É porque nos oito dias
aprendais bem a
JDVWDU௑
e façais bem a seu tempo
o Purim mais singular?
O Purim tudo que tem
Hanucá logra também
que se tem Purim
PHOLQDV௑
fricacés109 e pastaloems,
Hanucá tem isso mismo
para ter iguais brazoems.
Se deffende em Hanucá
DVRUHOKDVGH$PDQ௑
porque como cauza o vinho
dar orelhas em Purim
Hanucá não quer que tenha
tais orelhas seu festim.
;;;,9>&[email protected]$KXP7RP
Framengo: Geaft een Almoes voor de Blinde110
[A seemingly youthful Habilho is excited by how wondrous it is to have a good time,
especially in light of his experience at the hand of his old teacher, Master Death, who used
to beat his students. The children pleaded for mercy from punishment, but their teacher
FRXOGQRWHYHQEHEULEHGWREHQLFH6XQJWRD)[email protected]
Se hé consolo de quem
perde
ver em outros seu azar,
que gostinho hé dar hum
verde111
tendo dous por exemplar!
Três hum Mestre, que
WLYHPRV௑
nos deu corda112 por ensino,
pouco nêlle nos perdemos
que malino, seu destino,
o fêz sempre contra nós.
“Liberdade”,
³/LEHUGDGH´௑
pregoemos todos, pois
já com rodas de verdade
saem pedras como sois.
Já com rozas e brilhantes,113
107 Term often used disparagingly to refer to the Ashkenazim or European Yiddish-speaking Jews,
whom their Sephardi brethren considered inferior. See, for instance, Ismar Schorsch, ‘The Myth
of Sephardic Supremacy’, in Year Book of the Leo Baeck InstituteSS
108 French for “In a good or bad frame of mind”. The original source is unknown.
109 Some type of French covered dish, stew.
110 Dutch for “Give the blind man alms”.
6SDQ³'DUVHXQYHUGH´PHDQV³WRHQMR\RQHVHOIIRUDZKLOH¶'$VY9(5SD³'DUVH
un verde. Phrase, que vale holgarse, ù divertirse por algún tiempo, con alusión à las caballerías,
que le toman en la Primavera”.
112 The phrase “deu corda” derives from “dar corda”, and must refer to corporal punishment,
whipping, exacted with a rope or leather strap.
&DVHRIGHIHFWLYHUK\PHEHFDXVHWKH¿QDOZRUGQHHGVWRDJUHHZLWK³RTXHV´
[[email protected]
From Sepharad to Ashkenaz, from a Pícaro to a Schlemiel
coraçoems, e
SDQGHORTXHV௑
sobresay nosso primor;
com mais toques, e retoques
TXH¿]HUDR0HVWUHPRU"
Rogue a Déos nosso desvelo
QrOOHERWHVHXÀDJHOR
sem que dêlle tenha
dó,117௑
e por sello, tal camello,
ande sempre feyto nó.118
Dopas, tangas sem soldura115
PLOYH]HVQyVGDYDVy௑ Mas dos, tres de tanto
couce119
outras pedras de natura
116
sem nós dar bastante pó.
que nós deu tão bello pé,
quem lhe derá com a
fouce120௑
hé dos, tres, o Jossué!
Pois por ser tão embusteiro
de engana’lo qual cordeiro,
ser quizera seu Plutão,
que o dinheyro,
FDYDOKH\UR௑
não lhe cauza alteração.
;;;9>7HUFHWRVHQFDGHQDGRV7HUFHWRVDFRUUHQWDGRV,[email protected]
A hum Tom Framengo: Vrinden luistert met genuchten122
[A poem sung to a Flemish tune about H’s foolish brother-in-law, who considers himself
handsome and a classical scholar. He’s arrogant, overly ambitious, and very stingy, besides
being an avid drinker and a sponger. He even bought H’s writing pen {?}. H considers
him an ass. H always gives him money, and even gave him a suit which he then sold to
an Ashkenaz. The brother-in-law pursues fancy women, although only those females of
criminal background are attracted to him. When H’s wife is caring to him, the b-i-l goes to
bed with a slave girl. H advises the reader that if he has a b-i-l like his, he should get rid of
[email protected]
Certo moço, que prezume
que de Túlio tem o lume
tem de tolo123 a discrição.
Não cuideis ser hum dislate
que vos falle o
GLVSDUDWH௑
YHUHLVQrOOHVHP¿FomR
Pois de bello o tal mancebo
diz que tem lugar de Phebo,
se êlle o diz terá razão.
quem tiver mais
DPELomR௑
De Narciso a
IHUPR]XUD௑
nêlle vêm a ser basura
êlle o vê, meus olhos não.
Pois o dar não só dinheyro
não dará do mialheyro126
nem a trampa, com perdão.
De soberbo não se falle,
de avaro também calle125
O tomar sempre costuma
que lhe minto, não
SUH]XPD௑
³VREUHVD\´ ³VREUHVDL´
7KHVH XQLGHQWL¿HG LPSOHPHQWV PXVW EH W\SHV RI FODQJLQJ QRLVHPDNHUV WKDW ZHUH QRW ZHOGHG
together.
116 “pó” = “powder”, in Portuguese.
117 Port. “dó” = “pity” in English.
118 Port. “nó” = “knot” in English.
119 “couce” is a “kick”.
120 “a fouce” must mean “à força”, that is “forcefully’.
2QHZRXOGH[SHFWWKH¿QDOYYWREHDTXDWUDLQLQVWHDGRIDWHUFHW
122 Flemish for “Friends, listen with delight”.
123 Port. for “marof a fool”.
³IDOOH´ ³IDOH´IDODU
125 “calle” = “cale” < calar.
126 Port. “mealheiro” = “money box”, in English.
[[email protected]
Kenneth Brown
quem ouvir esta canção.
mão.
por lograr sua
DIIHLomR௑
Mas sabey que quis vende’lo
e o Tudezco por não
Êste tal que desejava
Yr¶OR௑
o deitarse com huma
antes derá hum ducatão.
escrava,
Comprou pois a
o deitou por fearão.130
Êlle tem tão grandes fumos
calhamica127௑
que só ser guardar seus
do irmão, que sempre pica
O Jusué vós aconcelha
sumos
por chamalo de asneyrão.
que o irmão que tem
para dama de opinião.
SDUHOKD௑
E por não gastar mais
só
comsigo em ser tão
Mas tal dama, não
mosca128
mão,131
SDUHFH௑
o cunhado sem mais fosca
DEULXORJRVHXEROVmR௑ se não fôra que merece
O deixeis por picaraso
ser a dama de hum ladrão.
SRUTXHHP¿PGHWDODVQDVR
De hum vestido fêz prezente
não se espera galardão.
