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Abstract book
International Meeting 15th-16th April 2016
Universidade do Minho, Campus de Gualtar, Braga (Portugal)
Organisation:
Co-funded by:
Supported by:
Departamento de História
da Universidade do Minho
Collaborators:
Este trabalho ten o apoio financieiro do Projeto Lab2PT- Laboratório de Paisagens, Património e Territorio – AUR/04509 e da FCT através de fundos
nacionais e quando aplicável do cofinanciamento do FEDER, no âmbito dos novos acordos de parceria PT2020 e COMPETE 2020 –POCI-01-0145FEDER-007528.
Wood and Charcoal.Approaches from Archaeology,
Archaeobotany, Ethnography and History
International Meeting 15th-16th April 2016
-Abstract Book-
María Martín-Seijo
Ana M. S. Bettencourt
Braga, 2016
SCIENTIFIC COMITTEE
Rubim Manuel Almeida da Silva, CIBIO-InBio, Portugal
Eleni Asouti, University of Liverpool, United Kingdom
Carlos Barros, Universidade de Santiago de Compostela, Spain
Raquel Carreras Rivery, WoodExpertID, Cuba
Yolanda Carrión, Universitat de València, Spain
Isabel Figueiral, INRAP, France
Welmoed A. Out, Moesgaard Museum, Denmark
ORGANISING COMMITTEE
María Martín-Seijo, Post-doctoral Fellow at University of Minho (Braga, Portugal). Researcher funded by
a Post-Doc Grant -Plan I2C mod. A- at University de Santiago de Compostela (Spain). Team member of
Grupo de Estudos para a Prehistoria do NW Ibérico-GEPN (GI-1534), Landscape, Heritage and Territory
Laboratory (Lab2PT) and InBio- Research Network in Biodiversity and Evolutionary Biology
(Associated Laboratory) / CIBIO–Research Center in Biodiversity and Genetic Resources / University of
Porto.
Ana M.S. Bettencourt, Landscape, Heritage and Territory Laboratory (Lab2PT), Department of History of
University of Minho, Braga, Portugal.
EXECUTIVE COMISSION
Carla Xavier
CONFERENCE SECRETARIAT
Aléssia Daniela Mendes Barbosa
Ana Jéssica Silva Mendonça
Katherine Guzenski Tonding
João Pedro Silva
Editor: Universidade do Minho. Laboratório de Paisagem, Património e Território - Lab2PT
ISBN- 978-989-99484-5-7
Printed material
Bound book
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General program
April 15th
08:30
09:00
Registration and participant information. Conference Hall at Instituto de Ciências
Sociais da Universidade do Minho. Campus de Gualtar, Braga (Portugal)
APERTURE
Doutor Paulo Cruz: Diretor do Laboratório de Paisagem, Património e
Território - Lab2PT
Doutora Helena Carvalho: Vice-Diretora do Departamento de História do ICS
Doutora Inês Amorim: Diretora da Rede Portuguesa de História Ambiental REPORT(H)A
Dr. Manuel João Abrunhosa: Direção da Associação Portuguesa par o
Estudo do Quaternário - APEQ
Doutor José Meireles: Coordenador do grupo LandS do Lab2PT
Session 1: Archaeology and Archaeobotany of Wood
CONFERENCES
09:30-10:00
Woodworking and forest transformation in the Early Neolithic site of La Draga
(5300-4700 cal BC)
Raquel Piqué Huerta
10:00-10:30
A warm goodbye. Firewood selection in Roman cremation rituals in Northern
Gaul: an anthracological perspective
Koen Deforce
10:30-11:00
Coffee-break
SHORT COMMUNICATIONS
11:00-11:15
Hunter-gatherers wood collecting practices: an archaeological case study from
the Archaic period in Canada
Marie-Annick Prevost
11:15-11:30
Looking at domestic life where wood is no longer there!
Ana Cruz
11:30-11:45
The anthracological results from Coro Trasito cave. An approach to high
mountain landscapes
Laura Obea Gómez, Javier Rey Lanaspa, Ermengol Gassiot Ballbé, Ignacio
Clemente Conte, Sara Díaz Bonilla, Manuel Quesada Carrasco, David Garcia Casas,
David Rodriguez Anton, Niccolò Mazzucco and Ferran Antolín Tutusaus
11:45-12:00
Use, management and spatial analysis of wood resources in the Iberian
oppidum of Puente de Tables (Jaén, Spain)
María Oliva Rodríguez-Ariza
12:00-12:15
Arquiteturas e móveis de madeira na II Idade do Ferro em Trás-os-Montes
oriental: o sítio da Quinta de Crestelos
Javier Larrazabal Galarza
12:15-12:30
Wooden material culture during Bronze and Iron Age in Northwest Iberia:
wooden vessels and their skeuomorphs
Josefa Rey Castiñeira, María Martín-Seijo, Alba Antía Rodríguez Nóvoa and Ana
M.S. Bettencourt
12:30-12:45
Organic geochemistry and archeological woods characterization
Mohamed Traoré , Joeri Kaal and Antonio Martínez Cortizas
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12:45-13:00
Discussion
13:00-15:00
Lunch
CONFERENCES
15:00-15:30
Dendroarchaeology and dendroprovenance in the study of shipwrecks
Marta Domínguez-Delmás
15:30-16:00
Waterlogged wood from Portuguese submerged and wet archaeological sites: a
primer
Alexandre Monteiro
16:00-16:30
Woods in archaeonautical maritime and fluvial Portuguese contexts
Francisco Alves and Paula Queiroz
16:30-17:00
Coffee-break
17:00-17:15
SHORT COMMUNICATIONS
A madeira na mineração e metalurgia romanas auríferas em Portugal
Carla Maria Braz Martins
17:15-17:30
Pegar de estaca. As fundações de madeira do edifício Sede do Banco de
Portugal em Lisboa
Artur Rocha
17:30-18:00
Discussion
April 16th
Session 2: Wood and Ethnography
09:30
Registration and participant information. Conference Hall at Instituto de Ciências
Sociais da Universidade do Minho. Campus de Gualtar, Braga (Portugal).
CONFERENCES
10:00-10:30
A tree in landscape. Discourses and practices around the utility of the tree
Álvaro Campelo
10:30-11:00
Ethnobotany and wood resources: the case study of Montesinho, Trás-osMontes, Portugal
Ana María Carvalho
11:00-11:30
Etnobotânica do sumagre (Rhus coriarii) no Douro transmontano
Lois Ladra
SHORT-COMMUNICATIONS
11:30-11:45
A propósito da feitura de carvão vegetal no Crastoeiro (Mondim de Basto, Vila
Real): notas etnográficas e documentais
António Dinis
11:45-12:00
Discussion
12:00-12:15
Coffe-break
12:15-13:00
POSTERS :: SESSION 1
Random gathering or intentional wood selection? Charcoal analysis of pit 16
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deposit from Perdigões archaeological site
Ginevra Coradeschi, Cristina Dias, Fernando Branco, Laura Sadori and Antonio
Valera
New anthracological analysis of fuel wood from Neolithic site of La Draga
(Banyoles, Spain)
Anna Franch and Raquel Piqué
Vestígios arqueobotânicos dos enchimentos das estruturas em negativo de
planta sub-retangular alongada e em forma de “osso” da Pré-história Recente
do Interior Alentejano
Lídia Baptista and Sérgio Gomes
Woodland and Bronze Age burial practices in the NW of Iberia
Ana M. S. Bettencourt, Maria Martín-Seijo, Hugo Aluai Sampaio and Francisco
Fernandes
Wattle hurdles and wooden structures during the Iron Age: positives from clay
imprints recovered at Castro de S. Vicente da Chã
María Martín-Seijo, João Fonte and Inés L. López-Dóriga
Fires in the dark. Burning of grain and human bones in the burial cave of
Riocueva (Entrambasaguas, Cantabria) in the 7th-8th centuries
Enrique Gutiérrez Cuenca, José Ángel Hierro Gárate, Inés L.López-Dóriga and
María Martín-Seijo
“Medium-term” deposition? Not so bad: Archaeobotanical studies of Zaballa
medieval village (Basque Country, North of Spain)
Riccardo Santeramo
Maya paleoethnobotany: ancient and modern use of ocote (Pinus spp.)
