sabWoTa ruseTTan saqarTvelos damarcxebis zogierTi faqtoris

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sabWoTa ruseTTan saqarTvelos damarcxebis zogierTi faqtoris
iv.javaxiSvilis saxelobis istoriisa da eTnologiis
instituti
SoTa vadaWkoria
sabWoTa ruseTTan
saqarTvelos damarcxebis
zogierTi faqtoris
dazustebisaTvis
(1921 wlis Teberval- marti)
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UDC (uak)94(479.22;470)+355,48(479.22;470)`1921~
v- 126
naSromSi dokumentur masalaze dayrdnobiT gaanalizebulia: 1)wajeq- ukujeqis is politikuri kursi, romelic dasavleT evropis
saxelmwifoebma saqarTvelosTan mimarTebaSi 1919 wlis gazafxulidan
1921 wlis martamde gamoiCina (iaraRis, amuniciis, sursaTis droulad armiyidva, fulis arsesxeba); 2)naCvenebia, rom am qmedebiT, evropis saxelmwifoebma, qarTuli jaris gadaiaraRebas da sabrZolo
masaliT (rusuli vaznebi, zarbaznis Wurvebi) momaragebas SeuSala
xeli. 3)saarqivo masalebze dayrdnobiT wina planzea wamoweuli
1921 wlis Teberval_ martis sabrZolo moqmedebebTan dkavSirebuli
umniSvnelovanesi momentebi. dasabuTebulia, rom saqarTvelos SeiaraRebuli Zalebi, XI armias kustarulad datenili rusuli vaznebiT
Sexvda. safuZvlianadaa gaanalizebuli is taqtikuri Secdomebi,
romelic saqarTvelos SeiaraRebuli Zalebis sardlobis mier iqna
daSvebuli da mterTan generluri brZolis gamarTvis xelSemsleli faqtori gaxda. Sesabamis dokumentur masalaze dayrdnobiT,
gamoTqmulia mosazreba, rom baTumis okrugSi osmaleTis saokupacio jaris Sesvla, saqarTvelos kanonieri xelisuflebis `mi patiJebiT~ ki ara, ruseT- osmaleTis winaswari garigebiT ganxorcielda
da mas `maraTonul rbenaze~ dafuZnebuli daswrebis kursi edo
safuZvlad.
redaqtori oTar janeliZe
istoriis mecnierebaTa doqtori, profesori
recenzenti nato sonrulaSvili
istoriis doqtori, profesori
© `georgika~
[email protected]
2016
ISBN 978-9941-0-8463-8
2
Sesavali
saqarTvelos uaxlesi istoriis erT- erT umniSvnelovanes monakveTs 1918- 1921 wlebi warmoadgens. am mcire periodis gansakuTrebuli adgili imiT aris ganpirobebuli, rom
igi ruseTis koloniuri uRlisgan qarTvelTa TavdaRwevas
da Cvens sinamdvileSi pirveli demokratiuli respublikis
Seqmnas ukavSirdeba. vinc safuZvlianad icnobs am problematikisadmi miZRvnil uaxles samecniero literaturas, udaod
dameTanxmeba, rom saqarTvelos pirveli respublika, mefis
ruseTis mier ekonomikurad dacemul, finansurad gaZarcvul da samxreT kavkasiis regionis garSemo mimdinare politikurad umZimesi procesebis epicentrSi aRmocenda. visac
saxelmwifos mSeneblobisa da qveynis TavdacviTi meqanizmis SeqmnisTvis saWiro finansuri da ekonomikuri SesaZleblobebis mniSvneloba srulfasovnad aqvs gacnobierebuli,
mis winaSe bunebrivad daismeba kiTxva_ rogor iarseba 1028
dRis ganmavlobaSi qarTulma saxelmwifom?... miTumetes, dRevandeli gadasaxedidan, saqarTvelos mesame respublikis mTavrobebs, ucxo saxelmwifoebi aTeulobiT miliardis daxmarebas aZlevdnen da aZleven. miuxedavad amisa, qveynis ekonomika,
nulovani niSnulidan, saSualo donis mimarTulebiT erTi
safexuriT win ver wagviwevia, xolo saxelmwifos srulfasovnad damcavi da teritoriuli mTlianobis aRmdgeni cocxali meqanizmi, 2015 welsac ver Segviqmnia. tendenciurad dawerili sabWouri literaturis da saqarTvelos pirveli
respublikis xelisuflebis wevrebze ganawyenebuli pirovnebebis mier tyuilebiT damZimebuli, simarTlidan zarbaznis erTi gasroliT dacilebuli memuaruli literaturis
tyveobaSi moqceul zogierT Cems kolegas, an kidev, istoriul mecnierebaSi ucxo saxelmwifoTa dakveTiT Semoxiznul
adamianebs Segnebulad ar surs im udidesi sirTuleebis
gacnobiereba, romelic axlad aRmocenebuli saxelmwifos
xvedria. miTumetes, Tuki ucxo qveynebidan finansuri daxmareba ar eqneba. Tu ramdenad did sirTuleebTanaa dakavSirebuli saxelmwifos aRmSeneblobis procesi, amis saukeTeso nimuSs dRevandeli saqarTvelos yofa warmoadgens. `donori organizaciebidan~ N raodenobis daxmarebis miuxedavad, dRevandeli saqarTvelo ekonomikurad dacemulia da
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teritoriulad daCexil mdgomareobaSia. am mZime procesebs,
afxazeTidan da Sida qarTlis mTiani zonidan_ `samxreT
oseTidan~ 400 aTasi devnili emateba. am fonze Tuki SevafasebT saqarTvelos pirveli respublikis mTavrobis saqmianobas, igi lanZRva- ginebas ki ara, qebaTa- qebas imsaxurebs.
mxedvelobaSi maqvs; 1)sabWoTa ruseTis mier waqezebuli
da maRal doneze dafinansebuli separatistebis safuZvlianad alagmva; 2)afxazeTsa da Sida qarTlis mTian zonaSi qarTvelTa interesebis Rirseulad dacva, mama- papeul
samkvidrebelze damagreba da devnilebad arqceva; 3)saerTaSoriso arenaze qarTvelTa Rirsebis maRal doneze dacva
(marto kolbis antiqarTuli notisadmi pasuxic sakmarisia); 4)evropisgan Sepirebuli daxmarebis armiRebis miuxedavad, mezobeli qveynebisgan (ruseTi, azerbaijani, somxeTi) 1918- 1920 wlebis agresiuli qmedebebis Rirseulad mogerieba; 5)saqarTvelos teritoriis mis istoriul sazRvrebSi ZiriTadad aRdgena; 6)qveynis ekonomikis sabWoTa ruseTze,
azerbaijanze da somxeTze aTgzis ukeTes mdgomareobaSi
Cayeneba...
am CamonaTvalis fonze, saqarTvelos pirveli respublikis mTavrobis biologiurad moZule adamianebis winaSe
vsvam kiTxvas: 1)ucxo saxelmwifoebidan daxmarebis gareSe,
romeli politikuri Zala SeZlebda qveynis SigniT reformebis ukeTesad gatarebas, rac saqarTvelos social- demokratiuli partiis liderebma SeZles 1028 dRis ganmavlobaSi? 2)ratom iviwyeben, qarTvelTa yvelaze kritikul
momentSi, erovnul- demokratiuli partiis liderebma qveynis winaSe pasuxismgeblobas Tavi rom aarida da saqarTvelos pirveli respublikis koaliciur mTavrobaSi Sesvlaze uari ganacxada? maT msgavsad qarTveli social- demokratebi (menSevikebi) rom moqceuliyvnen, qveyanas ruseTis
kounisturi partiis (b) wevri qarTveli renegatebi daepatroneboda da saqarTvelos damoukideblobis sakiTxs wertili maSinve daesmeboda; 3)evropis qveynebis politikur
moRvaweebTan urTierTobis dasamyareblad, saxelmwifoebrivad araRiarebul saqarTveloSi, romeli politikuri partiebis liderebs gaaCnda im donis avtoriteti da dafaseba, rac karlo CxeiZes, irakli wereTels, evgeni gegeWkors,
akaki Cxenkels... qonda evropaSi?; 4)inglisisa da safrange-
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Tis premier ministrebTan da sagareo saqmeTa ministrebTan, romeli politikuri partiebis liderebi SeZlebda ukeT
urTierTobas? ai, is elementaruli kiTxvebi, romelsac saRad
moazrovne istorikosebma, literaturaTmcodneebma, Jurnalistebma... dasabuTebuli pasuxi unda gasces. mxolod
amis Semdeg miecema zneobrivi ufleba, ilaparakos saqarTvelos pirveli respublikis mTavrobis Secdomebze. samwuxarod, maTi leqsikis arsenalSi sityva miRweva ar arsebobs. yovel SemTxvevaSi, 1918- 1921 wlebis xelisuflebis mimarT- miRwevas arsad ar iyeneben. afetiSeben mxolod im
politikur Zalas, romelmac, rogorc zemoTac mqonda aRniSnuli, saqarTvelos pirveli respublikis saxelmwifos mSeneblobis sarZikvelze, Tavisi wili aguris dadebaze da
misi daSenebis xarisxis pasuxismgeblobaze uari oficialurad ganacxada.
am sinamdvilis gaTvaliswineba nebismieri saRad moazrovne
istorikosisaTvis aucilebelia. Cemi aseTi poziciis miuxedavad,savsebiT logikurad da mizanSewonilad mimaCnia saqarTvelos pirveli respublikis mTavrobis zogierTi wevrebis mxridan daSvebuli Secdomebis aRniSvna da misi ganmapirobebeli mizezebis dasabuTebuli formiT wina planze wamoweva.
Cemi kolegebis garkveuli jgufis mier, saqarTvelos pirveli respublikis mTavrobis augad moixseniebis erT- erT
ganmapirobebel mizezad, sabWoTa ruseTTan 1921 wlis Teberval- martis saomari moqmedebebis wagebaa dasaxelebuli.
maT ZiriTad arguments, saqarTvelos garSemo warmoqmnili
rusuli safrTxis ignorireba, reagirebis droulad vergakeTeba, qarTuli jaris saWiroebisamebr ar, an ver SeiaraRebaa miCneuli. tendenciuri xasiaTis memuarul literaturaze dayrdnobiT, es adamianebi iseT fons qmnian, saqarTvelos pirveli respublikis politikuri elita TiTqos mxarTeZoze iyo wamowolili da saRaTas ZiliT gaTanguli. qveynis winaSe aisbergis msgavsad wamomarTul da daZrul safrTxes ver, an ar acnobierebda. Tu ramdenad marTebulia
am mimarTulebiT maTi mxridan saqarTvelos pirveli respublikis mTavrobis dadanaSauleba da usistemod yvela
brunvaSi moxsenieba, saarqivo dokumentebze dayrdnobiT
dawerili am naSromis bolomde wakiTxvis Semdeg, saRad mo-
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azrovne mkiTxvelma Tavadve gansajos.
Cems mier gakeTebuli es gancxadeba ar exeba grigol onianis msgavs adamianebs, radgan maTTvis arqivi da saarqivo
dokumenturi masala pirvelwyaros ki ara, zedmet danamats
warmoadgens. isini mxolod tendenciurad Seqmnili memuaruli literaturiT `ikvebebian~ da masze dayrdnobiT cdiloben gaafetiSon saqarTvelos pirveli respublikis damoukideblobis dauZinebeli mtrebi (i.stalini, s.orjonikiZe,
S.eliava, f.maxaraZe...). saqarTvelos pirveli respublikis
damoukideblobisadmi maTi siZulvilis warmoCenis srulfasovan dokumentad, i.stalinis mier s.orjonikiZisadmi 1921
wlis 15 Tebervals gagzavnili sayovelTaod cnobili depeSis teqsti gamodgeba, romelsac gr.oniani mkiTxvel sazogadoebas sagangebod umalavs. `axla gadmogcem cekas daSifrul pasuxs, -vkiTxulobT dokumentSi- agreTve winadadebas gaZlev exlave Seutio, dasturia, aiRe qalaqi~ (stalini.) gr.onianis gansakuTrebuli tendenciuroba imaSiac vlindeba, rom misi `mtkicebiT,~ sabWoTa ruseTis dampyrobluri
politikis saqarTvelos winaaRmdeg amoqmedebis danaSaulebrivi mizezTa- mizezi, Turme saqarTvelos pirveli respublikis mTavroba yofila.
am tyuilis simarTled gasaRebis mizniT, cnobili istorikosis z.avaliSvilis mogonebebis Sesaval nawils iSveliebs da Sesabamisi citatac moaqvs. mis mier motanili
amonaweris mixedviT, saqarTvelos sazRvrebTan mdgomi `angelozad~ qmnili sabWoTa ruseTis XI armiis nawilebTan
situaciis garTulebaSi da saomari moqmedebebis dawyebaSi,
Turme saqarTvelos pirveli respublikis xelisufleba
yofila damnaSave. iqve, saqarTvelos mTavrobisadmi umkacresi sayveduria gamoTqmuli imasTan dakavSirebiT, rom
man, qveynis Tavdacvis elementaruli pirobebis Seqmnaze ar
izruna da sabWoTa ruseTis laSqars `SeiaraRebuli xalxi~
ki ara, `partiuli beladebis jgufi... da maTTan erTad erTguli miuridebis mcire razmi~ daaxvedra. z.avaliSvilis
es pozicia, XI armiis winaaRmdeg mebrZoli qarTveli gmirebis Seuracmyofelia, istoriis falsifikaciis SesaniSnavi
nimuSia da saqarTvelos pirveli respublikis xelisuflebisadmi usafuZvlo ciliswamebiTaa datvirTuli. aseTi fonis Seqmnidan gamomdinare, 1917- 1921 wlebis istoriis prob-
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lematikasTan mimarTebaSi arsebuli saarqivo dokumentebis
siRrmiseulad mcodne yvela obieqturi mkvlevaris winaSe
princi pulad ismeba kiTxva: ra mizezebma ganapiroba z.avaliSvilis im doneze ganawyeneba, rom mis mier daweril mogonebebSi, saqarTvelos mTavrobis saqmianobis Sefasebebi, Cveni
qveynis okupaciisa da aneqsiis erT- erTi Semoqmedis_ Salva eliavas mosawoni rom gamxdariyo? am sakiTxze pasuxis
gacemis mizniT, harvardis universitetisa da levilis unikalur saarqivo masalebSi dadasturebuli uamravi faqtebidan, mxolod erT maTganze SevaCereb mkiTxvelis yuradRebas. saqme exeba saqarTvelos warmomadgenlobis mier
dasavleT evropis qveynebSi iaraRis, amuniciis, sursaTis da
a.S. SeZenis mizniT, saqarTvelos sagangebo delegaciis Tavdadebul da titanur Sromas, romelSiac z.avaliSvilic aqtiurad monawileobda. igive dokumentebi, saqarTvelos mTavrobisadmi misi ganawyenebisa da tendenciurobis SesaZlo
ganmapirobebel mizezebzedac mianiSnebs. mxedvelobaSi maqvs
parizSi myofi saqarTvelos sazavo delegaciis (di plomatiuri, ekonomikuri, samxedro) gaerTianebul sxdomebze (1920
wlis 18, 29 maisi, 2, 8 ivnisi) k.CxeiZis, k.kandelakis, k.gvarjalaZis
iv.gobeCias, d.RambaSiZis, gen. il.odiSeliZis, gen. al.erisTavis...
mxridan gamoTqmuli is gamanadgurebeli kritika, romelic
somxebTan erTad iaraRis SeZenasTan dakavSirebiT, z.avaliSvilis mier londonSi TviTneburad xelmowerili xelSekrulebis mimarT iqna dafiqsirebuli. am faqtis Sesaxeb, dawvrilebiT naSromis pirvel paragrafSi meqneba saubari.
zemoaRniSnulidan da saarqivo dokumentebiT dadasturebuli sxva faqtebis gaTvaliswinebidan gamomdinare, z.avaliSvilis mogonebebis ukritikod da saarqivo masalebTan Sedarebis gareSe miReba yovlad dauSvebelia. miTumetes, obieqturi mkvlevarisgan pirvel rigSia gasaTvaliswinebeli, rom
es mogonebebi, sabWoTa xelisuflebisTvis aRmoCnda misaRebi. igi Targmna, winasityvaoba daurTo da gamosacemad moamzada Salva eliavam. imave mTargmnelis (S.eliava) mier iqna
1929 wels dabeWdili. wigni A 4 formatis moculobisaa da
250 gverds Seicavs.
Cems mier motanili faqtebi, b.n. gr.onianisTvis meaTased
xarisxovania, Torem mis winaSe pirvel rigSi daismeboda
kiTxva: ratom daarRvia sabWoTa ruseTma 1920 wlis 7 mai-
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sis xelSekruleba da ra esaqmeboda XI armias saqarTveloSi. logikuri azrovnebis kategoriaSi moqceul am kiTxvas,
man gverdi Segnebulad auara. saqarTvelos pirveli respublikis istoriis falsifikaciiT da sinamdvilis Tavdayira dayenebiT damZimebuli Sefasebebi SesTavaza mkiTxvel
saogadoebas. Tavisi `mignebebiTa~ da `mecnieruli miRwevebiT~ gaTamamebuli, istoriuli sinamdvilis zRvars maqsimalurad acda da 1918- 1921 wlebis monakveTis Semswavleli
qarTveli istorikosebis misamarTiT cilismwamebluri sibinZure isrola da Tanac urcxvad ganacxada: `sircxvilia,
rodesac istorikosi dolaris safasurad istorias ayalbebs da Savs TeTrad warmoaCens.~ (gr.oniani. stalini da menSevikuri mTavroba. ix. gaz. `saqarTvelo da msoflio~ 2015
w. #21) marTlac da sircxvilia, roca istoriul mecnierebaSi Semoxiznuli da 1918- 1921 wlebis unikaluri saarqivo
masalebis klasikuri donis ucodinari pirovneba, saqarTvelos pirveli respublikis uaRresad rTli istoriis problematikis kvlevaze da Sefasebaze pretenzias rom acxadebs.
aTgzis sircxvilad unda CaiTvalos is faqti, roca saqarTvelos teritoriis danakuwebis braldebis sibinZres, gr.oniani
saqarTvelos pirveli respublikis mTavrobas mZivebiviT
kiserze rom kidebs. saubedurod, istoriuli faqtebis amneziaqmnils ar axsendeba: a)sabWoTa ruseTsa da osmaleTs
Soris moskovSi xelmowerili (1921 wlis 16 marti) xelSekruleba da saqarTvelos samxreT- dasavleTis teritoriebis gasxviseba; b)am danaSaulebrivi qmedebisTvis samarTlebrivi saxis micemis mizniT, 1921 wlis 13 oqtombers yarsSi
xelmowerili xelSekruleba da saqarTvelos centraluri
aRmasrulebeli komitetis sagangebo sesiaze (1922 wlis 14
aprili) misi ratifikacia; g)Segnebulad iviwyebs 1921_ 1936
wlebSi, ioseb stalinisa da sergo orjonikiZis mier, saqarTvelos teritoriebiT mezobeli respublikebis dasaCuqrebis
faqtebs. (ix. ruka # 1 da # 2). b.n. gr.onians unda Sevaxseno,
rom istoriuli mecniereba, diletantebis `sajildao qvas~
ar warmoadgens da igi memuaruli literaturiT ki ara, saarqivo dokumenturi masalebis siRrmiseuli analizis safuZvelze iwereba. sabednierod, es masalebi yvela mkvlevarisTvisaa xelmisawvdomi da gr.onianis msgavsi adamianebis
`Sexedulebebis~ sawinaaRmdegos RaRadeben.
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$ 1. evropisgan mizanmimarTulad motyuebuli
saqarTvelos pirveli respublika
saqarTvelos pirveli respublikis istoriis erT- erT
umniSvnelovanes sakiTxs, qarTuli jaris SeiaraRebasTan
dakavSirebiT warmoqmnili problemebis dazusteba da am
sakiTxTan mimarTebaSi Tanamedrove istoriografiaSi gavrcelebuli Tvalsazrisis gadaxedva imiTac aris ganpirobebuli, rom istorikosTa erTi nawili, memuarul literaturaze dayrdnobiT mkiTxvel sazogadoebas araswor debulebebs sTavazobs da cdilobs daarwmunos, ruseT- saqarTvelos omis dros (1921 wlis Teberval- marti), Tbilisis arsenali TiTqos iaraRiT da amuniciiT iyo savse.
am sakiTxTan mimarTebaSi, WeSmaritebis dasadgenad, aucileblad mimaCnia ganxiluli iqnas Semdegi sakiTxebi: 1)ra
finansuri baza gaaCnda saqarTvelos, damoukidebel saxelmwifod gamocxadebis pirvel safexurze; 2)qarTuli jaris
Sesaqmnelad, Tbilisis arsenalSi arsebobda Tu ara saWiro
raodenobis iaraRi da samxedro amunicia; 3)riT iyo ganpirobebuli qarTuli jaris gadaiaraRebis aucilebloba; 4)ra
damokidebuleba gamoavlina evropulma saxelmwifoebma
saqarTvelos pirveli respublikisadmi iaraRis miyidvasTan mimarTebaSi.
rac Seexeba saqarTvelos pirveli respublikis finansur
SesaZleblobebs, am mxriv igi urTules mdgomareobaSi aRmoCnda. samwuxarod, zogierTi Cemi kolega ar iTvaliswinebs
im garemoebas, rom mefis xelisuflebam 1914_ 1916 wlebSi,
saqarTvelos xazina oqros maragisgan safuZvlianad gawminda da ruseTSi gaitana. amas isic daerTo, rom saqarTveloSi Camosaxlebuli rusi moxeleebis uzarmazari `armia~, adgilobriv mosaxleobas daawva sarCenad. es ori faqtori, regionSi umZimes finansur garemos qmnida da saqarTvelos saxelmwifoebrivi warmonaqmnis Sesaqmnelad, mosamzadebeli
safexurisaTvis Semaferxebel bariers warmoadgenda.
samecniero literaturaSi dadasturebulia, rom im etapze
moqmedma politikuri partiebisa da samoqalaqo speqtris
liderebis umetesobam, Seqmnili mdgomareoba sworad Seafasa da Sesabamisi pragmatuli nabijic gadadga. mxedvelo-
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baSi maqvs k.afxazisa da d.niJaraZis mier axlad arCeuli
saqarTvelos erovnuli sabWosadmi Tbilisisa da quTaisis
guberniebis TavadaznaurTa qonebis gadacemis faqti. dokumenturi masaliT dadasturebulia, rom es qoneba, saqarTvelos erovnuli fondis Seqmnas daedo safuZvlad. isic cnobilia, rom aRniSnuli fondis mizans, saqarTvelos damoukideblobisa da regionSi Seqmnili urTulesi politikuri situaciidan gamosavali safexuris momzadeba warmoadgenda.
qarTuli politikuri elitis warmomadgenlebs kargad
qondaT gacnobierebuli, rom erovnuli saxelmwifos formireba da misi damcavi meqaniznis_ SeiaraRebuli Zalebis
Seqmna TiTqmis paralelur reJimSi unda momxdariyo. winaaRmdeg SemTxvevaSi, samxreT kavkasiis geopolitikuri sivrcis
specifikidan gamomdinare, axladSeqmnili saxelmwifos arseboba xanmokle aRmoCndeboda. am realobidan gamomdinare,
saqarTvelos erovnuli sabWos aRmasrulebeli komitetis
wevrebi qarTuli jaris Seqmna- SeiaraRebisaTvis Sesabamisi saSualebebis gamoZebnas maqsimalurad cdilobdnen. amis
dadasturebas, saqarTvelos erovnuli sabWos aRmasrulebeli komitetis 1917 wlis 8 dekembris sxdomis stenografiuli angariSi warmoadgens. dokumentidan irkveva, rom am sxdomas aSS- is, inglisis, safrangeTis, italiis saxelmwifoebis elCebi eswrebodnen. maTi mxridan erT- erT umTavres
sakiTxad, qarTuli jaris Seqmna da ruseT- osmaleTis jer
kidev momqmedi frontis xazis dacvis aucilebloba iqna
dasmuli. rac Seexeba saqarTvelos politikuri elitis warmomadgenelTa pozicias, stenografiuli angariSis mixedviT Tuki vimsjelebT, n.Jordaniam igi Semdegi formiT Camoayaliba: `Cven jari male gveyoleba... magram iaraRi ar gvaqvs sakmao. iaraRi Tqven mogveciT, Cven davicavT Cvens teritorias. Cven rom osmaleTs win davudgeT, ganmartoebiT xom
ar davrCebiT, an mokavSireebi ra gvaris daxmarebas gagviweven... Cven iaraRi gvWiria.~ am amonaweridan kargad Cans saqarTvelos politikuri speqtris liderTa pirdapiri da gaxsnili pozicia. am faqtma antantis qveynebis warmomadgenlebi iZulebuli gaxada qarTuli mxaris mxridan wamoWril
sakiTxebze konkretuli pasuxi gaeca. imave sxdomis stenografiuli angariSidan irkveva, rom evropelebi saqarTvelos mxolod fuliT da evropeli samxedro oficrebis
10
miSvelebiT daexmareboda. rac Seexeba iaraRs, mis miwodebaze uars acxadebdnen.1 arc imas akonkretebdnen, Tu rogor
da ra gziT unda momxdariyo axlad Seqmnili qarTuli
jaris SeiaraReba. aRniSnuli faqti imis naTeli dadasturebaa, rom dasavleT evropis qveynebi, qarTvelebisadmi
iaraRis miwodebaze, qarTuli sajariso SenaerTebis Seqmnis pirveli safexuridanve ikavebdnen Tavs. es imas niSnavda, rom saqarTvelos erovnul sabWos, rusuli iaraRis
SeZenaze ezruna da imave (ukve gasabWoebuli) qveynis mier
warmoebuli iaraRis momxmareblad darCeniliyo. Tuki
qarTul istoriografiaSi dRemde gabatonebuli TvalsazrisiT_ samxedro sawyobebi TiTqos iaraRiT iyo savse_
vixelmZRvanelebT, maSin evropis qveynebisgan saqarTvelosadmi iaraRis armiyidva did tragediad ar unda CaiTvalos.
aRniSnuli natyuari informacia gen. g.mazniaSvilis memuarebidan iRebs saTaves da misi gaziareba dRemde ukritikod
xdeboda. am SemTxvevaSi, yuradRebis miRma yvelaze mniSvnelovani faqtori iyo datovebuli. mxedvelobaSi maqvs
g.mazniaSvilis memuarebis sabWoTa xelisuflebis periodSi dawerisa da mTavlitis cenzuris gavlis Semdeg 1927
wels stamburad dabeWdvis faqti. bunebrivia, am garemoebebma Tavisi uaryofiTi daRi daasva aRniSnul memuarebs. mxedvelobaSi maqvs samxedro sawyobebSi iaraRisa da tansacmelis arsebobis Sesaxeb motanili fantastikuri cifrebi.
samwuxarod, misi sandoobis sakiTxi dRemde eWvis qveS aravis
dauyenebia. CemTvis saintereso sakiTxTan dakavSirebiT imave
memuarebSi vkiTxulobT: `iaraRi, mokazmuloba da mTavar
sursaTis maragi sawyobebSi imdeni iyo, rom SesaZlebeli
iyo qarTuli laSqris Tund 50 aTasi kacis SeiaraReba,
mokazmva da gamokveba aTi wlis ganmavlobaSi.~ 2 an kidev:
`1921 wlis maisSi, Cvens sawyobebSi darCenili tansacmliT
me SevZeli Semosva Tavidan fexebamde 17 aTasi kacisgan
Semdgari wiTeli armiisa. es ar kmara: saqarTvelos sabWoTa mTavroba, dRidan TbilisSi Semosvlisa, ori kviris ganmavlobaSi hkvebavda ufasod mTeli qalaqis mcxovreblebs
saministros sawyobebidan.~3
am amonawerebSi motanili faqtebi, sabWoTa xelisuflebis
maRalCinosnebis miTiTebiT rom aris Cadebuli iqedanac
Cans, rom wina gverdze igive g.mazniaSvili SefarviTi formiT
11
wers: `male gamoirkva, rom saindendato sawyobebSiac ar
iyo tansacmeli da mokazmuloba, rac mTavaria, Tofebic.~4
am SemTxvevaSi princi pulad ismeba kiTxva: 1)Tuki saindendanto sawyobebSi tansacmeli, mokazmuloba da Tofebi ar
iyo, ra gziT unda momxdariyo 50 aTasi kacis SeiaraReba, an
carieli sawyobebis Semyure g.mazniaSvilma rogor SeZlo
17 aTas kaciani qarTuli wiTeli laSqris Seqmna? sad ambobs simarTles da sad tyuis igi? 2)rac Seexeba imave g.mazniaSvilis mier miTiTebul sursaTis marags, igi konkretulad ar asaxelebs skvebi produqtebis im saxeobas, romliTac 50 aTsi jariskacis 10 wliT gamokvebas varaudobda. xazgasmiT mimda aRvniSno, rom amierkavkasiaSi da miTumetes
Tbilisis samxedro sawyobebSi, sursaTis (xorci, kartofili,
lobio, konservis qilebi, Zexvi...) ara Tu 10 wliT, aramed 2
wliT SenaxvisaTvis Sesabamisi teqnologiuri saSualebebi
ar arsebobda; 3)dokumenturi masaliT dadasturebulia, rom
pirveli msoflio omis dawyebisa da misi mimdinareobis
paralelurad, ruseTidan etapobrivad amierkavkasiaSi frontisTvis Semotanili produqtis daniSnulebis mimarTulebiT
gagzavnas, amierkavkasiis frontis mTavarsardloba kurirebda.
es procesi ruseTis droebiTi mTavrobis periodSiac gagrZelda. misi Sewyveta, 1917 wlis oqtombris saxelmwifo gadatrialebas da frontis xazidan jaris demobilizacias ukavSirdeba. smecniero literaturaSi dasabuTebulia, rom 1918
wlis ianvar- Tebervlis CaTvliT, osmaleTis frontidan
wamosuli gabolSevikebuli rusuli eSelonebis, gansakuTrebiT bolo eSelonis sursaTiT uzrunvelyofa, samxedro sawyobebis sicarielis gamo, amierkavkasiis komisariatma udidesi Zalisxmevis Sedegad moaxerxa.