Se a Josseph, sua senhora,
logo vós direis que mente
com requebros o namora129
quem disser que não tem
Bem o mostra de contado
em pedir a seu cunhado
lhe forasse o seu ropão.
;;;9,>5RPDQFLOOR%DODGD%[email protected]
A hum Tom Framengo: Goeden avond, Neeltje132
[An erotic love lyric in the form of a dialogue between a man and a woman, sung to a
)[email protected]
“Eu por vós me morro,
daime hum favor,
que o amor
não consente tal rigor”.
“Não queirais, meu
alfení,133௑
desprezar o meu ruby,
que a lição
vós ensina d’affeição”.
“Não sou riguroso
QRPHXHQVLQDU௑
se o exemplar
não fôr logo regalar”.
“Não serey con vós cruel
debuxando o meu pinzel,
TXDQGRDFRU௑
não lhe venha de primor”.
“Com tão boms princípios
YyVYHUHLVSRU¿P
que do Rim
127 “calhamica” must derive from Span./Lat. Cálamo. DA, 1, p. 57a, s.v. CAL: “Lo mismo que
Pluma para escribir”.
128 DA, 2, p. 613b, s.v. MOS: “Mosca. Llaman en estilo familiar y festivo al dinero”.
129 namora < enamora < enamorar. Span. for “to belove”.
130 “fearão” < Port. “fera”, must be “a beast, a wild animal”.
131 “mão” = mau, “bad”.
132 Dutch / Flemish for “Good evening, little Nelly”.
133 “alfení” < alfeñique (Span.), “a sweet pastry dough”. DA, 1, s.v. ALF, pp. 197b-198a: “Alfeñique.
s.m. Pasta de azúcar, que se suaviza con azeite de almendras dulces, que regularmente se toma en
ODVÀX[LRQHVFDWWDUiOHVSDUDDEODQGDUHOSHFKR(VFRPRXQDOIHxLTXH'tFHVHPHWDSKyULFDPHQWH
de qualquier cosa que se quiere ponderar de blanda, suave, blanca, y quebradiza”. In Port. it
ZRXOGWUDQVODWHWR³3HVVRDIUDFD´WKDWLV³DZHDNOLQJ´,WZRXOGDSSHDUWKDWWKHODG\XVHVWKH¿UVW
GH¿QLWLRQVRPHWKLQJRQWKHRUGHURI³VZHHW\´UDWKHUWKDQWKHPHWDSKRULFDOPHDQLQJ
³PHXUXEê´PRVWOLNHO\UHIHUVWRWKHODG\¶VPDLGHQKHDGKHUYLUJLQLW\
[[email protected]
From Sepharad to Ashkenaz, from a Pícaro to a Schlemiel
vós gradua seu
FRQ¿P௑
Saïreis com tal brazão
que direis no coração
isso sim,
é vivir qual seraphim”.
;;;9,,>&[email protected]
A o mesmo Tom: De Boere Bruyloft135
[The poetic voice states that he likes the way in which the unnamed narratee works. He adds
that among all the other members of his family, this individual is the only one who toils. He
adds that he has a brother and an uncle who are good-for-nothing tricksters, who cheat him
when they should be respecting him. H hopes the God of Israel will send them packing to
Algiers. He’d prefer to punch them out. Both are so lazy that H wishes them a speedy death
DQGWKHZUDWKRI*RG6XQJWRD'XWFKRU)[email protected]
És tão primorozo
ho teu proceder
que a meu ver
poucos chegão a teu ser.
Pois de toda a
Mispachá136ࣙ(5)
ninguém certo me fará
tanto bem
quanto em vós meus olhos
vêm.
correspondem meu amor.
Mais pois que conheço
não me guardão Ley,
eu farey
me conheção por seu
5H\௑
Pelo Déos de Israel
que acolhe’los em Argel
sem valor
os venderá meu rigor.
Tenho irmão, e tio
TXHMDPDLVRVYL௑
para mim
se não sempre n’hum
ardil.137
ÇVWHVGRXVTXHFHUWR௑
tem seus coraçoems
de viloems,
eu lhes derá de punhoems.
Pois seus duros coraçoems,
Oh infames, vil ladroems!
FRPULJRU௑
Pois hum dêlles quer andar
sem nós pés poder
HVWDU௑
de inchação
que tem êste alejão.138
O outro que tem patas
tudo é recear,139
TXHRDQGDU௑
não o faça patear.
Vindo assim segunda vez
que tornasse a ser fraguez
do doutor
DFXUD¶ORFRPVXRU௑
Queira Déos que sedo
venhão a morrer
sem os ver
com descanço, nem prazer.
Que no inferno hão de
SHQDU௑
por sentença hão de achar
do Juiz,
que deu sopro no nariz.
135 Dutch, for “The Rustic Wedding” (De boere-bruiloft, in modern Dutch). De Vermakelyke
Boeren-Bruyloft, zijnde verciert met de niewste en aangenaamste lideren, die hedendaags
gezongen worden, Amsterdam, Erve van der Putte en Bastiaan Boekhont, 1776. K1.8vo. D.F.S.
327, cited in Dr. D.F. Scheurleer, Nederlandsche Liedboeken lijst der in Nederland tot het jaar
1800 uit gegeven liedboeken, eerste supplementS>@nd col.
136 Heb., ĐēŐĺĚ, family.
137 “ardil”, Port. = a trick, a ruse.
138 “alejão” = “deformity”.
139 “recear” = “to fear”.
³SDWHDU´DFFRUGLQJWRDASDVY3$³3DWHDUYD'DUJROSHVFRQORVSLpV6LJQL¿FD
también andar mucho. ... Metaphóricamente vale estar sumamente encolorizado ú enfadado”. In
English, it translates “to kick” and also “to be visually upset”.
³IUDJXH]´PD\GHULYHIURP³IUDJDQWH´ ³IUDJUDQW´
³VHGR´ FHGR³UDSLGO\´
[[email protected]
Kenneth Brown
9HUVRVIHLWRVSRU-HRVV~DK+DELOKRHPGHIIHQVDGHVHX¿OKRFRQWUDDYLXYLQKD5LEFDK
¿OKDGH6HPXHO-HVVXU~QSRUDOFXQKD“ponhas”, o “tron”, “schiter”; como mostrar, que
VHX¿OKRQHP0UMDPDLVWLYHUmR>@QHPSUHWHQGHUmR>@QDGDGDQDVVmR>@WmRSRXFR
a maem>@
;;;9,,,>6HSWLOODVR+HSWLOODV&XDUWHWDVWHUFLOODV6HSWLOKDV4XDUWHWDVWHUFLOKDV
[email protected]
A hum tom Hollandêz
[A satire about the widowed Rivka, Semuel Jessurún’s daughter. He is sorry for telling this
story, but needs to protect himself, for he has been persecuted. In fact, he has been obliged
to retire a formal complaint to the Sephardic Community against her. H has always shown
admiration for the Community, especially for its President, yet the Nação’s Parnassim
obviously did not pursue the case against the lady. Now he’s going to tell us about this
widow who took advantage of his son. She dressed up as a man and visited men to extract
money out of them. A viper and a devil, she blinds, deceives everyone. In fact, when a
group of Christian men visited her, she enticed them with tea and milk, and then they left.