Felipe Trabanino and Aurora Muriente Pastrana
POSTERS :: SESSION 2
O uso da madeira na arquitetura popular nas aldeias de Alijó: São Mamede de
Ribatua, Amieiro e Franzilhal
Pedro Ricardo Coelho de Azevedo
Uso de madeira em cestaria tradicional: palha e silva (Cinfães), cana rachada
(Marco de Canaveses) e piorna (Baião)
Daniela Ferreira, Filipe Vaz and João Machado
Registo imaterial da produção de Bengalas de Gestaçô (Baião)
Daniela Ferreira and Filipe Vaz
13:00-15:00
Lunch
Session 3: Wood and History
CONFERENCES
15:00-15:30
Wood and forest during the Middle Ages: interweaving of diverse sources
Aline Durand
15:30-16:00
Timber in medieval construction: types and uses
Arnaldo Sousa Melo and Maria do Carmo Ribeiro
16:00-16:15
SHORT-COMMUNICATIONS
Wood and forest inside medieval mentality
Lucía Triviño Guerrero
16:15-16:30
Os recursos de madeira no convento de Vilar de Frades: da construção aos
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objetos do quotidiano
António Pereira
16:30-16:45
Discussion
16:45-17:15
Coffe-break
17:15-17:45
POSTERS :: SESSION 3
Wooden objects and fruits recovered from the first medieval ditch of Santiago
de Compostela (Galicia, Spain)
Yolanda Porto Tenreiro, Paula Ballesteros Arias, Andrés Teira Brión, Felipe Criado
Boado and Dolores Gil Agra
A estacaria na construção pós-pombalina - Um caso-de-estudo sobre as
madeiras
Helena Patrício, Teresa Quilhó, Alexandra Lauw, António Valongo e Helena Pereira
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Conferences
Woodworking and forest transformation in the early Neolithic site of La Draga
(5300-4700 cal BC)
Raquel Piqué
Departament de Prehistòria, Universitat Autònoma de Barcelona
Edifici B Facultat de Filosofia i Lletres 08193 Bellaterra (Barcelona)
[email protected]
La Draga is a lake dwelling located on the eastern shore of lake Banyoles (Girona, Spain).
The site was occupied between 5350 and 4700 cal BC by one of the firsts farmers
communities of Northeast of Iberian Peninsula. More than one hundred of wooden objects
and near a thousand of piles have been recovered so far at the site. These remains are one of
the most impressive collections of wood instruments of the firsts farming societies. Among
the most remarkable findings are a variety of wooden instruments related to agricultural
work (sickles, digging sticks), domestic activities (containers, combs, spatulas, mixers),
woodworking (adze handles), weapons (bows and arrows), as well as other objects of
undetermined function. The study of wood remains has been focused on the determination
of processes of obtaining, transformation and use of this material. Regarding the production
processes the main questions were how the raw material was obtained, what were the
techniques used to cut and chip logs and how the final product manufacturing was carried
out. Experimental work allowed the testing of hypotheses about the production process of
wooden artefacts and their functionality. The study has revealed the selective exploitation of
species and anatomical parts providing also new insights on the Neolithic woodworking.
According the paleoecological data of the site the intensive use of forest resources had a
significant impact on the landscape.
Keywords: Neolithic. Wood. Artefacts. Woodworking. Forest Resources.
A warm goodbye. Firewood selection in Roman cremation rituals in Northern Gaul:
an anthracological perspective
Koen Deforce
Flanders Heritage Institute, Koning Albert II-laan 19 bus 3, 1210 Brussels & Royal Belgian Institute of Natural
Sciences, OD Earth and History of Life, Vautierstraat 29, B-1000 Brussels, Belgium
[email protected]
Charcoal assemblages from Roman age cremation graves from northwestern Europe show a
low taxonomic diversity and are generally dominated by a single taxon, in most cases oak
(Quercus sp.) Another remarkable feature of many Roman cremation graves from
northwestern Europe is the occurrence of charcoal from Abies alba, far outside the region of
its natural distribution. Recently, also Pinus sylvestris and Taxus baccata charcoal has been
found in a Roman age cremation grave, in a region where both species are believed to be
absent or at least very scarce in the local vegetation during Roman times.
This presentation will give a review of wood use in Roman age cremation northern Gaul by
presenting a large dataset of charcoal identifications from Roman cremation graves (>16000
charcoal identifications from >150 cremation graves). Firewood collection strategies for
cremation rituals are discussed by comparing the charcoal assemblages from cremation
graves with those from domestic refuse contexts.
Keywords: Cremation. Wood use. Anthracology. Roman period.
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Dendroarchaeology and dendroprovenance in the study of shipwrecks
Marta Domínguez Delmás
Marie Curie Researcher University of Santiago de Compostela, department of Botany
Escuela Politécnica Superior, Rúa Benigno Ledo s/n, 27002 Lugo
[email protected]; [email protected]
Since ancient times up to the mid-19th century, wood was the main raw material used to
build ships. Surviving timbers of shipwrecks represent unique archives of past
environmental conditions and cultural practices that can be accessed by dendrochronology
(i.e. tree-ring research).
Dendroarchaeology is a subdiscipline within dendrochronology that studies tree-ring patters
in (pre)historic wood to establish the cutting dates of trees, and infer the construction date of
artefacts and structures made of wood, as well as the geographical area where the trees
grew. Furthermore, in the particular case of shipwrecks, dendroarchaeology combined with
species identification can provide information about the selection of trees for specific ship
timbers, the conversion of wood, and forest management practices for the production of
timber for shipbuilding.
However, shipwrecks are the most challenging research objects for dendrochronologists, as
ships could have been built with timber from different species and geographical sources,
and could have undergone repairs in different shipyards throughout their lifetime. Therefore,
the success of the research is closely linked to the design of a sampling strategy appropriate
for the wreck assemblage to be investigated, and the research question to be answered.
Additionally, the existence of reference chronologies covering the area of origin of the
wood and the period in which the trees grew is crucial to establish the date and provenance
of the timbers.
This paper presents the application of dendrochronology in the study of shipwrecks,
illustrating the potential and limitations of this science with examples of research carried out
in recent years. The efforts undertaken within the ForSEAdiscovery project to develop a
high-resolution tree-ring data network to date and provenance ship timber from Iberian
shipwrecks will be presented, and novel alternative methods (strontium isotopes, organic
components) to provenance wood from this area will be discussed.
Keywords: Dendrochronology. Shipbuilding. Timber supply. Provenance. Oak. Pine.
Iberian Peninsula.
Waterlogged wood from Portuguese submerged and wet archaeological sites: a primer
Alexandre Monteiro
IAP-FCSH/UNL
Avenida de Berna 26-C 1069-061 Lisboa
[email protected]
Forest Resources for Iberian Empires: Ecology and Globalization in the Age of Discovery
(ForSEAdiscovery) is a large research project funded by the European Union with fourteen
participating academic institutions from nine countries.
ForSEAdiscovery focusses on the construction of ocean-going ships of the Iberian Empires
during the early modern period (1500-1800) and aims to consolidate a research line
combining historical research, underwater archaeology, GIS and wood provenance methods
(dendrochronology, wood anatomy and geo/dendrochemistry). Tapping into until
Portuguese archives and into documentation never before studied or published, the project
aims to determine what kind of wood was being used in the naus and galleons construction
and how the supply of timber (both local supplies and imported timber) and its dynamic
trade networks were organized, effectively producing a snapshot of Portuguese ships,
shipyards and forests for nautical use during the period of the Spanish rule of Portugal.
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As a side aspect, and one that will discussed within this communication, ForSEADiscovery
compiles a database of all archaeological sites that have resulted in the discovery of
historical waterlogged wood and the outcome of such material vis a vis its analysis and
seriation.
Keywords: Waterlogged wood. Shipwrecks. Iberian empires. Early Modern Period.
Portugal.
Woods in archaeonautical maritime and fluvial Portuguese contexts
Francisco Alves* and Paula Queiroz**
*Instituto de Arqueologia e Paleociências (FCSH-UNL) - **Sociedade de História Natural de Torres Vedras
Avenida de Berna 26-C 1069-061 Lisboa - Poligono Industrial do Alto do Ameal, Pav. H02 e H06.