roca saqarTvelos pirveli respublikis sursaTis sarezervo fondis Sesaxeb vsaubrobT, pirvel rigSia gasaTvaliswinebeli: a)1918_ 1920 wlebis monakveTSi bolSevikuri
ajanyebebis salikvidacio da mezobeli saxelmwifoebidan
Tavdasxmebis mogeriebiTi saomari operaciebi, romlebmac
didi raodenobiT finansebi da qveynis sasursaTo maragi
Seiwova; b)dasavleT evropis saxelmwifoTa liderebis
mxridan saqarTvelosadmi sursaTis miwodebis danapirebis arSesruleba; g)sasoflo- sameurneo produqciis warmoebis mxriv qveyanaSi im etapze arsebuli sinamdvile. yo-
12
velive aRniSnulis gaTvaliswinebidan gamomdinare, 1921 wlis
20 ianvramde saqarTveloSi sursaTis Tundac 2 wlian sarezervo maragze saubaric ki SeuZlebelia. mTeli pasuxismgeblobiT SemiZlia ganvacxado: 1)samxedro tansacmelis, mokazmulobis, Tofebis, sursaTis (xorci, kartofili, lobio,
konservis qilebi, Zexvi...) saxeobebisgan sawyobebi dacarielebuli iyo. rac Seexeba xorbals, igi umniSvnelo raodenobas warmoadgenda. 2)arqivsacavebSi Cems mier mikvleuli
dokumenturi masalebiT dasturdeba, rom Tbilisis sawyobebis xorbliT Sevseba, 1921 wlis 20 ianvris Semdeg_ Tebervlis pirvel ricxvebSi gaxda SesaZlebeli. am SemTxvevaSi
gansakuTrebuli roli saqarTvelos xelisuflebis mier
niu- iorkis savaWro saxlTan_ `Sabier morel iko~-sTan
1919 wlis noemberSi gaaformebulma xelSekrulebam Seasrula. am dokumentis mixedviT, saqarTvelos mTavrobas, aRniSnuli firmisadmi 100 aTasi kilo abreSumis parki an matyli (1 kg. abreSumis parkis sanacvlod 5 kg. matyli) unda
mieca. saqarTvelos momaragebis saministros ZalisxmeviT,
1920 wlis dekembris dasawyisSi, niu- iorkis firma `Sabier
morel iko~-s, pirvel safexurze 62400 kilo abreSumis parki gaugzavnes (gem `frigze~ 40 aTasi kg. daitvirTa, xolo gem `todlaze~ 22 aTas 400 kg.). zemoaRniSuli firma
danarCen 37600 kilo parks mxolod mas Semdeg miiRebda,
roca xelSekrulebiT gaTvaliswinebuli 1350 tona xorbali saqarTveloSi srulyofilad iqneboda Semotanili. imave
dokumenturi masalebis mixedviT, Sepirebuli xorbali foTis portSi 1921 wlis ianvaris pirvel naxevarSi Semovida.
misi gemebidan gadmotvirTva, miwonva, matareblis vagonebSi ganTvseba (76 vagoni Seadgina), miRebuli produqciis
srulfasovnad Sefaseba da miReba_ Cabarebis aqtze xelmowera 1921 wlis 20 ianvars dasrulda. am umniSvnelovanesi dokumentis mixedviT, abreSumis parkisa da matylis safasurad, saqarTvelom 80,184 fuTi (1313456 kg. e.i. 1313,5 tona)
xorbali Seisyida. es faqti, Sesabamisi uwyebebis warmomadgenlebis xelmowerebiT da beWdebiTaa (saqarTvelos mTavroba, saq. resp. momaragebis saministro, firma `Sabien morel iko~ da foTis porti) dadasturebuli. xorblis daniSnulebisamebr gagzavna da moxmarebis mizniT misi damuSavebis procesi, mxolod am operaciis damTavrebis Semdeg
13
(1921 wlis 20 ianvari) gaxda SesaZlebeli. saqarTveloSi
im etapze arsebuli sarkinigzo mimosvlis SesaZleblobebs
da Sesabamis teqnologiur pirobebs Tu gaviTvaliswinebT,
foTis portidan xorblis transportireba da sawyobebSi
srulfasovnad dabinaveba, Tebervlamde ver moxerxdeboda.
rac Seexeba danarCen 36,5 tona xorbals, igi imave firmis
mier 1921 wlis 16 Tebervals baTumSi iqna Semotanili da
misi miwonva- dabinaveba adgilzeve ganxorcielda.
xazgasmiT minda aRvniSno, rom 1921 wlis ianvar_ TebervalSi saqarTveloSi 1350 tona xorblis Semotanis zemoaRniSnuli umniSvnelovanesi faqti (Semotanis dro), SeuZlebelia g.mazniaSvilis donis maRlCinosanisaTvis ucnobi yofiliyo. miuxedavad amisa, igi am sakiTxs gverds uvlis da
mkiTxvel sazogadoebas arsebul sinamdviles iseTi formiT sTavazobs, TiTqos 1921 wlis 20 ianvramde sawyobebi
xorblis maragiT iyo savse da amis Sesaxeb saqarTvelos
xelisuflebas elementaruli informacia ar gaaCnda. imasac
Tu gaviTvaliswinebT, rom sabWoTa ruseTma saomari moqmedebebi somxeTidan 1921 wlis 11 Tebervals, xolo azerbaijanidan 16 Tebervals daiwyo, gamoricxuli ara, drois am mcire
monakveTSi (31 ianvri_ 11 Tebervli), xorblis pirveli partiis
dafqvac rom ver ganxorcielebuliyo. firma `Sabier morel iko~- s mier saqarTveloSi 1921 wlis ianvar_ TebervalSi Semotanil zemoaRniSnul xorbals unda gulisxmobdes g.mazniaSvili, roca Tavis mogonebebSi sursaTis `10
wliani maragis~ Sesaxeb saubrobs.
samwuxaroa, magram faqtia, rom giorgi mazniaSvilis memuarebSi motanili pirveli safexuris tyuilis sazogadoebisadmi miwodebam, ideologiuri TvalsazrisiT, sabWoTa
xelisuflebis mesveurTa Canafiqri maRal doneze Seasrula. mxedvelobaSi maqvs, qarTveli generlis mxridan saqarTvelos pirveli respublikis xelisuflebis diskreditaciis mcdeloba. sabWoTa periodidan mokidebuli dReis CaTvliT, istorikosebi, litetaturaTmcodneebi da publicistebi,
arsenalSi iaraRis TiTqosda arsebobis Sesaxeb g.mazniaSvilis memuarebSi motanil cifrobriv monacemebs eyrdnobodnen da dacarielebul samxedro sawyobebs, raodenobis
iaraRiT aRvsilad acxadebdnen. am cru informaciam, kidev
ufro `damajerebeli~ saxe mas Semdeg miiRo, roca g.maznia-
14
Svilis memuarebSi motanili tyuili, rezo gabaSvilma `mxatvrul ferebSi Camosxmuli~ miawoda mkiTxvel sazogadoebas, xolo saqarTvelos xelisufleba upasuxismgeblobaSi daadanaSaula da anaTemas gadasca. `Tbilisis samxedro
sawyobebi- wers r.gabaSvili- dauSreteli (radgan naxevar
milionze meti jaris centraluri amuniciisa iyo)- ise dacarielda, rom SemTxveviT gadarCenilidan (an ver mignebulidan)_ 1921 wlis omis Semdegac,_ bolSevikebs darCaT 17000
axali Tofi (quTaisSi 300 xeluxlebi tyviis mfrqveveli)
da... `mTavrobam~ (?) yurebi gamouWeda qveyanas: `iaraRi ar
gvqonda da jari rogor unda Segveqmna, an riTi SegveiaraRebina~- o.~5 r.gabaSvilis es da sxva klasikuri donis tyuilebi, saarqivo masalebTan Sejerebis gareSe bn. gr.onianma
daimowma. misi simarTled gasaRebisa da gafetiSebis mizniT,
ekaterine gabaSvilis saxelis spekulirebas Seecada. `revaz gabaSvili- wers gr.oniani- aris cnobili qarTveli
mwerlis ekaterine gabaSvilis ufrosi vaJi.~6 am SemTxvevaSi gr.onianma iseTi foni Seqmna, rom ekaterine gabaSvilis
Svili- r.gabaSvili tyuils ar ikadrebda da misi mogonebebidan motanili faqtobrivi masalis amonaridi, TiTqos simarTles warmoadgenda, xolo yoveli winadadeba saarqivo
dokumentebze maRla idga. qveyanas harvardis universitetisa da levilis unikaluri saarqivo dokumentebi qondes da
istoriul mecnierebaSi Semoxiznuli adamianebi, sazogadoebas r.gabaSvilis tyuilebiT `kvebavdes,~ rbilad rom vTqva,
istoriuli mecnierebis gamasxaravebis mcdeloba da imave
sazogadoebis upativcemulobaa. miTumetes, r.gabaSvilis tyuilebi da antisaxelmwifoebrivi azrovneba, safuZvlianad amxila erovnul- demokratiuli partiis erT- erTma liderma,
Rrmad ganswavlulma iuristma da r.gabaSvilze aTgzis maRla
mdgomma politikurma moRvawem giorgi gvazavam. mxedvelobaSi maqvs imave g.gvazavas mier parizSi 1929 wels dabeWdili broSura `saqarTvelo da erovnul- demokratiuli partia.~ es naSromi gansakuTrebul yuradRebas imiTac iqcevs,
rom misi avtori, 1917- 1921 wlebis mimdinare politikuri
procesebis avangardSi idga, yvela movlenis aqtiuri monawile da TviTmxilveli iyo. sabednierod, igi simarTles ar
Ralatobs. saqarTvelos pirveli respublikis mTavrobis
saqmianobis r.gabaSvilisa da d.vaCnaZiseul Sefasebebs, isto-
15
riuli sinamdvilis Tavdayirad dayenebas, RmerTgamwyrali
da tvingamoclili adamianebis naazrevad miiCnevs. es gamonaTqvamebi miutevebel ciliswamebad rom ar CameTvalos, imave
broSuridan Sesabamis amonawerebs SevTavazeb mkiTxvel sazogadoebas: g.gvazava- `ai amazea naTqvami: `RmerTi rom kacs
gauwyreba, pirvelad tvins gamoacliso.~ (gv.14) an kidev, `ai
marTla Tavdayira dayeneba yoveli Semecnebis: uflebis da
moralis, valdebulebis da sindisis.~ (gv.15) gana amis Semdeg, r.gabaSvilis `rac maxsovs~- Si motanili faqtebi, saRad moazrovne da saarqivo dokumentebis safuZvlianad mcodne
adamianma SeiZleba ki, sarwmunod miiCnios?
yovelive zemoTqmulis gaTvaliswinebidan gamomdinare
xazgasmiT minda aRvniSno: roca saubaria rusul Tofebze
da tyviamfrqvevebze, r.gabaSvilsa da arc `gabaSvilistebs~
erTxel ar dausvams sakiTxi_ rusuli vaznebis raodenobis,
an misi saTadarigo fondis arsebobis Sesaxeb. arc imaze
ufiqriaT, Sesatyvisi vaznebis gareSe darCenili nebismieri
SaSxana Tu tyviamfrqvevi, gadaWrili wyalsadeni milis ufunqcio mdgomareobaSi rom aRmoCndeboda. am mimarTulebiT
sakiTxi ar dausvamT imitom, rom saqarTvelos pirveli respublikis mTavrobis lanZRva- ginebiT iyvnen da arian garTulni. WeSmaritebis dadgena srulebiT ar ainteresebT,
winaaRmdeg SemTxvevaSi, harvardidan da levilidan Camotanil dokumentur masalebs safuZvlianad Caujdebodnen da
siRrmiseulad Seiswavlidnen. es rom moendomebinaT, r.gabaSvilis zemoaRniSnul da sxva uamrav tyuilebs farda aexdeboda. amisTvis TavauRebeli da mZime Sroma iyo saWiro. samecniero sferoSi ioli gziT `moseirne~ adamianebs, istoriul
mecnierebaSi damkvidrebuli dRevandeli ganukiTxaoba, samwuxarod amis SesaZleblobas aZlevs. aseTi mkacri Sefasebidan gamomdinare, simarTlis dasabuTebas, Sesabamisi saarqivo dokumentebiT Sevecdebi. arqivsacavebSi Cems mier mopovebuli pirveladi dokumenturi masalebiT irkveva, rom
saqarTvelos teritoriaze arsebul samxedro sawyobebSi
Tavmoyrili rusuli warmoebis sabrZolo iaraRi da amunicia, 1914 wlis sabrZolo moqmedebebidan gamomdinare, 1915_
1916 wlebSi saqarTvelodan maqsimalurad iqna gatanili
sariyamiSsa da aleqsandropolSi. rusuli samxedro SenaerTebis mier ruseT_ osmaleTis frontis datovebis Sem-
16
deg, aRniSnul samxedro sawyobebze kontrols 1918 wlis
ianvridan somxeTis erovnuli sabWo axorcielebda. dokumenturi masaliT dadasturebulia, rom amierkavkasiis komisariatis ZalisxmeviT, 1918 wlis martis Sua ricxvebSi
aleqsandropolidan da sariyamisidan saqarTvelos erovnulma sabWom mxolod 6 vagoni tyviamfrqvevis vaznebis, 24
vagoni zarbaznis yumbarebis wamoReba da Tbilisis arsenalSi ganTavseba SesZlo. amis Semdeg, somxebs qarTvelebisaTvis arcerTi saxeobis vazna ar miucia. 1918 wlis ianvris monacemebiT, Tbilisis arsenalSi arsebuli SaSxanebis raodenoba 18 aTas cals Seadgenda. amierkavkasiis komisariatis dadgenilebiT, igi samad (qarTvelebisTvis, somxebisTvis da azerbaijanelebisTvis) ganawilda da saqarTvelos samxedro SenaerTebs 6000 erTeuli SaSxana gadaeca.
rac Seexeba quTaisis samxedro sawyobebSi darCenil iaraRs, mis sakuTrebaze pretenzias quTaisSi dislocirebuli rusuli samxedro SenaerTi acxadebda. am sakiTxTan
dakavSirebiT, saqarTvelos erovnuli sabWos aRmasrulebeli komitetis 1917 wlis 10 dekembris sxdomaze ioseb gedevaniSvili xazgasmiT ambobda: `quTaisis rusis jaris qoneba
Cvens jars unda gadmoeces, magram saldaTebi qonebas ar
iZlevian, Cvenia da Tan unda waviRoTo.~ am faqts ukeTebda
ra analizs, igive i.gedevaniSvili dasZenda: `SegviZlian
miviRoT ZaliT, magram arasasurvel Sedegs moitans.~ 7 aq
garkveviTaa naTqvami, rom rusis jarisadmi iaraRis Zalismieri gziT warTmevis mcdeloba, qveyanaSi samoqalaqo omis
dawyebis safuZveli SeiZleba gamxdariyo. aseT situaciaSi gadamwyveti roli mSvidobiani gziT molaparakebas unda
Seesrulebina. mxedvelobaSi maqvs ori faqtori: 1)rusuli
jaris sardlobis mxridan `keTili nebis~ gamoCenis SemTxvevaSi qarTvelebisaTvis iaraRis datoveba da 2)evropelebisgan Sepirebuli fuliT, am iaraRis Sesyidvis SesaZlebloba. aseT kritikul situaciaSi gadamwyvet rols drois
faqtori gansazRvravda. evropelTa mxridan 1917 wlis 8
dekembers saqarTvelos erovnuli sabWos prezidiumisadmi
Sepirebuli fuliT daxmareba, ara Tu 1918 wels, aramed 1921
wlis TebervalSiac ar ganxorcielebula.
amierkavkasiis regionSi mimdinare umZimesi politikuri
procesebis fonze, saqarTvelos damoukideblobis gamocxa-
17
deba da osmaleTis dampyrobluri qmedebebis SeCereba, jer
kidev arSemdgari qveynisTvis finansuri daxmarebis aucileblobas saWiroebda. Cems xelT arsebuli saarqivo masalebis mixedviT Tuki vimsjelebT, am sapasuxismgeblo nabijis
gadadgmisas, qarTveli politikosebi finansurad dasayrden
safexurs `saqarTvelos erovnul fondSi~ Cadebul qonebaSi da imave fondisadmi Semowirulobis safuZvelze dagrovil TanxaSi xedavdnen. marTalia, sawyisi safexurisaTvis
fonds garkveuli formiT saxelmwifos xazinis funqciis
Sesruleba SeeZlo, magram igi ver gawvdeboda: a)damoukidebeli qveynisTvis aucilebeli urTulesi reformebisa da
b)osmaleTis mier Tavsmoxveuli sabrZolo moqmedebebis
dafinansebas. aucilebloba, garedan daxmarebas saWiroebda. miTumetes, mefis ruseTis moxeleTa SemweobiT, saqarTvelos ekonomika `momakvdavi adamianis~ dones utoldeboda.
samwuxarod, Cemi kolegebis umetesobis mxridan zemoaRniSnuli faqtebi mizanmimarTuladaa ignorirebuli. arada, oqros
maragis an sazRvargareTis qveynebis finansuri dauxmareblobis gareSe (gansakuTrebiT pirvel safexurze) saxelmwifos faqtiuri formireba warmoudgenelia. qarTuli politikuri elita Tuki am siZneleebis met naklebad daZlevas
axerxebda, igi mis Rirsebad unda iqnas aRiarebuli. rac Seexeba samxedro da sxva reformebis srulyofilad vergatarebas, qveynis mmarTveli politikuri Zalis SecdomebiT ki
ara, ZiriTadad ufulobiT da iaraRis uqonlobiT iyo ganpirobebuli. saarqivo masalebiT dasturdeba, rom saqarTvelos erovnuli sabWos mier 1918 wlis martSi damtkicebuli proeqtis _`qarTuli jaris reorganizaciis Sesaxeb~
safexurebrivad bolomde ver ganxorcieleba, fulis, iaraRisa da amuniciis uqonlobam ganapiroba. analogiuri bedi
xvda wilad saqarTvelos erovnuli sabWosa da saqarTvelos mTavrobis mier 1918 wlis 20 agvistos miRebul kanonebs.8
qveynis sakanonmdeblo organosTan arsebuli samxedro
komisiisgan, saqarTvelos mTavrobis 1918 wlis 20 dekembris
sxdomaze wardgenili angariSidan irkveva, rom Tavdacvis
uwyebisadmi daqvemdebarebul sawyobebSi arsebuli rusuli vaznebi da qvemexis Wurvebi umniSvnelo raodenobas warmoadgenda. am xarvezis dauyovnebliv aRmofxvris mizniT,
imave sxdomaze miRebuli dadgenilebiT daisva sakiTxi_ evro-
18
pis qveynebidan sabrZolo masalis dauyovneblivi SeZenis,
ukidures SemTxvevaSi, saqarTveloSi misi damzadebis mizanSewonilobis Sesaxeb. am sakiTxTan dakavSirebiT, uaRresad
sayuradRebo informacias Seicavs polkovnik kolonelo
kartelis mier saqarTvelos samxedro saministros mTavari
Stabisadmi gagzavnili (1919 wlis 9 noemberi) werili. am
dokumentidan irkveva: 1)saqarTvelos mTavrobas, germaniis
xelisuflebisaTvis TxovniT miumarTavs, rom daxmareba gaewia
rusuli vaznebisa da yumbarebis, samxedro tansacmlisa da
fexsacmlis, telegrafisa da radiotelegrafisTvis saWiro
mowyobilobis SesaZenad. 2)im SemTxvevaSi Tuki qarTuli
jaris SeiaraRebisTvis saWiro sabrZolo masala germaniis
samxedro sawyobebSi ar aRmoCndeboda, rusuli vaznebisa
da Wurvebis dasamzadebeli qarxanis aSeneba saqarTveloSi
moexdinaT. imave werilSi konkretuladaa miTiTebuli pirveli moTxovnisadmi uaris Tqmis ganmapirobebeli ZiriTadi
mizezebi. rac Seexeba vaznebisa da Wurvebis damamzadebeli
qarxnis saqarTveloSi mSeneblobas, k.kartelis mtkicebiT,
igi garkveul sirTuleebTan iyo dakavSirebuli. mxedvelobaSi maqvs qarxnis gadaiaraReba, rac Sesabamisi Carxebisa
da yalibebis damzadebis aucileblobas saWiroebda. meore
mxriv, am mimarTulebiT samuSaos Catareba, kapitalistebisaTvis damaxasiaTebel komerciul interesebs ukavSirdeboda. aRniSnulis gaTvaliswinebidan gamomdinare, k.karteli
winaswari monacemebis saxiT moiTxovda: a)ra raodenobis
masalis Semotana iyo aucilebeli saqarTveloSi; b)konkretulad ra ti pis da ra raodenobis unda yofiliyo qarxnis mier warmoebuli produqcia, romelic saqarTvelos sWirdeboda. evropaSi mimdinare rTuli politikuri procesebis
gamo, am sakiTxis momdevno safexurze gansaxilvelad gatana SeuZlebeli gaxda. miuxedavad amisa, aRniSnuli faqti imaze migvaniSnebs, rom im etapze saqarTvelos xelisufleba,
sajariso SenaerTebis SesaiaraReblad da qveynis Tavdacvisunarianobis asamaRleblad, misTvis xelmisawvdomi yvela SesaZleblobis gamoyenebas cdilobda.
saqarTvelos pirveli respublikis mTavrobis mesveurebs
kargad qondaT gacnobierebuli, rom qveynis Tavdacvis sistemaSi Seqmnili urTulesi mdgomareobis aRmofxvra, qarTuli jaris gadaiaraReba (rusuli warmoebis iaraRis evro-
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puliT Canacvleba) mxolod antantis saxelmwifoebis daxmarebis gareSe SeuZlebeli iqneboda. am mizniT, dasavleT
evropaSi sagangebo delegacia iqna gagzavnili. maTi warmatebuli saqmianobis xelis SemSlelad ori faqtori moqmedebda; 1)evropis qveynebidan im etapze saqarTvelos, rogorc
damoukidebeli politikuri erTeulis ar aRiareba. isini
saqarTvelos, `demokratiuli ruseTis~ Semadgenel nawilad
moiazrebdnen; 2)daSnakcuTiunis partiis liderTa mxridan,
1919 wlidan saqarTvelos saxelmwifoebriobis winaaRmdeg
mizanmimarTuli farTomasStabiani kampaniis gaCaReba. am sakiTxTan dakavSirebiT dokumentur masalaze dayrdnobiT,
akaki kvitaiSvili werda: `1919 wels gaimarTa kampania saqarTvelos winaaRmdeg dasavleTSi, gansakuTrebiT ki inglisursa da nawilobriv frangul presaSi. presis kampaniaSi
did rols TamaSobda yofili ruseTis mefis di plomatia
general denikinis karnaxiT. amave dros frangulad daibeWda daSnakelTa warmomadgenelis vardanianis wigni saTauriT `somex- qarTvelTa konfliqti da kavkasiis omi.~ wigni
aRsaSfoTebeli, gaborotebuli, Tavidan bolomde aRsavse
ciliswamebebiT saqarTvelos winaaRmdeg... wigni daurigda
antantis umaRlesi sabWos wevrebsa da erTa ligis meTaurebs. aseT mowamlul garemoSi mouxda muSaoba qarTul delegacias. gansakuTrebiT ingliselebi iyvnen Cvens winaaRmdeg,
romlebic im dros iyvnen saqmis faqtiuri gadamwyvetni.~9
saqarTvelos saxelmwifos winaaRmdeg evropis masStabiT
amuSavebuli somxuri `ideologiuri manqanis~ da misi mxardamWeri (somxuri diasporisgan mosyiduli) inglisurenovani Jurnalistebisgan presis furclebze gavrcelebuli
cilismwamebluri informaciis daZleva, gaRatakebuli qarTvelebisaTvis udides sirTuleebTan iyo dakavSirebuli.
saqarTvelos saxelmwifos warmomadgenlobas evropis qveynebSi gansakuTrebuli Zalisxmeva dasWirda, rom somxuringlisuri antiqarTuli `propagandistuli manqana~ nawilobriv SeeCerebina. amis miRweva mxolod meore internacionalis sapropagando saSualebebis gamoyenebiT gaxda SesaZlebeli. mxedvelobaSi maqvs, daSnakcuTiunis partiis sazRvargareTuli warmomadgenlebis tyuilebSi mxileba da evropeli social- demokratTa liderebis mxridan, evropuli
presis saSualebiT zemoaRniSnuli sakiTxis gapiareba. am
20
urTulesi samuSaos Catarebis Semdeg SeZlo qarTulma
delegaciam, antantis umaRlesi sabWos warmomadgenlebTan
Sexvedra. am mxriv, gansakuTrebiT safrangeTis premier ministr klemansosTan saqarTvelos di plomatiuri korpusis
Sexvedris faqti iqcevs gansakuTrebul yuradRebas. rogorc
cnobilia, saqarTvelos delegaciis mesveurebma mas sagangebo
memorandumi gadasca. am dokumentSi qarTvelTa moTxovna
Semdegi formiT iyo Camoyalibebuli: `Cven viTxovT dauyovnebliv daxmarebas imitom, rom viciT, rac ufro Zlieri
viqnebiT da momzadebuli, miT ufro gaadvildeba bolSevikebis Semosevis Tavidan acileba.~10
zemoaRniSnuli `Segonebis~ miuxedavad, safrangeTis da
evropis sxva qveynebis xelisufalT, saqarTvelosadmi Sepirebuli daxmarebis (iaraRi, fuli, amunicia, sursaTi) Sesasruleblad iotisodena nabiji ar gadaudgams. arada, saqarTvelos garSemo mimdinare rTuli politikuri procesebi, qarTuli jaris dauyovnebliv gadaiaraRebas, rusuli warmoebis
aRWurvilobisgan ganTavisuflebas da saqarTvelos SeiaraRebuli Zalebis raodenobrivad zrdis aucileblobas moiTxovda. savsebiT sworad aRniSnavda a.kvitaiSvili, rom qarTuli
jaris ricxobriv raodenobas `sazRvravda iaraRis raodenoba da ara survilebi!... evropisgan mitovebuli saqarTvelo Tavis Sinaur mterze damokidebuli, mainc axerxebs
mcire SeiaraRebuli laSqari iyolios.~11 mdgomareobas isic
arTulebda, rom bolSevikebisgan yubanis olqis daWerisa
da misi gasabWoebis gamo, puris Sesyidvis SesaZleblobebi
saqarTvelos gadaeketa. jaris raodenobrivi zrdisaTvis
iaraRTan da tansacmelTan erTad, puris maragic aucileblobas warmoadgenda. marTalia, saqarTvelos mier xorblis didi raodenobis partia argentinaSi iyo Sesyiduli, magram misi daniSnulebisamebr transportireba, saqarTvelos saxelmwifos wasaqcevad mosurne Zalebis zemoqmedebidan gamomdinare igvianebda.
am fonze, kidev ufro miuRebeli Canda baTumis olqSi azerbaijanelTa antiqarTuli saqmianobisadmi ingliselTa mxardaWera. miTumetes, bolSevikuri safrTxe daZruli aisbergiviT uaxlovdeboda saqarTvelos. es saSiSroeba qarTuli
politikuri elitis mesveurT siRrmiseulad qonda gacnobierebuli da moaxloebuli katastrofisgan TavdaRwevis
21
erTaderT meqanizms, evropis saxelmwifoebis mxridan Sepirebul daxmarebaSi xedavda. amis SesaniSnav dadasturebas, e.gegeWkoris mier parizSi myofi k.CxeiZisa da ak.Cxenkelisadmi
1920 wlis 19 marts gagzavnili werili warmoadgens. `antantisgan aRTqmuli daxmareba iaraRiT da sursaTiT ar migviRia
da arc viciT rodis miviRebT da miviRebT Tu ara saerTod.
lodini ki am pirobebSi SeuZlebelia... dauyovnebliv unda
gagvewios iaraRiT da sursaTiT daxmareba moaxloebuli
bolSevikTa winaaRmdeg sabrZolvelad. mdgomareoba isea
garTulebuli,rom yoymani da lodini SeuZlebelia.~ samxreT
kavkasiis regionis politikuri mdgomareobis gansakuTrebulma garTulebam da saqarTvelosadmi evropis qveynebidan
daxmarebis Sesaxeb avansad gacemulma tyuilma ganapiroba
inglisis, safrangeTis, aSS- is, italiis di plomatiuri warmomadgenlebisadmi n.Jordanias mier 1920 wlis 20 marts
gadacemuli werilobiTi gancxadeba. di plomatiuri etiketis dacviT, masSi safuZvlianadaa mxilebuli dasavleTis
saxelmwifoTa mxridan saqarTvelosadmi micemuli dapirebebis Seusrulebloba. `Cven gansakuTrebiT Cagvca laxvari
Tanxmobis qveynebis damokidebulebam- vkiTxulobT dokumentSi- Cveni Crdilo sazRvrebis dacvis saqmeSi, saidanac
Cveni saxelmwifos dangrevis mizniT bolSevikebi moemarTebian. Cven araerTxel aRvZariT Suamdgomloba am brZolaSi amuniciiT da sursaTiT mxardaWerisaTvis. mxardaWeras
dagvpirdnen, Cven velodiT moTminebiT magram ver miviReT
Tqvengan vercerTi vazna, vercerTi funti puri. axla dadga momenti, rodesac meti lodini SeuZlebelia da dapirebebiT ver davkmayofildebiT... me mwared unda aRvniSno,
rom ise, rogorc gasulis wina wels, Cven isev martoni davrCiT, an imis gamo, rom Tqveni mTavrobebi arasakmarisad
arian Caxedulni, an kidev bolSevikuri ruseTis mier Cveni
respublikis dangreva aRmosavleTSi Tqveni interesebis
xelyofad ar iTvleba.~12 es vrceli amonaweri evropis saxelmwifoTa liderebis tyuilze dafuZnebuli Sepirebebis mxilebis saukeTeso nimuSs warmoadgens. aseTi mkacri
ganaCenis miuxedavad, dasavleT evropis saxelmwifoebs, zemoaRniSnuli danapirebis Sesasruleblad Tavi ar SeuwuxebiaT.