Upon their return, they shoved her. She plays card games with men. H informs the esteemed
members of the governing body of the Community that the lady in question is deceptive.
2QFHZKLOHVKHZDVDVOHHSVRPHW\SHRIVDFNRIKHUVZDVFRQVXPHGE\¿UH³RVDTXLQKR
foy queimar”). It is H’s custom to praise great men; pathetically, Rivka gets to celebrate
Purim because the devil did not take her away, while H is in the doghouse, even though he
FDQSURYHKHUJXLOW$OOWKLVVXQJWRD'[email protected]
A tristeza me faz falar
do sobre forso feito,
eu fuy forzoso retirar
não sabendo do pleito.
&HUWRKpJUDQGHSD[mR௑
para o pobre Habilhão
persegui’llo sem razão.
VHPKDYHUWLGRVLWDVmR௑
castigar de repente.
E isto sem saber de mal,
buscarão êste canal
para livrar a quem não val.
'DYtXYDYRXUHODWDU௑
huma negra estória,
Muito me admira da Nassão, pois hum judeu fêz
emforcar,
como do prezidente,
esta feia escória;
A capa e coifa tirou,
HRWXGHVFRHPIHLWRX௑
HSRU¿PRHPJDQRX
Muy sutil deve ella ser,
que de mulher vestio
homem,
buscándosse bem de comer
e outros que morão a
³MDPDLV´)UHQFKIRU³QHYHU´
³PDHP´ PmR ³EDG´ ³HYLO´ 7KH ¿QDO IRXU SKUDVHV IRUP D VDW\ULFDO FRXSOHW 7KH JLVW RI
the phrase, “por alcunha ponhas, o tron, schiter”, is obscure, but obviously includes extreme
vulgarities in Portuguese and Dutch argot, that may mean the following: Versos penned by
Jeossúah Habilho in defense of his son, against the attacks perpetrated by Rivka, daughter of
Semuel Jessurún, whose surname (Port. “alcunha”) is “whore” (“ponhas” < pôr, Port. for “to
put”, “to engage in sexual intercourse”), “bang” or “fart” (“tron”, from the Span. “tronar”,
DASE³+DFHUzVRQDUORVWUXHQRV(VGHO/DWLQRTronareTXHVLJQL¿FDHVWRPLVPR´
= “to make the sound of thunder”), and “shitter” (“schiter”, possibly from the vulgar Dutch
“schijter”). However this may translate, Jeossúah Habilho did not think kindly of Rivka.
&URVVGUHVVLQJLQWKHLQVWDQFHVIRUERWKPHQDQGZRPHQLVDIRUELGGHQSUDFWLFHDFFRUGLQJWRWKH
Torah, and is later reiterated in Maimonides’ Mishnah Torah. See n. 58, supra.
[[email protected]
From Sepharad to Ashkenaz, from a Pícaro to a Schlemiel
IRPHP௑
Bíbora, largarto cruel,
untando a todos com mel,
HUHVPXOKHUPiHLQ¿HO
Quando acabarão de beber
ao Domo caminharão,
e cauzoulhes tanto
SOD]HU௑
que juntos se tornarão;
E de novo a comvidou,
VHQGRHVFXURD¿FRX
HSRU¿PDHPSXURX
Esta é mulher do Satanaz,
segando todo o
PXQGR௑
gosta de homem, e de rapaz:
Quem entende seu fundo?
Como não se ha de
Somente quem hia jugar
FDVWLJDU௑
e com ella banquetear
consentindo em sua caza
DrVWHKLDYH]LWDU௑
té as 3 e quatro a jugar
sempre fazendo vaza.150
Certos cristoems
Pois parnazes emganou,
comfessarão
HFRPWXGRVH¿FRX௑
com vezitar lhes hia
com o Diabo não a levou.151
e que ella lhes dava a mão,
certo e grave picardia.
0DLVSRU¿PQmRKiGHIDOWDU
6REUHLVWRIR\EHEHU௑
o castigo a êste mono,
thé e leite que foy servir
pois o saquinho foy queimar
no atendo do seu comer.
estando o turco em
VRQR௑
Muito tarde fêz levantar
a vezinha para lhe dar
bom caffé, para tratar.
Muitos louvores mistero dar
DRVHQKRUSRGHUR]R௑
do offício que foy tomar
hun judeu muy zelozo;
Pois com guardas soy buscar
para ver de me achar,
he êste prêmio quiz
JDQKDU௑
(FRPLVWRTXHURGDU¿P
a minha escriptura
pois a víuva fêz Purim
e eu na negregura.
7XGRLVWRTXHUHODWH\௑
com testigos o provarey
ou minha vida perderey.
;;;,;>[email protected]
A hum tom hollandêz, Hé de tantos años, girassol152
[A spirited dialogue between H and the Enemy. This is what happened to JH when he
dressed up as a slave, and his guise was successful. H addresses the Enemy, saying “Is it
just that you treat me so when you know nothing of the case or what I had to undergo?”
(UHVSRQGVWKDWKHKHDUGWKDW+KDGWDNHQWKHOHIWSDWK>¿OHGDOHJDOVXLW^"`@DQGIRUWKDW
reason E doesn’t want to hear any more complaints. H retorts that traitorous E must listen
WRKLPDQGQRWWRUPHQWKLPEHFDXVHKH¶V¿QDQFLDOO\EURNH(¶VUHSRQVHLVWKDWLWZRXOGEH
acceptable if H did not attempt to right all wrongs, because his actions are making everyone
sweat. H wishes E, ever at war and an evil rogue, the divine sweat of death and the suffering
a dog experiences; that way, he can never enter heaven. E retorts by calling H a liar and thief
who only seeks revenge. H tells E there’s an insolent canine individual unable to judge the
truth, and so he hopes his eyes and nose are broken. H pleads to God that the heavens punish
³VHJDQGR´ ³FHJDQGR´³EOLQGLQJ´
³DPmR´ ³D PmR´>"@ ,Q (QJOLVK WKLV PHDQV ³6KH SURYLGHG WKHP VRPH >LQGHFHQW"@ IRUP RI
roguishness with her hand”. Does this allude to masturbation?
³'RPR´ ³WKHFDWKHGUDO´
³HPSXURX´HPSXUURXHPSXUUDU³WRSXVK´
150 “vaza” = “baza” = “a deck of cards”.