2565-641 Ramalhal (Torres Vedras)
[email protected]
We present ten of the most important archaeonautical discoveries in Portugal from maritime
and fluvial contexts, with national and international special significance, all of them
characterized by radiocarbon dating and by paleobotanical identification of their
architectural wooden structures – this approach, with the exception of both first two cases –
justify the evocation of what was said on this subject by Fernando Oliveira and João
Baptista Lavanha (late 16th and early 17th centuries), the two most important authors of
Portuguese classical naval architecture.
1 and 2. Two lead stocks of wooden anchors with “wooden soul” from the Berlenga island
(Portuguese central-western coast), dated from the late 5th/early 4 th centuries BC.
3. Monoxyle dugout canoe 4 from Lima river, Lanheses, Lugar da Passagem, 4th/2th
centuries BC.
4. Monoxyle dugout canoe 5 from Lima river, Lanheses, Lugar da Passagem, 4th/3th
centuries BC.
5. Fishing trap from Silvalde beach (northern part known as “Fire training field” beach) with
an exceptional stratigraphic sequence covering a period from the 8th/4th centuries BC. to
the 10th/11th centuries AD. – the structure itself dated from the 1st/2nd centuries AD.
6. Monoxyle dugout canoe 1 from Lima river, Moreira de Geraz do Lima, 10th/11th
centuries AD.
7. Corpo Santo shipwreck, Lisbon riverside 14th century.
8. Ria de Aveiro A shipwreck, mid-15th century.
9. Cais do Sodré shipwreck, Lisbon riverside, mid-15th/mid-16th centuries.
10. Nossa Senhora dos Mártires, indiaman wrecked in the Tagus bar in 1606, when
returning from Cochin (presummable identification).
Keywords: Maritime and fluvial contexts. Wood. Anchors. Canoes. Fishtraps. Shipwreck.
A tree in landscape. Discourses and practices around the utility of the tree
Álvaro Campelo
Universidade Fernando Pessoa
Praça de 9 de Abril 349, Porto
[email protected]
The relationship between tree and the use of wood is the issue of the sense of each tree in
the collective imagination and utility she has in everyday artefacts. There are clear
associations between characteristics of each tree and the use of its wood. However, the
usefulness of this wood cannot be turned off magic-religious sense that tree are in a
community cosmology. The aim in this communication is to relate the use of certain Woods
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in Northwest, in the artefacts of everyday life, with ethnographic objectives, and the rituals
associated with its ownership of human communities.
Keywords: Trees and there uses. Artefacts. Rituals and sacred trees. Signification of
different woods. Practices and cosmology of central and peripheral trees.
Ethnobotany and wood resources: the case study of Montesinho, Trás-os-Montes,
Portugal
Ana Maria Carvalho
Mountain Research Centre (CIMO), Scholl of Agriculture, Polytechnic Institute of Bragança (IPB). Campus Santa
Apolónia, 5300-253 Bragança, Portugal
[email protected]
Ethnobotanical inventories conducted in the Montesinho Natural Park (PNM) have
highlighted dynamic systems of folk botanical and traditional ecological knowledge about
community-based strategies of natural resources management and use, particularly wood
and scrublands resources.
The studied territory corresponds to a protected area of the North-eastern Portuguese region,
known as Trás-os-Montes, which is characterized by a diverse mountainous landscape and
significant local bio-cultural heritage. Biogeographically in the limit of the Mediterranean
and Eurosiberian zones, the PNM have singular geomorphological, climatic and ecological
characteristics providing a great diversity of habitats, flora and fauna. Moreover, many
vegetation types and plant communities are still similar to the primitive plant cover that
dominated the north of the country for thousands years (i.e. deciduous forest domain).
Different ethnographic methodologies provided information about the most important and
useful woody plants of the PNM and a semi-quantitative approach to document the relative
importance (IR index) of each species mentioned.
Overall, about 50 woody species from the woodlands or scrublands were reported having
been used for different purposes and applications since a long time (e.g. fuel, handicrafts,
agricultural technology and equipment, building, furniture and domestic tools, traditional
medicine, local gastronomy, fodder, manure, land management, and other).
Thirty-eight species were considered important combustible materials. Twenty-two plant
species were mentioned to be used for basketry, brooms and plaited artefacts. Among the
top ten presenting the highest IR index (which combines the highest citation frequency,
number of uses and versatility) are oak-trees, chestnut, narrow-leafed ash, elm, black-alder,
walnut, wild cherry and a heather species, so-called “torga”.
Keywords: Ethnobotany. Traditional Ecological Knowledge (TEK). Plant uses. Trás-osMontes.
Etnobotânica do sumagre (Rhus coriarii) no Douro transmontano
Lois Ladra
Investigador independente
[email protected]
O sumagre (Rhus coriarii) é uma planta arbustiva típica dos ecossistemas mediterrânicos,
tradicionalmente aproveitada para curtir as peles de diversos animais. Na região portuguesa
do Douro transmontano esta planta foi sistematicamente recolhida pelas populações rurais
locais até à segunda metade do século XX. Após a sua secagem, as folhas do sumagre eram
submetidas a um processo de trituração em atafonas locais movimentadas por tracção
animal, com o propósito de obter um pó que era objecto de comercialização, sendo
destinado às fábricas de curtumes.
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Nesta comunicação apresenta-se um resumo da investigação recentemente desenvolvida
pelo autor sobre o aproveitamento do sumagre no Douro transmontano, cujos resultados
foram partilhados com o público numa monografia específica e através de vários artigos
publicados em revistas locais e regionais.
Keywords: Etnobotânica. Sumagre. Douro. Curtume.
Wood and forest during the Middle Ages: interweaving of diverse sources
Aline Durand
Centre de Recherche en Archéologie, Archéosciences, Histoire UMR 6566. Université du Maine
Avenue Olivier Messiaen, 72085 Le Mans, France
[email protected]
This communication will try to show how the study of forests and forest management can
be carried out in the Middle Ages through various sources that mean anthracological,
textual, archaeological and ethnoarchaeological data. The crossing of these different sources
enriches research and provides more precise and safe results for a period for which it is
difficult to work in a diachronic way and for which we have to work on a time scale much
smaller. Through examples relating to the supply of fuel to craft structures, the question of
the origin (local or exogenous), of the species (choice or not of particular wood), the caliber
(or not) of the wood used to supply these structures is documented. These issues question
also the protection or management of forest plantations during this historical period. One of
the examples chosen illustrates that it is very easy to develop wrong interpretations in terms
of impact on vegetable environment of medieval society and to have a primary reading of
anthracological data. The ethnoarchaeological approach allows developing an accurate
reading of the same data and proposing a different interpretation. Indeed, 15 or 20 years
ago, it was still possible in the Iberian Peninsula and other parts of Europe (Albania,
Romania, Slovenia ...), and of course in the Maghreb to observe in rural societies traditional
craft production processes and technical operating sequence including supplying fire with
wooden fuel. These observations offer the opportunity to renew the interpretation of
archeological and anthracological data from craft structures.
Keywords: Wood. Firewood. Middle Ages. Anthracology. Archaeology. Ethnoarchaeology.
Timber in medieval construction: types and uses
Arnaldo Sousa Melo* and Maria do Carmo Ribeiro*
* Lab2PT-Universidade do Minho- Instituto de Ciências Sociais. Departamento de Història.
Campus de Gualtar. 4710-057 Braga
[email protected]
A importância da madeira na construção medieval em Portugal foi, sem dúvida, muito
relevante, à semelhança do que ocorre noutras regiões da Europa. Todavia, os locais de
aprovisionamento, bem como a gestão e uso desse tipo de recurso, constituem temáticas
pouco estudadas em Portugal. Na realidade, a escassez dos vestígios materiais sobreviventes
dificulta a elaboração de análises físicas e químicas que, entre outros, nos permitiriam
documentar o tipo de madeira, bem como a sua proveniência. De igual modo, as fontes
escritas nem sempre permitem documentar de forma precisa os locais de origem da madeira,
bem como as suas modalidades de obtenção, muito embora possibilitem, de forma mais
evidente, analisar algumas questões relativas aos seus usos.
Neste sentido um dos objetivos deste trabalho visa identificar alguns dos locais de
aprovisionamento de madeira, nomeadamente em sítios periurbanos, regionais mas também
através de fluxos inter-regionais e internacionais, nas cidades medievais portuguesas,
ilustrando em particular com os casos de algumas cidades do Norte e de Lisboa.