antantis qveynebisgan gacemuli danapirebisadmi upasuxi-
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smgeblo damokidebuleba qonda mxedvelobaSi e.gegeWkors,
roca parizSi, romSi da konstantinopolSi myofi saqarTvelos warmomadgenlebisadmi gagzavnil werilSi (1920 wlis
24 marti) xazgasmiT rom miuTiTebda CrdiloeTidan moaxloebuli safrTxis garduvalobaze da dasZenda: `aseT friad gamwvavebul pirobebSi Cven araerTxel migvimarTavs
mokavSireTa warmomadgenlebisadmi... araerTxel vTxoveT
maT daxmareba sursaTiT da samxedro iaraRiT, magram mravaljer ganmeorebuli dapirebis garda jer- jerobiT araviTari daxmareba ar migviRia... aucileblad saWiroa, raTa
Tqveni mxriv miiRoT yovelgvari zomebi rom mokavSireebma
rac SeiZleba saCqarod mogvawodon realuri daxmareba
sursaTiT, samxedro iaraRiT... Tu evropa marTla dagvexmara sursaTiT da iaraRiT, Cven ufro gabedulaT davelaparakebiT bolSevikebs da imedi gvaqvs ukidures SemTxvevaSi SevZlebT maTTan gamklavebas da Cveni damoukideblobis dacvas.~
am vrceli amonaweridan kargad Cans, rom qarTuli politikuri elita da qveynis mmarTveli wreebi, bolSevikebTan
ukompromiso brZolis dawyebisTvis iyvnen mzad da saqarTvelos damoukideblobis gadarCenas, evropis saxelmwifoebis
umaRlesi eSelonebisgan gacemuli sityvis argatexaSi da
danapirebis SesrulebaSi xedavdnen. ramdenadac antantis
qveynebis maRalCinosnebi politikuri meZavis gzas daadgnen
da danapirebis droulad Sesrulebaze ar fiqrobdnen, es
faqti, saqarTvelos xelisuflebas Sida resursebze dayrdnobiT gamosavali gzebis Ziebisken ubiZgebda. Cems mier mikvleuli saarqivo masalebis mixedviT, iaraRis, amuniciis da sursaTs deficitis miuxedavad, saqarTvelos xelisufleba adgilobriv resursebze dayrdnobiT, moaxloebuli safrTxis
neitralizebis mizniT Tadarigs iWerda. mxedvelobaSi maqvs
saqarTvelos sasazRvro zolis gamagrebasTan dakavSirebiT general ilia odiSeliZis mier qveynis Tavdacvis sabWosadmi 1920 wlis 4 Tebervals moxsenebis saxiT wardgenili
proeqti. es uaRresad sayuradRebo dokumenti maqsimalurad iTvaliswinebda yvela im safrTxes, romelic CrdiloeTidan (ruseTi) da samxreT- dasavleTidan (osmaleTi) emuqreboda saqarTvelos. masSi samxedro specifikisaTvis damaxasiaTebeli moTxovnebis gaTvaliswinebiT iyo gawerili:
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1)im strategiuli punqtebis dakavebis aucilebloba, romelic
saomari moqmedebebis dawyebis SemTxvevaSi qarTuli jaris
nawilebs upiratesobas SeunarCunebda; 2)qarTuli jaris
raodenobrivad gazrdis, misi SeiaraRebisa da umniSvnelovanes strategiul sasazRvro poziciebze batalionebis raodenobis ganlageba; 3)proeqti TavdacviTTan erTad, SeteviTi
xasiaTis operaciebis Casatarebel umniSvnelovanes niuansebsac iTvaliswinebda.13
am proeqtis yvelaze didi nakli imaSi mdgomareobs, rom
masSi dasmuli sakiTxebis gadawyvetis mizniT, Sesabamisi
samuSaos Casatareblad miaxloebiTi xarjTaRricxvac ar
iyo gaTvaliswinebuli. im etapze arsebuli dokumenturi
masalebis mixedviT Tuki vimsjelebT, nebismieri proeqti
srulfasovnad mxolod im SemTxvevaSi iTvleboda, Tuki misi
ganxorcielebisaTvis saWiro xarjTaRricxvis 80%- iani
jamuri monacemebi eqneboda darTuli. qveynis finansebTan
dakavSirebul am umniSvnelovanes faqtors, qarTveli generlebis umetesoba xSirad yuradRebis miRma tovebda. angariSs ar uwevda saqarTvelos saxelmwifos biujetis SesaZleblobebs. arc imas iTvaliswinebda, rom 1918 _dan 1921
wlis Tebervlamde, daxmarebis saxiT dasavleT evropidan
saqarTvelos arcerTi centi, arcerTi cali vazna da grami
puri rom ar miuRia. yoveli umniSvnelovanesi wamowyeba
mxolod Sida emisiaze iyo dafuZnebuli.
aRniSnuli naklis miuxedavad, es proeqti imis naTeli dadasturebaa, rom saqarTvelos xelisuflebas, qveynis usafrTxoebaze zrunva da misi droulad mowesrigeba nomer pirvel amocanad miaCnda. xazgasmiT minda aRvniSno, rom Cems
mier mikvleuli dokumenturi masaliT irkveva, rom im etapze
Tavdacvis uwyebisadmi daqvemdebarebul sawyobebSi arsebuli SeiaraRebisa da amuniciis (Tofebi, vaznebi, yumbarebi,
tansacmeli, sursaTi...) maragi imdenad umniSvnelo iyo, rom
igi i.odiSeliZis mier SemuSavebuli proeqtis nawilobrivad ganxorcielebasac ver uzrunvelyofda. evropuli saxelmwifoebis liderTa dapirebebis Semyure saqarTvelos mdgomareoba kidev ufro garTulda azerbaijanisa (1920 wlis
28 aprili) da somxeTis (1920 wlis 29 noemberi) gasabWoebis
Semdeg. momxdari faqtiT, i.odiSeliZis proeqtSi damatebiTi cvlilebebis Setana aucilebeli Seiqmna. am proceduris
24
ganxorcieleba, dafinansebis TvalsazrisiT garkveuli formiT koreqtivs saWiroebda. marTalia, saqarTvelos damfuZnebeli krebis 1920 wlis 15 ivnisis # 24- e sxdomis mier miRebuli dekretiT Tavdacvis fonds 400 milioni maneTi gamoeyo, magram igi minimaluradac ver wvdeboda im urTulesi
problemis mogvarebas, romelic qarTuli jaris SeiaraRebasTan iyo dakavSirebuli. kidev ufro Seusrulebadi
aRmoCnda saqarTvelos mTavrobis 1920 wlis noembris dadgenileba_ qarTuli jaris damatebiT 40 aTasi kaciT gazrdis Sesaxeb. misi ganmapirobebeli mizezebi pirveladi teqnikuri da finansuri saSualebebis (iaraRi, tansacmeli, sursaTi, fuli...) uqonlobiT iyo gamowveuli. isic gasaTvaliswinebelia, rom rusuli warmoebis vaznebiTa da yumbarebiT,
samxedro sawyobebis im etapze Sevseba SeuZlebeli xdeboda. am sakiTxTan dakavSirebiT, generali aleqsandre zaqariaZe mogvianebiT gulistkiviliT werda: `Cveni ocneba iyo
ramenairad samoci aTasi jari Segveqmna, magram uiaraRobis
gamo es ocneba ocnebad darCa (miuxedavad imisa, rom momzadebul jariskacTa ricxvi saqarTveloSi aRemateboda orasi aTass. saTanado sardlobac mzad iyo).~14
xazgasmiT minda aRvniSno, rom vaznebisa da yumbarebis
is maragi, romelic sariyamiSidan da aleqsandropolidan
iqna Camotanili (1918 wlis marti), 1918_ 1920 wlebSi mimdinare saomarma operaciebma STanTqa. mxedvelobaSi maqvs:
1)osmaleTTan omi (1918 wlis marti _aprili); 2)bolSevikebis mier 1918 wels mowyobili 20- mde glexTa SeiaraRebuli ajanyeba; 3)somxeTTan 1918 wlis oqtomber_ dekemberis
saomari operaciebi; 4)bolSevikebis 1919 wels ajanyebebi;
5)denikinis winaaRmdeg 1919 wels Catarebuli sabrZolo
moqmedebebi; 6)sabWoTa ruseTisa da gasabWoebuli azerbaijanis mier 1920 wels ganxorcielebili Tavdasxma saqarTveloze da misi mogerieba; 7)osebis 1920 wlis ajanyeba
da a.S. yovelive es, axladSeqmnili saqarTvelos saxelmwifos xazinas aTeulobiT miliardi daujda. xolo Tavdacvis uwyebisadmi daqvemdebarebuli sawyobebi rusuli warmoebis vaznebisa da yumbarebis maragisgan TiTqmis dacarielda.
Cems mier zemoT motanili faqtebi qonda mxedvelobaSi
memarcxene socialist_ federalistTa partiis erT- erT
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liders Tedore Rlonts, roca imave partiis pirvel yrilobaze (1921 wlis 30 oqtomberi) ambobda: `3 wlis ganmavlobaSi, rac saqarTvelo damoukidebeli iyo, Cven ar viciT
arcerTi sami Tve, rom gagvetarebinos uomrad, ajanyebis
gareSe. omi ki, miT ufro sistematuri omi, TviT aRa- maxmad
xanis reJimze uaresia.~ nebismierma mkvlevarma, romelic
saqarTvelos pirveli respublikis Tavdacvis unarianobis
SesaZleblobebs Seexeba, pirvel rigSi unda gaiTvaliswinos: 1)zemoaRniSnuli procesebidan gamomdinare, qveynis
finansurad da ekonomikurad damangreveli Sedegebi; 2)pasuxi unda gaeces kiTxvas; 1918_ 1920 wlebSi rac saqarTvelos pirvelma respublikam gadaitana, ra mdgomareobaSi aRmoCndeboda nebismieri sxva qveyana (gnebavT igive evropuli) Tuki imave evropuli saxelmwifoebisgan finansur daxmarebas ver miiRebda. am fonze, alogikurad moCans gen. giorgi
kvinitaZis memuarebSi gakeTebuli gancxadeba_ saqarTvelos
SeiaraRebul Zalebs, 1920 wlis mais- ivnisSi TiTqos amierkavkasiis ganmaTavisuflebeli misiis Sesruleba SeeZlo `es
iyo erTad_ erTi uaRresad xelsayreli SemTxveva_ wers
g.kvinitaZe_ azerbaijanisa da somxeTis gasanTavisufleblad
bolSeviki dampyroblebisagan. Cven SegveZlo bolSevikebisagan mTeli kavksiis gawmenda da iqneb daRestnisac. es iyo
1920 weli, rodesac poloneTi oms awarmoebda ruseTTan da
generali vrangeli daZruli iyo yirimidan.~ erTi SexedviT
es gegma mimzidveli Cans, magram Tuki yvela aspeqtis gaTvaliswinebiT ganvixilavT, misi ganxorcieleba saqarTvelos katastrofas daaCqarebda. roca g.kvinitaZe somxeTis ganTavisuflebaze laparakobs, igi jer kidev damoukidebel saxelmwifos warmoadgenda. misi gasabWoeba, rogorc zemoTac mqonda
aRniSnuli, mxolod 1920 wlis 29 noemberSi ganxorcielda.
1)im SemTxvevaSi Tu general g.kvinitaZis mier SeTavazebuli gegmiT imoqmedebdnen, saqrTvelos xelisuflebas azerbaijanelTa da somexTa mxridan qarTuli jaris usafrTxoebis garantia unda qonoda. azerbaijanelebisgan amis miRweva SeuZlebeli iyo im ubralo mizezis gamo, rom bolSevikebs qveyana TiTqmisYubrZolvelad Caabara. rac Seexeba somxeTs, igi xelsayreli situaciis SeqmnisTanave mis mier `sadaod~ qceuli qarTuli miwebis mitacebas Seecdeboda. aRniSnulidan gamomdinare, qarTuli mxedrobisadmi azerbaijane-
26
lTa ZiriTadi Zalebis da prorusuli orientaciis mqone
somexTa Tanadgoma saTaveSive iyo gamoricxuli. es imas niSnavda, rom Tuki saqarTvelo, amierkavkasiis `ganmaTavisuflebelis~ funqcias ikisrebda, igi riskis politikis gzas
unda dadgomoda. damfuZnebeli krebis 1920 wlis 25 ivnisis
sxdomaze oponentTa misamarTiT v.Tevzaia ambobda: `azerbaijanis xalxi gagveTavisuflebia ucxo Zalisagan... aseT
miznebs saqarTvelos respublika ver gaiziarebs... is vinc
fiqrobs, rom unda Caerios sxvis saqmeebSi... Sesuliyo maT
dedaqalaqSi, gaeyara yvela misi mokavSire elementebi... aseTi politika respublikas ar qonia da arc eqneboda.~ imave
sakiTxTan dakavSirebiT akaki Cxenkelma ganacxada: `Cveni
mdgomareoba rTulia, Cven irgvliv rkalSemortymuli varT,...
Cveni mTavrobac ar awarmoebda riskis politikas da yvela
is rasac aq b-ni veSapeli brZanebda, aris riskis politika.
Cven risks ver vawarmoebT sanam vgrZnobT pasuxismgeblobas Cveni eris, Cveni demokratiis winaSe.~ 2)`omis gagrZelebis momxreni~ yuradRebis miRma tovebdnen yvelaze mniSvnelovan kiTxvas; SeZlebda Tu ara saqarTvelos ekonomika xangrZlivi omis xarjebis gadafarvas da ra mdgomareobaSi aRmoCndeboda qveynis finansebi. miTumetes, 14 dRiani omi saqarTvelos biujets miliard naxevari qarTuli boni daujda. 3)isini arc imas kiTxulobdnen, Tu ra mdgomareoba iyo
samxedro sawyobebSi iaraRis, vaznebis, yumbarebis, tansacmlisa da sursaTis TvalsazrisiT. Tavdacvis sabWos gasaidumloebuli monacemebis mixedviT, 1920 wlis ivnisis bolosTvis, samxedro sawyobebSi mxolod 1 milion 800 aTasi
rusuli warmoebis vaznebis maragi iyo. azerbaijanis `ganmaTavisuflebel~ misiasTan dakavSirebuli saomari moqmedebebis ganxorcielebis SemTxvevaSi, saqarTvelos samxedro
SeiaraRebul Zalebs minimum 2 milion 500 aTasi vazna dasWirdeboda. gaurkvevelia, Tu ra raodenobis zarbaznis
Wurvebi da sursaTi iqneboda saWiro qarTuli jaris brZolisunarianobis SesanarCuneblad da mis gamosakvebad.
am mxriv, samxedro sawyobebis sarezervo maragi TiTqmis
amowuruli iyo. es imas niSnavs, rom kritikul momentSi,
qarTuli jari rusuli warmoebis vaznebis, yumbarebisa da
sakvebis gareSe darCeboda. Tuki es moxdeboda, saqarTvelos saxelmwifos katastrofa garduvali iyo da rac mTa-
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varia, vaznebis gareSe darCenili qarTuli jari, osebis
1920 wlis ivnisis ajanyebasac ver gaumklavdeboda da os
bolSevikebs, TbilisSi Tofis gasrolis gareSe Semosvlis SesaZlebloba miecemoda. es aris mware sinamdvile,
romlisadmi angariSis gaweva nebismieri mkvlevarisadmi
aucileblobas warmoadgens. 4)mxedvelobaSia misaRebi 1918
wlis dasawyisSi,DsomxeTisa da azerbaijanis interesebis
dasacavad, saqarTvelos Tavgamodebidan gamomdinare miRebuli mware gamocdileba. aRniSnuli politikuri kursi,
erovnuli sabWos 1918 wlis 16 seqtembris sxdomaze, erovnul_
demokratma i.maWavarianma `ocoboco~ politikad Seafasa
da mmarTvel politikur partias mkacri toniT miuTiTa:
`daanebeT Tavi ocobocodias, daadeqiT realuri politikis
gzas, daanebeT Tavi msoflioze zrunvas... ai Cveni pasuxi
sagareo politikaze.~ azerbaijanis `ganmaTavisuflebeli~
misiis warumateblobis SemTxvevaSi, qveynis mmarTveli politikuri partia, imave erovnul- demokratebidan analogiuri
Cawixvlis mdgomareobaSi aRmoCndeboda. erTi ram udaod
SeiZleba iTqvas, opoziciuri partiebisa da samxedro uwyebis arcerT maRalCinosans, g.kvinitaZis zemoaRniSnuli gegmis SesaZlo warmatebis dasabuTeba an mosalodneli Sedegebis pasuxismgeblobis aRebis Sesaxeb, raime saxis dokumenti mTavrobisaTvis im etapze ar warudgenia. amMSemTxvevaSi, saqarTvelos xelisuflebam imoqmeda Tavdacvis sistemas daqvemdebarebul smxedro sawyobebSi arsebuli SesaZleblobidan da saxelmwifos interesebidan gamomdinare.
samxedro sawyobebSi rusuli vaznebis maragis amowurvis
gamo, roca mis Sevsebas kustarulad damzadebuli vaznebiT
cdiloben, am fonze, bolSevikebisgan azerbaijanis ganTavisuflebis raime gegmebze saubari yovlad dauSvebelia. Cems
mier arqivsacavebSi mikvleuli dokumentiT dasturdeba, rom
saqarTvelos mTavrobis 1920 wlis 24 Tebervlis dadgenilebiT, rusuli warmoebis vaznebis gasatenad (kustaruli
wesiT dasamzadeblad) da mwyobridan gamosuli Tofebis
SesakeTeblad, specialuri saxelosnoebis mowyobisaTvis
9,440000 maneTi iqna gamoyofili. imave saarqivo masalebiT
dasturdeba, rom rusuli warmoebis SaSxanebisTvis Sesabamisi nawilebis dasamzadeblad, zemoaRniSnuli fuliT 7 saxarato Carxi da erTi frezeris sistemis dazga SeiZines,
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romelic daniSnulebisamebr 1921 wlis 24 ianvars arsenalSi gadaitanes. rac Seexeba vaznebis kustarulad damzadebis ideas, Tu visgan momdinareobda igi, amis Sesaxeb sayuradRebo informacias a.kvitaiSvilis naSromi iZleva. am sakiTxTan dakavSirebiT masSi vkiTxulobT: `saqarTvelos generaluri Stabis ufrosi generali zaqariaZe Tavis `Cveneba~-Si ambobs: `vaznebis maragi friad cotaa. ra vqnaT? gamosavals TiTqmis ver vxedavT! erT dRes Semovida CemTan
generali quTaTelaZe da meubneba: me maqvs erTi idea, damiWire mxari da vaznebs gavaCeno. me mas mivuge: win da win giWer mxars! raSia saqme? ai ra mi pasuxa man: arsenalSi milionobiT hyria carieli vaznebi da gavtenoT wamliT!_ nikelis tyviebs sad Soulob?- vkiTxe me. _nikelis tyviebi aris
arsenalSi. es TaTruli vaznebia, rac auarebelia arsenalSi. maT Cven amovaZrobT da gavukeTebT rusul vaznebs! rasakvirvelia, maT Soris gansxvavebaa da Zlier gavlenas iqoniebs srolis sizusteze, magram masirebuli cecxlis dros
Sedegi mainc daaxloebiT erTi da igive iqnebao. gen. quTaTelaZis winadadeba sisruleSi moviyvaneT.~15 am faqtis Sesaxeb
gen al.zaqariaZis mogonebebSi vkiTxulobT: `arsenalSi daviwyeT vaznebis xeliT awyoba. Cvenma gamoCenilma artileristebma Ren. quTaTelaZem da yazbegma es moaxerxes, magram ramdeni gveqneboda da rodis gveqneboda saTanado Tadarigi? mxolod 1920 wlis Semdeg aviyvaneT dRiuri ricxvi ase awyobili vaznebis ocdaaTi aTasamde, arc amisTvis
saWiro masalis Tadarigi iyo usazRvro.~ 16
rusuli sabrZolo vaznebis damzadebis gazrdasTan dakavSirebiT, gen. al.zaqariaZis mogonebebidan motanili zemoaRniSnuli informaciis siswores, Tavdacvis sabWos 1920
wlis 13 noembris dadgenilebac adasturebs. am dokumentis
mixedviT, sxdomas sagangebod ganuxilavs sakiTxi_ `vaznebis aRsaWurvel saxelosnos Sromis nayofierebis gaumjobesebis Sesaxeb.~ miRebuli dadgenilebiT, dasaxuli miznis gansaxorcieleblad, Tavdacvis fondidan 7,706000 maneTi iqna
gamoyofili. imave Tavdacvis sabWos 1921 wlis 11 ianvris
sxdomam, rusuli SaSxanebisTvis gaTvaliswinebuli `xiStebis~ maketi moiwona da dasamzadeblad Sesabamisi nebarTva
gasca.
Cems mier motanili zemoaRniSnuli faqtebi or ZiriTad
29
garemoebaze migvaniSnebs: 1)rusuli warmoebis SaSxanebisaTvis samxedro sawyobebSi vaznebisa da sxva nawilebis
maragis ukmarisobaze, misi kustarulad gasaidumloebul
formebSi damzadebis gziT Sevsebis mcdelobaze; 2)Tavdacvis sabWos maRalCinosnebis mxolod ramdenime pirovnebas
gaaCnda srulfasovani informacia, ra raodenobas Seicavda Tavdacvis sistemisadmi daqvemdebarebul samxedro sawyobebSi im etapze arsebuli iaraRi. aqedan gamomdinare,
qarTul istoriografiaSi da zogierTi memuaruli literaturis avtoris mier gavrcelebuli mosazreba, TiTqos
saqarTvelos xelisuflebis Sesabamisi uwyebis maRalCinosnebma ar icodnen Tu ra `qoneba~ iyo Senaxuli arsenalSi, mcdar informaciazea damyarebuli da sinamdviles
ar Seesabameba.
arsebuli umZimesi mdgomareobidan gamomdinare, iaraRisa
da sabrZolo masalis SeZenis sakiTxTan dakavSirebiT, saqarTvelos mTavrobis 1920 wlis 18 martis dadgenilebiT, safrangeTSi momuSave qarTuli delegaciis dasaxmareblad, gen.
ilia odiSeliZis xelmZRvanelobiT specialuri komisia
gaigzavna. isic cnobilia, rom saqarTvelos warmomadgenlobam sagangebo memorandumiT mimarTa safrangeTis xelisuflebas. `Cven viTxovT_ vkiTxulobT dokumentSi_ dauyovnebliv daxmarebas... rac ufro Zlieri viqnebiT da momzadebuli, miT ufro gaadvildeba bolSevikebis Semosevis Tavidan acileba.~ rac Seexeba safrangeTis premierministrs klemansos, konkretuli gadawyvetilebis miRebasTan
mimarTebaSi garkveuli mizezebis gamo Tavs ikavebda. dokumentur masalaze dayrdnobiT, am sakiTxTan dakavSirebiT
a.kvitaiSvili wers: `premier ministri klemanso SeekiTxa
delegacias- iaraRi da amunicia rom gamogigzavnoT... maTac
igive bedi xom ar eweva, rogorc denikinisaTvis gagzavnils;
mas bevri gavugzavneT da bolos yvela es iaraRi bolSevikebis xelSi gadavidao.~ delegaciam mas saTanado Sesaferisi pasuxi misca. am TaTbiris Sedegi iyo dapireba iaraRis micemisa.~17
samwuxarod, es dapirebac Seusrulebeli darCa. Tuki gen.
a.zaqariaZis mogonebebs daveyrdnobiT, mokavSire saxelmwifoebis umaRles sabWos, general vrangelisaTvis davaleba
miucia, rom konstantinopolis sawyobebSi arsebuli misi
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yofili jaris naqoni iaraRi qarTvelebisaTvis gadaeca.
imave a.zaqariaZis informaciiT, am sakiTxTan dakavSirebiT
konstantinopolSi `gaigzavna komisia Ren. quTaTelaZis
da Saqro mdivnis SemadgenlobiT. ramdenime dRe gaatara
am delegaciam iq, magram arc erTi Tofi Cven maTgan ar
migviRia... rusul sabWos Ren. vrangelis meTaurobiT gamoutania dadgenileba, rom yovelnairi zomebi yofiliyo miRebuli, raTa qarTvelebs iaraRi ar miscemoda.~18
erTi ram dabejiTebiT SeiZleba iTqvas; ramdenadac vrangeli da denikini antantis saxelmwifoebisgan finansdeboda
da maTi miTiTebebis Semsruleblebi iyvnen, gansakuTrebiT
inglisisa da safrangeTis xelisufalTa gareSe, saqarTvelos sawinaaRmdegod veranair gadawyvetilebas ver miiRebdnen. miTumetes, stambolis samxedro sawyobSi Tavmoyrili
vrangelis naqoni iaraRi, safrangeTis saxelmwifos sakuTrebas warmoadgenda. am SemTxvevaSi, gadamwyveti sityva, safrangeTis premier- ministr klemansos unda eTqva. rogorc zemoTac mqonda aRniSnuli, ramdenadac mas orWofuli_ wajequkujeqis pozicia eWira, amiT gen. vrangeli sargeblobda
da misi naqoni iaraRis vargisianobis Semowmebis uflebasac
ar aZlevda qarTul mxares. arc isaa gamoricxuli, rom igive klemanso, evropeli maRalCinosnebisadmi damaxasiaTebeli orpirovani ianusis rols rom TamaSobda. Torem, mis
mier gacemuli brZanebis Sesruleba- arSesrulebaSi Carevas, rusuli sabWo da gen. vrangeli namdvilad ver gabedavda. am SemTxvevaSi gadamwyvet sityvas evropelTa interesebi gansazRvravda. mxedvelobaSi maqvs maTi mxridan saqarTvelos sazianod Cafiqrebuli samomavlo RonisZieba. kerZod,
saqarTvelosgan teritoriebis CamoWris safuZvelze axali
fsevdo `saxelmwifos~ Seqmnis mcdelobis faqti. am mimarTulebiT pirveli qmediTi nabiji inglisisa da safrangeTis xelisufalTa ZalisxmeviT 1920 wlis 25 Tebervals gadaidga da erTa ligis mandatiT, baTumi porto- frankod oficialurad iqna gamocxadebuli. baTumsa da mis garSemo
arsebuli teritoriebis bazaze saqarTvelosgan gancalkevebiT, `patara damoukidebeli saxelmwifos~ Seqmnis sakiTxi,
mokavSire saxelmwifoTa umaRlesi sabWos 27 Tebervlis
londonis sxdomaze sagangebod ganixiles. evropelTa es
veraguli gegma, qarTvel politikosebs mxedvelobidan ar
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gamorCenia da adeqvaturi nabijis gadasadgmelad Sesabamisi safexuris momzadebas Seecadnen. amis dadasturebas noe
ramiSvilis mier parizSi myofi k.CxeiZisa da ir.wereTelisadmi gagzavnili werili warmoadgens, romelic 1920 wlis 22
martiTaa daTariRebuli. am dokumentis gansakuTrebuli
Rirebuleba imaSi mdgomareobs, rom masSi gamoaSkaravebulia qarTuli saxelmwifos teritoriuli mTlianobis winaaRmdeg dagegmili inglisis xelisufalTa miznebi da amocanebi. meore mxriv, saqarTvelos samxreT_ dasavleTis istoriuli teritoriis CamosaWrelad, inglisur- somxuri aliansis Sesaxeb_ xazgasmiTaa miTiTebuli. aRniSnulTan dakavSirebiT dokumentSi vkiTxulobT: `ingliselebi cdilobs...
daikavon baTumis olqi da Semdeg gaiyvanon rkinigza baTumidan artaaniT yarsamde... aseTi gegma warmoadgens ganmeorebas im gegmisas, rac erTxel moxda Zvel saqarTveloSi.
samcxe_ saaTabagos mowyvetiT davkargeT ekonomiuri Zalagavlena da Semdeg politikuri suvereniteti. amitom vibrZviT ase energiulad am gegmis winaaRmdeg. artaani_ baTumis xazi savsebiT Cveni unda Seiqnes. rogorc ar SegviZlia baTumis olqis daTmoba, aseve ar SegviZlia arc artaanis olqis somxebisaTvis gadacema... somxebi ibrZvian artaanis olqidan gaikafon viwro gza baTumisken. gaJliton iq
mcxovrebni, rogorc exla Jleten artaanis olqis aRmosavleT nawilis muslimanebs artileriiT da qmnian sufTa
derefans.~19 am dokumentis gacnobis Semdeg gasagebi unda
iyos: 1)saxelmwifoebrivad ra maRal doneze azrovnebda Cveni winaprebi da somexTa moTxovnebSi, saqarTvelos teritoriuli mTlianobis dasarRvevad ra did safrTxeebs xedavda; 2)imave dokumentiT aSkarad ikveTeba, Tu ratom uWerda
mxars inglisis warmomadgenloba san- remos konferenciaze
somxebis usafuZvlo da mtaceblur moTxovnebs. isic sayuradReboa, rom antantis saxelmwifoebis mxridan baTumis porto- frankod gamocxadebas, n.ramiSvilma karikaturuli
saxelmwifos Seqmnis mcdeloba uwoda da princi pulad
daayena sakiTxi mis winaaRmdeg energiuli zomebis miRebis
aucileblobis Sesaxeb. imavdroulad inglisis xelisuflebis saqarTvelosken SesaZlo Semobrunebis faqtorebis win
wamowevazedac miuTiTa. amasTan dakavSirebiT imave werilSi vkiTxulobT: `Cven vfiqrobT, SeiZleba inglisis xelmZR-
32
vanel wreebs advilad davumtkicoT, rom Zlieri saqarTvelo sworeT maT interesebSia da maT politikas mTel kavkasiaSi da Sua aziaSi amtkicebs. amitom, saWiroa saqarTvelos interesTa uzrunvelyofa.~
n.ramiSvilis es werili imiTacaa sayuradRebo, rom masSi
zaqaTalas olqis azerbaijanis sazRvrebSi datovebis SeuZleblobaze da am sakiTxTan dakavSirebiT antantis saxelmwifoTa mxardaWeris miRebazea yuradReba gamaxvilebuli.
rogorc Cans, am sakiTxze azerbaijanelebs evropuli saxelmwifoebis mxridan garkveuli formiT qonda lobireba.