151 “a levou” < “levar”, Port. “to take”. The phrase must mean, “The Devil did not take her”.
152 Likely an error for a Portuguese or Spanish popular tune, ,W¶V%HHQD/RQJ7LPH6XQÀRZHU.
153 “plecate” = “esquerda” = “the left side”.
³GDUSDQFDGDV´ ³7RKLWWRUHQGHUEORZV´
[[email protected]
Kenneth Brown
these liars by closing their mouths. H ends by asking God to bless him with what he needs
LQWKLVDIÀLFWLYHPRPHQWZKHQWKHFORWKHVWKH6ZLVV/RPEDUGVROGKLPDUHQRORQJHUKLV
^"`[email protected]
No. 1. Enemigo
Atrevimento grande é
do que tem feito o Josué
em vestirse de escravo,
aí é tal diablo,
TXHDFRPHWHX௑
a senhores muito grandes,
e lhe valeu.
a quem obrigou a pobreza,
WXGRp¿QH]D௑
de Vós, trahidor,
que mostrais muita bondade
sem amor.
1R(>[email protected]
Certo seria o que dizeis
se não fôra que
TXHUHLV௑
que se volte as maldades
tudo em bondades,
com bom primor
e gastar de outros muitos
RVXRU௑
No. 2. Habilho
eUD]mRDVVêPHWUDWHLV
quando o cazo não sabeis,
nem do que la tenho
SDVVDGR௑
desafforado,
TXHDVVêIDODLV
1R+>[email protected]
e que hum pobre desdichado
Suor de morte Vós dê Déos
maltratais.
é que nunca entreis no céus
sem estar com paz na terra,
1R(>[email protected]
e sempre em guerra,
Eu vós digo o que
StFDURPDX௑
RXYê௑
quem Vós derá de
HSDUHVVHDPXLWRVDVVê
153
pancades
que andasteis com plecate,
com hum pau!
não é disparate
o que dizeis,
1R(>[email protected]
eu não quero vossos
Tendez huma língua má
SOHLWRV௑
e buscais com pés de lã
nem papeis.
de furtar o mundo
WRGR௑
1R+>[email protected]
sondez hum lodo
Eu vós pesso que caleis
he embrulhador
e que não atromenteis
e Vós quereis vingar de
todos
com vigor.
1R+>[email protected]
Aí é hum emsolente
FmR௑
com êste grande ladrão,
que não julga as verdades,
tudo é maldades
TXHGHPêGL]
seus olhos tenha
TXHEUDGR௑
e o nariz.
1R+>[email protected]
$VVêSHVVRHURJRD'pXV
mande o castigo de céus
sobre os que mentiras falão,
HGHRXWURVFDOmR௑
por não dizer
o que por nessessidade
fuy fazer.
1R+>[email protected]
Déus me ajude com sua mão
HPHGHLWHVXDEHQVmR௑
dândome o que nessessito,
YrQGRPHDÀLFWR
por não ser meu
as prendas que no lombardo
VHPHYHQGHX௑
Versos que fêz Habilho sobre Isaque Tovar, e sua mulher.
;/>&[email protected]
[Verses H wrote about Isaque Tovar and his wife. H recounts that he wishes to tell about a
fraudulent individual, named Tovar, the grandson of a bastard. His wife’s even worse than
he. Tovar is shameless and a trickster, who wishes to take advantage of the adversity of
155 “ramenás” = “rammenas”: Dutch for “winter raddish”. In context, this may be an old Dutch
expression meaning “To take advantage of the hardship of others”.
[[email protected]
From Sepharad to Ashkenaz, from a Pícaro to a Schlemiel
others. His wife runs the show, while Isaque does whatever she commands him to do: all
of this while she serves him drinks. He’s anything but gallant; this is evident because he
invites many people to his home and never sends them away. He’s always well treated, not
for his physical appearance, but because of his wife, who cares for him. H has seen a lot in
OLIHDQGLVDEOHWRFRQ¿UPWKH\¶UHERWKIDVWWRQJXHGFURRNV7XEHUFXODU7RYDULVDFRQQLYHU
who took advantage of H. Many believe his lies because he’s a smooth talker, especially
with those in his home. People consider him a good man who merely prefers not want to
die in poverty. Before bursting at the seams, H decides to end his harangue, wishing Ricah
3DUDGHDWKE\KDQJLQJIURPKHUKXVEDQG¶[email protected]
Vou tratar de hum
embusteiro
que seu nome é Tovar,
pois é netto de hum bastardo
e com tudo quer falar.
É a mulher pior que
rOOH௑
cheia de triques, he obras
más,
e sem ter numhuma
vergonha
quer gozar do ramenás.155
Pouco tem de galante
homem
pois não despide a nimguem,
dos que lhe vêem a sua caza
porque isto lhe
FRQYrP௑
Muy servido e regallado,
e de todos que la vêem,
não por sua bella cara
é a mulher, que o mantêm.
Muita couza vio
+DELOKR௑
nem por isto o dirá,
O marido não o sirve
WDQWRPDLVHOODRTXHU௑ porque êlle não é querido,
mais com tudo se ouvirá.
êlle é para tudo nada
156
e a ella lhe far mister.
Embusteiros, são queridos,
gente de consiênsia157
O marido bem contente
QmR௑
se faz cego do que vê,
ella lhe traz, de
êstes passão por más línguas
como se diz, do Hablihão.
UHSHQWH௑
chocolate, caffé o theé.
Embusteiro é nos ossos
o tiziquinho do Tovar,
sobre haver gozado
IDYRUHV௑
do Habilho foy murmurar.
Muitos lhe darão crehênsia
porque sabe adullar,
a os que lhe vêem de vezita
e a Madama,
JDODQWHDU௑
Certo é para algums bom
homem,
êste pobre do Tovar,
SRLVQmRTXHUPR>[email protected]
fomem,
e a mulher lho quer ganhar.
9RXGDU¿PDrVWHV
YHUVRV௑
por os miollos158 não
quebrar,
que se emforque Ricah Para
com as tripas do Tovar.
Versos contra os que murmurão do Velho Habilho.
;/,>6H[WLOODV6H[WLOKDV6H[[email protected]$ER]GHHanucáh no seu festim
[Verses aimed at those who gossipped about old man Habilho,QWKH¿UVWSHUVRQ+VWDWHV
“Everything they say about me is evil, and I don’t even need to know what was said. Allow
PHWREHEOXQWDQGQRQRSLQLRQDWHG0\SHUYHUVHO\ZLOOHGHQHPLHVKDYHFRQ¿JXUHGOLHV
156
157
158
159
160
“mister” = “ocupação”.
= consciência.
“miollos” = “miolos” = “intestines, guts”.
= astúcia.