Pretende-se igualmente analisar algumas questões relacionadas com os diferentes tipos de
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madeira e utilizações aplicadas em distintas construções medievais.
A utilização deste tipo de material encontra-se diretamente relacionada com os recursos
locais e regionais, não invalidando o uso de madeira proveniente de territórios distantes,
atestando-se igualmente uma atividade e de transporte relacionada com este tipo de
materiais.
Paralelamente ao recurso à toponímia, excelente indicador dos locais florestais, as fontes
escritas permitem analisar os tipos e locais de origem de madeira, bem como modalidades
de aprovisionamento deste material, novo ou reutilizado, bem como fornecem informação
acerca dos múltiplos usos da madeira nas cidades medievais.
De igual modo, pretende-se analisar os diferentes níveis de influência que a madeira exercia
sobre a imagem da paisagem construída, nomeadamente ao nível da imagem, da cor e da
estética urbana, bem como da regulamentação com vista à gestão deste recurso.
Keywords: Madeira. História da construção. Idade Média. Portugal.
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Short Communications
Hunter-gatherers wood collecting practices: An archaeological case study from the
Archaic period in Canada
Marie-Annick Prevost
University of Toronto
30 Charles street West, apt. 1123, Toronto, Ontario (Canada), M4Y 1R5
[email protected]
Archaeological sites occupied seasonally by small groups of hunter-gatherers pose specific
methodological questions for the collection and interpretation of plant remains. Charred
macro-botanical remains tend to be sparse and, when the local environment is not
appropriate for pollen preservation, wood charcoal becomes an invaluable source of
information on the local environment and on wood collecting strategies of prehistoric
people. Surprisingly, wood charcoal is rarely considered beyond carbon dating on Canadian
prehistoric sites. By presenting the case study of the Archaic site of côte Rouge in eastern
Canada (5,600-3,500 cal BP), we will demonstrate that the identification of wood charcoal
nuanced the picture we had of the local environment, even challenging the conclusions of
the botanical macro-remains analysis that suggested that human activities could have caused
the opening of the forest canopy. Moreover, we will discuss some methodological issues
related to the study of a short occupation in a forested environment. Those issues include the
small size of pieces that impeded the recording of some dendrological variables and the risk
of contamination of prehistoric archaeological deposits by charcoal from past forest fires
and from modern activities.
Keywords: Archaeology. Archaeobotany. Eastern North America. Archaic Period.
Looking at domestic life where wood is no longer there!
Ana Cruz
Centro de Pré-História do Instituto Politécnico de Tomar.
Campus da Quinta do Contador - Edifício M. Estrada da Serra, 2300-313 Tomar, Portugal
[email protected]
The Middle Tagus region is located at the centre of Portugal, hydrologically the Middle
Tagus is dominated by Tagus hydrographic basin including the three main tributaries,
Zêzere, Nabão and Almonda rivers. The region’s geography is characterized by the meeting
of three geologic units, Ceno-Mesozoic Edge, Ancient Massive and Tagus-Sado Tertiary
basin convergence, favouring special biotypes exploited by various survival strategies.
The three-dimensional artefacts record matched the stratigraphic layers (B and C) like the
positive and negative structures, clearly seen in situ, allowing us to develop a different
scenario that obviously deny the idea of a complete inland desertification at Epipaleolithic
period, leaving only the estuarine environments to communities get together.
The excavation methodology has allowed us to observe at Amoreira the same stratigraphic
unit (layer C) containing two diachronic occupations, on the same contiguous area,
represented by negative structures; an Epipaleolithic pit, maybe a fireplace full of charcoal
and Holocene macro lythic flakes; another one, representing a row of Neolithic postholes
filled with pottery sherds and Holocene macro lithic flakes.
At this site there were no taphonomical problems like size effects or artefacts migration,
although there were some disturbed sediments by some burrows (reptiles, rats, ants). We
stand before a “geological/archaeological synchrony”, e. g., within the same stratigraphical
unit - a horizontal layer of alluvial sediments, C – uncovered two diachronic occupations,
13
one represented by an Epipaleolithic charcoal pit, another representing a shelter (postholes)
from Middle Neolithic. Palinological studies defined this site as atlantic-mediterranean
climate, with typical deciduous Quercus, pine tree, alder, ash, Arbutus and Ericacea,
Cistacea, Apiaceae, Plantago, cereals.
Keywords: Settlement. Epipaleolithic. Neolithic. Post-holes. Fireplace. Charcoal.
The anthracological results from Coro Trasito cave. An approach to high mountain
landscapes
Laura Obea Gómez*, Javier Rey Lanaspa, Ermengol Gassiot Ballbé, Ignacio Clemente
Conte, Sara Díaz Bonilla, Manuel Quesada Carrasco, David Garcia Casas, David Rodriguez
Anton, Niccolò Mazzucco, Ferran Antolín Tutusaus
*Departament de Prehistòria, Universitat Autònoma de Barcelona
Edifici B Facultat de Filosofia i Lletres 08193 Bellaterra (Barcelona)
[email protected]
Coro Trasito (Tella-Sin, Huesca) is a cave located at 1548 m.a.s.l. in the central Pyrenees
with some evidences of animal husbandry. Since 2011, three survey pits have been dug and
two excavation campaigns have been carried out revealing an intense sequence of
occupations between the 6th and 2nd millennia BC. Although the investigation is in its firsts
steps, the materials recovered allows us a first approach to the use of the cave as well as to
the landscape surrounding it. The recovering of macro and micro botanical remains is an
important aspect of the excavation process in mountain areas as well as the recovering of
soil samples for water flotation. In this communication we present a first approach to the
results from the study of the charred wood coming from one survey pit and compared with
those recovered in the last digging campaign. These data show the exploitation of firewood
over the years in which the cave was occupied and how this activity changed its nearest
landscape. Thanks to the remains recovered the last summer during the digging campaign,
we can see how this change was more visible in the 2nd millennium BC. The impact of
firewood recollection, then, was strong even if it was, as far as it seems, an opportunistic
activity carried out next to the cave. On the other hand, some fragments let us think that not
only is firewood gathering the activity shown in the anthracological record but also wooden
tools and residues of other resources.
Obea, L. 2014. El paisaje en el Neolítico, un estudio preliminar de los restos antracologicos
de Coro Trasito (Tella-Sin, Huesca), in I. Clemente Conte, E. Gassiot Ballbè, J. Rey
Lanaspa (coords.), El Sobrarbe antes del Sobrarbe. Pinceladas de Historia de los Pirineos,
Centro de Estudios de Sobrarbe, D.L., 43-54.
Clemente Conte, I. 2014. “Cort o Transito”- Coro Trasito - o corral de tránsito: una cueva
pastoril del Neolítico Antiguo en el corazón del Sobrarbe, in I. Clemente Conte, E. Gassiot
Ballbè, J. Rey Lanaspa (coords.), El Sobrarbe antes del Sobrarbe. Pinceladas de Historia
de los Pirineos, Centro de Estudios de Sobrarbe, D.L., 11-32.
Keywords: Mountains. Firewood. Anthracology. Landscape.
Use, management and spatial analysis of wood resources in the iberian oppidum of
Puente de Tables (Jaén, Spain)
María Oliva Rodríguez-Ariza
Instituto Universitario de Investigación en Arqueología Ibérica-Universidad de Jaén.
Edf. C6- Campus De Las Lagunillas S/N. 23071 Jaén (Spain)
[email protected]
The oppidum of Puente Tablas, excavated since 1985 by a team from the University of Jaen,
14
has revealed the existence of complex planning with different functional area: gate,
sanctuary, palace and neighborhood houses. Conducting a systematic sampling flotation
allowed us to get a significant number of charcoals and perform a spatial charcoal analysis
of the results. Also, the contrast of these results allows us to begin to see the different uses
that certain woody species had and begin calibrating the management of wood resources of
this population of the Iron Age.
Keywords: Iberian Period. Charcoal Analysis.
Management.
South of the Iberian Peninsula. Wood
Arquiteturas e móveis de madeira na II Idade do Ferro em Trás-os-Montes Oriental:
O sítio da Quinta de Crestelos
Javier Larrazabal Galarza
Bolseiro de Doutoramento FCT (SFRH/BD/109294/2015)
Lab2PT-Universidade do Minho- Instituto de Ciências Sociais.