`mesame sakiTxi es aris zaqaTalas olqi. yovlad SeuZlebelia_ vkiTxulobT dokumentSi_ am olqis azerbaijanis farglebSi datoveba. ekonomiurad is gadajaWvulia TbilisTan.
saWiroa am sakiTxSi miimxroT mokavSireni. es miT ufro SeiZleba, rom azerbaijanis gaZlierebas saqarTvelos xarjze
ar moisurveben. saerTod, droa sazRvrebis sakiTxi pirvel
rigSi daayenoT. modis gen. odiSeliZe. man Cveni azri icis
da saWiroa misi erudiciis savsebiT gamoyeneba. imedi maqvs,
Tqven SeZlebT am ukanasknel dabrkolebaTa daZlevas.~
dokumenturi masaliT dasturdeba, rom londonis konferenciis monawile saxelmwifoebma, saqarTvelosTan mimarTebaSi sruli siyrue gamoiCina. qarTvelTa gasaWiri, misi yoveli
winadadeba ignorirebuli iqna. aseTive damokidebuleba gamoavlina saqarTvelosadmi iaraRis miyidvasTan mimarTebaSiac. marTalia, saqarTvelos warmomadgenlobas oficialurad uars ar eubnebodnen, magram arc danapirebs asrulebdnen. es garemoeba qonda mxedvelobaSi ak.Cxenkels, roca gr.rcxilaZisadmi gagzavnil werilSi (1920 wlis 21 marti), inglisis xelisuflebis misamarTiT guliswyromiT rom werda:
`Cven ar vTxovT maT jars, ar vTxovT mowyalebas, gvinda mxolod megobrulad mogvepyran. gamogvigzavnon iaraRi, sursaTi, mogvcen saSualeba medgrad SevebrZoloT anarqias, rogorc garedan ise SigniT.~ imave ak.Cxenkelis mtkicebiT, ramdenadac saqarTvelo evropasa da azias Soris saaRebmicemo
xids warmoadgenda, misTvis gaugebari rCeboda inglisis
antiqarTuli politikuri kursi. miTumetes, aRniSnul sakiTxTan mimarTebaSi saqarTvelos gansakuTrebuli funqcia
ekisreboda. am fonze, gr.rcxilaZis winaSe ak.Cxenkeli savsebiT kanonzomierad svamda kiTxvas: `vis iSovis inglisi
33
ukeTess, gana mTels aziaSi aris kidev iseTi eri, rogorc
qarTveli, romelic momwifebulia politikuraT, surs evropulad icxovros da mTelis arsebiTaa dainteresebuli
didi britaneTis gverdiT, misi patara megobris saxiT Seasrulos Tavisi istoriuli misia? Tbilisi gegemonia amierkavkasiisa, is erTgvari sulieri simagrea, romelzedac
dayrdnoba inglisisTvis metad saxeiroa. rac ufro Zlieri
varT Cven, politikuraT da ekonomikuraT, miT ufro kargia
TviT inglisisaTvis. amiT mis gavlenas daeqvemdebareba
mTeli kavkasia... ratom ar esmis mas es garemoeba, ratom
unda amierkavkasia bolSevikebis saTelad gaxados?... es
politika... TviT inglisis sasicocxlo interesebis Ralatia... gTxovT imoqmedoT mTelis ZalRoniT. CaagoneT mag
xalxs namdvili maTi interesi, nu gvRupaven Cven, nu Ralatoben TviT ingliss.~
am vrceli amonaweridan kargad Cans, Tu ra maRal doneze
qonda ak.Cxenkels gacnobierebuli kavkasiis regionSi saqarTvelos geopolitikuri mniSvneloba da is mosalodneli
safrTxeebi, romelebic CrdiloeTidan da samxreTidan emuqreboda Cvens qveyanas. meore mxriv, masSi xazgasmiTaa miTiTebuli inglisis gansakuTrebul rolze, rogorc damcav
meqanizmze saqarTvelosTan mimarTebaSi. samwuxarod, inglisis
xelisuflebaze zemoqmedebis moxdena, ara Tu gr.rcxilaZes,
aramed masze ufro maRali rangisa da didi saxelmwifos
warmomadgenelsac ar SeeZlo. im etapze inglisis xelisufleba ruseTis bunebriv simdidreze fiqrobda da wurbelasaviT misi amowovis meqanizmis SemuSavebiT iyo dakavebuli.
am fonze, saqarTvelo da samxreT kavkasia misTvis naklebad
Rirebul geografiul cnebad gadaiqca. saqarTvelos xvalindeli dRisTvis ingliselTa es damRupveli kursi, qarTul
politikur elitas mxedvelobis miRma ar darCenia da masTan mimarTebaSi, adeqvaturi nabijis gadadgmis aucileblobas ayenebda. amis utyuar dadasturebad, e.gegeWkoris mier
1920 wlis 24 marts parizSi, romSi da konstantinopolSi myofi saqarTvelos warmomadgenlebisadmi gagzavnili werili gamodgeba. `Cven eWvi gvaqvs- vkiTxulobT dokumentSi,rom ingliselebi Cvens zurgsukan saidumlod molaparakebas awarmoeben sabWoTa mTavrobasTan... Tu isini bolSevikebisgan miiReben mandats sparseT- indoeTisTvis, amierkavka-
34
sias advilad daTmoben. aseT mdgomareobaSi, arsebuli pirobebi Cven sxvas arafers gvikarnaxebs Tu ara saswrafod energiul moqmedebas. mTavrobas gadawyvetili aqvs daicvas
respublikis damoukidebloba Tu is saWiro iqneba iaraRiT
xelSi.~ inglisis sandoobasTan mimarTebaSi, e.gegeWkori ar
tyuoda. dokumenturi masaliT dadasturebulia, rom im etapze
sabWoTa ruseTsa da ingliss Soris ekonomikuri urTierTobis sakiTxebTan mimarTebaSi molaparakeba da Sesabamisi
xelSekrulebis teqstis momzadebaze muSaoba marTlac mimdinareobda. aRniSnulis gaTvaliswinebiT, mxolod inglisze
dayrdnoba da dasaxuli miznis Sesasruleblad sxva qveynebisken argaxedva, an saTanado nabijis argadadgma da axali
safexuris armosinjva, didi politikuri Secdoma iqneboda.
am mxriv, qarTuli saxelmwifos mmarTvel wreebs safuZvliani gamocdileba da mimdinare procesebisadmi alRos aRebis SesaniSnavi intuicia gaaCnda. amis udao dadasturebas
imave dokumentebSi motanili faqtebi iZleva. am masalebis
Seswavlis Sedegad irkveva, rom inglisisgan gadamwyveti
pasuxis droSi Segnebulad gaWianurebis gamo, iaraRis SeZenasTan mimarTebaSi dawyebuli saqmianobis ZiriTadi kursi,
saqarTvelos diplomatiurma korpusma italia_ safrangeTis mimarTulebiT aiRo. roca saqarTvelos delegaciis
mier am qveynebidan iaraRis SeZenasTan dakavSirebiT gaweul
saqmianobas vexebiT, Cvens winaSe princi pulad ismeba kiTxva_ samxedro aRWurvilobis SesaZen nusxaSi Setanili iyo
Tu ara saqarTvelos Tavdacvis saministrosadmi daqvemdebarebuli italiuri sabrZolo TviTmfrinavebisaTvis saWiro
sawvavis Sesyidva. es sakiTxi gansakuTrebul aqtualobas
im TvalsazrisiTac iZens, rom r.gabaSvilis mogonebebis
safuZvelze, istorikosTa garkveul wreebSi, `eqspertebSi~
da JurnalistebSi dRemde mcdari Sexedulebaa `gabatonebuli,~_ saqarTvelos xelisuflebam TiTqos ar izruna da
TviTmfrinavebisTvis sawvavis SesaZenad arcerTi TeTri ar
gaimeta. isini gazepirebuli leqsiviT imeoreben r.gabaSvilis mogonebebis sarkazmiT Sezavebul teqsts. `sad iyo 12,
saukeTeso italiuri haeroplani, romelTagan_ wers r.gabaSvili_ vercerTi ver afrinda, miuxedavad saukeTeso qarTveli mfrinavebisa (mayaSvilebi, bogomolovi da sxv.), radgan
Cvenma `mzrunvelma- xazeinma~_ aucilebel `gargoilisaTvis~
35
fuli ver gaimeta: Zviria!.. ubralo zeTi ixmareTo da bolSevikuri erTaderTi haeroplani Tu `panikasa~ hqmnida Cvens
mamac gvardiaSi, warmoidgineT, ra entuziazms gamoiwvevda
maTSi da SiSis zars bolSevikebSi._ Cvens 12 haeroplans Camoegdo maTi es erTaderTi da efrina mtris Tavze... gind marto Jordanias qvada gunda Camoeyara, an gegeWkoris marqsistuli `rCevebi~ marqsistulsave rigebSi?~ (gv.316)
vinc am amonawers yvela niuansiT siRrmiseulad ganixilavs, udaod dameTanxmeba, rom igi tyuilebiTaa damZimebuli
da saqarTvelos mTavrobisadmi biologiurad moZule adamianis mieraa dawerili. am teqstis avtors, 1918 wlis maisis
umZimesi dReebi unda gaxsenoda, roca man da misma Tanapartielebma, saqarTvelos pirveli respublikis koaliciur mTavrobaSi Sesvlaze da qveynis xavalindeli dRis pasuxismgeblobaze, upasuxismgeblo gadawyvetileba rom miiRo da `qandaraze Semomjdari~ gulgrili mayurebeli opozicioneris
rolSi yofna amjobina. es aris mware simarTle da mas vercerTi istorikosi ver gaeqceva.
rac Seexeba italiuri warmoebis TviTmfrinavebis sawvavisTvis fulis TiTqos `vergametebas,~ am tyuilis mxilebis uamravi dokumentia daculi harvardis universitetisa
da levilis saarqivo masalebis Sesabamis fondebSi. imave
masalebSi daculi informaciis mixedviT, samxedro aRWurvilobasTan erTad, aRniSnuli sawvavi italiis Tavdacvis
uwyebidan unda mieRo saqarTvelos. am da sxva sakiTxebis
mogvareba italiaSi sagangebod mivlinebul gen. i.gedevaniSvils qonda davalebuli. saqarTvelos delegaciis (politikuri, ekonomikuri, samxedro) 1920 wlis 1 maisis sxdomis
stenografiuli angariSidan irkveva, rom, saqarTvelos warmomadgenlobis imedebi italiis xelisuflebam ver gaamarTla. xelSemSlel faqtorad sakiTxis politikur WrilSi gadatana da aliebis (aliansis saxelmwifoebis) mier gamocemuli brZaneba iqna dasaxelebuli. es dokumenti, kavkasiis
da mcire aziis teritoriaze, iaraRisa da nebismieri sabrZolo saSualebebisTvis gankuTvnili nawarmis Setanas krZalavda. aRniSnulis gaTvaliswinebidan gamomdinare, saqarTvelos di plomatiuri korpusis mesveurebma, qveynisTvis TavdacviTi sabrZolo masalis Sovna `SemovliTi gziTac~ mosinjes. am SemTxvevaSi maT mizans, qarTuli jaris SeiaraReba
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da respublikis damoukideblobis gadarCena warmoadgenda.
Seqmnili urTulesi situaciis gaTvaliswinebidan gamomdinare, evropaSi qarTuli misiis warmomadgenlebma, moqmedebis erT- erT safexurad, sayovelTaod cnobili politikuri
formulireba_ `mizani amarTlebs saSualebas~ gamoyenebac
scades. isini italiis kerZo savaWro sazogadoebis `ICTA~s xelmZRvanels daukavSirdnen da masTan iaraRis SeZena_
transportirebaze molaparakebis garkveuli safexuri Seamzades. aRniSnul sakiTxTan mimarTebaSi gansakuTrebul yuradRebas gr.rcxilaZis mier 1920 wlis 17 ianvars e.gegeWkorisadmi gagzavnili werili iqcevs. CvenTvis saintereso
sakiTxTan dakavSirebiT dokumentSi vkiTxulobT: `erTi italieli vaWari romelic droebiT imyofeba aq, rogorc warmomadgeneli italiuri savaWro sazogadoebisa `ICTA~, winadadebas iZleva Seitanos saqarTveloSi yovelnairi samxedro iaraRi, Tofebi, zarbaznebi, aeroplanebi, patronebi, yumbarebi da sxva. misi sityviT, yvelaferi es SeiZleba iSovos
saqarTvelos mTavrobam italiaSi kerZo mwarmoeblebis da
vaWrebisgan. foTamde mitanas ikisreben gadamyidvelebi. saWiroa mxolod winaswar icodnen, SeiZleba Tu ara am saqmeze
pirdapiri laparaki italiis mTavrobasTan. Tu es ise unda
moewyos, rom italiis mTavrobam ver gaigos. am sakiTxis Sesaxeb me davpirdi pasuxs ori kviris ganmavlobaSi da amitom gTxovT vidre es vada gavidodes macnoboT Tqveni Sexeduleba.~
Sesabamisi saarqivo masalebis Seswavlis miuxedavad, aRniSnul sakiTxTan mimarTebaSi raime saxis gadawyvetilebis
miRebis damadasturebel dokuments ver mivakvlie. rogorc
Cans, zemoaRniSnuli kanonis gaTvaliswinebidan gamomdinare,
italiidan aralegarulad iaraRis gamotana did riskTan
iyo dakavSirebuli. miTumetes, im etapze xmelTaSua zRvisa
da Savi zRvis umniSvnelovanes navsadgurebs da TviT bosforis srutes konstantinopoliTurT_ inglisis sajariso SenaerTebi akontrolebda. saqarTvelosadmi iaraRis miyidvasTan mimarTebaSi inglisis wajeq- ukujeqis pozicias Tuki
gaviTvaliswinebT, bosforis sruteSi italiidan aralegarulad wamoRebuli iaraRis gatarebas inglisi araviTar SemTxvevaSi ar dauSvebda. aqedan gamomdinare, saqarTvelos saerTaSoriso mdgomareoba kidev ufro damZimdeboda.
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ramdenadac iaraRis aralegarulad transportireba did
riskTan da mosalodnel saerTaSoriso skandalTan iyo
dakavSirebuli, saqarTvelos mTavrobam am nabijis gadadgmisgan, rogorc Cans Tavi Seikava. saarqivo masalebidan irkveva,
rom saqarTvelos diplomatiurma warmomadgenlobam, iaraRis SeZenis optimalur formad, qarxnis mepatroneebTan
molaparakeba miiCnia. am mxriv saintereso informaciaa daculi n.jayelis mier e.gegeWkorisadmi 1920 wlis 30 ivniss gagzavnil werilSi. am dokumentis mixedviT, n.jayeli da i.gedevaniSvili sagangebod Casulan qalaq milanSi raTa enaxaT italiis metalurgiuli qarxnebis mmarTveli wreebi da
uSualod maTTan moexdinaT italiuri warmoebis iaraRis
SesyidvasTan dakavSirebiT molaparakeba. ramdenadac es mcdeloba warumateblad damTavrda, qarTuli di plomatiuri
korpusis warmomadgebnlebi iZulebuli gaxdnen, delegaciis winaSe mdgomi sakiTxebis mogvarebas isev londonSi
cdiliyvnen. samwuxarod, maTi es misiac uSedego gamodga.
yovelive zemoTqmulidan gamomdinare, princi pulad ismeba kiTxva: romel qveyanaSi apirebda r.gabaSvili TviTmfrinavebisTvis sawvavis SeZenas da Tuki aseTi saxelmwifo eguleboda, es saidumlo ratom droulad ar gaumxila imave komisiis wevrebs? roca am SekiTxvas zogieTi
`gabaSvilisti~ Cemi kolega damajerebel pasuxs gascems,
amis Semdeg miecema moraluri da zneobrivi ufleba gaakritikos da anaTemasac gadasces xelisuflebis is mesveurni,
romlebmac r.gabaSvilisgan mikvleuli TviTmfrinavis
`sawvavis sabados~ aTvisebaze uari rom ganacxada.
qarTuli jarisTvis iaraRis SesaZenad gaweuli saqmianobidan, gansakuTrebul interess gr.rcxilaZis mier e.gegeWkorisadmi 1920 wlis 4 maiss gagzavnili radiodepeSa iqcevs.
am dokumentidan irkveva, rom inglisis, safrangeTis da italiis qveynebis maRal komisrebTan Sexvedraze, gr.rcxilaZes
princi pulad dausvams sakiTxi: `rodis SeiZleba miviRoT
dapirebuli amunicia. rogorc mosalodneli iyo- wers igigadaWriTi pasuxi arcerTma ar momca. miTxres, es sakiTxi
TviT Cvenma mTavrobam unda gadawyvitoso da dampirdnen,
rom gaugzavnidnen depeSebs TavianT sagareo saqmeTa saministroebs am saqmeze. me vcdilobdi gamegebinebina maTTvis,
rom daxmareba swored exlaa saWiro, radgan baqoSi bolSe-
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vikebis gamoCenis Semdeg, saqarTvelo Tavdacvis samzadisSia.~ samwuxarod, maTi mxridan qarTuli problemisadmi civi
da indiferentuli damokidebuleba igrZnoboda. iseTi
STabeWdileba iqmneboda, rom isini qarTvelebs gansakuTrebul informacias umalavdnen. qameleonis politikur niRabs
amofarebulni, mxolod zedapiruli dapirebebiT ifarglebodnen. amis SesaniSnav dadasturebad, saqarTvelos sazavo
delegaciis 1920 wlis 4 maisis sxdomis stenografiul angariSSi daculi informacia gamodgeba. dokumentidan irkveva,
rom k.gvarjalaZis mier frangi polkovnikis JorJisadmi
micemul SekiTxvaze_ `Cven gvinda vicodeT... iaraRs Tu
miviRebT, viRebT marto safrangeTidan Tu sxvebidanac.~
respodentma (JorJma) am kanonzomieri SekiTxvisadmi konkretul pasuxs Tavi aarida. rac Seexeba imave k.gvarjalaZis
saubars kremerTan, mas k.gvarjalaZisaTvis yovelgvari
Sefarvis gareSe uTqvams: `Tu gindaT marTali giTxraT,
maSin azri aseTia,... iaraRi Tqven ar mogecemaT, radganac
Tqven erTi meores wyvetT.~ am SemTxvevaSi mas somex- azerbaijanelTa sisxliani dapirispireba qonda mxedvelobaSi.
samwuxarod, es danaSaulebrivi qmedeba braldebis saxiT
qarTvelebze gadmoqondaT. analogiuri pozicia eWira
qarTvelebTan mimarTebaSi grenarsac. rogorc Cans, somxebis mxridan orive maTgans qarTvelTa sawinaaRmdegod yalbi
informacia qonda miwodebuli. igi qarTvelebis simarTlesa
da udanSaulobaSi mas Semdeg darwmunda, roca de- martelis depeSas gaecno. am dokumentSi xazgasmiT iyo miTiTebuli: `saqarTvelos energiuli Carevis wyalobiT, mowveuli iqna konferencia sami respublikis da omi SeCerebulia somex- azerbaijanelTa Soris.~
Cems mier motanili faqtebi imis naTeli dadasturebaa, Tu
ramdenad maRal doneze muSaobda mezobeli qveynebis (somxeTi, azerbaijani) warmomadgenlebi qarTvelebis winaaRmdeg
yalbi informaciis gavrcelebis mizniT. maT kargad moaxerxes saqarTvelosadmi evropis liderTa garkveuli nawilis undoblobaSi darwmuneba. iaraRis SeZenis sakiTxSi qarTuli diplomatiis warumatebeli saqmianobis safuZvelTa- safuZveli evropis masStabiT qarTvelebisadmi somexTa gapiarebuli yalbi braldebebi iyo. am sakiTxTan dakavSirebiT,
saqarTvelos delegaciis da ekonomikuri komisiis 1920 wlis
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1 maisis gaerTianebul sxdomaze, k.CxeiZe xazgasmiT miuTiTebda: `delegaciam iaraRis SeZenis sakiTxis gamorkvevisTvis
didi Sroma gaswia, magram saubedurod jer mizans ver miaRwia.~ am SemTxvevaSi k.CxeiZes italiaSi da inglisSi qarTuli delegaciis warumatebeli saqmianoba qonda mxedvelobaSi. miuxedavad imisa, rom inglisSi TiTqmis yvela pasuxismgebeli pirovneba iqna naxuli, isini qarTvelebs iaraRis SesyidvasTan dakavSirebiT erT da imave pasuxs aZlevdnen: `princi puli mosazrebiT SeuZlebelia jer- jerobiT
sakiTxis sisruleSi moyvana da a.S.~
inglisis warmomadgenlobis mxridan aseTi poziciis daWera, moaxloebuli safrTxis winaSe mdgomi saqarTvelosadmi
momakvdinebel dartymas warmoadgenda. miTumetes, samxreT
kavkasiis garSemo politikuri situaciis gamwvavebis fonze,
saqarTvelo umZimes mdgomareobaSi imyofeboda. qveyanas sabrZolo iaraRi sWirdeboda da am aucilebel damcav instruments, dapirebis miuxedavad, dasavleT evropis saxelmwifoebi ver imetebda. am realobis gaTvaliswinebidan gamomdinare, parizSi, romSi, berlinSi, bernSi, londonSi, konstantinopolSi myofi saqarTvelos di plomatiuri warmomadgenlebisadmi 1920 wlis 18 aprils gagzavnil radiodepeSaSi e.gegeWkori garkveviT miuTiTebda: `Cven SevZlebT
Tavdacvas sakuTari ZalebiT, yovel SemTxvevaSi erTxans
gaumklavdebiT mters. ra Tqma unda Cveni mdgomareoba ufro
imediani iqneboda, rom mokavSireTagan Sepirebuli daxmareba migveRo. yoveldRe gvpirdebian, magram jer araferi
gamougzavniaT.~ am fonze, gansakuTrebul yuradRebas iqcevs
imave e.gegeWkoris mier evropis qveynebSi saqarTvelos warmomadgenlobisadmi 1920 wlis 30 aprils gagzavnili radiodepeSa. `Cven gvWiria- vkiTxulobT dokumentSi- iaraRi,
amunicia da sursaTi. mokavSireTa misiebi gvpirdebian daxmarebas, Tumca jer es dapireba ar ausrulebiaT... Tqven iq
unda miiRoT yoveli zoma, rom es daxmareba Tuki carieli
sityva ar aris, maTi dapireba dauyovnebliv mogvardes.~
evropis qveynebis liderebidan sicrueze dafuZnebuli wajeq- ukujeqis politikidan gamomdinare, saqarTvelos delegaciis winaSe princi pulad daisva sakiTxi im arsebiTi meqanizmis wina planze wamowevis aucileblobis Sesaxeb, romelic dasavleT evropis saxelmwifoTa liderebs daaintere-
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sebda. am mxriv, gansakuTrebul yuradRebas n.nikolaZis mier
SeTavazebuli winadadeba iqcevs. n.nikolaZis azriT, ramdenadac bolSevikebis mier baqos okupacia ganxorcielda,
misi ganTavisuflebis motivaciiT, qarTul mxares antantis qveynebidan iaraRis miyidva unda moeTxova. am sakiTxTan dakavSirebiT qarTul mxares gen. foSisadmi dasabuTebuli formiT Sesabamisi moxseneba unda waredgina. erTi
SexedviT es winadadeba im TvalsazrisiT Canda misaRebi,
rom aRniSnul sakiTxTan mimarTebaSi, navTobze daxarbebul inglisisa da safrangeTis xelisufalT SeiZleba marTlac gasCenodaT garkveuli interesi. meore mxriv, bolSevikebisgan baqos ganTavisuflebisaTvis saomari moqmedebebis dawyeba, sabWoTa ruseTisadmi omis gamocxadebas niSnavda. is iaraRi (vaznebi, yumbarebi...) romlebsac evropis qveynebidan qarTuli mxare marganecis safasurad miiRebda,
evropis qveynebis interesebisaTvis sabWoTa ruseTTan omis
dros daixarjeboda da qarTuli jari isev uiaraRod darCeboda. am procesebs qarTvelTa cocxali Zalis msxverplad SewirvasTan erTad, saqarTvelos ekonomikis sruli
ganadgureba da misi saxelmwifoebriobis dacema moyveboda. aqedan gamomdinare, n.nikolaZis zemoaRniSnuli winadadeba, im periodis qarTuli sinamdvilisadmi miuRebeli iyo.
Tundac im elementaruli mizezis gamo, rom iaraRis sanacvlod ruseTan dapirispirebiT, saqarTvelo evropis saxelmwifoebis interesTa zvaraki gaxdeboda.
Cems mier arqivsacavebSi mikvleuli dokumenturi masalis mixedviT Tuki vimsjelebT, antantis saxelmwifoebi ruseTTan omSi saqarTvelos CabmiT marTlac iyvnen dainteresebulni. amis Sesaxeb, gr.rcxilaZis mier 1920 wlis 21 ianvars parizSi myofi saqarTvelos delegaciis winaSe gakeTebul moxsenebaSi, inglisis admiral di- robekTan saubris
sayuradRebo faqtebia motanili. `di- robekis nalaparakevidan- vkiTxulobT dokumentSi- gamoirkva, rom antantas
ganzraxuli aqvs Cveni CaTreva omSi bolSevikebis winaaRmdeg. di- robekis TqmiT, mdgomareoba Txoulobs, rom
saqarTvelo awarmoebdes bolSevikebTan ara marto TavdacviT politikas da mzad iyos mogeriebiTi omisTvis, aramed
imasac, rom saqarTvelo daexmaros moxaliseebs yubanis
olqSi bolSevikebis ukan gadasrolisTvis... jer unda gamo-
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iCinos saqarTvelom faqtiurad aqtivoba bolSevikebis winaaRmdeg da maSin miiRebs iaraRso.~ di- robekis aRniSnuli pozicia gakvirvebas ar iwvevs, radgan igi parizis konferenciis monawile saxelmwifoebis mier miRebuli dadgenilebidan gamomdinareobda. am SemTxvevaSi misi `damsaxureba~ imaSi mdgomareobs, rom ingliselebisTvis damaxasiaTebeli `daxuruli kartis~ TamaSis princi pi daarRvia
da saqarTvelos warmomadgenels pirdapir mianiSna_ antantis qveynebs saqarTvelo da misi mosaxleoba mxolod da
mxolod `sazarbazne xorcad~ sWirdeboda. amis dadasturebas, kavkasiis qveynebTan mimarTebaSi parizis konferenciaze
miRebuli dadgenilebis teqstis gr.rcxilaZisadmi gacnoba warmoadgenda. am dokumentSi xazgasmiT iyo aRniSnuli:
`materialuri daxmareba gaewios kavkasiis respublikebs
imave pirobiT, rogorc moxaliseTa armias.~ es faqti imazedac migvaniSnebs, rom antantis qveynebi, saqarTvelos respublikas ara saxelmwifoebriv, aramed moxaliseTa armiis
doneze ganixilavdnen. Cems mier zemoT motanili faqtebis
analizidan gamomdinare, varaudis doneze SeiZleba iTqvas,
rom saqarTvelosadmi iaraRis miyidvasTan mimarTebaSi, antantis qveynebis liderTa TavSekaveba, ruseTTan saomar moqmedebaSi saqarTvelos mxridan monawileobis miRebaze oficialuri gancxadebis argakeTebiT rom yofiliyo ganpirobebuli.
rac Seexeba azerbaijanis gasabWoebis politikuri mani pulirebis SesaZleblobas, es faqtori, rogorc i.odiseliZe
aRniSnavda, saqarTvelosadmi mosalodneli safrTxis fonze,
qarTuli di plomatiuri korpusis mxridan wina planze unda
yofiliyo wamoweuli da inglisidan an safrangeTidan iaraRis miRebis saSualebad eqciaT. es garemoeba qonda mxedvelobaSi e.gegeWkors, roca parizSi myofi saqarTvelos
delegaciis Tavmjdomaris k.CxeiZis saxelze gagzavnil werilSi princi puli formiT rom ayenebda sakiTxs: `es werili minda gavaTavo imiT, rom iaraRiT daxmareba mogvcen.
ar vTxoulobT ufasod. mogvyidon! nuTu saqarTvelom es
mainc ver daimsaxura maT TvalSi?~ igive e.gegeWkori evropaSi (parizi, romi, berlini, berni, stamboli) saqarTvelos
warmomadgenlobebisadmi 1920 wlis 19 ivniss gagzavnil
SetyobinebaSi principulad moiTxovda: `amasTanave saWiroa
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iaraRisa da amuniciis sakiTxis gadaWris daCqareba. iaraRi Tu gveqna, Cven gaumklavdebiT yovelgvar safrTxes.~
azerbaijanSi bolSevikebis Semosevam, inglisis xelisufalTa mesveurni saqarTvelosTan mimarTebaSi garkveul `kompromisze~ waiyvana. mxedvelobaSi maqvs b.vansittartis mier
z.avliSvilisadmi SeTavazebuli winadadeba_ qarTul mxares inglisis xelisuflebisadmi iaraRis moTxovna somxebTan erTad waredgina. saqarTvelos delegaciis meTaurma
k.CxeiZem, am sakiTxTan mimarTebaSi 1920 wlis 8 maisis sxdomaze uaryofiTi pozicia daafiqsira. igi sxdomis monawileebs Seaxsenebda, rom, somxebTan erTad iaraRis moTxovna da
transportireba, `erTgvari politikuri demonstracia iqneba azerbaijanis winaaRmdeg, rac cud STabeWdilebas iqoniebs da amave dros isic ar viciT, am politikuri demonstraciis samagiero kompensacia Tu rogori iqneba.~
k.CxeiZis es pozicia politikuri TvalsazrisiT marTebuli iyo da amierkavkasiis regionSi Seqmnil urTules situacias savsebiT Seesabameboda. rac Seexeba riskze wasvlas,
Tu ra saxis `kompensacias~ miiRebda amisTvis saqarTvelo,
es sakiTxi imave delegaciis 1920 wlis 29 maisis da 2 ivnisis sxdomebis sagangebo msjelobis sagani gaxda. imave sxdomebis stenografiuli angariSebidan irkveva, rom somxeTTan erTad saqarTvelos mxridan iaraRis waRebis sakiTxis
gadawyvetisas, sxdomis monawileebi pirvel rigSi ruseTTan dadebul xelSekrulebas da osmaleTis argaRizianebis
faqtors iTvaliswinebdnen. `yvela eseni erTad qmnis im
mdgomareobas- ambobda k.CxeiZe- romelic gvaiZulebs metismetad frTxilad moveqceT am sakiTxs.~ analogiuri pozicia daiWira k.kandelakma, roca londonSi myofi saqarTvelos ekonomikuri komisiis mxridan vansittartisadmi micemul
pirobaze_ somxebTan erTad iaraRis Sesyidva- transportirebaze daTanxmebas uaryofiTi Sefaseba rom misca. misi samarTliani mtkicebiT, es sakiTxi politikuri xasiaTis matarebeli iyo da z.avaliSvils igi politikur delegaciasTan
unda SeeTanxmebina. igive k.kandelaki, z.avaliSvilis zemoaRniSnul TviTnebur gadawyvetilebas da vansittartTan SeTanxmebas naCqarevad miiCnevda. `saqme imaSi ki ar aris- ambobda k.kandelaki,- rom Cven somxebTan erTad migvaqvs iaraRi,
politikuri safrTxe am sakiTxis imaSi mdgomareobs, Tu
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rogor gavuSvaT es iaraRi Cvens teritoriaze... me ar mesmis
aseTi gulubryviloba. z.avaliSvils unda gaego vansittartis winadadeba, somxebTan erTad iaraRis moTxovna da
am iaraRis gaSveba Cvens teritoriaze ras niSnavda. dRes
sakiTxi ase dgas... politikuri mxriT, rom foTSi Casuli
iaraRi SeiZleba ar iqnes miRebuli Cvenebis mier.~ aqedan
gamomdinare, k.kandelaki savsebiT kanonzomierad moiTxovda,
z.avaliSvilis mier xelmowerili xelSekrulebis SeCerebis aucileblobas. amis saWiroebas gen. il.odiSeliZec xedavda. misi mtkicebiT, ramdenadac sakiTxi politikuri iyo,
igi sxdomis monawileebs Seaxsenebda: `iaraRis CataniT sargebolbis magier SeiZleba vneba movutanoT Cvens qveyanas.~
analogiuri mosazreba gamoTqva i.gobeCiamac. `z.avaliSviliganacxada man- mudam zereled uyurebda am sakiTxs. man miaRwia imas, rom somxebTan erTad gamosuliyo am sakiTxSi...