= disse.
[[email protected]
Kenneth Brown
about me. It’s abusive to gossip, but the true friend always understands the truth. Go away
gossip, for I’ve done nothing wrong. Alas, he who has no money is deemed the thief. Please
DYRLGWRUPHQWLQJWKLVSRRUJXLOWOHVVVRXODQREOHPDQRIJUHDWVHOIZRUWK´+¿QLVKHVE\
saying that God knows how to proceed. One must not heed hearsay, gossip and empty lies.
Sung to the Portuguese-language tune, At Chanukah [email protected]
Sem saber o que se diz
tem o mundo no naris
qu’un é tudo grande
maldade,
a estúcia159 do Habilhão,
bem o dixe160DGLDQWmR௑
mã seria a openião.161
por o gosto de mormurar,
mais quem é leal
DPLJR௑
a seu tempo o achará
que fará sempre o que
dixe162
para mostrar o que será.
Certo, enemigos são
com perverso coração,
por fazer mil sologismos
sobre quem não cueda
PDO௑
isto são perversidades
querer tratar do que não val.
Largay pois o murmurar,
que não há de
DSURYHLWDU௑
porque tudo o que tem feito
sempre o fêz com boa razão,
porém quem não tem
dinheiro
se reputa por ladrão.
Tudo hé querer falar
$VVêYyVSHVVRQmR
IDOHLV௑
e que não atromenteis163
a quem nunca a pobreza
obrigou a que foss vil,
tanta é sua nobreza
que por cento pagou
PLO௑
Diz Habilho que há de ser
o que Déus quizer fazer,
HDVVêQmROKHGiFXLGDGR
o dizer o perderão;
WXGRVmRYHQWR]LGDGHV௑
para os que murmurão.
Versos que fêz Jeossúah Habilho sobre sua cunhada, porque não lhe quiz falar.
;/,,>6H[WLOODV6H[WLOKDV6H[[email protected]
[Verses penned by J. H. about his sister-in-law, who refused to talk to him. H wants his
audience to know why he’s writing about his sister-in-law. She refused to accept his
friendship and good nature toward her; she’s disloyal to her husband and brother. H advises
his reader not to be like the bug who dallies all summer long trying to bite victims, for
his reward is a sudden death. This case is like the strange tale about the scorpion (i.e. his
sister-in-law) that ate cake while H went hungry. H no longer knows how to defend himself
from her; she treats him as badly as if he were a dog. Even if she weren’t the bitch she
is, his s-i-l would still be ugly and yellow-skinned. Someone sometime will write about
KRZVKHZRXOGELWHKLPDQGHQGXS¿JKWLQJZLWKKLP+FRQIHVVHVWKDWKHPXVWDGPLWKH
enjoys annoying her, and is glad to be in the right. H prefers to be brief. His advice is for
his relatives to repent and seek peace with him. The alternative is to be a slave to a bolt
of lightning as well as to the god of Hades (Hell), Pluto. He wishes his brother would
repent, help him, and enjoy the summer, while he continues suffering a winter worse than
hell, and with no bread to eat. God knows what he is enduring and what he did on behalf
161
162
163
165
= opinião.
= disse.
“atromenteis” = “atormenteis”.
³YyV´ ³DYRFr´LQPRGHUQ3RUW
“porsovelho” = “percevejo”, in mod. Port., = “bug” (insect).
[@
From Sepharad to Ashkenaz, from a Pícaro to a Schlemiel
RIKLVEURWKHU'HVWLWXWH+EHJVPHUF\RI*RGDQGSLW\IURPKLVULFKEURWKHU+H¿QLVKHV
with the hypothetical statement: If the tables were turned, no one would be laughing about
these verses; on the contrary, many would seek him out and proclaim, “He has the wisdom
of Solomon!” H concludes by begging for mercy to all those who have interceded on his
EHKDOIWRWKHJRYHUQDQFHVWUXFWXUHRIWKH6HSKDUGLF&RPPXQLW\@
Quereis saber porque vós
venho
e a cunhada que eu tenho,
que me fechou o coração,
porque não quiz amizade,
HOODQmRWHPOHDOGDGH௑
a marido nem a irmão.
se ella nunca foy cadella
bem será feia e amarella
a mulher do meu irmão.
6RPEUHPêEHP
HVFUHYHUi௑
se não ouvera167 quem
morderá
Com tudo isto lhe aconselho, e sobre isto ser pelão,168
não seja como o
eu comfesso e me conhesso,
165
porsovelho
eu lhe pesso e agradesso
VREUHWHUPXLWDUD]mR௑
que se recreia no verão
HSHUVHJXHRLQRVVHQWH௑
Que já de breve se emende,
porém morre de repente,
bem haja quem se arrepende
isto é seu galardão.
e busca paz com seu irmão,
desde logo estou por isto
O exemplar está bem claro
TXHPQmRR¿]HUpKXP
do sucsesso pouco raro
corisco169௑
que passou com o
166
alacrão ௑
e escravo de Plutão.
quando ressebeu a carta
Quem entender, que o
merendando sua tarta
entenda,
tendo fome o Habilhão.
mais que nunca se
arrependa,
Eu já no sey o que me diga,
e quer gozar do verão,
que por ter muita
eu me acho no
IDWLJD௑
LQYHUQR௑
me trata com hum cão,
passando pior que no
Inferno
por falta de não ter pão.
Déus sabe o que eu passo,
e de tudo quanto fasso,
e haver feito a meu
LUPmR௑
DVVêWHQKDERPFXLGDGR
TXHSRU¿PVRXVHX
cunhado,
Vós sois rica e eu pellão.
Se as bollas fossem trocadas
QmRVHULmRERUULFDGDV௑
o que escreve minha mão,
antes muytos me buscarião
e por mim todos dirião,
“Tem juizo de Salamão!”
$VVêOKHSHVVRDTXHP
SRGH௑
e em apêrtos me acode,
tenha comizerassão
de todos que lhe servírem
e a nosso ser pedírem
por o govern da
1DVVmR௑
;/,9>&XDUWHWRVPRQRUUtPLFRV4XDUWHWRVPRQRULPDGRV0RQRUK\[email protected]
Versos que fêz Jeossúah Habilho, a seu Irmão, porque não lhe quiz falar, estando muito
166 = scorpion.
167 “ouverá” = “ouvirá”.
168 “pelão”. DA, 3, p. 189b, s.v. PE, “PELAR. Metaphóricamente vale quitar con engaño, arte ò
YLROHQFLD´+KDGEHHQÀHHFHGWKDWLVGHSULYHGDQGRUGXSHG
³FRULVFR´ ³DÀDVKRIOLJKWQLQJ´
DFFRUGLQJWRWKH&KULVWLDQFDOHQGDU
171 “entisicar” = “to fall ill to tuberculosis”.