Campus de Gualtar. 4710-057 Braga
[email protected]
As escavações realizadas entre os anos 2011 e 2014 na Quinta de Crestelos (Mogadouro,
Portugal), têm documentado um excepcional sítio arqueológico provido de uma dilatada
diacronia de ocupação que se estende desde a Pré-História Recente até o presente. Durante a
II Idade do Ferro, na área inferior de um pequeno morro localizado junto ao rio Sabor,
foram instaladas várias estruturas domésticas e funcionais edificadas em pedra e,
principalmente, terra e madeira, como se infere da descoberta de numerosos buracos de
poste e abundantes fragmentos de revestimentos de argila com impressões de madeiras.
Keywords: Trás-os-Montes. Quinta de Crestelos. II Idade do Ferro. Arquiteturas térreas.
Mobiliário. Revestimentos argilosos.
Wooden material culture during Bronze and Iron Age in Northwest Iberia: wooden
vessels and their skeuomorphs
Josefa Rey Castiñeira*, María Martín-Seijo, Alba Antía Rodríguez Nóvoa, Ana M.S.
Bettencourt
*GEPN-Grupo de Estudos para a Prehistoria do NW Ibérico. Departamento de Historia I. Universidade de Santiago
de Compostela. Praza da Universidade s/n. 15782 Santiago de Compostela
[email protected]
Wood was used in many different ways in the day-to-day life of the Bronze and Iron Age
communities of North-western Iberia, although the perishable nature of this material
frequently avoids the preservation of wooden material culture archaeological contexts. Until
this moment several examples of wooden vessels and other objects have been recovered
from Bronze and Iron Age sites preserved by accidentally or intentionally charring. In this
research we will approach to this wooden material culture using skeuomorphs, which are
copies of prototype artifacts replicated in different physical materials (Blitz 2015).
Blitz, J.H. 2015. Skeuomorphs, pottery and technological change, American Anthropologist
117 (4): 665-678.
Keywords: Wooden material culture. Wooden vessels. Skeuomorphs. Iron Age. NW Iberia.
15
Organic geochemistry and archeological woods characterization
Mohamed Traoré* , Joeri Kaal, Antonio Martínez Cortizas
*Departamento de Edafología y Química Agrícola, Facultad de Biología, Universidade de Santiago de Compostela
Campus Sur s/n, Santiago de Compostela 15782, Spain
[email protected]
Archeologists, historians and other experimental scientists can collaborate in an
interdisciplinary framework in the study of archeological woods. The aim of this
contribution is to provide an understanding on how the chemical characterization of
archaeological wood artifacts may be of application in archeological/historical
investigations, because it can provide information on the type of wood (genus and species),
source area (provenance) and diagenetic transformations due to burial and storage in
different environments. Here, we focus on the organic chemical composition of
archeological woods as characterized by Attenuated Total Reflectance Fourier Transform
Infrared spectroscopy (FTIR-ATR) and pyrolysis coupled to gas chromatography and mass
spectrometry (Py-GC-MS). Both are techniques widely used for wood characterization.
Considering the limited availability and the value of the archeological samples, the use of
these non-destructive (FTIR-ATR) or limited sample requirements (< 1 mg, Py-GC-MS)
techniques, provides an opportunity to generate data with minimum or no sample
processing. We studied three archeological timbers, two from shipwrecks (Ribadeo and
Magdalena) and one from a building (Cathedral of Segovia). Depending on the conditions
of the places where they were located, lignins and polysaccharides underwent specific
diagenetic reactions that altered the physical and chemical properties of the wood. For
example, the dominant anoxic (underwater) conditions prevailing for shipwrecks stimulated
the hydrolysis of polysaccharide compounds while lignin was relatively preserved, leading
to a depletion of the carbohydrates. On the other hand, the aerated (oxidizing) conditions to
which the beam wood was subjected resulted in a decrease in lignin content, which is
known to be more sensitive to oxidative degradation. These techniques provide
opportunities for provenance studies of archeological wood after cross-comparison with the
information obtained by archeologists and historians.
Traoré, M., Kaal, J., Martínez Cortizas, A. 2016. Application of FTIR spectroscopy to the
characterization of archeological wood, Spectrochim. Acta A-M. 153, 63-70.
Colombini, M.P., Lucejko, J.J., Modugno, F., Orlandi, M., Tolppab, E.L., Zoia, L. 2009. A
multianalytical study of degradation of lignin in archaeological waterlogged wood, Talanta
80: 61-70.
Colombini, M.P., Orlandi, M., Modugno, F., Tolppa, E.L., Sardelli, M., Zoia, L., Crestini,
C. 2007. Archaeological wood characterization by PY/GC/MS, GC/MS, NMR and GPC
techniques, Microchem Journal 85: 164-173.
Wilson, A.W., Godfrey, I.M., Hanna, J.V., Quezada, R.A., Finnie, K.S. 1993. The
degradation of wood in old Indian Ocean shipwrecks, Organic Geochemistry 20: 599-610.
Borgin, B.K., Faix, O., Schweers, W. 1975. The effect of aging on lignins of wood, Wood
Science Technology 9: 207-211.
Keywords: Biomass. Diagenesis. Spectra. Pyrolysate. Shipwreck. Timber. Provenance.
A madeira na mineração e metalurgia romanas auríferas em Portugal
Carla Maria Braz Martins
External collaborator of the Engineering Faculty of the Oporto University (Chemistry Department).
Lab2PT-Universidade do Minho- Instituto de Ciências Sociais .
Campus de Gualtar. 4710-057 Braga
[email protected]
A madeira foi uma matéria-prima importante para a exploração mineira e metalurgia do
período romano, embora as suas evidências arqueológicas no actual território português
sejam escassas, atendendo ao material perecível que é. A mineração consubstanciada na
16
exploração subterrânea apresenta bastantes constrangimentos, particularmente ao nível da
segurança, e daí a necessidade de usar escoramentos de madeira em galerias e poços. Este
árduo trabalho obriga o mineiro a munir-se de todo um conjunto de instrumentos de ferro
encabados por madeira. O evoluir dos trabalhos, por norma através de vários níveis de
profundidade, impõe também a necessidade de utilização desta matéria-prima em escadas,
assim como em máquinas elevatórias para extracção da água quando se atingem os lençóis
freáticos. No tratamento do minério, este material continua também a ser imprescindível,
como o descrito por Agrícola para as instalações de separação gravítica. No âmbito do
processo metalúrgico, a madeira era a fonte de combustível dos fornos. Não sendo,
obviamente, a condição única em todo este processo industrial, a madeira assume-se
inequivocamente como uma infra-estrutura (vastas áreas florestadas) importante na
exploração mineira “proto-industrial” romana. As evidências deste material registado pela
historiografia aparecem, como exemplo, nas dez rodas em madeira de azinho com os
respectivos baldes para escoamento de águas nas minas de S. Domingos, Beja, e cujos
originais estão actualmente desaparecidos, e os demais achados estudados provêm das minas
dos Mouros e Três Minas em Vila Pouca de Aguiar, e mina de Aljustrel, Beja. Os diferentes
tipos de madeira, carvalho, castanho ou azinho, articulam-se com a existência da matériaprima em cada um dos locais.
Keywords: Madeira. Mineração. Metalurgia. Ouro. Romanização.
Pegar de estaca. As fundações de madeira do edifício Sede do Banco de Portugal em
Lisboa
Artur Rocha
Arqueohoje, Conservação e Restauro do Património Monumental, Lda.
Rua Escola, Lote 9, Loja 2 – Br. Sta. Eulália. 3500-682 Viseu, Portugal
[email protected]
Apesar do lugar de destaque ganho no imaginário da reconstrução de Lisboa após o
terramoto de 1755, as fundações de madeira dos edifícios pombalinos continuam a ser um
objecto relativamente desconhecido, um ícone indelevelmente associado à paisagem da
Baixa mas invisível à maior parte daqueles que por ela passam. Num cenário onde são
escassos os exemplares visíveis ao grande público, a escavação arqueológica da Sede do
Banco de Portugal foi uma rara oportunidade de descobrir e estudar um conjunto
significativo desta estacaria. Esta comunicação abordará os traços fundamentais da estacaria
enquanto elemento funcional e simbólico, refletindo sobre a sua origem e sobre a sua
aplicação na cidade de Lisboa.