es misTvis umTavresia. danarCeni... ar ainteresebs. Cven xelSekruleba gvaqvs bolSevikebTan. iaraRis gaSveba ar iqneba
darRveva neitralitetis? meoreT, rogor gindaT, gvardia
daTanxmdes_ somxebs mivceT 75 % da danarCeni 25 % Cven davitovoT.~ am SemTxvevaSi sakiTxi sworad iyo dasmuli. miTumetes, iaraRis umniSvnelo nawilis (3- dan 1 Tofi), sanacvlod, saqarTvelo gamousworebel politikur dartymas Rebulobda. amasTan dakavSirebiT, delegaciis wevrebis winaSe
k.CxeiZe princi pulad ayenebda sakiTxs: Rirda Tu ara aTi
aTasi TofisTvis somxebTan erTad gamosvla da qveynisTvis
politikurad zianis miyeneba. misive mtkicebiT, somexqarTvelTa erToblivi gamosvla sxva sakiTxebSi ufro meti
sargeblis momtani iqneboda vinem iaraRis erToblivi transportireba. magram ingliselTa mxardaWeriT gaTamamebuli
somxebi, saqarTvelosadmi mezobeli qveynebis dasapirispirebeli safexuris Sesaqmnelad moqmedebdnen. `yvelaze ufroambobda k.CxeiZe- somxebs Cveni erTad gamosvla ainteresebs... Cvens teritoriaze iaraRis gatareba, faqtiurad
samxedro kavSiri gamodis somxebTan azerbaijanis winaaRmdeg. ase erTad gamosvlas me vamjobineb calke viqneT am
SemTxvevaSi.~
sakiTxi sworad iyo dasmuli Tundac im elementaruli
mizezis gamo, rom aRniSnuli faqtiT sabWoTa ruseTi 1920
wlis 7 maisis xelSekrulebis saqarTvelos mxridan darR-
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vevis apelirebas moaxdenda da bolSevikuri provokaciebis
ganxorcielebis SesaZlebloba miscemoda. aqedan gamomdinare,
umniSvnelo iaraRis miRebis safasurad da evropuli dapirebebis Semyure saqarTvelo, sabWoTa ruseTTan da azerbaijanTan ganaxlebuli samxedro dapirispirebis winaSe aRmoCndeboda. miTumetes, inglisisa da safrangeTis xelisufalni
wajeq- ukujeqis politikur kurss adga da 1920 wlis ivnisisTvisac gaugebari iyo, Tu ra gadawyvetilebas miiRebda
TiToeuli maTgani saqarTvelosTan mimarTebaSi. amis saukeTeso dadasturebas saqarTvelos delegaciis 1920 wlis 8 ivnisis sxdomis stenografiuli angariSi warmoadgens. es dokumenti imiTac aris saintereso, rom generalma al.erisTavma,
sxdomis monawileebs polkovnik JorJTan (frangi oficeri)
saubris Sinaarsi gaacno. misi TqmiT, safrangeTis mTavrobas
somxebisTvis iaraRis micemis gadawyvetileba miuRia da es
iaraRi somxeTSi foTis sazRvao portiT unda gagzavniliyo. rac Seexeba saqarTvelos, imave polkovnik JorJs ganucxadeebia, rom baTumis garSemo Seqmnili problemidan
gamomdinare, `safrangeTis mTavrobas ar surs waaxdinos
damokidebuleba inglisTan, rac isedac ar aris karg mdgomareobaSi inglisis mier krasinis miRebis gamo... safrangeTis samxedro saministro daJinebiT moiTxovs saqarTvelosTvis iaraRis micemas. magram mas sagareo saqmeTa saministros daukiTxavad es ar SeuZlia. es ukanaskneli ki jerjerobiT gadawyvetilebis mirebas ver bedavs inglisis gamo.~
am amonaweridan aSkarad Cans, rom evropis qveynebidan, Tugind safrangeTidan saqarTvelosTvis iaraRis miyidvis sakiTxis dadebiTad gadawyvetas, mxolod inglisis xelisufalTa guneba- ganwyoba gansazRvravda. miTumetes, im etapze
yvela sazRvao navsadgurs inglisi akontrolebda. aqedan
gamomdinare, saqarTvelos sasikeTod nebismieri sakiTxis
mowesrigeba inglisis xelisufalTa neba- survilze iyo
damokidebuli. aRniSnulTan dakavSirebiT, imave sxdomaze
k.gvarjalaZem guliswyromiT ganacxada: `inglisma Cven aRgviTqva, rom sawinaaRmdego araferi eqneboda, Tu amerikaSi
SeviZendiT iaraRs. da dRes ki winaaRmdegni arian safrangeTma rom mogvces. me mgonia aq raRac politika unda iyves
somxebis mier nawarmoebi. maT undaT aqac mogvmarTon, rom
iaraRi Cvens teritoriaze gavataroT.~ kidev ufro mkacri
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iyo imave sxdomaze k.CxeiZis mier gakeTebuli gancxadeba:
`winaT gveubnebodnen, rom iaraRis SeZena SeiZleba ufulod da Cvenc am mimarTulebiT vmoqmedebdiT... Semdeg gviTxres, iaraRis SesaZenad mxolod fulia saWiroo. daviwyeT am mimarTulebiT moqmedeba. exla ki isev gveubnebian,
rom ufulod SegviZlia miviRoT. Zalian kargi, amas raRa
sjobia Tuki egre iqneba. Cven unda miviRoT yoveli zomebi,
rom mogvcen es iaraRi. rac Seexeba somxebs, me SemiZlia
vTqva, rom ar mesmis maTi saqme. ingliselebi, Cveni mfarvelebi
somxebs aZleven iaraRs, safrangeTic da italiac. raSia
saqme? somxebis saSualebiT xom ar surT dagvRupon?~
Cems mier motanili am amonawerebidan kargad Cans inglisis xelisufalTa politikurad gameZavebuli da orpirovani ianusis niRbiT SefuTuli antiqarTuli kursi. meore
mxriv, somexTa mier qarTvelTa sawinaaRmdegod Catarebuli
faruli muSaobis Sedegebi. dokumenturi masaliT irkveva,
rom evropelTa mxridan gacemuli dapirebebis gamudmebuli cvalebadobidan gamomdinare, parizSi myofi saqarTvelos delegacia umZimes mdgomareobaSi aRmoCnda. maT mier
gaweuli titanuri Sroma, romelic iaraRis SeZenas ukavSirdeboda, evropis saxelmwifoTa maRalCinosnebis orpirobis wyalobiT, unayofo gamodga. am SemTxvevaSi, qarTulma
delegaciam Cixidan gamosvlis erTaderT saSualebad iaraRis ingliselebisgan SeZena CaTvala mizanSewonilad.
rogorc dokumenturi masalidan irkveva, k.CxeiZes ingliseli polkovnikis gribonisadmi miumarTavs. am ukanasknels
pirdapir dausvams sakiTxi_ saqarTvelos SeeZlo Tu ara
iaraRis SesaZenad fulis gadaxda. im SemTxvevaSi Tu qarTuli
mxare fuls gaiRebda, gen. milnis gankargulebaSi myofi
iaraRiT datvirTuli gemi saqarTvelos gadaecemoda. marTalia, es winadadeba erTi SexedviT mimzidveli Canda, magram qarTuli mxarisTvis ucnobi rCeboda Tu ra saxeobis,
ramdenad maRalxarisxiani da brZolisTvis vargisiani iyo
es iaraRi. meore mxriv, misi SeZenis nebarTvis oficialurad dadastureba da transportireba, inglisis xelisuflebis
Sesabamisi uwyebis mxridan gacemuli dokumentis Semdeg
gaxdeboda SesaZlebeli. biurokratiuli barieris droulad daZlevis mizniT, saqarTvelos di plomatiuri korpusis warmomadgenlebs, daxmarebisTvis inglisis sagareo saqme-
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Ta saministros erT- erTi maRalCinosanisTvis- lord hartingisTvis miumarTavs. imavdroulad, im mosalodneli safrTxis Sesaxebac gaumaxvilebiaT yuradReba, romelic
saqarTvelos, sabWoTa ruseTidan emuqreboda. aqedan gamomdinare, saqarTvelosTvis iaraRis miyidvis drouli gadawyvetilebis miReba, qveynis sasicocxlo interesebisaTvis
daukavSirebiaT. imave masalebis mixedviT, am mniSvnelovan
sakiTxTan mimarTebaSi, lord hartings indiferentuli
damokidebuleba gamouCenia da ganucxadebia: `rodesac Seiqmneba aseTi situacia, romelzedac exla Tqven laparakobT,
maSin SeiZleba xelmeoreT davsvaT eg sakiTxi.~ misi aseTi
pozicia gakvirvebas ar iwvevs imdenad, ramdenadac im etapze
inglisis xelisufleba sabWoTa ruseTTan savaWro xelSekrulebis teqstis detalebs azustebda da ruseTisadmi saqarTvelos `daTmobis~ da kavkasiis regioniT `ardainteresebis~ sanacvlod, garkveul SeRavaTebs elodeboda. miuxedavad amisa, saqarTvelos di plomatiuri korpusis warmomadgenlebi imeds ar kargavda da iaraRis Sesyidvis sakiTxis
dadebiTad gadawyvetas isev inglisis daxmarebiT cdilobda. amis erT- erT dadasturebas, parizSi myofi saqarTvelos delegaciis (di plomatiuri, ekonomikuri, samxedro misiebi) gafarToebuli sxdoma (1920 wlis 18 maisi) warmoadgens. iaraRis SeZenasTan dakavSirebiT imave sxdomaze miRebul dadgenilebaSi vkiTxulobT: `iaraRi SeZenili iqnas inglisidan. Tu mosaxerxebelia milnidan. ekonomiurma komisiam
gaiRos erTi da naxevari (1 1/2½) milioni franki da mieweros
mTavrobas, rom manac gaiRos erTi da naxevari (1 1/2 ) milioni franki.~
imave dokumenturi masaliT irkveva, rom am dadgenilebis
safuZvelze, fulis gamoyofisa da milnis mier ramdenime
dRiT adre gacemuli dapirebis miuxedavad, sakiTxi adgilidan ar daZrula. inglisuri mxare, saqarTvelosTvis am sasicocxlo mniSvnelobis problemis mizanmimarTulad mifuCeCebas Seecada. Seqmnilma mdgomareobam, qarTuli delegaciis meTauri k.CxeiZe iZulebuli gaxada, yovelgvari di plomatiuri reveransebis gareSe evropelebisaTvis saTqmeli pirdapir eTqva. amis dadasturebas saqarvelos delegaciis 1920 wlis 12 ivnisis sxdomis stenografiuli angariSi warmoadgens. am dokumentidan irkveva, rom safrangeT-
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is sagareo saqmeTa saministros maRalCinosan moxeleebTan grenarTan da laroSTan, k.CxeiZisa da k.gvarjalaZis
Sexvedris dros, qarTul mxares princi pulad dausvams
sakiTxi_ Tuki somxebs aZlevdnen iaraRs, qarTvelebTan
mimarTebaSi ra mizniT axdendnen TavSekavebas. amasTan dakavSirebiT laroSs upasuxia: `marTalia, somxebze aris laparaki da CvenTvis saWiroa vicodeT, Tqven gauSvebT Tu ara
Tqvens teritoriaze iaraRso.~ am SekiTxvaze k.gvarjalaZes
delegaciis saxeliT ganucxadebia: `erT Tofs ar gavuSvebT manamde, sanam Cvenc ar mogvcemen iaraRs. SeuZlebelia
davuSvaT, rom Cvens irgvliv yvela SeiaraRdes, maSin rodesac Cven uiaraRod vrCebiT!~ aseTi princi puli xasiaTis
gancxadebis gamo, laroSi iZulebuli gamxdara, qarTvel
di plomatTan `vaWrobis~ garkveuli forma gamoeyenebina
da SekiTxvis saxiT misTvis miumarTavs: `Tqven rom mogceT
naxevari maSin gauSvebT?~ safrangeTis warmomadgenlis
mxridan aseT kompromisze wasvla imdenad moulodneli
iyo, rom k.gvarjalaZes konkretuli psauxisaTvis Tavi auridebia_ `me ar SemiZlia am sakiTxze garkveulad gi pasuxoT, radganac arc Tqven da arc Cven ar viciT Tu rogori
mdgomareobaa iq (kavkasiaSi S.v.) daekiTxeT de- martels
Tqvens warmomadgenels da im cnobebis mixedviT imoqmedeT,
xolo Cven ki erT Tofs ar gavuSvebT manam, sanam iaraRs
Cvenc ar miviRebT.~ poziciis ase mkacrad gamoTqmiT, qarTulma mxarem safrangeTis warmomadgenlobas pirdapir mianiSna,
rom isini SesaniSnavad erkveodnen mimdinare politikur
procesebSi da maTi mxridan SefiTuli formiT Cafiqrebul
nebismier veragul qmedebas, qarTul diplomatiur korpuss
ver gamoaparebdnen. swored amis Semdeg gaxda SesaZlebeli,
rom laroSs nabiji ukan gadaedga da qarTuli mxarisTvis
varnaSi (bulgareTi) arsebuli iaraRi SeeTavazebina. misi
TqmiT, antantas SeeZlo am iaraRis qarTvelebisTvis miyidva,
magram winaswar ainteresebda iaraRis transportireba SesaZlebeli gaxdeboda Tu ara baTumis navsadguriT. ramdenadac im etapze baTumSi saqarTvelos iurisdiqcia ar vrceldeboda da ingliselebi batonobdnen, k.gvarjalaZem am
SemTxvevaSi upiratesoba foTis navsadgurs mianiWa da iqve
dasZina: `transportis saqmes qarTuli mxare moagvarebda,
oRond maT iaraRis micemis gadawyvetileba daCqarebiT
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mieRoT, radgan amas didi mniSvneloba eqneboda saqarTvelosaTvis. laroSi qarTul mxares Sepirda, rom am sakiTxis
Sesaxeb masalebs Sekrebda da problemis saCqarod gadasawyvetad yvela zomebs miiRebda.~
miuxedavad imisa, rom qarTuli mxare iaraRis Sesyidvis
SemTxvevaSi mis transportirebaze iRebda pasuxismgeblobas, safrangeTis Sesabamis uwyebebs saqarTvelosTvis iaraRis miyidvis pragmatuli gadawyvetileba 1920 wlis 20
ivlisisTvisac miRebuli ar qonda da sakiTxi mxolod maRalCinosanTa saubris doneze darCa. amis dadasturebas
parizSi myofi saqarTvelos delegaciis 1920 wlis 21 ivlisis gaerTianebuli (di plomatiuri, ekonomikuri, samxedro)
sxdomis stenografiuli angariSi warmoadgens. am dokumentis mixedviT, generalma al.erisTavma bulgareTis samxedro sawyobebSi arsebuli safrangeTis kuTvnili iaraRis saqarTvelosTvis miyidvis Sesaxeb, safrangeTis mTavrobis
Tanxmobaze gaamaxvila yuradReba. rac Seexeba iaraRis safasurs, igi saqarTvelos mTavrobasa da frang polkovnik korbels Soris molaparakebis Sedegad unda gadawyvetiliyo.
imave sxdomaze k.gvarjalaZem oficialurad ganacxada, rom
safrangeTis sagareo saqmeTa saministroSi polk. deroziem
igi daaimeda, rom safrangeTi 5 aTas Tofsa da 10 milion vaznas miyidda saqarTvelos.
dokumenturi masaliT irkveva, rom safrangeTis maRalCinosanTa mxridan saqarTvelosadmi iaraRis miyidvis Tanxmobas, mxolod somxuri interesebidan gamomdinare faqtori gansazRvravda. amis dadasturebas polk. derozies
mier k.gvarjalaZisadmi micemul SekiTxvaze_ `SeuZlia Tu
ara qarTvelebs bulgareTSi Sesyiduli iaraRi somxebTan
erTad gaitanos,~_ warmoadgens. am sakiTxTan dakavSirebiT,
saqarTvelos interesebidan gamomdinare, diplomatiuri etiketis dacviT, k.gvarjalaZem upasuxa: `es politikuri sakiTxia... neba momeciT frTxilad viqne da gadawyvetili pasuxi ar mogceT. miTumetes, gemi romelic iaraRs waiRebs, Cveni nedli masaliT datvirTuli dabrundeba ukan. am SemTxvevaSi jobia mxolod Cveni iaraRi midiodes. me vTxove, rom
iaraRis mocemis Sesaxeb asli moecaT CvenTvis, rom gagvecno Cveni kurierisaTvis.~ am amonaweridan kargad Cans, rom
somxebTan erTad qarTvelebis mxridan iaraRis waReba poli-
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tikuri TvalsazrisiT dauSvebeli iyo, miTumetes, imave gems
iaraRis safasurad saqarTvelodan nedli masala (wiaRiseuli) unda waeRo. amitom iyo, rom qarTuli mxare, bulgareTidan iaraRis qarTvelebisTvis calke gamogzavnas rom
moiTxovda.
gr.rcxilaZis mier e.gegeWkoriasadmi 1920 wlis 15 ivliss gagzavnil werilSi, iaraRis bulgareTidan Sesyidvis
zemoaRniSnul gegmasTan dakavSirebiT Seqmnili situacia
dawvrilebiTaa aRwerili. imave dokumentidan irkveva, rom
i.odiSeliZisaTvis `frangebs uTqvams, iaraRis wamosaRebad ukve gaugzavniaT gemi qalaq varnaSi, sadac datvirTva
unda moxdes. detalurad am saqmes giambobs TviT odiseliZe.~ Cems mier mikvleuli saarqivo dokumentebidan dasturdeba, rom es danapirebic qarTvelebisTvis uiRblo aRmoCnda. safrangeTis samxedro misiis warmomadgenlis mier
konstantinopolidan e.gegeWkorisadmi 1920 wlis 27 ivliss gamogzavnil telegramaSi vkiTxulobT: `varnas navsadguris muSebma uari ganacxades iaraRis datvirTvaze saqarTvelosTvis da somxeTisTvis. am moulodneli dabr-kolebiT aixsneboda `borisis~ foTSi misvlis dagvianeba.~
aseve Seusrulebeli darCa ingliseli komisaris mier saqarTvelosTvis Sepirebuli 30 aTasi Tofis miyidva. am
sakiTxTan dakavSirebiT gr.rcxilaZis imave werilSi vkiTxulobT: `inglisis komisarma Tqva, rom imis garda rasac frangebisgan miiRebT da somxebisTvis dagrovili iaraRidanac
rac gergebaT, damatebiT miiRebT am Tavad 30 aTas Tofs inglisisgan da Semdegac britaneTis mTavroba mieSveleba saqarTvelos saWiroebis mixedviT.~ marTalia es dapireba erTi
SexedviT imedis momcemi iyo, magram evropelebisgan mravalgzis motyuebulma qarTulma mxarem misi sandoobis gadamowmeba gen. milnTan moaxdina. rogorc gr.rcxilaZe wers,
`meore dRes gen.odiSeliZesTan erTad vinaxule gen. milni,
romelmac Tavazianad migviRo, magram Tqva, rom 30 aTasi
Tofis Sesaxeb mas jer araferi cnoba ara aqvs... Cemis azriT,
am saqmis win wasawevad saWiroa winaswari cnobebis gagzavna londonSi, radgan aq milns amis Sesaxeb cnobebi ar aqvs.
londonSi unda gamoirkves rodis da ra gziT miviRebT inglisidan am dapirebul iaraRs. SesaZlebelia britaneTis
warmomadgenlisgan TbilisSi lukisaganac SevityoT raime
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cnobebi am 30 aTasi Tofis Sesaxeb~.
saqarTvelosTvis es umniSvnelovanesi sakiTxi, ramdenadac adgilidan ar iZvroda da drois faqtori qartuli saxelmwifos sazianod musaobda, e.gegeWkorma sagangebo davaleba
misca gr.rcxilaZes, raTa sabolood gaerkvia, inglisi aZlevda
Tu ara Sepirebul iaraRs saqarTvelos. am sakiTxtan dakavSirebiT Cemi yuradReba gr.rcxilaZis mier 1920 wlis 13
seqtembers e.gegeWkorisadmi gagzavnilma werilma mii pyro.
`Tanaxmad Tqveni davalebisa- vkiTxulobT dokumentSi- admiral di- robeks xelaxla vTxove daxmareba iaraRiT
saqarTvelosaTvis im sabuTiT, rom mosalodnelia mdgomareobis garTuleba somxeTidan mustafa- qemal- faSas jaris
mxriv da rom saerTod samxedro TvalsazrisiT Cveni qveynis garSemo myudroeba ar aris. di- robekma sTqva, rom am
saganze xelaxla telegramis gagzavna londonSi jer Seizleba usargeblo iyoso da umjobesia movucadoT stokss,
uordropis magier saqarTveloSi maRal komisrad danisnuls, gavigoT misgan ukanaskneli informacia da amis Sesaferisad gadavdgaT axali nabijio. stokssi daaxloebiT am
Tvis 15-s iqneba konstantinopolSi.~
saarqivo masalebis miukvlevlobis gamo, jer- jerobiT
SeuZlebeli xdeba imis garkveva, ra pozicia daiWira inglisis mier saqarTveloSi gamogzavnilma axalma umaRlesma
komisarma stokssma. erTi ram dabejiTebiT SeiZleba iTqvas,
rom ingliselebisgan iaraRis SeZenas, qarTuli diplomatiuri korpusis warmomadgenlebi 1920 wlis noembris meore
naxevarSiac Seecadnen. mxedvelobaSi maqvs inglisis xelisuflebis mier konstantinopolidan samxedro SenaerTebis
gayvanis gadawyvetilebis miReba da am faqtis iaraRis SesaZenad gamoyenebis mcdeloba. am sakiTxTan dakavSirebiT, gansakuTrebul yuradRebas saqarTvelos warmomadgenelis
i.gogo-laSvilis mier stambolidan k.sabaxtaraSvilisadmi
1920 wlis 15 noembers gamogzavnili werili iqcevs. `exla
gavige- vkiTxulobT dokumentSi,- rom ingliselebi ori Tvis
ganmavlobaSi konstantinopols stoveben. e.i. jarebi gayavT
aqedan da bosforSi stoveben mxolod Tavis `drendoutebs.~
nawili jarebisa daaxloebiT erTi divizia ukve wavida aqedan,
danarCensac wynarad ukeTeben evakuacias. ori Tvis ganmavlobaSi aucileblad unda moaxdinon likvidacia im amunicii-
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sa, romelic damzadebuli qondaT aq vrangelisaTvis. aq moi poveba rasakvirvelia Tofebic da patronebic, agreTve sxva samxedro masalac. yvelafers yidian iaf fasebSi da SeiZleba Cvenc SeviZinoT Tu damavalebT centrobankis ganyofilebis saSualebiT.~ am dokuments, sagareo saqmeTa ministris moadgilem k.sabaxtaraSvilma Semdegi saxis rezolucia daado: `saCqarod SeekiTxeT samxedro saministros. k.sabaxtaraSvili.~ rac Seexeba imave i.gogolaSvilis mier 1920
wlis 19 noembriT daTariRebul meore werils, masSi xazgasmiT iyo miTiTebuli: `umorCilesad gTxovT macnoboT depeSiT SeiZleba Tu ara daviwyo muSaoba iaraRis da patronebis Sovnis Sesaxeb.~ am sakiTxis Semdgom msvlelobasTan dakavSirebiT, Sesabamis dokumentur masalas jer- jerobiT
ver mivakvlie. erTi ram dabejiTebiT SeiZleba iTqvas, rom
qarTulma mxarem ingliselebisgan stambolSi vercerTi
saxeobis iaraRi ver Seisyida. amis ZiriTadi ganmapirobebeli mizezi somxeTis gasabWoebaSi (1920 wlis 29 noemberi)
unda veZioT. rogorc zemoTac mqonda aRniSnuli, inglisi
da safrangeTi, saqarTvelosTvis iaraRis miyidvas im SemTxvevaSi Tanxmdebodnen, Tuki am iaraRs somxebTan erTad SeiZendnen, transportirebas erTi gemiT moaxdendnen da somxebisTvis gankuTvnil iaraRs saqarTvelos teritoriaze uproblemod gaatarebdnen. ramdenadac somxeTis gasabWoeba,
inglisis jaris mier konstantinopolis sabolood datovebamde moxda, gamoricxuli araa, rom es faqtori ingliselebisgan saqarTvelosTvis iaraRis miyidvis uaris Tqmis safuZveli gamxdariyo. aseTi mosazrebis gamoTqmis SesaZleblobis safuZvels inglisisa da safrangeTis xelisufalTa
mxridan saqarTvelosTvis iaraRis miyidvis gacemuli pirobis TiTqmis daviwyebis faqti iZleva.
Cems mier zemoT motanili saarqivo masalebi imis utyuari
dadasturebaa, rom 1920 wlis monakveTSi, saqarTvelos xelisuflebam, misma di plomatiurma korpusma, evropis qveynebidan iaraRis Sesyidvis yvela gza da saSualeba mosinja.
am mimarTulebiT warmatebis miuRwevloba, saqarTvelos xelisuflebis umoqmedobiT ki ara, evropis qveynebis maRalCinosanTa tyuilebiT damZimebuli dapirebebiT iyo ganpirobebuli. evropis qveynebis liderebisgan pragmatuli gadawyvetilebis miuReblobis gamo, saqarTvelosTan mimarTebaSi
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Seqmnili urTulesi situacia, konkretuli RonisZiebebis
gatarebas saWiroebda da qveynis damoukideblobis SesanarCuneblad Sesabamisi gzebis Ziebis aucileblobas moiTxovda. miTumetes, amierkavkasiis regionSi saqarTvelos damoukidebel saxelmwifod arseboba, sabWoTa ruseTisgan xelSemSlel faqtorad iyo moazrebuli. aqedan gamomdinare, rusi
da qarTveli bolSevikebi mis gasasabWoeblad yvela saSualebebis maqsimalurad amoqmedebas cdilobda. amis erTerT dadasturebas, s.orjonikiZisa da s.kirovis mier skp ckis yvela wevrisa da l.trockisadmi 1921 wlis 2 ianvars gagzavnili saidumlo werili warmoadgens. am dokumentis merve
da mecxre punqtebis mixedviT, saqarTvelos gasabWoeba Zalismieri formiT unda ganxorcielebuliyo. am poziciis dasabuTebas, werilis avtorebi Semdegi mosazrebebiT cdilobdnen; `merve. imis imedi, rom TviT saqarTveloSi Signidan
moxdeba gadamwyveti afeTqeba,- vkiTxulobT dokumentSiar unda gvqondes. amas amtkicebs is ambebi, rac saqarTveloSi xdeba. saqarTvelos, Cvens dauxmareblad gasabWoeba ar
ZaluZs. mecxre. sababi saqarTvelos saqmeebSi Cveni CarevisTvis gvaqvs. saamisod saWiro ar aris aSkarad Tavs davesxaT saqarTvelos, gvaqvs SesaZlebloba, rom daviwyoT moZraoba afxazeTSi, aWaraSi, borCalos mazraSi, sadac saamiso
niadagia. am mxriv Cveni daxmareba SeuZlia agreTve TurqeTsa da somxeTs da SesaZlebelia Seiqmnas iseTi viTareba,
rom mxsnelad movevlinoT saqarTvelos, romelic ixrwneba
da anarqias eZleva.
dasasrul saWiroa kidev erTxel xazgasmiT aRvniSnoT,
rom Tu mTeli amierkavkasia ar gavasabWoveT, veraviTar SemTxvevaSi mtkiced ver vigrZnobT Tavs Crdilo kavkasiasa
da azerbaijanSi. da Tu yubansa da Tergze SedarebiT simSvidea, es mxolod pirvel SemTxvevamde, vidre kazakoba gons
movides Cvengan miyenebuli gadamwyveti dartymebis mere, xolo
saqarTvelos mTavroba yvelafers iRonebs, raTa kazakobas
da mTielebs daexmaros Cvens winaaRmdeg gamolaSqrebaSi.~
am amonawerSi garkveviTaa miTiTebuli, rom anarqiis xelovnurad agorebis SemTxvevaSi, sabWoTa ruseTs `mxsnelis~
motivaciiT saqarTveloSi SeiaraRebuli Zalebis Semoyvanis da adgilobrivi mosaxleobisadmi iseTi `gadamwyveti
dartymebis miyenebis~ SesaZlebloba miecemoda, rom kazake-
53
bis msgavsad, karga xnis ganmavlobaSi gons ver mosuliyo.
es garduvali safrTxe, gansakuTrebiT 1920 wlis dekembris
Sua ricxvebSi warmoCnda. mxedvelobaSi maqvs evropis saxelmwifoebisgan iaraRis da finansuri daxmarebis miuRebloba. am fonze, saqarTvelo im `dasaklav xars~ daemgvana,
romlis Tavis warsakveTad `CrdiloeTis meyafses~ galesili maxvili SemarTuli qonda da misTvis sasurveli proceduris Casatareblad xelsayrel politikur situacias rom
eloda. Seqmnili urTulesi mdgomareobisa da safrangeTis
maRalCinosnebis dapirebebis Seusruleblobidan gamomdinare,
saqarTvelos diplomatiuri korpusis mesveeurebi, isev inglisis xelisuflebas miubrundnen da saqarTvelosadmi adre
micemuli danapirebis erTxel kidev Sexsenabas Seecadnen.