[[email protected]
Kenneth Brown
doente, he a sua mulher haver mandado hua umilde carta, he não querer responder. Em dia
de Purim, dêste Ano 5506170 em Amsterdam.
A boz de Ygdal Elloïm Hay
[9HUVHVWKDWWKHLQ¿UPHG-+SHQQHGWRKLVEURWKHUZKRGLGQRWZDQWWRVSHDNWRKLP
and concerning the humble letter he directed to his sister-in-law, who refused to respond.
On Purim and in Amsterdam, 5506. To the synagogal tune of Yigdal Elohim Hay. H heard
about a man who had contracted tuberculosis. There once was a man who never spoke to his
brother, who was deathly ill from hunger. Such stupid arrogance on behalf of the broher lead
H to poverty, yes it did. Everything in life is perverse. His brother-in-law, a converso, did
not repent for his evil deeds, and forgot about him when he arrived in Hamburg, considering
him merely an ugly brute, and so he did. That’s why H is writing to you, a Jew, about his
EURWKHU¶VÀLPV\PDUULDJH+¶VYRLFHLVFOHDUDQGDUWLFXODWH$QGDOOWKLVLQGHHGKDSSHQHG
when H learned the truth; at that moment he shuddered, yes he did. H pleads for the death
of vainglory, and begs that lying stories be forgotten, and that those who eat the crumbs of
RWKHUVQRWEHQH¿WIURPKLVDGYHUVLW\IRU+VOHHSVRQVWUDZDQGRZHVKLVEURWKHUQRWKLQJ
indeed he does not. The brother appears to people like a corpse that has not risen to heaven,
wearing a hat of a fancy gentleman; in fact, the brother proved himself more the Arab than
the Jew, {repet.} than the Jew. The rich brother has a poor brother whom he refused and
refuses to aid; this brother, possessing neither tin nor copper, that is, nothing of value, tells/
told his rich brother “It’s wintertime”. [i.e. “Please help me, I’m cold and hungry”, but the
[email protected]
2XYêGHKXPFHUWRKRPHPTXH
entezicou,171
seu irmão morto do fomem, nunca falou,
tudo é a altiveza, que lhe cauzou
tirarse da pobreza, certo a passou,
FHUWRDSDVVRX௑௑
Com tudo é perverso, não arrependeu
dos males, que comverso, logo esqueseu,
quando de Hamburgo veio, he o recolheu
hum bruto muito feio, lhe pareseu,172
OKHSDUHVHX௑
Por isto vós escreve, como Judeu,
de seu cazamento leve, quem poz o véu
em breve a claridade, he susedeu,
quando vio a verdade, se estromeseu,173
௑VHHVWURPHVHX௑
$VVêODUJXHYDQJOyULDVTXHPTXHURFpX
tíresse de istórias, o que comeu
de outros as migalhas, he enriqueseu
o irmão sobre palhas, nada lhe deu,
QDGDOKHGHX௑
Quem já o virá morto, não indo ao céu,
e acabado seu corpo, pondo hum chapéu
com bom galão do ouro, em lugar de véu,
porque mostrou ser mouro, he não judeu,
KHQmRMXGHX௑
Pois tem hum irmão pobre, não o socorreu,
não tendo estanho o cobre, nada valeu,
o dizerlhe é inverno, hé nada meu,
o fogo do inferno, certo é seu,
FHUWRpVHX௑
FINIS.
172 “pareseu” = “apareceu” < aparecer (“to appear”).
173 “estromecer” = “estremecer” = “to shake, shudder, tremble”.
$QRWKHUJDOOLFLVP³FKDSpX´ ³FKDSHDX´ ³KDW´
[[email protected]
From Sepharad to Ashkenaz, from a Pícaro to a Schlemiel
;/9>&XDUWHWRVPRQRUUtPLFRV4XDUWHWRVPRQRULPDGRV0RQRUK\[email protected]
'LVFXUVRTXHID]R¿OKRGH+DELOKRVREUHKXPHPJDQDGRUTXHRDOXJRXSDUDOHYDOORD
armada, para outro ser que era hum derector,175KH¿FRXHPJDQDGRGHWRGRVGRXV7DPEpP
se pode cantar a hum ton inglês
[Harangue proffered by H’s son about a con-man who recruited him to go to sea {or the
navy}, and was involved with another who was the director. Both cheated him. This can be
sung to an English tune. H’s son wishes to tell his audience what happened when a certain
man recruited him to go to sea, by promising him a royal lifestyle, and how he was duped.
Upon his arrival, the recruiter treated him well, but the promises of future success were
annoying. The narrator was anxious to get started. The Director greeted him warmly, but
then asked him politely where, as a good Jew, he was living. H’s son explained that he was
unable to arrive {any} earlier {that day} because he had been observing the Jewish Sabbath,
to which the Director replied that he could not deal with a Jew. And so he sent him on his
ZD\/HDYLQJWKH'LUHFWRU¶VRI¿FHWKHQDUUDWRUUHWXUQHGWRWKHUHFUXLWHUSOHDGLQJZLWKKLP
to allow him to return home, to see his wife before his death. The recruiter promised to send
him home, but not before a month had passed. By that time, all of his money was gone.
The recruiter promised to repay his expenses, and then sent him on his way. He quickly
left the premises, but on the journey met up with a petty criminal. At an inn, asleep in bed,
H’s son confronted a sheriff’s deputies searching for a dozen criminals. They requested the
young man’s assistance. He then accompanied the deputies in search of a thief. The deputies
escorted him to the man from whom it was necessary to request a letter of safe-conduct. He
detested what he had done, and took the post wagon home. Once there, he advised his wife
QHYHUWRJHWH[FLWHGDERXWDQ\[email protected]
RFFXSDU௑
pois quem quer ser judeu, não quero
ajudar!”
Vós quero cantar do que já me passou,
com hum certo sugeito que armada me
levou,
fazêndome querer viviria como Rey,
PHSX]DFDPLQKRQrOOHPH¿H\
Dêlle me apartey, onde iria dar,
ao emganador torney a falar,
DRTXDOOKHSHGêPHGHL[DUDLUDYHU
minha amada mulher, antes de
PRUUHU௑
&KHJDQGRDKêPXLWREHPPHWUDWRX௑
com tantas promessas, que me enfadou,
HYrQGRPHDKêVHPWHURFFXSDVVmR
fuy a par dêlle, muy cheio de paxão.
Logo me mandou a par do Derector
RTXDOPHUHVVHEHXFRPPXLWRDPRU௑
ditto me preguntou, “Com bom judeu,
onde se deteve amado senhor meu?”