Keywords: Estacaria. Pombalino. Lisboa. Banco de Portugal.
A propósito da feitura de carvão vegetal no Crastoeiro (Mondim de Basto, Vila Real):
notas etnográficas e documentais
António Dinis
Lab2PT-Universidade do Minho
Campus de Gualtar. 4710-057 Braga
[email protected]
Desde 1985, data da realização das primeiras sondagens no Crastoeiro, multiplicaram-se as
evidências da feitura de carvão vegetal neste sítio arqueológico, localizado na meia encosta
do Monte Farinha, no concelho de Mondim de Basto (Vila Real). Integrado numa mancha
florestal de considerável dimensão, o local seria escolhido pela proximidade aos recursos
vegetais e à aldeia de Campos, de onde eram originários os principais carvoeiros que aí
laboravam, pela topografia aplanada e existência de espaços despidos de vegetação, que
contribuíam para reduzir o risco de incêndio e pela proliferação de batólitos graníticos que
serviam de barreira visual, ajudando a camuflar aquelas atividades ilegais.
17
A necessidade de entender a estratigrafia arqueológica perturbada pela abertura de covachos
para a queima das madeiras, motivou a recolha de testemunhos etnográficos e conduziu-nos
à pesquisa documental, daí resultando um conjunto significativo de dados que entendemos
ser oportuno partilhar neste meeting internacional dedicado à madeira e ao carvão.
Keywords: Carvão vegetal. Etnografia. Documentação. Crastoeiro. Mondim de Basto.
Os recursos de madeira no convento de Vilar de Frades: da construção aos objetos
do quotidiano
António Pereira
Bolseiro de Doutoramento FCT (SFRH/BD/110434/2015)
Lab2PT-Universidade do Minho. Instituto de Ciências Sociais.
Campus de Gualtar. 4710-057 Braga
[email protected]
O Convento de S. Salvador de Vilar de Frades, localizado no concelho de Barcelos
(Norte de Portugal), possui uma ocupação monástica atestada desde o século XI.
Classificado como monumento nacional em 1910, trata-se de um complexo monásticoconventual que abrange uma sequência construtiva que se desenvolve paulatinamente
desde o românico até ao neoclássico. Em resultado das diferentes fases construtivas, a
edificação atual integra um conjunto diversificado de materiais e matérias-primas
aplicadas de acordo com diferentes técnicas construtivas. Dos diversos espaços que
compõem este complexo arquitetónico, a igreja e os claustros constituem-se locais
privilegiados na análise dos recursos madeireiros. De facto, estes constituem o grupo de
materiais perecíveis de maior expressão. Apesar do grande impacto da madeira na
construção monástica, na verdade verificamos que a sua utilização é bastante transversal.
Aplicando-se quer na construção quer na produção de objetos do quotidiano como o
mobiliário. A presente comunicação tem por objetivo analisar a forma como os recursos
madeireiros estão presentes em Vilar de Frades, seja ao nível da sua utilização e gestão
na construção, seja da sua presença na articulação existente entre o edificado e o
mobiliário. Pretende-se igualmente, levantar algumas hipóteses relativamente aos
diferentes tipos de madeira utilizada, bem como os locais de captação ou proveniência. A
concretização dos nossos objetivos baseia-se numa abordagem metodológica que
privilegia o conjunto de diferentes tipos de fontes, nomeadamente o edificado conservado
e os dados decorrentes da análise de fontes documentais.
Keywords: Arqueologia. Construção. Mosteiros. Conventos. Madeira.
Wood and forest inside medieval mentality
Lucía Triviño Guerrero
Universidad Complutense de Madrid. Av. Séneca, 2. 28040. Madrid.
[email protected]
While trying to restore the unconstructed medieval landscape in western Europe, our mind
imagines land covered by forests. Is this preconceived idea real? The importance of wood in
medieval daily life and economy was undeniable: constructions, tools, equipment and heat
source, transport… Wood, along with metal and stone, was one of the most important
materials used in western Middle Ages. However, its importance did not only rest in its
functionality but in its special symbolism in areas of cult. Unlike metal and stone, wood was
considered a living matter as it lives, suffers from diseases and deteriorates. This conception
would be reinforced with the inclusion of the vegetal kingdom inside a group of animated
beings by giving to its members an inner system composed by veins without pulse, where
sap would flow, as in an human body.
If this material has such a representative symbolism, which would have been the conception
upon the major wood container, the forest? Same happens with wood, the forest has an
18
intrinsic duality composed by a feeling of both fear and worship. Its important role among
pagan beliefs turned it into a usual dwell of ancient traditions that stayed alive in literature,
folklore and popular knowledge. Woods were conceived as a paradigm of the Otherness
where the human being could be free from all strict standards of the civilized world.
The aim of this proposal is to reveal the role of wood and forest inside medieval mentality,
proving this to be a continuation of ancient beliefs and traditions masked on an already
Christianized Europe.
Keywords: Middle Ages. Wood. Forest. Mentalities. Ancient beliefs.
19
20
Posters
Random gathering or intentional wood selection? Charcoal analysis of pit 16 deposit
from Perdigões archaeological site
Ginevra Coradeschi*, Cristina Dias, Fernando Branco, Laura Sadori, Antonio Valera
*Laboratório HERCULES, Universidade de Évora.
Palácio do Vimioso, Largo Marquês de Marialva 8, 7000-809 Évora Portugal
[email protected]
The large ditched enclosure of Perdigões is located in the Reguengos de Monsaraz
municipal-ity, Evora district, in southern Portugal. Several funerary features have been
discovered since 1997 and radiocarbon dated to the second half of the 4th millennium BC
and the 3rd millen-nium BC. A variety of burial features and body manipulation practices
have been docu-mented (Valera et al. 2014).
A pit (16) was identified in the central area of the site, containing remains of human cremations, which formed a conical deposit. The remains of at least 9 individuals (6 adults and 3
sub-adults) were mixed with other burnt artefacts (faunal remains, fragments of pottery,
ivory idols and arrowheads) as well as a large number of charcoal fragments, deposited in a
dark grey sediment with abundant ash.
This particular burial context has been dated to the middle of the 3rd millennium BC and is
interpreted as a secondary deposition – a practice that has also been witnessed in other contexts in the central area of the Perdigões enclosure. This exceptional collective cremation
represents an unprecedented funerary context amongst Iberian Chalcolithic burial practices.
Furthermore, it is an example of the diversity of mortuary practices in use by Chalcolithic
populations (Silva et al. 2015).
Anthracological analysis of charcoal collected from the pit 16 was undertaken in order to
obtain more information on the funerary context, as well as better understand whether the
selection of the wood taxa was intentional, and thus dictated by the funerary ritual, or more
simply linked to the availability in the natural environment.
Moreover, this charcoal analysis will also provide additional paleocological informations to
the past palynological analysis (Danielsen and Mendes 2013) together with the ongoing
analysis of the macroremains collected from a different area of the Perdigões enclosure.
Valera, A.C., Silva, A.M., Cunha, C., Evangelista, L.S. 2014. Funerary practices and body
manipulations at Neolithic and Chalcolithic Perdigões ditched enclosures (South Portugal),
in A.C.Valera (ed.), Recent Prehistoric Enclosures and Funerary Practices. BAR
International Series 2676, Oxford: Archaeopress, 37-57.
Silva, A.M., Leandro, L., Pereira, D., Costa, C., Valera, A.C. 2014. Collective secondary
cremation in a pit grave: a unique funerary context in portuguese Chalcolithic burial
practices, HOMO - Journal of Comparative Human Biology 66: 1-14.
Danielsen, R., Mendes, P. 2013. Paleoenvironmental assessment of two archaeological
sediments from Perdigões, Alentejo Region, Portugal, Apontamentos de Arqueologia e
Património NIA-ERA 9: 13-20.
Keywords: Charcoal analysis. Iberian Chalcolithic. Secondary deposition. Cremation
remains.
New anthracological analysis of fuel wood from Neolithic site of La Draga (Banyoles,
Spain)
Anna Franch*, Raquel Piqué
*Laboratori d'Arqueobotànica. Departament de Prehistòria, Universitat Autònoma de Barcelona. Edifici B, 08193
21
Bellaterra.