amis dokumenturad dadasturebas, e.gegeWkoris mier a.guguSvilisadmi londonSi gagzavnili werili (1920 wlis 31
dekemberi) warmoadgens. CvenTvis saintereso sakiTxTan dakavSirebiT masSi vkiTxulobT: `am werilis miRebisTanave, dauyovnebliv midi ser jon tilTan da l.jorjis mdivanTan kerTan da orives gadaeci Cemi saxeliT Semdegi: dadga wami,
rodesac saqarTvelos sWirdeba realuri daxmareba finansurad da iaraRiT. kers gaaxseneT, rom misi e.i. keris TandaswrebiT l.jorjma me piradad dapireba momca, rom igi mzad
aris daexmaros saqarTvelos. nebac momca, misi saxeliT es
mecnobebina Cemi mTavrobisaTvis. exla me vekiTxebi maT, rCeba Tu ara misi dapireba ZalaSi da Tu rCeba, SeuZlia Tu
ara mas am mxriv e.i. finansurad (aseTi saWiroa umTavresad
puris SesaZenad) da iaraRiT dauyovnebliv daexmaros saqarTvelos... erTi sityviT, dauyovnebliv da dauzarlad SeasruleT Cemi davaleba da dawvrilebiT macnobeT Sedegebi.~
samwuxarod, qarTuli mxaris es mcdelobac warumateblad
damTavrda. ramdenadac dasavleT evropidan daxmarebis saxiT
pragmatuli nabijebi ar idgmeboda, tyuiliT damZimebuli
dapirebebis amara myofi saqarTvelo_ realuri safrTxis
winaSe dadga. arsebuli situaciis gaanalizebis Sedegad
miRebuli daskvnebis safuZvelze, saqarTvelos pirveli respublikis mTavrobis Tavmjdomare iZulebuli gaxda, sabWoTa ruseTTan garkveul kompromisze wasvlis mzadyofna gamoeTqva. am ukidures nabijs igi mxolod im SemTxvevaSi
gadadgamda, Tuki saqarTveloSi wiTeli armia ar Semovido-
54
da, eris damoukidebloba da suvereniteti iqneboda daculi. es pozicia, misi mxridan moskovis samxedro warmomadgenel tolstoisTan da sabWoTa ruseTis ataSesTan general lebedinskisTan saidumlo Sexvedraze (1920 wlis dekembris bolo) iqna gamoTqmuli. gamoricxuli araa, rom am
informaciiT sargeblobda v.lenini, roca s.orjonikiZisadmi
gagzavnil werilSi (1921 wlis 2 marti) miuTiTebda: `uaRresad didi mniSvneloba aqvs imas, rom gamoinaxos misaRebi
kompromisi blokisTvis JordaniasTan, an mis msgavs qarTvel menSevikebTan, romlebic jer kidev (loreSi S.v.) ajanyebamde absoluturad mtrulad ar iyvnen ganwyobilni garkveuli pirobebiT saqarTveloSi sabWoTa wyobilebis damyarebis azrisadmi.~ aseTi kompromisuli pozicia, rogorc zemoTac mqonda miTiTebuli, lores `ajanyebamde~ da saqarTveloSi XI armiis Semosvlamde n.Jordanias marTlac qonda, magram qveynis okupaciis Semdeg, sabWoTa ruseTTan raime daTmobaze wasvla dauSveblad miaCnda. es quTaisis 1921 wlis
17- 18 martis molaparakebebmac daadastura, romlis Sesaxeb
dawvrilebiT naSromis meore paragrafSi meqneba saubari.
xazgasmiT minda aRvniSno, rom lebedinskisTan n.Jordanias
Sexvedris da leninis zemoaRniSnul werilSi motanili
faqtebis gaanalizebisas, zogierTi Cemi kolegas mier socialistobis terminologiis mani pulirebiT, n.Jordania sabWoTa ruseTis `motrfialedaa~ gamocxadebuli. maTi mxridan daviwyebasaa micemuli imave n.Jordanias mier 1918 wels
gakeTebul gancxadeba: `aRmosavleTis fanatikosebs dasavleTis imperialistebi mirCevnia!~ meore mxriv, isini ar iTvaliswineben im momakvdinebel da fsiqologiur dartymas, romelic evropis qveynebma 1920 wlis dekembris bolomde miayena
saqarTvelos. mxedvelobaSi maqvs: 1)1920 wlis 16 dekembers
saqarTvelos erTa ligaSi armiReba da inglis mxridan, samxreT kvkasiis regioniT ardainteresebis oficialurad ruseTis winaSe dadastureba; 2)evropis qveynebis mier, saqarTvelosTvis arcerTi saxeobis iaraRis armiyidva; 3)sabWoTa
ruseTis mier azerbaijanisa da somxeTis gasabWoeba, poloneTTan droebiTi dazaveba da vrangelis ganadgureba.
yovelive zemoTqmulis gaTvaliswinebidan gamomdinare, martod- marto darCenili saqarTvelo, sabWoTa ruseTs namdvilad ver gaumklavdeboda. am realobis gaTvaliswinebiT,
55
a)n.Jordaniaseuli kompromisi, saqarTvelos sruli damoukideblobis da suverenitetis SenarCunebaze, b)saqarTveloSi sabWoTa ruseTis marbieli wiTeli laSqaris ar SemoSvebaze
da qarTuli jaris samarTlebrivi statusis xelSeuxeblobaze iyo gaTvlili. Tuki amis miRweva SesaZlebeli gaxdeboda, saqme nakleb borotebasTan gveqneboda. misi Sedegi
iqneboda: 1)ruseT- saqarTvelos 1920 wlis 7 maisis xelSekrulebidan da qveynis suverenitetis aRiarebis gaTvaliswinebidan gamomdinare, ruseT- osmaleTis 1921 wlis 16 martis
moskovis xelSekrulebaSi Setanili saqarTvelo- osmaleTis sazRvris cvlilebebi, saqarTvelos mTavrobisa da damfuZnebeli krebis daukiTxavad ver ganxorcieldeboda;
2)saqarTveloSi wiTeli armiis aryofnis SemTxvevaSi, afxazur da osur sakiTxebTan mimarTebaSi, sabWoTa ruseTis
Carevis SesaZlebloba maqsimalurad SeizRudeboda da saqarTvelos mTavrobis pirvandeli kursi bolomde iqneboda
miyvanili. vimeoreb, amis miRweva mxolod im SemTxvevaSi
gaxdeboda SesaZlebeli, Tuki saqarTvelos, damoukidebloba da erovnuli jari SeunarCundeboda, qveynis SigniT rusuli
wiTeli armia ar Semovidoda. zemoT CamoTvlili garemoebebis gaTvaliswineba edo safuZvlad lebedinskisTan n.Jordanias saidumlo Sexvedras da ara sabWoTa xelisuflebis
trfiali.
Cems mier arqivsacavebSi mopovebuli masalebis mixedviT
irkveva, rom zemoaRniSnuli SesaZleblobebis mosinjvis
paralelurad, Tavdacvis sistemis gasaZliereblad, saqarTvelos xelisufleba qveynis ekonomikuri potencialis maqsimalurad gamoyenebas cdilobda. mxedvelobaSi maqvs saqarTvelos mTavrobis 1920 wlis 27 aprilis dadgenileba, romlis
ZaliTac respublikis Tavdacvis sabWo Seiqmna. imave sxdomam `respublikis Tavdacvis sabWos~ debuleba daamtkica. meore umniSvnelovanesi RonisZieba, romelic saqarTvelos mTavrobis mier iqna gatarebuli, 1921 wlis 6 ianvris
dadgenilebis amoqmedeba iyo. am dokumentiT, qarTuli
jarisTvis iaraRis Sesyidvis mizniT, Tavdacvis sabWos, sami
miliardi maneTi gamoeyo.
sarezervo finansuri bazis oficialurad arsebobam, saqarTvelos sagareo saqmeTa ministrs e.gegeWkors evropis saxelmwifoTa warmomadgenlebisadmi iaraRis SeZenis Taoba-
56
ze konkretuli moTxovnebis daeyenebis SesaZlebloba misca. amis dadasturebas, imave e.gegeWkoris mier stambolSi
saqarTvelos generaluri konsulis i.gogolaSvilisadmi
1921 wlis 29 ianvars gagzavnili depeSa warmoadgens. `yvela saWiro cnobebi Tu ra gvWirdeba exlave pirveli rigis
jaris mosawyobad_ vkiTxulobT dokumentSi_ ukve gadaveci adgilobriv inglisis da safrangeTis warmomadgenelT.
amaT es cnobebi daugzavnes TavianT mTavrobebs. Cven es
moviTxoveT da amis dapirebac miviReT. saWiroa yvela zomebis miReba, rom pirvel rigSi moTxovnili sagnebi rac
SeiZleba saCqaroT mogvawvdinoT.~
ramdenadac aRniSnul depeSasTan mimarTebaSi pasuxi igvianebda, saqarTvelos sagareo saqmeTa ministris moadgilem
k.sabaxtaraSvilma morigi daSifruli depeSa gaugzavna (1921
wlis 14 Tebervali) konstantinopolSi myof saqarTvelos
generalur konsuls i.gogolaSvils. am dokumentis mixedviT vgebulobT, rom iaraRis SeZenis sakiTxTan dakavSirebiT, saqarTvelos mTavrobis davalebiT konstantinopolSi
gagzavnili iqna generali kir.quTaTelaZe da napoleon kaxiani. rac Seexeba general kir.quTaTelaZes, mas saqarveloSi myofi safrangeTis warmomadgenel Sevalies sagangebo
Suamdgomlobis baraTi miqonda frang general pelesTan.
igive dokumenti i.gogolaSvils saqmis kursSi ayenebda im
mxrivac, rom iaraRis miyidvis Sesaxeb `safrangeTis mTavrobam
princi pialuri Tanxmoba ganacxada mogvyidos egreTwodebuli vrangelis Tadarigidan, xolo saWiroa generalma pelem
miiRos saTanado gankarguleba safrangeTis mTavrobisgan.
b-nma Sevaliem gaugzavna depeSa Tavis mTavrobas, raTa ukanasknelma depeSiTve misces aseTi gankarguleba general peles. iaraRis gadmocema unda moxdes rac SeiZleba daklebul
fasebSi da... windawinve SeTanxmebul pirobebSi.~20 im saarqivo masalebis mixedviT, romelic Cems mier iqna mikvleuli,
irkveva, rom iaraRis saqarTvelosadmi miyidvis procesis
sabolood dasruleba kus nabijebiT mimdinareobda. am mxriv
gansakuTrebiT safrangeTis xelisufleba iCenda inertulobas. amis Sesaxeb, konstantinopolSi myofi e.gegeWkoris mier parizSi ak.Cxenkelisadmi 1921 wlis 20 Tebervals gagzavnil depeSaSi xazgasmiTaa miTiTebuli. `bolSevikebis regularulma jarma- vkiTxulobT dokumentSi- daiwyo Seteva
57
saqarTvelos winaaRmdeg, mdgomareoba seriozulia... mosTxoveT (safrangeTis S.v.) saministros misces brZaneba konstantinopolSi komisars, mogvces rac gvWiria.~ dokumenturi masaliT dasturdeba, rom saqarTvelos warmomadgenlobis mxridan iaraRis sakiTxTan dakavSirebiT pa-suxis
miRebaze gauTavebelma moTxovnebma, safrangeTis xeli-suflebas marganecze iaraRis saqarTvelosaTvis miyidvis gadawyvetileba miaRebina. am sakiTxTan dakavSirebiT, parizidan
ak.Cxenkelis mier e.gegeWkorisadmi gamogzavnil weri-lSi
(1921 wlis 21 Tebervali) vkiTxulobT: `guSin win kidev,
sanam Sen stambolidan gaxvidodi, me gamomigzavnes saCqaro
depeSa iaraRis Sesaxeb aqve... saidanac gavige,... Cveni molaparakebisa marganecze iaraRis SeZenis Sesaxeb. aqaurma
mTavrobam gauSva iaraRi stambolidan mTavrobis saxelze
jerxanad, sami TviT... saqonlis Semowmeba ukve dawyebulia.~
miuxedavad amisa, garkveuli dabrkolebebis gamo, saqmis daCqareba SeuZlebeli xdeboda. qarTuli mxaris daJinebiTi
moTxovnidan gamomdinare, safrangeTis mTavrobam 1921 wlis
25 Tebervals damatebiTi brZaneba gamosca. amis Sesaxeb saqarTvelos mTavrobis Tavmjdomaris saxelze akaki Cxenkelis mier parizidan 1921 wlis 27 Tebervals gamogzavnil
daSifrul depeSaSi vkiTxulobT: `brZaneba gacemulia 25
Tebervals ficxlav iaraRis gamosagzavnad.~
am Tanxmobas qarTulma mxarem mas Semdeg miaRwia, roca
safrangeTis mTavrobam sakontraqto moTxovnebis nusxis
SemuSaveba daamTavra da qarTul mxares masze xelmowera
SesTavaza. amasTan dakavSirebiT, ak.Cxenkelis mier parizidan 1921 wlis 22 Tebervals gamogzavnil daSifrul depeSaSi vkiTxulobT; `kontraqti samxedro pastavkebis safrangeTidan mandatorebis saSualebiT 10 milioni frankisa elis
mxolod xelis moweras. amis garda safrangeTis mTavroba
iZleva stambolidan dauyovnebliv Tofebs, patronebs, mitraiozebs samasi aTasi frankisas, rogorc ki xels moawerT sami Tvis vadian veqsils. masala Sefasebulia orjer
ufro iafad, vidre namdvili misi Rirebuleba. exlave aucileblad saWiroa viyolioT masalis misaRebad erTi aficeri
stambolSi da erTi parizSi. iqneb davtovoT droebiT afxazi.~
am dokumentis mixedviT Tuki vimsjelebT, saqarTvelosa-
58
Tvis iaraRis miyidvis Sesaxeb safrangeTis mTavrobis gadawyvetileba ZalaSi mxolod 1921 wlis 25 Tebervals Sevida. rac Seexeba iaraRze orjr metad fasdaklebas, ak.Cxenkelis mxridan naCqarev Sefasebas warmoadgenda. Cems mier
motanili dokumenturi masalebidan gamomdinare, or ZiriTad kiTxvas unda gaeces pasuxi: 1)1919 wlis gazafxulze
Sepirebuli iaraRis saqarTvelosTvis miyidvisa da misi
transportirebis gadawyvetilebis miReba, evropis saxelmwifoebma, konkretulad safrangeTma, ra politikur situacias daamTxvia; 2)ramdenad xarisxiani iyo es iaraRi da akmayofilebda Tu ara im etapze sabrZolo moqmedebebisaTvis elementarul moTxovnebs.
zemoaRniSnuli saarqivo masalebis mixedviT Tuki vimsjelebT, safrangeTis mTavrobam saqarTvelosTvis iaraRis
miyidvis gadawyvetileba 1921 wlis 14 Tebervals miiRo, xolo stambolSi arsebuli vrangelis naqoni iaraRis miTvlis, misi vargisianobis Semowmebis nebarTva, imave wlis 21
Tebervals dauSva. rac Seexeba transportirebas, rogorc
zemoTac mqonda miTiTebuli, Sesabamisi brZaneba 25 Tebervals iqna gamocemuli. Cems mier motanil ricxvebs (14_ 25
Tebervali) Tuki im etapze sabWoTa ruseTis mxridan damoukidebeli saqarTvelos winaaRmdeg ganxorcielebul samxedro moqmedebebs SevufardebT, aRmoCndeba, rom drois
im monakveTSi: a)damoukidebeli saqarTvelos samxedro SenaerTebi, sabWoTa ruseTis SeiaraRebul Zalebs Tbilisis
misadgomebTan erkineboda; b)sabWoTa ruseTis XI armia
TbilisSi Semovida da saqarTveloSi sabWoTa xelisuflebis `gamarjveba~ gamoacxada; g)TiTqmis uiaraRod darCenili qarTuli jaris nawilebi, suramis uReltexilze mtris
SeCerebas cdilobda. imasac Tu miviRebT mxedvelobaSi,
rom stambolSi arsebul safrangeTis kuTvnil samxedro
sawyobebSi Senaxuli iaraRis miTvlas, mis daxarisxebas
(vargisianobis TvalsazrisiT), SefuTvas da transportirebas dro sWirdeboda, safrangeTis xelisuflebis mier saqarTvelosaTvis misayidad gametebuli iaraRi, saqarTvelos
damoukideblobis gadasarCenad qarTul jars ver miuswrebda.
imasTan dakavSirebiT, Tu ramdenad vargisiani iyo safrangeTis mier saqarTvelosTvis miyiduli vrangelis naqoni iar-
59
aRi, pirdapir unda iTqvas; igi brZolisaTvis im etapze
gamousadegari iyo da safuZvlian SekeTebas saWiroebda.
amis damadastureblad Cems mier arqivsacavebSi mikvleuli
dokumentebi gamodgeba. stambolSi saqarTvelos generaluri
konsulis i.gogolaSvilis mier 1921 wlis 28 Tebervals
ak.Cxenkelisadmi parizSi gagzavnil daSifrul depeSaSi vkiTxulobT: `stambolSi frangebis aq mxolod TxuTmeti aTasi Tofi da oriaTas samoci pulemioti daJangulia. exlave brZolisaTvis gamousadegaria. arc patronebi da arc yumbarebia. mdgomareoba kritikulia. jars masala Semoaklda. saWiroa saCqarod daxmareba mandedan.~ aRniSnuli depeSis sapasuxod, ak.Cxenkrli saqarTvelos mTavrobis Tavmjdomares n.Jordanias 1921 wlis 5 marts or depeSas (# 486, #
490) ugzavnis. pirvel maTganSi (# 486) garkveviTaa miTiTebuli, rom `iaraRs da sxva saWiro masalas agzavnis safrangeTi.~ rac Seexeba meore depeSas (# 490), romelic pirvelisgan ramdenime saaTis Semdegaa gamogzavnili, vkiTxulobT:
`miRebulia yvela zoma, iaraRs usaTuod mogvaSveleben
frangebi.~ im SeWirvebis Jams Tu ra donis iaraRi mogvaSvela safrangeTis xelisuflebam, es kargad Cans 1921 wlis 6
marts i.gogolaSvilis mier ak.Cxenkelisadmi gagzavnil depeSaSi. CvenTvis saintereso sakiTxTan dakavSirebiT masSi
vkiTxulobT: `gavagzavne Teqvsmeti aTasi Tofi da asormocdarva pulemioti, milioni patrona. iaraRi daJangulia, SekeTeba sWiria. gamodgeba sami meoTxedi. saCqarod saWiroa
saTanado nawilebi an- luiebis pulemiotebisaTvis. parizidan unebarTvod ar gvaZleven. aq meti araferia. Zlier
saWiroa saCqarod rusuli Tofebis patronebi da sam diumiani yumbarebi. miiReT zomebi.~ albad aRniSnuli faqti qonda
mxedvelobaSi g.mazniaSvils, roca mogvianebiT daweril memuarebSi miuTiTebda: `ar vici, iyides es iaraRi, Tu romelime saxelmwifom aCuqa igi, saidanac Cans, rom sazRvargareTidan mosuli 9 aTasi Tofidan, saxmarad gamosadegi aRmoCnda mxolod 183 Tofi.~21 dokumenturi masaliT irkveva, rom
baTumis portSi Semosuli es uvargisi iaraRi, sabWoTa xelisuflebis mesveurebma TbilisSi gadmoitana da arsenalSi ganaTavsa. XX saukunis 90- iani wlebidan, Tbilisis yofili arsenalis sawyobebis gaxsnis da masSi Catarebuli
samuSaoebis Sedegad, vrangelis naqoni zemoaRniSnuli jar-
60
Tad qceuli iaraRis `aRmoCenili~ narCenebi da g.mazniaSvilis
memuarebSi motanili cnobebi gaxda imis safuZveli, rom
zogierT istorikoss mcdari gancxadeba gaekeTebina; TiTqos
arsenali iaraRiT iyo savse da maSindelma xelisuflebam
es `simdidre~ daniSmulebisamebr ver gamoiyenao. rac Seexeba misi Cuqebisa Tu Sesyidvis sakiTxs, xazgasmiT minda
aRvniSno, rom safrangeTis xelisuflebam es iaraRi, marganecis mopovebis uflebis sanacvlod misca saqarTvelos.
imavdroulad mis SesakeTeblad Sesabamis nawilebsac Sehpirda. smwuxarod, es danapirebi Seusrulebeli darCa. aRniSnuli faqtiT erTxel kidev dasturdeba, rom CrdiloeTidan
karsmomdgari safrTxisadmi qarTveli xalxis Rirseulad
daxvedrisa da misi Tavdacvisunarianobis amaRlebisaTvis
evropis saxelmwifoebi, maT Soris safrangeTis xelisufleba
dainteresebuli ar iyo. 1919 wlis gazafxulze maTi mxridan gacemuli danapirebis Sesrulebisadmi sasxvaTaSoriso
damokidebulebiT iyo ganpirobebuli, e.gegeWkoris mier parizSi myofi ak.Cxenkelisadmi 1921 wlis 7 marts gamwyrali
formis SinaarsiT gagzavnili daSifruli depeSa: `saCqaroT gamogzavneT iaraRi. stambolSi iaraRi sakmarisi ar
aRmoCnda.~22
Cems mier motanili dokumentebiT dasturdeba, rom safrangeTis xelisuflebis mier saqarTvelosTvis misayidad gametebuli iaraRi uvargisi, SekeTebis gareSe brZolisTvis
gamousadegari da jarTad qceuli iyo. es faqti, mogvianebiT (1923 wlis 7 seqtemberi) erT- erTi frangi oficris
mierac iqna dadasturebuli. am sakiTxTan dakavSirebiT,
stambolidan saqarTvelos warmomadgenlisadmi parizSi
gagzvnil werilSi k.gvarjalaZe werda: `dRes CemTan movida frangebis oficeri da SemekiTxa Tu waviRebdiT im iaraRs, romelic CvenTvis inaxeboda aq (stambolSi S.v.). es
iaraRi, rogorc iciT, arafrad mosaxmari da gamosadegari
aRar aris... Tofebs aklia iseTi nawilebi, romlebic xelaxlad unda gakeTdes, Torem maTi Sovna Znelia. es Tofebi
rusuli Tofebia. tyviis mfrqvevelnic yvela daJanguli
da wamxdarni arian. maTi gamoyeneba SeiZleba mxolod... Tu
gadavadnobdiT. es sad SegviZlia Cven! me TviTon frangebis oficers SevekiTxe da maTi azriT am iaraRis gamoyeneba am saxiT SeuZlebeliao. me maT ganucxade, ramdenadac am
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iaraRis Senaxva aq Zneli da SeuZlebelia, iZulebuli varT
mis miRebaze uari vTqvaT. iaraRs TviTon waiReben da am
uvargis rameSi amden fuls aRar gadagvaxdevineben.~ Zneli dasajerebelia, safrangeTis samxedro uwyebis maRalCinosnebs im etapze ar scodnoda, Tu ra donis iaraRi inaxeboda stambolSi_ safrangeTis kuTvnil samxedro sawyobSi. zemoaRniSnuli faqtebidn gamomdinare, arsebuli sinamdvile (mxedvelobaSi maqvs saqarTvelosaTvis uvargisi
iaraRis miyidvis gaWianurebuli procesi), ramdenime saxis
varaudis gamoTqmis SesaZleblobas iZleva: 1)safrangeTis
xelisuiflebis maRalCinosnebis mier saqarTvelosTvis iaraRis miyidvis droSi gaWianureba da Semdeg etapze uvargisi iaraRis_ gadadnobas daqvemdebarebuli jarTis SeTavazebis pirveli safexuris faqti, drois gayvanisa da aRniSnuli sakiTxis Tavidan dawyebis aRZvris taqtikis STabeWdilebas tovebs; 2)arc isaa gamoricxuli, rom saqarTvelosadmi mtrulad ganwyobilma osmaleTis, rusuli erovnuli sabWosa da vrangelis warmomadgenlebma, romlebic
iaraRis saqarTvelosTvis miyidvis winaaRmdegni iyvnen, igi
Segnebulad rom daazianes. Cemi es mosazreba varaudis
doneze darCeba manam, sanam amis damadasturebeli saarqivo
dokumenti ar aRmoCndeba.
xazgasmiT unda aRiniSnos, rom saqarTvelos xelisuflebis
maRalCinosnebis yovelgvari mcdeloba, samxedro masalisa
da sursaTis 1919 wlis meore naxevridan 1921 wlis Tebervlamde evropis qveynebidan droulad miRebis Sesaxeb_ uSedegod damTavrda. arada, saqarTvelos sagareo saqmeTa ministris moadgile k.sabaxtaraSvili, konstantinopolSi myofi
saqarTvelos generaluri konsulis i.gogolaSvilisadmi 1921
wlis 28 Tebervals gagzavnil daSifrul depeSaSi werda:
`mdgomareoba kritikulia, gagras didi Zala moawva. Cveni
razmi aq sul gawyda. uaxlovdebian soxums. samxedro masalebi Semogvelia. frangebi aq arafers gvaZleven. jari uiaraRod ibrZvis.~23 imave k.sabaxtaraSvilis mier gagzavnil meore
depeSaSi, romelic iaraRis dauyovnebliv Sesyidvis mogvarebas exeba, TiTqmis brZanebis forma iyo gamoyenebuli. `saWiroa
am saqmis daCqarebiT damTavreba, dro ar iTmens. Tqven gevalebaT am saqmeSi aqtiuri monawileoba miiRoT da
saswrafod SeasruloT es saqme.~ samwuxarod, saqmis drou-
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li Sesruleba ara i.gogolaSvilze, aramed safrangeTis xelisuflebis mxridan miRebul gadawyvetilebebze iyo damokdebuli. dokumenturi masaliT dadasturebulia, rom qarTuli mxare protests gamoTqvamda, aRniSnuli iaraRis gamogzavnis saqmeSi osmalebis Carevis gamo. amasTan dakavSirebiT,
gansakuTrebul yuradRebas al.asaTianis xelmoweriT arsebuli werili iqcevs. masSi garkveviTaa miTiTebuli, rom
`samxedro daxmareba Cven unda mogveces pirdapir da ara
saTaTreTis saSualebiT. CvenTvis yovlad mouxerxebelia,
rom Cven saTaTreTis saapekunod gavxdeT.~
ramdenadac safrangeTis xelisufleba im etapze wajequkujeqis kurss adga, iaraRis Sesyidvis sakiTxis dasmas,
saqarTvelos di plomatiuri korpusis mesveurebi saerTaSoriso konferenciaze Seecada. aRniSnul sakiTxTan dakavSirebiT gansakuTrebul yuradRebas ak.Cxenkelis mier londonis konferenciis (1921 wlis 21 Tebervlidan 14 marti)
monawile qveynebisadmi (inglisi, safrangeTi, italia, belgia,
saberZneTi) wardgenili sagangebo mimarTva iqcevs. Sesabamisi saarqivo masalis miukvlevlobis gamo, am etapze SeuZlebeli xdeba imis garkveva_ ganixila Tu ara es dokumenti londonis konferenciam. Cems xelT arsebuli masalebis
mixedviT Tuki vimsjelebT, 1)inglissa da sabWoTa ruseTs
Soris jer kidev 1920 wlis oqtomberSi momzadebuli savaWro
ekonomikuri xelSekrulebis saboloo teqstSi_ amierkavkasiis respublikebiT ardainteresebis Sesaxeb Cadebuli muxlidan gamomdinare, inglisis mxridan saqarTvelosTan mimarTebaSi daxmarebaze dadebiTi gadawyvetilebis miReba gamoricxuli iyo. miTumetes, loid- jorijis mTavari mrCeveli
fr-f. uazi, sabWoTa ruseTis agenti gamodga da man 1923
wlidan sabWoTa saxelmwifos Sesabamis uwyebaSi gaagrZela saqmianoba. es faqti, saqarTvelos damoukideblobis komitetisadmi n.Jordanias mier 1923 wlis 9 aprils gamogzavnil werilSia dadasturebuli; 2)rac Seexeba germanias, saqarTvelo- germanias Soris urTierTobis sakiTxebTan mimarTebaSi momzadebuli xelSekrulebis teqsti (1918 wlis 3 oqtomberi), jaris mosawyobad da finansurad saqarTvelosTvis
daxmarebas iTvaliswinebda. mimdinare politikuri procesebis cvalebadobam (germaniis omSi damarcxeba, mTavrobaSi
momxdari cvlilebebi da noembris movlenebi), am dokumentze
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xelmowera da germaniis parlamentSi gatana Seaferxa. meore mxriv, versalis sazavo xelSekrulebam (1919 wlis 28 ivnisi) germania maqsimalurad SeboWa im TvalsazrisiT, rom
iaraRis damzadebis uflebas, mokavSire saxelmwifoebi mxolod limitirebuli raodenobiT aZlevda. am faqtorebidan gamomdinare, iaraRis SesyidvasTan dakavSirebiT, erTaderT imedad isev safrangeTi rCeboda.
qarTuli mxaris safuZvliani moTxovnebi da pretenziebi,
rogorc dokumenturi masalebidan irkveva, safrangeTis mTavrobam Seismina da mis teritoriaze arsebuli samxedro sawyobidan brZolisTvis vargisi iaraRis saqarTvelosTvis
miyidvaze Tanxmoba mxolod 1921 wlis 17 marts ganacxada.
es faqti, saqarTvelos damoukideblobis dasrulebas ukavSirdeba. mxedvelobaSi maqvs: 1)damoukidebeli saqarTvelos
warmomadgenel grigol lorTqifaniZesa da gasabWoebuli
saqarTvelos xelisuflebis mesveurebs Soris quTaisSi 17
marts miRweuli SeTanxmeba_ saomari moqmedebebis Sewyvetis Sesaxeb (Sesabamis dokuments xeli oficialurad 18
marts moewera) da 2)saqarTvelos kanonieri mTavrobis mier
17 marts qveynis teritoriis datoveba. yovelive zemoaRniSnulidan gamomdinare, dabejiTebiT SeiZleba iTqvas, rom
saqarvelosTvis 1919 wlis gazafxulze Sepirebili iaraRi,
amunicia, sursaTi da fuladi daxmareba, dasavleT evropam
droulad ver gaimeta. TiTqmis uiaraRod darCenili
saqarTvelo, CrdiloeTis veSaps Casaylapavad miugdo.