5HVSRVWDOKHGêTXHQmRSXGLDFKHJDU
SRUTXHHUD6DEDWKIX\IRUoRVR¿FDU
com ira respondeu, “Não posso
Com que rezolveu de logo me mandar
mais eu estava certo se havia alegrar,
pois com boas palavras me deteve hum mez
meu bello dinheiro em nada me desfêz.
Inda176RXWUDPHIr]DQWHVGHDSDUWDU௑
díxeme177 que de breve havia tornar,
intão me pagaria tudo muito bem
175 “derector” = “diretor”.
176 “Inda” = “Ainda”.
177 “díxeme” = “dísseme” = “me disse” in modern Port.
[[email protected]
Kenneth Brown
o tempo que me deteve meus gastos
tãobém.
3X]PHDFDPLQKR¿]GHDSUHVVDU
DSDUGHKXPYLOmRPHIX\DSRX]DU௑
quando a cama fuy para descansar
vierão beleguins178 a porta quebrar!
Com que me levantey, e fuy forçoso andar
toda aquella noite, com êlles buscar,
porque se achavão nas cazas ladrão,
ROKD\TXHRIItVVLRWHYHR+DELOKmR௑
Me levarão outra vez, a par de meu senhor,
DRTXDOOKHSHGêPH¿]HUDIDYRU
de darme hum escripto para poder mostrar
que em todo caminho pudera passar.
(PWUDQGRDKêPDQGDUmRVHEXVFDU
hum dúzia de viloems, para os acompanhar,
$VVêFRPRGHXRTXHIX\ID]HU௑
DVVêFRPRHPWUDUmRPHYLHUmR
no carro da posta me fuy a meter,
SUHJXQWDU௑
DVVêFRPRFKHJXH\FRPERPFRUDomR
se eu me queria com boas179 levantar.
dixe a minha mulher, “Não tomes paxão!”180
Versos que fêz Jeossúah Habilho sobre os que mormurarão dêlle, despois que seu amigo
lhe contou o que ouvio de êlle sem razão. 1766.
/;9,>&[email protected]
A boz de A tristeza181
[Verses that JH penned concerning those who spread malicious gossip about him after
a friend had informed him of what he had heard said in public. 1766. In the big city, his
friend had heard a great deal of damaging gossip about H. When his friend speaks to H, he
advises him to believe no one, because everything is false, and people are making fun of
H. H’s response is belief in what he has just heard. He merely wishes to get to Purim time,
but without all the lies. If he’d gossip too, he could prove his innocence and show everyone
that it would be better to be quiet, avoiding damaging gossip. Some male members of the
Sephardic Community have spread lies about him, but H doesn’t want to compete against
these sweaty stinkers {?}. He wishes them a divine death sweat because of their evil ways.
Furthermore, he ponders what reward they will reap. The situation is shameless, but, alas,
nothing can be done. H has been unjustly accused of lying, yet they refuse to uphold the Law
{of Moses}. They didn’t help when times were bad. May those who gossipped about him
suffer a broken neck! The gossippers are a piggish race of vile, indecent thieves. H suggests
conferring with him to know the truth about this issue. However, one who does that will
lose out terribly. He is right about speaking against those who include him in their gossip.
A real man of spirit, though, is Isaque (Isaac) Benveniste; there is no one comparable. He
is a man of stature, truth and goodness, always generous and gallant. H hopes he, Isaque,
will be able to win over the tigers and lions and step on the cobras {among the gossippers}!
Two individuals have already attempted to win him over, but their efforts will be in vain. H
also needs to speak about Abraham, Isaque’s brother-in-law, whose responsibility is to tell
178 According to DA, I, p. 590a, s.v. BEL: “Belleguín. s.m. Lo mismo que Corchete, ò criado de
Justicia”.
179 In Port., the expression “as boas” means “to avoid problems”.
180 “paxão” = “paixão”. The phrase, “Não tomes paxão!” means “Don’t get too excited about
anything!”
181 I am unable to recognize this Portuguese title.
[[email protected]
From Sepharad to Ashkenaz, from a Pícaro to a Schlemiel
the truth and console. Abraham is gentle in speech, faithful in love, and H wishes that A’s
parents see him well married! H cannot foget a pious gentleman who favored an orphan,
dressing him in a curious manner and providing him boots, while other handsome (i.e. vain)
ones gave/give the child nothing. H asks God to bless all the noble and virtuous ones, and
H[DFWVXIIHULQJRQDOOWKHHYLODQGVHO¿VKRQHV+HFRQFOXGHVZLWKDSUD\HUWRUHPDLQQREOH
in the eyes and minds of the members of the Sephardic Community. Sung to the Portuguese
tune [email protected]
Que ouvio o amigo.
Verso 5
Verso 2
Verso 6
Verso 7
Do mormurar, que hoje se faz
nesta grande cidade,
tanta de homem, como rapaz,
locura e falsidade.
Isto sobre o Habilhão,
sem motivo, nem razão,
sem ter dêlle compaxão!
Falla182 o amigo a Habilho.
3HVVRQmRWH¿HVGHQLQJXHP
meu amigo verdadeyro,
VHDOJXPGL]TXHWHTXHUEHP௑
certo é hum embusteyro.
Tudo é hum papellão
que te fazem, Habilhão,
falsos são no coração.
Resposta de Habilho a seu amigo.
%HPTXHUHU\RVHMRDVVê
tudo quanto relatas,
'pXVPHDMXGHSDUD3XUê183
mais não com intrapassas.
Se eu quizera mormurar
lhes pudera bem mostrar
que seria milhor callar.
Algums senhores da Nação
muy á185 soprado de ventos
182
185
186
187
188
189
190
não querem tenha yguallação
a êstes fedorentos.
Contra quem, me posso pôr,186
sendo êlles hum fedor
sempre estejão em suor.
Suor de morte lhes dê Déus
por ser maus nesta esphera,
o castigo virá dos céus,
em isto conçidera.
Qual será o gallardão
de muitos desta Nação,
que mal tratão e não dão?
E quando já chegão a dar
é tão pobre e quebrado
que querendo o remendar
não se pode, é safado.187
E sobre isto, que farey?
Se dixerem reneguey
quando êlles não guardão Ley.
Muito grande se vão mostrar
e em apertos não ajudão,
o pescosso188KiGHTXHEUDU௑
pois de outros mormurão.
Sendo gente do candil,189
rassa190 porca muito vil,
“Falla” = “fala”.
³3XUê´ ³3XULP´
³LQWUDSDVVDV´ ³WUDSDoDV´ ³VZLQGOHVIUDXG´
“á” = “há”.
“posso pôr” = “I place fear in myself”{?}.
“safado” = “shameless”, “immoral”, “a rogue”.
“pescosso” = “pescoço” = “neck”.
Refer to n. 100. “Carefully chosen individuals”.
“rassa” = “raça”.