[email protected]
La Draga (Banyoles, Spain) is an outdoor site, located on the east of Banyoles lake, dated
around the last quarter of the sixth millennium cal BC. Recent research at the Neolithic site
has provided new archaeobotanical materials. We present the preliminary studies of
charcoal analyzes, extracted from the expansion of sector A, excavated in 2013, 2014 and
2015. The study of the anthracological remains consisted on a taxonomical analysis, study
of the growth-ring curvature and the analysis of the alterations. The charcoals were
collected during the sieving with water (0.2 and 0.5 mm mesh). It was carried out a
sampling in the laboratory we study a maximum of 30 charcoals fragments for square meter
and level, to represent their diversity. 7 taxa have been identified, which include Quercus
sp. deciduous, Laurus nobilis and Buxus sempervirens.
Keywords: Archaeology. Anthracology. Neolithic. Holocene. La Draga. Iberian peninsula.
Vestígios arqueobotânicos dos enchimentos das estruturas em negativo de planta subretangular alongada e em forma de “osso” da Pré-história Recente do Interior
Alentejano
Lídia Baptista*, Sérgio Gomes
*Arqueologia e Património Lda; Centro de Estudos em Arqueologia, Artes e Ciências do Património (CEAACP)
Rua do Chouso, 434. 4455-804 Santa Cruz do Bispo, Matosinhos
[email protected]
Nas estações da Pré-história Recente do Baixo Alentejo têm sido identificadas um conjunto
de estruturas em negativo de planta sub-retangular alongada e em forma de “osso”. Em
termos espaciais, podemos reconhecer três modalidades no modo como aparecem estas
estruturas: i) de modo, aparentemente, “isolado”; ii) em áreas de concentração de estruturas
em negativo de diferente morfologia; iii) e, por último, de modo concentrado e organizadas
em bandas que delimitam uma unidade espacial de planta poligonal. A sequência de
enchimento desta estruturas é, frequentemente, constituída por um único depósito que,
pontualmente, pode embalar uma componente artefactual pouco expressiva. Porém, existem
dois casos em que os seus enchimentos são mais complexos: i) apresentando contextos que
se singularizam pela presença de elementos faunísticos; ii) e níveis de enchimento que
apresentam vestígios arqueobotânicos, que sugerem a eventual associação destas estruturas
em negativo a construções em madeira. Neste poster centraremos a análise neste último
caso, apresentando o modo como os vestígios de construção em madeira se encontram
articulados com os restantes elementos que compõem o enchimento das estruturas.
Keywords: Estruturas em negativo. Vestígios arqueobotânicos. Pré-história Recente. Baixo
Alentejo.
Woodland and Bronze Age burial practices in the NW of Iberia
Ana M. S. Bettencourt*, Maria Martín-Seijo, Hugo Aluai Sampaio and Francisco Fernandes
* Lab2PT-Universidade do Minho- Instituto de Ciências Sociais. Departamento de Història.
Campus de Gualtar, . 4710-057 Braga
[email protected]
Since the Neolithic wood and other woodland resources have been used in ceremonies
related to funerary practices in Northwest of Iberia. Examples of these practices may
include hearths under the tumulus of megalithic monuments or the use of resins as bindings
in the paint preparations used in the orthostats from chambers and corridors of these
monuments.
During the Bronze Age there are several and diverse evidences of the use of woodland
resources in funerary practices, although linked with different contexts. These are
materialized by: hearths identified under the covering slab of cists; hearths identified in
22
necropolis areas; remains of fireplaces included in the tumulus of megalithic monuments;
construction of sarcophagi; probable individual cremations; crematory pyres; etc.
The archaeological and anthracological study of these practices allows the understanding of
some social and symbolic aspects, so as infer the interrelation between the communities
with the surrounding environment and their technological skills. In this sense, it is pretended
to essay a synthesis about the role of anthracology and its contribution to increase our
knowledge about the funerary world during the Bronze Age in the NW of Iberia.
Keywords: Iberian Northwest. Bronze Age. Funerary practices. Archaeology.
Anthracology.
Wattle hurdles and wooden structures during the Iron Age: positives from clay
imprints recovered at Castro de S. Vicente da Chã (Montalegre, Northern Portugal)
María Martín-Seijo*, João Fonte, Inés L. López-Dóriga
*GEPN-Grupo de Estudos para a Prehistoria do NW Ibérico. Departamento de Historia I. Universidade de Santiago
de Compostela. Praza da Universidade s/n. 15782 Santiago de Compostela
[email protected]
Wattle hurdles and structures made of wood were frequent and commonly covered with clay
at Iron Age sites of Northwest Iberia. The perishable nature of wood has conditioned the
preservation of indirect evidences of such fences and structures. Several clay fragments with
branch and trunk imprints recovered at the site of Castro de S. Vicente da Chã (Montalegre,
Northern Portugal) have been studies. The negative imprints in clay have been measured
and optically examined. Silicone forms have been obtained to study the positives of those
perishable materials. This site was object of rescue excavations in the 1960s of the 20th
century by J. R. dos Santos Junior, Agostinho Isidoro and Osvaldo Freire due to the
construction of the Alto Rabagão dam, financed by the former Empresa Hidro Eléctrica do
Cávado.
Freire, O. 1968. O castro de S. Vicente da Chã (Montalegre). Campanhas de escavações de
1965 e 1966. Trabalhos de Antropologia e Etnologia 20 (3-4): 368-375.
Santos Júnior, J.R., Isidoro, A. 1963. Escavações no Castro de S. Vicente da Chã (Barroso).
Trabalhos de Antropologia E Etnologia 19 (2): 178-186.
Santos Júnior, J.R., Freire, O. 1964. O Castro de S. Vicente da Chã (Barroso). Campanha de
escavações de 1964. Trabalhos de Antropologia e Etnologia, 19 (3-4): 336-371.
Keywords: Wattle hurdle. Wooden structures. Building. Iron Age. Coppicing.
Fires in the dark. Burning of grain and human bones in the burial cave of Riocueva
(Entrambasaguas, Cantabria) in the 7th-8th centuries
Enrique Gutiérrez Cuenca*, José Ángel Hierro Gárate, Inés López López-Dóriga, María
Martín Seijo
*Proyecto Mauranus. C/ Eulogio Fernández Barros 7, 3º A, 39600, Maliaño, Cantabria (Spain)
[email protected]
The cave of Riocueva was used as a burial place sometime in the 7th-8th centuries.
Archaeological work carried out between 2010 and 2014 has allowed the recovery of the
remains of at least six young individuals and many objects associated to them: glass beads,
rings, spindle hooks, knives, pot sherds… As it happens in another burial caves from these
times known in Cantabria, rituals linked to the corpses have been detected. The destruction
and burning of the skulls is the most stunning of them. However, burning grain beside the
bodies, a custom forbidden by medieval penance books, has also been suggested as a
possible practice. The results of the wood and charcoal analysis carried out on samples from
23
the site are presented in this work: they are charcoal fragments connected to the burnings,
and also to the remains of other combustion structures.
Keywords: Cave. Cantabria. Burial. Visigothic. Burning. Grain. Charcoal.
“Medium-term” deposition? Not so bad: Archaeobotanical studies of Zaballa medieval
village (Basque Country, North of Spain)
Riccardo Santeramo
University of the Basque Country, Department of Geography, Prehistory and Archaeology
C/Tomás y Valiente s/n, 01006 Vitoria-Gasteiz (Spain)
[email protected]
The poster illustrates the results of the anthracological studies carried out in Zaballa site
(6th-16th centuries), a deserted rural medieval village, situated in the south-west border of
the Alava plain (Basque Country, north-west Spain) investigated by the Heritage and
Cultural Landscape Research Group. Given the long-term occupation and the large quantity
of archaeobotanical remains, it is possible to understand how representative the charcoals
are in our context in order to analyse past vegetation. In Zaballa, as in most of the Basque
Country sites, the scarcity of long-term formed layers brings us to sample charcoals from
other kind of layers. Depositional processes generated by waste management activities and
involved in the formation of silo, pit and deposit fillings, seems to be related to a “mediumterm” deposition (theorically of about several months duration). For this purpose, taxa
variety of different of layers -silo/pit/deposit fillings, occupation surfaces and hearths- have
been compared. The results show that: 1 - the charcoal species variety from fillings is
greater than that from hearths, overcoming, in some cases, that from occupation surfaces; 2 charcoals from silo, pit and deposit fillings could be quite representative of the paleolandscape since they were originated in not-specific domestic or productive activities and
they are rich in taxa, especially considering them in their entirety; 3 – hearths are related to
specific and short-term depositions as a consequence of selection, hence there is little
variation concerning the number of species. Nevertheless, they fill some gaps in the
knowledge of past vegetation, showing taxa which were not determined in other kind of
layers.