Cems mier zemoT motanili saarqivo masalebi da misi analizi srulyofil suraTs iZleva im Zalisxmevis Sesaxeb, romelsac saqarTvelos pirveli respublikis xelisuflebis
mesveurebi eweodnen evropis saxelmwifoebidan iaraRis
Sesasyidad da qarTuli jaris sabrZolo masaliT uzrunvelsayofad. am fonze, zogierTi Cemi kolegas mxridan saqarTvelos mTavrobis dadanaSauleba,_ CrdiloeTidan moaxloebul safrTxesTan mimarTebaSi da Tavdacvis sabWoze (1921
wlis 3 ianvari) gakeTebul moxsenebaSi i.odiSeliZis mier
qarTuli jaris (rezervis CaTvliT) 75 aTas kacamde gazrdis aucileblobis moTxovnaze, TiTqos mmarTvelma politikurma elitam drouli reagireba ar gaakeTa_ usafuZvlo
braldebas warmoadgens.
amis SesaniSnav dadasturebas, dasavleT evropis saxelm-
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wifoebidan iaraRis Sesyidvis mizniT, parizSi myofi saqarTvelos delegaciis gaerTianebuli (diplomatiuri, ekonomikuri,
samxedro) sxdomebis (1920 wlis 1, 2, 4, 18, 29 maisi, 8 ivnisi)
stenografiuli angariSebi warmoadgens. imave dokumentebis mixedviT, aRniSnul sxdomebs eswrebodnen da dasmul problematikasTan mimarTebaSi gamarTul diskusiebSi aqtiur
monawileobas iRebdnen: generlebi_ il.odiSeliZe da al.erisTavi, k.CxeiZe, k.kandelaki, k.gvarjalaZe, d.RambasiZe, n.nikolaZe,
iv.gobeCia. aqedan gamomdinare, i.odiSeliZisaTvis cnobili
gaxda is udidesi sirTuleebi, romelic iaraRis SeZenasTan
dakavSirebiT delegaciis winaSe aRimarTa. imave dokumentis mixedviT, delegaciis sxva wevrebTan erTad, garkveuli
rekomendaciebis SemuSavebaSi igi aqtiur monawileobas iRebda. rac Seexeba i.odiSeliZis zemoaRniSnul moxsenebas,
masSi gamokveTili formiTaa miTiTebuli, rom saqarTvelos sinamdvilidan gamomdinare, iaraRis, tansacmelis, sursaTisa da sxva saWiro aRWurvilobis SeZena sazRvargareTis qveynebidan unda momxdariyo. dokumenti im udides finansur xarjebsac iTvaliswinebda, romlis gaReba, iaraRis
SeZenis SemTxvevaSi mouwevda saqarTvelos.
xazgasmiT unda iTqvas, rom evropidan finansuri daxmarebis miuReblobis SemTxvevaSi, im periodis saqarTvelos
biujeti, i.odiSeliZis moxsenebaSi arsebuli moTxovnebis
pirveli safexurisTvis valutiT gaTvaliswinebul saWiro
xarjebs minimaluradac ver gawvdeboda. meore mxriv, igive
i.odiSeliZe, saqarTvelos SeiaraRebuli ZalebisaTvis saWiro iaraRis SeZenas, konstantinopolSi varaudobda. misive mtkicebiT, dasaxuli amocanis warmatebiT gadawyveta,
konstantinopolSi ganTavsebuli antantis saokupacio jarebisa da vrangelis armiis naqoni iaraRis maragis bazaze advilad iyo SesaZlebeli.24 aRniSnuli moxsenebidan sami
Tvis Semdeg, i.odiSeliZis xelmZRvanelobiT evropaSi
samxedro misiis saqmianobis Sedegebidan gamomdinare, misTvis dResaviT gaxda naTeli: a)ra didi politikuri Zalisxxmeva da barierebis daZleva iyo saWiro, Tavdacvis sabWosadmi wardgenil moxsenebaSi (1920 wlis ianvari) dasmuli
sakiTxebis gadasawyvetad; b)igi imaSiac darwmunda, rom dasavleT evropis saxelmwifoTa liderebi, romlebic sabWoTa
ruseTTan `politikuri keklucobiTa~ da merkantilizmis
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kursis axali formebis damuSavebiT iyvnen garTulni, CrdiloeTis veSapisgan saqarTvelos gadarCena naklebad ainteresebdaT. rac Seexeba konstantinopolSi arsebuli safrangeTis kuTvnil samxedro sawyobebSi imave i.odiSeliZis
moxsenebiT nagulisxmev vrangelis naqoni iaraRis vargisianobas, amis Sesaxeb zemoT dawvrilebiT mqonda saubari da
sityvas ar gavagrZeleb. mxolod aRvniSnav, rom Cems mier
motanili umZimesi saarqivo dokumenturi masalis analizis fonze, Seusabamod moCans saqarTvelos pirveli respublikis mTavrobis SefasebasTan mimarTebaSi b-n. a.CaCxianis mier
gakeTebuli daskvna: `maSin, 1920 wlis bolos da 1921 wlis
dasawyisSi, saqarTvelos demokratiuli respublikis samTavrobo- politikurma elitam adeqvaturad ver imoqmeda. man
kidev erTxel ar daugdo yuri simarTlis xmas. misma udidebulesoba istoriam ki, sul sxvanairad gansaja... general
odiSeliZis mier Tavdacvis sabWosa da saqarTvelos mTavrobisadmi wayenebuli es kategoriuli moTxovnebi ki, samwuxarod darCa `xmad mRaRadeblisa udabnosa Sina~... Tumca es
ukve sul sxva istoriaa...~25 diax, misma udidebulesoba istoriam, am istoriis sazogadoebisadmi mimwodebelma WeSmaritma istorikosma da obieqturma mkvlevarma pirdapir unda
Tqvas maSindeli evropis politikurad gameZavebuli liderebis tyuilze dafuZnebuli dapirebebis Sesaxeb. 1)ar unda
daiviwyos, rom ruseTis bunebriv simdidreze daxarbebulma
evropis saxelmwifoTa pirvelma pirebma, saqarTvelo gasawirad gaimeta da 1919 wlidan 1921 wlis 25 Tebervlamde, saqarTvelosaTvis iaraRis miyidvis pragmatuli gadawyvetilebis miReba Segnebulad gaaWianura; 2)maTi mxridan saqarTvelosTvis yvelaze kritikul momentSi marganecis sanacvlod miyiduli iaraRi, im etapze brZolisTvis uvargisi da
jarTad qceuli iyo; 3)1920 wlis martSi gamgzavrebuli saqarTvelos ekonomikuri misiisadmi (k.kandelaki (xelmZRvaneli), f.gogiCaiSvili (saxelmwifo kontroliori), n.nikolaZe,
z.avaliSvili, m.sumbaTaSvili), dasavleT evropis saxelmwifoebis liderebis (italia, safrangeTi, inglisi) mxridan
dapirebuli daxmarebis Sesasruleblad konkretuli gadawyvetilebis miRebis nacvlad, maTi pasuxi mxolod_ `moicadeT~, `dagvacadeT~ formatiT Semoifargla. dokumenturi
masaliT dadasturebulia, rom evropis saxelmwifoTa
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liderebisgan saqarTvelosadmi finansuri da ekonomikuri
daxmarebis rekomendaciebis gacema da gadawyvetilebis miReba,
zemoaRniSnuli misiis 7 Tviani Tavdadebuli muSaobis Semdeg (1920 wlis oqtomber_ noemberi), gaxda SesaZlebeli.
mxedvelobaSi maqvs italiur firma `ilvasTan~ (oqtomberi),
safrangeTis firma `ferran gentranTan~ (noembris dasawyisi) da rac mTavaria, marganecis xarjze, britaneTis sagareo
vaWrobis bankTan (noembris bolos) 1,5 milioni girvanqa sterlingis sesxad aRebis Sesaxeb xelSekrulebebis gaformeba. am dokumentebSi Cadebuli pirobebis amoqmedeba 1921 wlis
zafxulidan iyo gaTvaliswinebuli.
yovelive zemoaRniSnulidan gamomdinare, roca saqarTvelos pirveli respublikis mTavrobis saqmianobis Sefasebas vcdilobT, gansakuTrebuli sifrTxilea saWiro. mimdinare politikuri situaciisa da axladSeqmnili saqarTvelos
saxelmwifos ekonomikuri SesaZleblobebis_ evropis qveynebidan ardaxmarebis fonze, yvela saxeobis dokumenti erTianobaSi unda iqnas ganxiluli, moxdes maTi urTierT Sepirispireba da sinTezuri analizi. mxolod amis Semdeg SeiZleba gakeTdes SefasebiTi daskvna. isic gasaTvaliswinebelia, rom saqarvelos pirveli respublikis mTavroba damfuZnebeli krebis mier iyo arCeuli da damtkicebuli, xolo qveynis sakanonmdeblo organo, sruliad saqarTvelos mosaxleobam airCia da mis saxes warmoadgenda. amitom, zemoaRniSnuli faqtorebis gauTvaliswineblobiT, saqarTvelos pirveli respublikis mTavrobis survilisamebr `aburTaveba,~ naCqarevad gakeTebuli daumsaxurebeli braldebebiT `Semosva~_ ganqiqeba da mezobeli qveynebis falsifikatori istorikosebisadmi `fotnasiT~ msuye lukmis SeTavazeba_ yovlad dauSvebelia.
xazgasmiT unda iTqvas, rom, ramdenadac 1919- 1920 wlebis
monakveTSi evropis saxelmwifoebma saqarTvelos iaraRi ar
miyida, es faqti sabWoTa ruseTis xelisufalT saqarTvelos winaaRmdeg moqmedebis stimuls aZlevda. maT kargad icodnen, rom saqarTvelo gaWianurebuli omebis warmoebas ver
SeZlebda. amis ZiriTad safuZvels, saTadarigo iaraRis (rusuli vaznebisa da yumbarebis) uqonloba qmnida. am daskvnamde
misasvlelad sabWoTa ruseTs didi sadazvervo samuSaoebis Sesruleba ar sWirdeboda. miTumetes, rusuli warmoebis
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iaraRis momxmarebeli qarTuli jarisTvis, imave iaraRisTvis
Sesatyvisi vaznebisa da yumbarebis Sesyidva mxolod ori
gziT: a)sabWoTa ruseTSi da b)evropaSi (safrangeTSi) iyo
SesaZlebeli. aqedan gamomdinare, maTematikis saSualo donis mcodne samxedro dargis maRalCinosanic advilad mixvdeboda, rom saqarTvelo iaraRis sarezervo fondis gareSe
iyo darCenili.
amrigad, 1)qarTuli politikuri elitis mcdeloba, erovnuli saxelmwifos formirebis paralelurad qarTuli jaris
Sesatyvisi raodenobiT da srulyofili SeiaraRebiT Seqmna moexdina, finansebisa da iaraRis uqonlobam Seaferxa.
qarTul istoriografiaSi dRemde gavrcelebuli mosazreba
_saqarTveloSi arsebul samxedro sawyobebSi TTiTqos N
raodenobis iaraRi iyo, natyuar informacias emyareba da
sinamdviles ar Seesabameba; 2)dasavleT evropis saxelmwifoebisgan 1919 wlis gazafxulze Sepirebuli daxmarebis
(iaraRi, amunicia, sursaTi, fuli) droulad miRebis mcdeloba, 1921 wlis 25 Tebervlamde uSedego aRmoCnda. naSromSi motanili dokumenturi masalebi adasturebs, rom zemoaRniSnuli danapirebis Sesasruleblad, safrangeTis xelisuflebam pirveli qmediTi nabiji mxolod 1921 wlis 25
Tebervals gadadga. stambolSi arsebuli safrangeTis kuTvnili samxedro sawyobebidan saqarTvelosadmi miyiduli vrangelis naqoni iaraRi, uvargisi da im etapze sabrZolo moqmedebebisaTvis gamousadegari iyo; 3)vargisiani
iaraRis saqarTvelosTvis miyidvis gadawyvetileba, safrangeTis xelisuflebis mxridan mxolod 1921 wlis 17 marts
iqna miRebuli. es faqti, saqarTvelos kanonieri mTavrobisa da gasabWoebuli saqarTvelos warmomadgenlebs Soris
(gr.lorTqifaniZe, m.oraxelaSvili ab.enuqiZe, S.eliava) brZolis Sewyvetis Sesaxeb quTaisSi miRweul SeTanxmebas, da
saqarTvelos pirveli respublikis xelisuflebis mier qveynis teritoriis datovebas (17 marti) daemTxva. dasavleT
evropis saxelmwifoTa wajeq- ukujeqis politikuri kursidan gamomdinare, saqarTvelos pirveli respublikis SeiaraRebuli Zalebi, gasabWoebuli ruseTis 1921 wlis Teberval- martis agresias, arsenalSi kustarulad damzadebuli rusuli vaznebiTa da sagangebod Seqmnil saxelosnoebSi SekeTebuli SaSxanebiT Sexvda.
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$ 2. qarTveli sardlebis taqtikuri
Secdomebi da sabWoTa ruseTTan
damarcxebis ganmapirobebeli mizezebi
saqarTvelos pirvel respublikas qudbedad dahyva mezobeli saxelmwifoebisgan qarTvelTa istoriuli sacxovrisisadmi teritoriuli pretenziebi. axladaRmocenebuli da
fexze wamosadgmelad gamzadebuli qarTuli saxelmwifos
wasaqcevad, samxreTidan, aRmosavleTidan da CrTiloeTidan
wamosuli mumlis, 1918_ 1920 wlebSi mogerieba metnaklebad
SesaZlebeli gaxda. yvelasgan mitovebuli qarTveloba, gonivruli gadawyvetilebebisa da `mklavis siZlieris~ amara
aRmoCnda gamZvinvarebuli mtrebis pirispir. gansakuTrebiT
mZime mdgomareoba Seiqmna azerbaijanisa (1920 wlis 28 aprili)
da somxeTis (1920 wlis 29 noemberi) gasabWoebis Semdeg.
ramdenadac, samxreT kavkasiis regionSi sabWoTa ruseTis
xelSemSlelad saqarTvelo moiazreboda, mis `gasawiTleblad~ Sesabamisi safexuris SemzadebisaTvis provokaciebis ramdenime saxeoba iqna SemuSavebuli. erT- erT maTgans,
somxebis mier sadaod qceuli sazRvris_ borCalos mazris
neitraluri zonis problemis da masTan dakavSirebiT winaswar Sedgenili pirobebis SefuTuli formiT win wamoweva
warmoadgenda. istoriografiaSi dadasturebulia, rom inglis- safrangeTis xelisufalTa ZalisxmeviT, borCalos mazra sam nawilad (1919 wlis ianvari) gaiyo: 1)borCalos mazris
samxreTi nawili mieca somxeTs; 2)centraluri nawili_ lores raioni neitralur zonad gamocxadda; 3)borCalos mazris
CrdiloeTi nawili saqarTvelos kuTvnilebad gamoacxades.
saqarTvelos pirveli respublikis xelisufleba kargad
acnobierebda, rom lores neitralur zonad datovebas Cveni qveynisTvis denTis kasris funqciis Sesruleba SeeZlo.
aqedan gamomdinare, xelisuflebis mmarTveli wreebi maqsimalurad cdilobdnen aRniSnuli sakiTxis droulad gadawyvetas. or mezobel qveyanas Soris umZimesi situaciis ganmuxtvis erTaderT saSualebad, qarTul- somxuri delegaciis molaparakebis magidasTan dajdoma da Sesabamisi dokumentis momzadeba iqna miCneuli. am mxriv gansakuTrebiT
qarTuli mxare aqtiurobda. mxedvelobaSi maqvs saqarTve-
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los mTavrobis 1920 wlis 2 seqtembris sxdomis saoqmo
Canaweri. am dokumentidan irkveva, rom sxdomis monawileTa
msjelobis ZiriTad sagans, somxeT- saqarTvelos Soris neitraluri zonis gauqmebis da administraciuli sazRvris
oficialurad dawesebis Sesaxeb, Sesabamisi xelSekrulebis
momzadeba warmoadgenda. amasTan dakavSirebiT, imave sxdomis mier miRebul dadgenilebaSi vkiTxulobT: `miendos
gareSe saqmeTa ministris moadgiles xelismowera im xelSekrulebaze, romelic dadebuli iqneba somxeTsa da saqarTvelos Soris, am or respublikaTa Sua neitraluri zonis
gauqmebisa da adminisrtaciuli sazRvris dawesebis Sesaxeb. proeqti xelSekrulebisa xelis moweramde moxsendes
mTavrobas.~ samwuxarod, dokumentSi miTiTebuli ar aris,
qarTuli mxaridan konkretulad vis unda ewarmoebina somxur
delegaciasTan molaparakeba da aRniSnul sakiTxTan mimarTebaSi vin unda yofiliyo pasuxismgebeli. es xarvezi mogvianebiT, saqarTvelos mTavrobis 1920 wlis 21 oqtombris
sxdomaze iqna gamosworebuli. Sinagan saqmeTa ministris
n.ramiSvilis moxsenebis safuZvelze miRebuli dadgenilebiT,
somxeTis delegaciasTan mosalaparakeblad, qarTuli mxaris warmomadgenlebad n.ramiSvili, s.mdivani da gr.loTqifaniZe iqna damtkicebuli.
arqivsacavebSi Cems mier mikvleuli masalebidan irkveva,
rom qarTuli jaris neitralur zonaSi garkveuli droiT
(3 TviT) Seyvanas, somxuri mxare mxolod mas Semdeg daTanxmda, roca osmalebisgan am zonis okupaciis realuri safrTxe Seiqmna. es faqtori daedo safuZvlad saqarTvelos Tavdacvis sabWos 1920 wlis 12 noembris dadgenilebas_ qarTuli
jaris mier neitraluri zonis dauyovnebliv dakavebas. amasTan dakavSirebiT imave dokumentSi vkiTxulobT: `borCalos mazris samxreTi nawili axlave iqnas dakavebuli da
gamocxaddes samxedro wesebi. adgilobriv mcxovrebT ecnobos, rom Cven SevediT iq osmalTa mosalodneli Semosevisagan maTi dacvis mizniT.~ saqarTvelos mTavrobis es qmedeba, saqarTvelo- somxeTs Soris 1920 wlis 13 noembers xelmowerili SeTanxmebiT iqna samarTlebrivad dadasturebuli. dokumentis mixedviT, qarTuli jari neitralur zonaSi
3 Tvis ganmavlobaSi darCeboda. Tuki im periodSi neitraluri teritoriis sazRvris gamijvnis sakiTxi ver gadawyde-
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boda, saqarTvelos SeiaraRebuli zalebi aRniSnul zonas
datovebda da adrindeli Sereuli administraciuli mmarTveloba aRdgeboda.26 erTi ram xazgasmiT unda aRiniSnos,
somxebis aseT `kompromissze~ wasvla, osmaleTis mxridan
somxebis winaaRmdeg warmatebuli samxedro operaciebiT iyo
ganpirobebuli. es faqti, saqarTvelos Tavdacvis sabWos
1920 wlis 19 noembris sxdomis saoqmo CanawerebSiac aisaxa.
imave dokumentidan irkveva, rom zemoT dasaxelebuli xelSekrulebis Sesaxeb, gen. i.odiSeliZes sagangebo moxseneba gaukeTebia, xolo sxdomas Sesabamisi dadgenilebac miuRia. `jer- jerobiT- vkiTxulobT dokumentSi- Cveni jarebi
darCes neitralur zonaSi, xolo im SemTxvevaSi Tu osmalebma daikaves karaklisi da gamoCndnen bezomdalis uReltexilze da amave dros somxeTis jari gadayvanili iqna borCarCalos mazris samxreT nawilidan, -Cveni jaris mier dakavebuli iqnas es raioni mazris samxreT sazRvramdis waeviT.~
am amonaweris mixedviT borCalos mazris neitralur zonaSi Seyvanil qarTuli jaris nawilebs aqtiuri moqmedebis
funqcia qonda dakisrebuli. maT amocanas osmalo dampyroblebisadmi Rirseuli winaaRmdegobis gaweva da neitraluri zonis srulad gakontroleba warmoadgenda. dasaxuli miznis ganxorcielebis erT- erT pirobad, imave dokumentis me- 4 punqtis Tanaxmad, borCalos mazraSi saxalxo
gvardiis nawilebi iqna dauyovnebliv gagzavnili. saqarTvelos xelisuflebis mier ganxorcielebuli es RonisZieba,
meore mniSvnelovani faqtoriTac iyo ganpirobebuli. mxedvelobaSi maqvs somexi oficrebisa da jariskacebisagan qveynis teritoriuli sazRvris darRveva da SeiaraRebul formebSi axalqalaqis mazris soflebSi TviTneburad Semosvla. maTi es qmedeba, ucxo qveynisgan agentebis Semogzavnisa
da dazverviTi procesis STabeWdilebas tovebda. aRniSnulis gaTvaliswinebidan gamomdinare, es sakiTxi Tavdacvis
sabWos 1920 wlis 9 da 12 noembris sxdomebze sagangebo msjelobis sagani gaxda. amasTan dakavSirebiT miRebul dadgenilebaSi vkiTxulobT: `xsenebul pirebs aeyaros iaraRi,
oficrebi gaigzavnos borjomSi, xolo jariskacebi ganawilebuli iqnan soflebis adgilobrivi administraciis meTvalyureobis qveS. CamorTmeuli iaraRi gadatanili iqnas axalcixeSi.~
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somxeTTan dadebulma zemoaRniSnulma xelSekrulebam da
qarTuli sajariso SenaerTebis mier neitralur zonaSi
TavdacviTi poziciebis daWeram, saqarTvelos sazRvrebSi
somexi SeiaraRebuli oficrebisa da jariskacebis TviTneburi Semosvla, mxolod somxeTis gasabWoebamde SeaCera.
samxreT kavkasiis regionSi mimdinare politikuri procesebis gaTvaliswinebidan gamodinare, samxreT- dasavleT, gansakuTrebiT samxreT- aRmosavleT da aRmosavleT saqarTvelos sasazRvro zolis gamagrebis aucilebloba qveynis
xelisuflebisaTvis prioritetul sakiTxs warmoadgenda.
am mimarTulebiT im etapze iseTi qmediTi nabiji unda gadadgmuliyo, risi SesaZleblobac evropis qveynebidan zurgSeqceul, motyuebul da yalbi dapirebebis Semyure saqarTvelos sinamdvilis gaTvaliswinebis fonze iyo SesaZlebeli.
meore mxriv, qveynis garSemo Seqmnili safrTxeebis gaTvaliswinebidan gamomdinare, saqarTvelos SeiaraRebuli Zalebis
sardlad iseTi pirovneba unda daniSnuliyo, romelsac
sxvebTan SedarebiT momqmedi armiis rigebSi yvela safexuri qonda gavlili da msxvili samxedro SenaerTebis marTvis didi gamocdileba gaaCnda. imavdroulad, samxedro
operaciebSi gansakuTrebuli warmatebisaTvis umaRlesi xarisxis samxedro wodebis da ordenebis mflobeli iqneboda. im etapze, qarTul sinamdvileSi aseT pirovnebas gen.
i.odiSeliZe warmoadgenda.
yovelive zemoTqmulis gaTvaliswinebidan gamomdinare,
respublikis Tavdacvis sabWos 1920 wlis 22 noembris (oqmi
# 22) sxdomis dadgenilebiT, gen. i.odiSeliZes saqarTvelos SeiaraRebuli Zalebis mTavarsardlis movaleobis
Sesruleba daevala, xolo imave wlis 13 dekembris dadgenilebiT, respublikis SeiaraRebuli Zalebis mTavarsardlad dainiSna. rac Seexeba samxreT- aRmosavleTis fronts,
i.odiSeliZis rekomendaciiT (22 noemberi), misi xelmZRvaneloba gen. i.gedevaniSvils miandves. am faqtidan 15 dRis Semdeg,
Tavdacvis sabWos 1920 wlis 6 dekembris dadgenilebiT, axalqalaqi- axalcixe- artaanis raionebSi ganlagebuli qarTuli jaris yvela saxeobis sardloba gen. v.wulukiZes
Caabares.
jer- jerobiT SeuZlebeli gaxda iseTi saarqivo dokumentis mikvleva, romelic safuZvlianad warmoaCenda im RonisZ-
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iebebis nusxas, romelic axlad daniSnul sardlebs, maTdami daqvemdebarebuli jaris nawilebSi unda gaetarebina.
miTumetes, samxreT- aRmosacleTis mimarTuleba, yvelaze
rTul sasazRvro monakveTs warmoadgenda. mdgomareobas
somxeTis gasabWoeba (1920 wlis 29 noemberi) kidev ufro arTulebda. miTumetes, gekkeris moxsenebidan gamomdinare, sabWoTa ruseTis gegmebi saqarTvelos xelisuflebisaTvis cnobili iyo. es faqti, qveynis SeiaraRebuli Zalebis sardlobas gansakuTrebuli pasuxismgeblobis winaSe ayenebda da
misgan Sesabamisi RonisZiebebis dauyovnebliv gatarebas
moiTxovda. am mxriv gansakuTrebul yuradRebas saqarTvelos Tavdacvis sabWos 1920 wlis 3 dekembris sxdomis amsaxveli masalebi iqcevs. genstabis ufrosis moadgilis mier
saerTo mdgomareobis Sesaxeb gakeTebuli moxsenebis safuZvelze miRebul dadgenilebaSi vkiTxulobT: `1) a)yvela
frontze myof jaris ufrosebs mieces winadadeba, rom somxeTSi sabWoTa mTavrobis gamocxaedebiT, respublikis sazRvarze Seqmnili mdgomareobis gamo, miiRon zomebi meti sifrTxilisaTvis. moeridon adgilobriv mcxovreblebTan raime
konfliqts da Tu mezobeli saxelmwifoebisgan miiRes raime
winadadebebi dauyovnebliv acnobon Tavdacvis sabWos. b)borCalos mazraSi da tfilisis mazris samxreT- aRmosavleTis nawilSi miRebuli iqnes samxedro wesebi da generalgubernatoris uflebani am raionSi mieniWos samxreT- aRmosavleTis jarebis sardals i.gedevaniSvils.~ es dokumenti
qveynis SeiaraRebuli Zalebis da samxreT- aRmosavleTis
frontis sardlobas, mosalodneli safrTxidan gamomdinare,
sasazRvro strategiuli punqtebis gamagrebasTan erad, garduvali provokaciebis droulad aRmosafxvrelad winaswari
Tadarigis daWeris aucileblobaze mianiSnebda. dokumentSi motanili winadadeba- `miiRon zomebi meti sifrTxilisaTvis,~ jaris nawilebis saomar mdgomareobaSi Cayenebas
da rac mTavaria, yvela sajariso qvedanayofSi disci plinis umaRles safexurze ayvanas iTvaliswinebda.
ramdenadac borCalos mazra, rogorc zemoTac mqonda aRniSnuli, sasazRvro zolis yvelaze rTul monakveTs warmoadgenda, respublikis Tavdacvis sabWo misadmi gansakuTrebul yuradRebas iCenda. amis dadasturebas imave sabWos
1920 wlis 16 dekembris sxdomis saoqmo Canawerebi warmoad-
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gens. am dokumentidan irkveva, rom borCalos mazraSi dabanakebuli qarTuli jaris mdgomareoba qveynis mTavarsardals Seumowmebia da miRebuli STabeWdilebebi sabWos
wevrebisaTvis moxsenebis saxiT warudgenia. aRniSnul sakiTxTan dakavSirebiT imave sxdomis mier miRebul dadgenilebaSi vkiTxulobT: `a)neba mieces samxreT- aRmosavleTis frontis jarebis sardals ganaiaraRos soflebi uzunliari, axpati da Sinaxi; b)Tu borCalos mazris neitraluri
zonis administraciaSi an rkinigzis mosamsaxureTa Soris
aRmoCndeba Tanamdebobis Seuferebeli pirni, neba eZleva
samxreT- aRmosavleTis frontis jarebis sardals, gadaayenos aseTebi Tanamdebobidan; g)samxreT- aRmosavleTis frontis sardals Tavdcvis fondidan mieces 200000 man. dazvervis saWiroebisaTvis.~ imave Tavdacvis sabWos 1920 wlis
18 dekembris sxdomaze, samxreT- aRmosavleTis frontis jarebis sardlis mier gakeTebuli moxsenebebidan gamomdinare,
mdinare debeda- Caize xidis asagebad 643500 maneTi iqna
gamoyofili.
Cems mier motanili faqtebi, qveynis Tavdacvisunarianobis
gaumjobesebasTan da mtris mosalodneli Tavdasxmis SemTxvevaSi, misadmi Rirseulad daxvedris aucileblobaze iyo
gaTvlili. sajariso SenaerTebis marTvis specifikidan gamomdinare, gadamwyveti roli frontis sardlobas ekisreboda. mxedvelobaSi maqvs arsebuli sirTuleebisadmi Rirseulad Tavis garTmeva da rac mTavaria, saqarTvelos sazRvarTan aRmarTuli `aisbergis~ SesaCerebeli, ukidures SemTxvevaSi misadmi Rirseulad daxvedris ramdenime saxeobis meqanizmis SemuSavebis aucilebloba, rac sajariso qvedanayofebis mzadyofnaSi moyvanasTan iqneboda dakavSirebuli.
am mimarTulebiT pragmatuli gadawyvetilebis miReba imiTac iyo aucilebeli, rom wiTeli armiis nawilebi TviTneburad arRvevdnen saqarTvelos sazRvars da adgilobrivi
soflebis mosaxleobis Zarcvas eweodnen. respublikis Tavdacvis sabWom (1920 wlis 13 dekemberi), arsebuli mdgomareobis gamsasworeblad di plomatiuri gza airCia da Sesabamisi RonisZiebis gatareba sagareo saqmeTa saministros daavala. `daevalos gareSe saqmeTa ministrs- vkiTxulobT dokumentSi- gagzavnos moskovSi da evropaSi protestis nota
imis Sesaxeb, rom a)sabWoTa wiTeli armiis moTareSe naw-
74
ilebma gadmolaxa Cveni sazRvari da borCalos mazris soflebs daeca.~ miuxedavad amisa, sabWoTa ruseTis mxridan
analogiuri saxis provokaciebi Semdgom etapzedac gagrZelda. amis dadasturebas Tavdacvis sabWos 1920 wlis 22
dekembris sxdomis masalebi warmoadgens. dokumentidan
irkveva, rom samxreT- aRmosavleTis frontis jarebis sardlis mier gakeTebul moxsenebaSi amis Sesaxeb konkretulad
iyo saubari. miRebul dadgenilebaSi garkveviT iqna aRniSnuli: `a)daevalos generaluri Stabis ufross moelaparakos sabWoTa ruseTis samxedro ataSes wiTel armielTa
mier Cveni sazRvrebis gadmolaxvisa da adgilobrivi mcxovreblebis Zarcvis gamo.~
samxreT- aRmosavleTis frontis xazze Seqmnili viTareba, sardlobis winaSe, samxedro xelovnebisTvis aucilebeli specifikisa da adgilobrivi bunebrivi pirobebis Sesatyvisi TavdacviTi samoqmedo gegmis SemuSavebis aucileblobas moiTxovda. dokumenturi masaliT irkveva rom am
mimarTulebiT adgilobriv sardlobas individualurad TiTqmis aranairi konkretuli gadawyvetileba ar miuRia da
igi Tavdacvis sabWos miTiTebebis Semyure darCa. Seqmnili
viTareba, borCalos mazris neitraluri zonis soflebis
somxuri mosaxleobis dauyovnebliv ganiaraRebas saWiroebda.
amis Sesaxeb Tavdacvis sabWos mier sagangebo dadgenileba
(1920 wlis 29 dekemberi) iqna miRebuli. `daevalos samxreTaRmosavleTis jarebis sardals- vkiTxulobT dokumentSiganaiaraRos borCalos mazris mTeli neitraluri zonis
mcxovreblebi. pirvel rigSi ganaiaraRos soflebi uzunlaris, axpatis, Sinixis mcxovreblebi.~ saomari moqmedebebis dawyebisas, sarkinigzo transportis Seuferxeblad muSaobis SenarCunebis mizniT, samxreT_ aRmosavleTis frontis
sardals, borCalos mazris neitralur zonaSi rkinigzis
administraciaSi mosamsaxure saeWvo da Seuferebeli pirebis gadayenebis ufleba eZleoda. winaswari Tadarigis da
usafrTxoebis garantiis Seqmnas iTvaliswinebda Tavdacvis
sabWos 1920 wlis 22 dekembris dadgenilebis (b) punqti.