[[email protected]
Verso 3
9HUVR
Kenneth Brown
roubão o mundo muy santil.
Verso 8
Verso 9
E quem disto se quer tomar
que falle com Habilho,
pode com migo comessar
mais perderá de cudilho.191
Pois eu fallo com razão
FRQWUDRVTXHPRUPXUmR௑
do inossente Habilhão.
Quem é o noble da nação
é Isaque Benveniste,
não hay a êlle iguallação,
bem quereyo o ouviste.
Certo é grave de natural,
e da terra é o sal,
quem não o diz faz muito mal.
É generoso nas acçoems
como gallante em obras,
espero vensa tigres e leoems
pizando muitas cobras!
Dos que o pretendem venser
porém é tal seu saber,
que isto não há de succeder.
Obrigado sou relatar
de Abraham seu cunhado,
também mister192 o comfessar
que é hum consollado.
É tão doce no fallar,
como constante no amar,
seus mayores o vejão193 cazar.
Verso 11
Também não me posso esquesser195
de hum senhor piedozo
a hum orphão foy favoreser
com hum vestido curiozo.
E também hum bom calção,
LVWRVêTXHpWHUPmR
outros guapos nada dão.
Verso 12
Dê o Senhor sua bensão
a todos nobles e virtuozos,
e venha a maldição
a os maus e vangloriozos.
Verso 13
Verso 10
Rogo isto de coração,
¿TXHQREOHR+DELOKmR
com os nomeados da Nação.
FINIS.
;/9,,>6H[WLOODV6H[WLOKDV6H[[email protected]
A boz de Hanucá no seu festim
[To the tune of At Chanukah Festivities.196 The narrative voice asks who would dare gossip
DERXWWKHQREOHDQGIDLWKIXO'XWFK3ULQFHRI2UDQJH1DVVDXZKRKHOSVWKH
Jews. He is valorous, prudent, and as sweet as honey. Other qualities are his humility
and virtue; he is a beacon of light who crushes his enemies. His detractors are boastful
and treacherous. They steal and murder, yet God will punish them. A God-fearing leader,
WKH3ULQFHZLOORYHUFRPHWKHP7KH3ULQFHZLOO¿QGJORU\LQKHDYHQ+KDLOVWKH3ULQFH
WKHGHIHQGHURIWKHIDLWK,QWKH¿QDOYHUVH+VWDWHVWKDWWKHStadhouder of Holland is a
'$SEVY&2'³&2',//2VP(QHOMXHJRGHOKRPEUHVHOODPDDVVtHOSHUGHUOD
polla el que la ha entrado, ganándosela algúno de los compañeros, por haver hecho más bazas que
qualquiera de los otros”. Metaphorically speaking, one loses one’s advantage in the game of life.
192 “mister” = “ocupação”.
193 “vejão” = “vejam”, present subjunctive of the Portuguese verb “ver”.
³HVTXHVVHU´ ³HVTXHFHU´³WRIRUJHW´
195 Sung to the same tune as in poem XLI, supra.
5HIHUHQFH WR ³:LOOHP 9 YDQ 2UDQMH1DVVDX µV*UDYHQKDJH PDDUW %UXQVZLMN DSULO
1806), erfstadhouder van de Republiek der Verenigde Nederlanden 1751-1795”. Source: www.
nl.wikipedia.org (accessed 17 June 2012).
[[email protected]
From Sepharad to Ashkenaz, from a Pícaro to a Schlemiel
wondrous “reformer”: i.e. a man of change and progress as well as a distinguished member
of the Dutch Reformed Church.
Verso 1
Verso 2
Verso 3
Quem se atreve mormurar
de quem nos quer ajudar
com faz o de Oranje,197
SUtQFLSHQREOHH¿HO
muy valerozo e prudente
e mais doce que mel.
De umilde sem igual,
com virtudes liberal,
faz brilhar todo o mundo
com os rayos de seu sol,
queymará seus enemigos
sem metellos no crizol.
Seus contrários, famfaroems,
HPX\FKHLR>[email protected]
WDPEpPIXUWmRRTXHSRGHP௑
gente matão sem temor;
desdichadas são tais almas
quando forem ao Senhor.
Por esta cauza se verá
que o príncipe venserá
por ser forte, e constante,
¿UPHQRWHPRUGH'pXV
êlle seja que o levante
desde a terra até os céus.
9HUVR
Com triumfos, singullar,
ben se há de ouvir cantar,
“Viva o Príncipe de Oranje!”,
deffensor de sua feé,
Oh stadhouder de Hollanda,
Muito bom reformado é!
FINIS.
Verso 5
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Versos feytos, de Habilho, sobre o Amor que tem a Laura; e as respostas de Laura, muy
amadora, de Habilho, offreséndolhe seus bems en vida.
[H’s Verses about the love he feels for Laura, including the lady’s caring responses to H,
in which she offers him her goodness in life. This is a dialogue between H and Laura. H
commences by calling Laura his perfect light, his affection, and asks her to please pardon
his errors. She responds that he has done her a great favor. She wishes him God’s assistance
in making him rich, for he is worthy of it. H hopes they can celebrate Purim together. Her
response is that if he loves her, she can love him too, and will not cause him pain. H states
that he has surrendered his heart to her, for only she can crown him with roses. L responds
that his acts are noble and worth their weight in gold. H cannot begin to compute her worth.
L calls him her soulmate, who will receive the glory of God. H concludes with his wish that
*RGEHQH¿[email protected]
Verso 1
Verso 2
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Laura, meu bem, lus da preffeysão,197
livrayme de culpas, sois meu coração.
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Grande favor, Habilho, me faz,
Déus o fassa rico, por ser muy capaz.
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4XH\UDD6HQKRUDID]HOORDVVê
JR]DQGRQRVDPERVIHVWHMDQGRR3XUê
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Verso 3
9HUVR
197 In the printed text, the word appears as the meaningless “presseysão”. The reconstructed form,
“preffeysão”, however,, with its inverted letter order, is equivalent to “perfeição”, or “perfection”
in English.
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Kenneth Brown
Verso 5
Verso 6
Se vós me amais, também sey amar,
¿FDQGRFRQVWDQWHVHPYyVGDUSH]DU
>[email protected]
$YyVPHUHQGêSRUTXHVyYyVSRGHLV
coroarme com rozas, quando vós quereis.
>/[email protected]
Muy noble sois, em vossas acçoems,
também vossas obras vallem ceim
milhoems.
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E o que vós valeys, não sey ponderar,
é tanta vossa valia, que é nunca acabar.
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0LQKDDOPDVRLVHVHQKRUGRPHX௑
certo irá a Glória quem chegar ao céu.
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Pague vós Déus o bom coração,
dândovos muita vida, e a salvação.
FINIS.
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Verso 7
Verso 8
Verso 9