Keywords: Archaeology. Anthracolgy. Middle Ages. Methodology. North of Spain.
Maya paleoethnobotany: ancient and modern use of ocote (Pinus spp.)
Felipe Trabanino* and Aurora Muriente Pastrana
*UNAM, Programa de Becas Posdoctorales en la UNAM, Becario del CEPHCIS
Ex Sanatorio Rendón Peniche. Calle 43 s/n entre 44 y 46, col. Industrial. C.P. 97150, Mérida, Yucatán, México
[email protected]
Archaeobotanical remains of ocote pine have been recovered from different sites for the
Classic period (300 – 900 d.C) in the Maya region showing uses from ritual ceremonies to
household refuse in the fertilization of agricultural fields. Our results in the Palenque region
fot the 620 d.C suggest that there was no difference in the use of ocote in the residential
units compared to that in the palace units. Ocote remains were found in ceremonial contexts,
burials, household refuse deposited in home gardens, and patio’s soils. Modern use of ocote
in Guatemala and Chiapas has an economic importance with the cutting of pine sticks to sell
in regional markets, to use as torch for illumination and lighting daily cooking fires.
Keywords: Maya paleoethnobotany. Palenque Chiapas. Ocote. Pinus.
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O uso da madeira na arquitetura popular nas aldeias de Alijó: São Mamede de
Ribatua, Amieiro e Franzilhal
Pedro Ricardo Coelho de Azevedo
Universidade do Minho.
Campus de Gualtar, . 4710-057 Braga
[email protected]
A utilização da madeira nas mais variadas construções tais como habitações, dependências
para o abrigo de gado ou armazenamento de cereais, é comprovada nas edificações que
constituem os núcleos habitacionais de várias vilas e cidades portuguesas, onde subsistem
várias construções com origem na Idade Média e chegam aos nossos dias.
Os materiais utilizados na edificação das casas eram provenientes dos locais próximos do
lugar de construção. A madeira era um elemento omnipresente, pois ao longo dos séculos a
madeira foi sendo utilizada nas mais variadas partes da casa, tais como paredes, sobrados,
escadas, entre outros elementos. Apesar do avigoramento na aproveitação dos materiais
pétreos, o uso da madeira continuava a ser uma constante nas épocas medieval e moderna.
Keywords: Arquitetura Popular. Madeira. Técnicas Construtivas.
Uso de madeira em cestaria tradicional: palha e silva (Cinfães), cana rachada (Marco
de Canavezes) e piorna (Baião)
Daniela Ferreira, Filipe Vaz*, João Machado
*Bolseiro de Doutoramento FCT (SFRH/BD/99930/2014)
CIBIO – Research Center in Biodiversity and Genetic Resources. FLUP – Faculty of Arts, University of Porto.
Museu da Universidade do Porto, Sala 2.21, Universidade do Porto, Praça Gomes Teixeira, 4099-002 - Porto,
Portugal
[email protected]
No âmbito do alargamento da rede de património cultural “Rota do Românico” aos
concelhos de Cinfães, Resende, Marco de Canavezes e Baião, foram inventariados e
recolhidos vários elementos relativos ao património imaterial destes territórios. Este poster
abordará o processo de produção de cestaria tradicional tendo como exemplo os casos da
cestaria de palha e silva (Gralheira, Cinfães), cana rachada (Soalhães, Marco de Canavezes)
e piorna (Frende, Baião). Dar-se-á especial enfâse ás duas partes principais deste processo:
por um lado, a seleção, recolha e tratamento de madeiras tendo por fim a sua utilização
como matéria prima deste produto, e por outro, o processo técnico da sua manufatura.
Keywords: Património imaterial. Madeira. Manufactura. Cestaria.
Registo imaterial da produção de Bengalas de Gestaçô (Baião)
Daniela Ferreira, Filipe Vaz*
* Bolseiro de Doutoramento FCT (SFRH/BD/99930/2014)
CIBIO – Research Center in Biodiversity and Genetic Resources FLUP – Faculty of Arts, University of Porto
Museu da Universidade do Porto, Sala 2.21, Universidade do Porto, Praça Gomes Teixeira, 4099-002 - Porto,
Portugal
[email protected]
O alargamento do projeto “Rota do Românico” a vários concelhos do território do Tâmega e
Sousa levou à recolha e inventariação de vários elementos relativos ao património imaterial
deste território e, entre eles, as bengalas de Gestaçô (Baião). Este poster centrar-se-á não só
no processo técnico e tecnológico da produção das bengalas, mas também da história e
evolução do fabrico desta manufatura e do seu impacto socioeconómico nesta região.
Keywords: Património imaterial. Madeira. Manufactura. Bengalas.
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Wooden objects and fruits recovered from the first medieval ditch of Santiago de
Compostela (Galicia, Spain)
Yolanda Porto Tenreiro*, María Martín Seijo, Andrés Teira Brión, Paula Ballesteros-Arias,
Felipe Criado-Boado and Dolores Gil Agra
*Incipit-Instituto de Ciencias do Patrimonio, Avenida de Vigo s/n, 15705 Santiago de Compostela. Fráxil. Rúa
Bonaval 29, baixo. 15703 Santiago de Compostela
[email protected]
Waterlogging favoured the preservation of several wooden objects and fruits inside the first
medieval ditch that surrounded the city of Santiago de Compostela. The wooden assemblage
in the bottom of the fill was integrated by a yoke and two bowls in a context dated from 855
to 981 cal AD (78,6% probability -2 sigma-). Also one dish, in association with carpological
remains (mostly Prunus avium/cerasus seeds and Panicum miliaceum/Setaria italica chaff),
was found into a detritus pit dated between 1025-1165 cal AD (95,4% -2 sigma-). Wooden
pieces were taxonomically identified and dendrological attributes were registered, there
have been also recorded aspects related to their chaîne-operatóire and their biographies.
Keywords: Waterlogged wood. Wooden containers. Yoke. Xylology. Carpology.
A estacaria na construção pós-pombalina - Um caso-de-estudo sobre as madeiras
Helena Patrício*, Teresa Quilhó, Alexandra Lauw, António Valongo e Helena Pereira
*Centro de Estudos Florestais, Instituto Superior de Agronomia, Universidade de Lisboa
Instituto Superior de Agronomia. Tapada da Ajuda. 1349-017 Lisboa
[email protected]
No âmbito da reabilitação de um edifício pós-pombalino em Lisboa, datado, com base
documental, entre 1773 e 1776, observou-se que as estruturas de base se encontravam
assentes sobre uma estacaria ordeira de barrotes de madeira e cavilhas de ferro, cravadas no
aterro sobre o nível freático, servindo de base para os alicerces. A estacaria correspondia ao
início da construção das fundações dos novos edifícios, que é descrita na bibliografia
disponível muito genericamente como “pinho verde”. O objectivo do presente estudo é fazer
uma caracterização mais detalhada sobre as madeiras desta estacaria. Para tal as amostras
foram seleccionadas de acordo com a sua disposição na estrutura – elementos verticais e
horizontais. Para a identificação das espécies florestais utilizadas foram recolhidas amostras
de estacas, longarinas e travessas, para observação macro e microscópica da madeira.
Realizaram-se cortes histológicos transversais, tangenciais e radiais com micrótomo e
prepararam-se estilhas para observação dos elementos dissociados. A caracterização
anatómica da madeira foi realizada segundo as normas internacionais e a sua estrutura
documentada através de microfotografias. A análise dos anéis de crescimento permitiu
também determinar a idade e a classe de diâmetro da árvore utilizada para cada elemento da
estacaria.
Keywords: Estacaria. Séc. XVIII. Arqueologia. Anatomia da Madeira.
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