`b)somxeTis rkinigzis mosamsaxureni da telegrafistebi –
vkiTxulobT dokumentSi- moxsnilni iqnen rkinigzis liandagidan da vidre maTi mdgomareoba saerTod gamoirkveodes gaigzavnon: pirvelni_ respublikis saxazino rkinigzis
75
ufrosis gankargulebaSi da meoreni fosta- telegrafis
ufrosis gankargulebaSi; g)borCalos mazraSi dabanakebuli jarisTvis sursaT- sanovages misawodeblad dainiSnos
gzaTa departamentis gankargulebiT ori orTqmavali vagonebis saTanado ricxviT, erTi sadgur sandaraze da meore sadgur sanainze.~
samxreT- aRmosavleTidan mosalodnel safrTxesTan mimarTebaSi, aRniSnuli dadgenilebebi erTi SexedviT safuZvliani mzadebis garegnul STabeWdilebas tovebs. analogiuri saxis damokidebuleba iqna gamovlenili saqarTvelo- azerbaijanis sazRvris perimetrTan mimarTebaSiac. mxedvelobaSi maqvs Tavdacvis sabWos 1920 wlis 6 dekembris
dadgenileba. es dokumenti qveynis interesebidan gamomdinare,
yaraiazis tyis zonaSi TviTneburad Semosuli azerbaijanelebis ukan gabrunebas da saqarTveloSi azerbaijanelTa
`aralegaruli formiT mimosvlis~ akrZalvas kategoriulad moiTxovda. es gadawyvetileba saqarTvelos saxelmwifos interesebSi srulad Tavsdeboda Tundac im elementaruli mizezis gamo, rom im etapze, azerbaijani ruseTis mier iyo gasabWoebuli da es ori qveyana saqarTveloze Tavdasxmis myar safexurs amzadebda. amasTan dakavSirebiT, saqarTvelos respublikis Tavdacvis sabWos 1920 wlis 13 dekembris dadgenilebis (b) da (g) punqtebSi xazgasmiT iyo
miTiTebuli im antisaxelmwifoebrivi qmedebebis Sesaxeb,
romelic azerbaijanma da sabWoTa ruseTma saqarTvelosTan mimarTebaSi erTobliovad rom ganaxorciela. mxedvelobaSi maqvs: 1)baqodan navTis saqarTvelosadmi miwodebis
umizezod Sewyveta da 2)foilos xidis midamoebSi wiTeli
armiis nawilebis Tavmoyra, sangrebis gaTxra da zarbaznebis dadgma. es RonisZiebebi imdenad gamokveTili da gamomwvevi formiT mimdinareobda, rom nebismieri saSualo donis
samxedro pirisa da politikosisTvisac misaxvedri iqneboda, rom sabWoTa ruseTi mizanmimarTulad da safexurebrivad saqarTveloze TavdasxmisaTvis emzadeboda. es faqti,
samxedro uwyebis mesveurT, adeqvaturi RonisZiebebis dauyovneblivi gatarebis aucileblobas avalebda. miTumetes,
Tavdacvis sabWos (eswrebodnen: gr.lorTqifaniZe_ sxdomis
Tavmjdomare, n.ramiSvili, i.odiSeliZe, v.juReli, i.gedevaniSili,
al.TayaiSvili, al.dgebuaZe. al.zaqariaZe) 1920 wlis 24 noem-
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bris dadgenilebiT, foilos xidze asafeTqebeli masala
iqna moxsnili. `Tavdacvis sabWo- vkiTxulobT dokumentSiSesaZleblad sTvlis moxsnas xididan asafeTqebeli masala mxolod im pirobiT, rom asafeTqi mavTulebi darCeba da
neitraluri zonis sakontrolo komisiis muSaobis dasrulebisTanave, Tanaxmad xelSekrulebisa dauyovnebliv iqneba
aRdgenili sadgur SaqrlianSi.~
politikuri procesebis swrafad cvalebadobam, zemoaRniSnuli dadgenilebis 9 dReSi Secvlis aucilebloba daayena. mxedvelobaSi maqvs Tavdacvis sabWos 1920 wlis 2 dekembris sxdoma, romelmac foilos xidis midamoebSi Seqmnili mdgomareobis Sesaxeb, mTavrobis Tavmjdomaris rwmunebulis gr.cincabaZis da genStabis ufrosis al.zaqariaZis
moxsenebebi moismina. saqarTvelos sazRvrebTan Seqmnili
umZimesi mdgomareobis analizidan gamomdinare, imave sxdomaze
miRebul dadgenilebaSi vkiTxulobT: `1. b)foilos xidze
da mis midamoebSi sastikad iqnes daculi samxedro wesebi
da aravis ar mieces xidze mimosvla adgilobrivi samxedro
ufrosis nebadaurTvelad; 4. a)dauyovnebliv gamagrebuli
iqnas foilos da wiTeli xidebi da maT dasacavad daniSnuli iqnes sakmao ricxvi jarebisa artileriiT. orive xidi
iyos damzadebuli ucbad asafeTqeblad.~ am dokumentis miRebidan meore dRes (3 dekemberi), Tavdacvis sabWom meore umniSvnelovanesi dadgenileba miiRo, romelic saWiroebis SemTxvevaSi rkinigziT jaris Seuferxeblad gadaadgilebasa
da daniSnul adgilze misi momaragebis uzrunvelyofas iTvaliswinebda. amasTan dakavSirebiT imave dokumentSi vkiTxulobT; ‘winadadeba mieces gzaTa departaments miiRos zomebi samxedro matareblebis mimosvlis dasaCqareblad, jaris
gadasayvanad daniSnuli raodenobis zamTris pirobebis mixedviT mosawyobaT da saTanado sadgurebze jaris saWiroebisaTvis cxeli wylis dasamzadeblad. yvela am zomebis asasruleblad saWiro Tanxa moTxovnil iqnes gzaTa departamentis mier Tavdacvis fondidan.~
am dokumentSi dasmuli sakiTxebis Sesrulebis procedura, Tavdacvis saministros dabali rgolis Sesabamisi uwyebis Cinovnikebisa da frontis mowinave xazis sardlobis
prerogativas warmoadgenda. miTumetes, politikuri procesebis swrafad cvalebadobam da sasazRvro zolze mezobe-
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li qveynis mxridan Seqmnilma realurma safrTxeebma, Tavdacvis xazis gasamagreblad adre arsebuli xarvezebis dauyovnebliv aRmofxvra moiTxova. mxedvelobaSi maqvs foilosa da wiTeli xidebis im doneze danaRmva, rom saWiroebis SemTxvevaSi misi srulfasovnad afeTqeba da mtris garkveuli droiT SeCereba yofiliyo SesaZlebeli. zemoaRniSnuli dadgenilebiT gaTvaliswinebuli RonisZiebebis maRal doneze Sesruleba -arSesrulebis mimdinare procesebis zedamxedvelobis pasuxismgebloba_ qveynis mTavarsardalsa da mis xelqveiTebs_ frontis mowinave xazis xelmZRvanelobas ekisreboda. maT unda uzrunveleyoT dokumentSi dasmuli sakiTxebis Sesabamis qvemdebare rgolamde dayvana, konkretuli pirovnebebisadmi davalebis micema da mimdinare praqtikuli samuSaos Sesrulebis xarisxze umkacresi kontrolis daweseba. samwuxarod, saqarTvelos SeiaraRebuli Zalebis sardloba, qveynisTvis kritikul momentSi
srulfasovnad mobilur mdgomareobaSi ver aRmoCnda da
mis winaSe moulodnelad amoziduli problemebisadmi Tavis
garTmeva gauWirda. amis dadasturebas Cems mier arqivsacavebSi mopovebuli masalebi warmoadgens, romlis mixedviTac irkveva, rom Tavdacvis sabWos zemoaRniSnuli dadgenilebebis garkveuli nawili Seusrulebeli darCa, ramac Tavi
loreSi, foilosa da wiTeli xidebis midamoebSi gamarTuli brZolebis dros iCina Tavi. amis Sesaxeb qvemoT dawvrilebiT meqneba saubari, magram amjerad princi pulad davsvam kiTxvas: mefis ruseTis armiis SeiaraRebuli Zalebis
sardlis brZanebis an Tavdacvis sabWos dadgenilebis Sesrulebis aucileblobas, qarTveli generlebi da oficrebi
savaldebulod Tuki miiCnevdnen, riT unda aixsnas maTi mxridan analogiuri brZanebis an dadgenilebis Seusrulebloba qarTuli jaris SemadgenlobaSi samsaxuris dros? am kiTxvaze srulfasovani pasuxis gacema mxolod Sesabamisi
kvleviTi samuSos Catarebis Semdeg gaxdeba SesaZlebeli.
amis naTel dadaturebas saqarTvelo- somxeTis sazRvarze
lores saomari moqmedebebi warmoadgens.
qarTul istoriografiaSi dadasturebulia, rom somxeTsaqarTvelos zemoaRniSnuli xelSekrulebis (1920 wlis 13
noemberi) miuxedavad, gasabWoebuli somxeTis mTavrobam, neitraluri teritoriidan qarTuli jaris dauyovnebliv gay-
78
vana moiTxova. miuxedavad imisa, rom qarTuli mxare mezobeli respublikis xelisufalT problemis mSvidobianad gadawyvetis winadadebas sTavazobda, rkp (b) centraluri komitetis kavbiuros miTiTebiT, somxebi pirobebze Tanxmobas
Segnebulad aWianurebda da mizanmimarTulad arTulebda.
am faqtTan dakavSirebiT, k.sabaxtaraSvilis mier im etapze
evropaSi myofi e.gegeWkorisadmi 1921 wlis 12 Tebervals
gagzavnil werilSi vkiTxulobT: `somxeTma sabWoTa mTavrobis gamocxadebisTanave mogvTxova borCalos mazridan Cveni jarebis gayvana. Cven amazed pirdapir uari ar gviTqvams
da winadadeba miveciT amis Taobazed molaparakeba gagvemarTa. somxeTis mTavroba dagvTanxmda da movelodiT mis
warmomadgenlebs momaval qarTul- somxur konferenciazed. Cven imedi gvqonda, rom borCalos mazris sakiTxs mSvidobianad movagvarebdiT.~ xazgasmiT unda aRiniSnos, rom arsebuli problemis mSvidobiani gziT mogvareba, sabWoTa ruseTis interesebSi ar Tavsdeboda. maT mier SemuSavebuli
gegmis mixedviT, lores sakiTxi, saqarTvelos gasabWoebis
xelSemwyob faqtorad unda yofiliyo gamoyenebuli. arc
isaa gamoricxuli, rom dasaxuli amocanis warmatebiT ganxorcielebis da am saqmeSi somxeTis gansakuTrebuli mxardaWeris SemTxvevaSi, rkp (b) centraluri komitetis kavbiuros
xelmZRvanelobam, lores neitraluri zonis saqarTvelosaTvis CamoWris winaswari piroba rom misca somxeTis xelisufalTa mesveurebs.
aseTi mosazrebis gamoTqmis SesaZleblobas, lores problemis somxur- qarTul konferenciaze mSvidobianad gadawyvetis Sesaxeb, somxeTis xelisuflebis mxridan gacemuli
pirobis moulodnelad `daviwyeba~ iZleva. Tu riT iyo ganpirobebuli SeTanxmebis vadis amowurvamde ori dRiT adre
saomari moqmedebebis dawyeba, amis Sesaxeb, saintereso mosazrebaa gamoTqmuli k.sabaxtaraSvilis mier 1921 wlis 12 Tebervals e.gegeWkorisadmi gagzavnil werilSi. `jer- jerobiT am ieriSis mizani – vkiTxulobT dokumentSi- CvenTvis
naTlad gamokveTili ar aris. SeiZleba vifiqroT, rom somxebs sruli imedi hqondaT borCalos mazraSi mZlavri ajanyeba moewyoT, iZulebuli gavexadeT dagvetovebina igi da...
daveyenebineT Sesrulebuli faqtis winaSe. miT umetes,... Zveli
somxeTis mTavrobasTan xelSekrulebis ZaliT, Cven jarebs
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borCalos mazraSi yofnis vada xval 13 Tebervals gadis.~
es mosazreba angariSgasawevia im TvalsazrisiTac, rom Tuki
lores sakiTxTan mimarTebaSi zemoaRniSnuli SeTanxmebis
Sesabamisad somex- qarTvelTa konferencia gaimarTeboda,
somxebi mokarnaxis_ momgebian rolSi aRmoCndeboda da qarTuli mxarisadmi maqsimaluri moTxovnebis dayenebis SesaZlebloba miecemoda. aRniSnulis gaTvaliswinebidan gamomdinare,
saqarTvelos xelisuflebis erT- erT prioritetul amocanad, im etapze lores `incindentis~ saswrafo lokalizacia warmoadgenda. amasTan dakavSirebiT, imave k.sabaxtaraSvilis mier e.gegeWkorisadmi gagzavnil werilSi vkiTxulobT:
`es garTuleba borCalos mazraSi erTob seriozul movlenad unda CaiTvalos... Cveni mizania am saqmis lokalizacia
da Tanac rac SeiZleba likvidacia Cqara movaxdinoT.~ samwuxarod, qarTveli sardlebis mier daSvebuli sabediswero Secdomebis gamo, saqarTvelos xelisuflebam dasaxuli
miznis Sesruleba ver SeZlo. xazgasmiT minda aRvniSno,
rom borCalos mazraSi XI armiis nawilebis 11 Tebervals
SeWra, omisTvis saqarTvelos mzadyofnisa da qarTuli jaris
brZolisunarianobis Semowmebis safexurs warmoadgenda.
lores raionSi qarTuli jaris sardloba mowodebis simaRleze rom yofiliyo da mowinaarmdeges Rirseulad daxvedroda, azerbaijanidan XI armiis nawilebis 16 Tebervals
saqarTveloze Tavdasxmis gadadeba gamoricxuli ar iyo.
loreSi qarTvelTa katastrofam, mowinaaRmdeges moqmedebis stimuli misca. samecniero da memuarul literaturaSi
erTxmadaa aRiarebuli, rom borCalos mazraSi qarTuli
jaris uCveulo ganlagebiT da wesrigis verdamyarebiT,
gen. i.odiSeliZem momakvdinebeli Secdomebi dauSva. mxedvelobaSi maqvs: 1)borCalos mazraSi da azerbaijanis
sasazRvro zolze qarTuli jaris nawilebis araswori
ganlageba; 2)uprinci poba; 3)jaris nawilebSi udisci plinoba da vakxanaliiis umaRles xarisxSi ayvana.
i.odiSeliZis mimarT Cems mier CamoTvlili naklovani mxareebi miutevebel braldebad rom ar CameTvalos, samive sakiTxTan mimarTebaSi im periodis samxedro da samoqalaqo
pirebis mier gamoTqmul mosazrebebs movitan da Tavad mkiTxvelma gansajos misi avkargianoba.
1)qarTuli jaris ganlageba: a)somxeTis sazRvarTan, bor-
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Calos mazraSi qarTuli jari Semdegnairad iyo ganlagebuli: 1)voroncovka- jalal- oRli_ 4 gvardiis qveiTi
batalioni; ori saartilerio batarea, ori cxenosani eskadroni, ori javSan- avtomobili (polkovniki CxeiZe, S.imnaiSvili); 2)bambakis xeoba_ sanain- Sagalis mimarTuleba _
meore saarmio brigada, sami qveiTi aTaseuli, ori batarea,
ori cxeenosani eskadroni (gen. sumbaTaSvili); 3)bobkinis
mTa_ ori qveiTi batalioni (polkovniki giorgi ximSiaSvili); b)azerbaijanis sazRvarTan: 1)wiTeli xidis mimarTuleba_ erTi qveiTi batalioni (maiori xomeriki); 2)foilos xidTan_ ori qveiTi batalioni, erTi batarea, erTi
cxenosani eskadroni, erTi sanapiro aseuli, mesangreTa mwyobri da javSnosani matarebeli # 4 (polkovniki kodua).27
qarTuli jaris nawilebis somxeT_ azerbaijanis 110 kolometrian sasazRvro perimetrze aseT danawilebas, im periodis samxedro dargis specialistebi did Secdomad miiCnevdnen im TvalsazrisiT, rom frontis am vrceli monakveTis saSualo doneze uzrunvelyofas, minimum 80 aTasi jariskaci dasWirdeboda. am raodenobis cocxali Zalis gamoyvana
saqarTvelos im etapze ar SeeZlo Tundac im elementaruli mizezis gamo, rom evropis qveynebidan Sepirebuli daxmarebis miuReblobis gamo, misi srulfasovnad SeiaraRebis
uzrunvelyofas ver moaxerxebda. meore didi strategiuli
Secdoma imaSi mdgomareobda, rom gen. ioseb gedevaniSvilis
brZanebis Sesabamisad, qarTuli jaris meore qveiTi brigada
bambakis xeobaSi Seiyvanes da somxur soflebSi patar- patara jgufebad daanawiles. am qmedebis ZiriTad motivs, soflis somxuri mosaxleobidan iaraRis amoReba da ajanyebis
mcdelobis neitralizeba warmoadgenda. Cems mier motanil
zemoaRniSnul faqtebs ukeTebda ra analizs, g.kvinitaZe dasZenda; `mTavarsardals (i.odiSeliZes S.v.) am Zalebis ganlageba zustad unda scodnoda, miTumetes jari iq ukve
didi xania idga. Tu es ganlageba ar eWaSnikeboda, an saerTod arasworad miaCnda, unda Careuliyo da gamoesworebina
Tavisi Sexedulebisamebr.~28 miTumetes, qarTuli dazvervis
mier mopovebuli XI armiis ufrosis gekkeris moxseneba_
sabWoTa ruseTis mxridan saqarTveloze Tavdasxmis Sesaxeb, i.odiSeliZisaTvis cnobili iyo. jer- jerobiT iseTi saxis dokuments ver mivakvlie, romelic daadasturebda, qarTu-
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li jaris soflebSi gadanawilebis i.gedevaniSvilis zemoaRniSnuli mcdari gadawyvetilebisadmi i.odiSeliZis kritikul damokidebulebas da misi droulad gamosworebisaTvis
raime qmediTi RonisZiebis gatarebas. am mimarTulebiT mTavarsardlis mxridan drouli reagirebis argakeTeba da konkretuli RonisZiebis argatareba mafiqrebinebs, rom drois
im monakveTSi, i.odiSeliZe jaris gadaadgilebis i.gedevaniSviliseul gadawyvetilebebs iziarebda.
marTalia, mogvianebiT momzadebul `moxsenebaSi,~ Tavis
marTlebis mizniT braldebebis ZiriTadi mimarTuleba gen.
i.gedevaniSvilis `TviTnebur~ qmedebazea gadatanili, magram,
erTi sityavac ar aris naxsenebi omis dawyebamde am `TviTneburi~ qmedebis misi mxridn gamosworebis mcdelobis Sesaxeb.
2)uprinci poba: im periodis cnobili samxedro da politikuri moRvaweebi erTxmad miuTiTeben i.odiSeliZis uprinci pobaze. aRniSnul sakiTxTan dakavSirebiT gansakuTrebul yuradRebas gen. g.kvinitaZis mogonebebis meore wigni
iqcevs. masSi dawvrilebiTaa ganxiluli i.odiSeliZis zemoaRniSnuli `moxseneba~ da umniSvnelovanesi sakiTxebis mimarT, diskusiis vrceli mimoxilvaa warmodgenili. iqvea dbeWdili i.odiSeliZis TvisebebTan mimarTebaSi ama Tu im pirovnebebis mxridan gakeTebuli Sefasebebic. nimuSisaTvis, maTi
mxridan i.odiSeliZis TandaswrebiT warmoTqmuli sityvebidan, Sesabamis amonarids SevTavazeb mkiTxvel sazogadoebas. n.xomeriki: `generali odiSeliZe garkveviT arasodes
arafers ambobda da arc sakuTar mosazrebebs icavda, amitom iqmneboda STabeWdileba, rom Tavis moTxovnebs maincdamainc did mniSvnelobas ar aniWebda.~ v.juReli: `xSirad
SeuZlebeli xdeboda erTmaneTisgan gagerCiaT mniSvnelovani da umniSvnelo moTxovnebi... sakmarisi iyo Jordanias
an ramiSvilis sawinaaRmdego eTqvaT, rom generali odiSeliZe xmas gakmendda xolme. saqmec ase wydeboda.... raSiac
Jordanias sdebT brals, Tqven TviTon xarT damnaSave, radgan garkveviT da daJinebiT arasodes ar mogixsenebiaT. saswrafod eTanxmebodiT yvelas yvelaferSi. ai batonebo rogor xdeboda: warmoadgens moxsenebas generali odiSeliZe,
Sevedavebi_ dameTanxmeba; mere gamova dgebuaZe, romelic xSirad mewinaaRmdegeboda, generali axla dgebuaZes eTanxmeba.
modiT da gaarkvieT... ra undoda general odiSeliZes. mudam
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ase iyo, yvela sakiTxTan dakavSirebiT.~29 auStrovi: `batono ilia, komisiidan an sabWodan gamosulebs arasodes
ar gvsmenia, ra gindodaT; Tqven arasodes ar gqoniaT garkveuli azri, yovelTvis yvelas eTanxmebodiT.~ i.odiSeliZesTan
mimarTebaSi analogiuri saxis pozicia uWiravs g.kvinitaZesac.
erTi ram dabejiTebiT SeiZleba iTqvas, rom zemoaRniSnuli
uprinci pobis Tvisebebi, i.odiSeliZes adre rom qonoda,
ruseTis armiaSi, erovnebiT qarTveli, generlobamde da armiis
sardlobamde ver amaRldeboda. Tuki amas miaRwia, sajariso SenaerTebis marTvis, mtkice xasiaTis, ama Tu im gadawyvetilebebis sworad miRebaSi da Tavisi poziciis dasabuTebuli formiT dacvaSi, rus oficrobaze albad 10 TaviT
maRla idga.
3)jaris nawilebSi disci plinis verdamyareba: i.odiSeliZis generlobamde da armiis sardlobamde amaRlebis yvelaze xelSemSlel faqtorad, jarSi mtkice disci plinis
verdamyareba da saomari moqmedebebis dawyebis procesSi
saRi azrovnebis dakargvis da dabneulobis Tvisebebi gadaiqceoda. Tuki es naklovani mxareebi ruseTis armiaSi samsaxuris dros misTvis damaxasiaTebeli ar iyo, qarTuli
jaris sardlobisas, sadac qveynis xvalindeli dRis bedi
unda gadawyvetiliyo, zemoaRniSnulma mankierma mxareebma
maRal doneze iCina Tavi. mxedvelobaSi maqvs lores neitralur zonaSi ganlagebuli qarTuli sajariso SenaerTebis rigebSi damkvidrebuli sruli vakxanalia. am faqtTan
dakavSirebiT XI armiis samxedro komisari da lores samxedro operaciis erT- erTi xelmZRvaneli i.laziani 1936 wels
daweril mogonebebSi, bambakis xeobaSi qarTvelTa samarcxvino damarcxebas Semdegnairad aRwers: `...mTavari mniSvnelovani saqme ajanyebis mowyobaSi iyo Sagalis operacia; rac
unda dagvjdomoda, unda gadarCeniliyo Sagalis xidi, romelic danaRmuli iyo (qarTvelebis mier); im xids qonda gansakuTrebuli mniSvneloba; am saqmis mowyobisTvis gaigzavna yofili Stabskapitani stepaniani, romelmac waiyvana bevri samxedro specialisti. stepanianma da sxvebma Caicves
ltolvilebis tanisamosi, maT gaxsnes SagalSi samikitnoebi, savse RviniTa, aryiTa da koniakiT. amiT isini dauaxlovdnen qarTvel jariskacebs da oficrebs; iyo qeifi da dros
tareba. gaiges rogori wesiT iyo xidi danaRmuli. maT gam-
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oimuSaves xidis xelSi Cagdebis gegma. merme 12 Tebervals
uecrad daecnen xids, xelT igdes igi da maT daepatronen.~30
ramdenadac aq motanili faqtebi sabWoTa generlis mogonebebs warmoadgens, mkiTxvelma SeiZleba misi sandooba
eWvis qveS daayenos. samwuxarod, igi simarTles Seesabameba.
amis naTel dadasturebas TviT i.odiSeliZis mier dawerili `moxseneba~ warmoadgens. zemoaRniSnul faqtTan dakavSirebiT masSi vkiTxulobT: `rac Seexeba aTaseulis daRupvas (mexuTe da merve aTaseuli), jariskacebi da oficroba
am aTaseulebisa daumegobrdnen somxebs, qeifobdnen maTTan
da bavSvebs unaTlavdnen; imave dros ki naTlimamebi naTliebs umzadebdnen daRupvas. am aTaseulebs rom ar eqeifaT
da bavSvebi ar enaTlaT da yofiliyvnen fxizlad Tavis saguSagoze_ es ambavi ar moxdeboda. aq iyo usaTuod koleqtiuri borotmoqmedeba.~31 am sakiTxTan dakavSirebiT a.kvitaiSvili savsebiT kanonzomierad svams kiTxvas: `sad aris
sardlobis Tvali? sad aris `Cveni~ (ufro ki maTi) kontrSpionaJi?~ unda vaRiaroT, rom im sabediswero momentSi
i.odiSeliZem, i.gedevaniSvilma, g.sumbaTaSvilma da sxvebma,
romlebic borCalos mazraSi ganlagebuli qarTuli jaris
nawilebs sardlobdnen, sruli uunaroba gamoiCina da qarTuli SeiaraRebuli Zalebis katastrofas Seuwyo xeli. am
faqts TviT i.odiSeliZec aRiarebs. `mTavari mizezi Cemi
gadayenebisa mTavarsardlobidan- wers igi- Sagalis xidTan momxdari moulodneli katastrofa iyo... iciT ra moxda? mtris agentebma lxini gaumarTes Sagalis frontze
myof jariskacebs, daaTvres. RamiT Sagalis xidze SeumCnevlad `moxsnes~ Cveni daraji, gadmovidnen xidiT da Tofis
gausrolelad Caigdes mTvrali mZinare TiTqmis Cveni Zalebi.~ es aris saqarTvelos pirveli respublikis SeiaraRebuli Zalebis mTavarsardlis gen. i.odiSeliZis aRiarebiTi
Cveneba. jaris nawilebSi damkvidrebuli aseTi vakxanaliidan gamomdinare, nebismier qveyanaSi ara Tu Tanamdebobidan gadayenebas dasjerdebodnen, mas pirvel rigSi wodebrivad CamoaqveiTebdnen da tribunals gadascemdnen.
exeboda ra borCalos mazraSi qarTuli jaris sabediswero da samarcxvino damarcxebis ganmapirobebel mizezebs, grigol urataZe guliswyromiT savsebiT kanonzomierad dasZenda, rom borCalos mazraSi momxdari `koleqtiu-
84
ri borotebis Sedegi iyo `mTeli armiis naxevaris~ ubrZolvelad ganadgureba. aman ra Tqma unda, daangria Cveni
Tavdacvis saqme, dascala strategiuli punqtebi da gaaZliera mtris gamarjvebis Sansebi.~ amas isic daemata, rom
darCenili jaris nawilebi usardlod aRmoCnda da maTi
bedi, mxolod TiToeuli qvedanayofis xelmZRvanelis gadawyvetilebebze iqna damokidebuli.
borCalos mazraSi 1921 wlis 12 dan 15 Tebervlis CaTvliT ganxorcielebuli sabrZolo operaciebTan mimarTebaSi arsebuli faqtebis analizidan gamomdinare, a.kvitaiSvili
wers: `12_ 16 Tebervlamde qarTul jars namdvili patroni
ar hyavs. aqa- iq gancalkevebuli jarisa da gvardiis nawilebi gadadian Setevaze. miRwevebic aqvT, magram radganac
maTi moqmedeba ar aris SeTanxmebuli da ar Cans sardlis
nebisyofa, romelmac unda moaxdinos maTi moqmedebis koordinacia, marcxdebian.~ amis ZiriTadi ganmapirobebeli mizezebi gen. i.odiSeliZis umoqmedobaSi unda veZioT. am sakiTxTan dakavSirebiT, i.odiSeliZis zemoaRniSnuli `moxsenebis~ ganxilvis dros, v.juRelma daufaravad ganacxada: `frontze pirveli gasrolisTanave generali odiSeliZe ise daibna, rom saomari moqmedebebis warmarTvis yovelgvari unari dakarga, jars araviTari miTiTeba ar miuRia
da yoveli nawili, rasac undoda imas akeTebda.~32 e.i. jaris
koordinirebuli marTvis elementaruli formebi iyo darRveuli. mdgomareobas isic arTulebda, rom im momentSi
i.odiSeliZe arsebuli situaciis droul da swor Sefasebas ver axdenda. amis damadastureblad Semdegi faqti gamodgeba. roca rusebma foilos xidTan ganlagebuli saqarTvelos sajariso SenaerTis sawinaaRmdegod poziciebze
ramdenime qvemexi gamoitana, qarTuli jaris erT- erTi kolonis meTauri pirdapiri mavTuliT i.odiSeliZes daelaparaka; `mteri amaRam aucileblad gadmova Setevaze. neba
momeciT xidi avafeTqo.~ aRniSnulTan dakavSirebiT i.odiSeliZem upasuxa: `Cven vimyofebiT megobrul ganwyobilebaSi sabWoTa ruseTTan. dauSvebelia Cveni mxridan mtruli
moqmedeba. erideT provokacias.~ aseT brZanebas iZleva sardali, romelsac rusul_ somxurma samxedro SenaerTebma,
12 dan 15 Tebervlis CaTvliT jaris ori mesamedi gaunadgura da omis samomavlo bedi qarTul mxares 3/4¾-iT wa-
85
agebina.¾miTumetes, foilos xidis aufeTqebloba, taqtikuri
TvalsazrisiT i.odiSeliZis mxridan morig gamousworebel
Secdomas warmoadgenda. am xidis moqmedunarianobis SenarCuneba, rogorc g.kvinitaZe wers, `mowinaaRmdeges rkinigzaze
Tavisuflad moZraobis saSualebas aZlevda. igi Tavisuflad gadaiyvanda jars, advilad miawodebda iaraRs, sursaTs,
bolos da bolos javSanmatarebliT moqmedebas SeZlebda.~33 yovelive aRniSnulidan gamomdinare, foilos xidis
afeTqeba pirvelxarisxovan amocanas warmoadgenda, Tundac
im elementaruli mizezis gamo, rom mis aRdgenamde, XI armiis nawilebs, rkinigzis (im etapze yvelaze xelsayreli da
efeqturi satransporto saSualeba) gamoyenebis SesaZlebloba Seekveceboda. aqedan gamomdinare, iZulebuli gaxdeboda mTeli yuradReba wiTeli xidis mimarTulebiT gadaetana. Tumca, misi gadaadgilebisa da Sesabamisi samxedro
masaliT droulad momaragebis procesebis mxolod SezRudul formebSi ganxorcielebas SeZlebda. samwuxarod, saqarTvelos SeiaraRebuli Zalebis sardlobam es umniSvnelovanesi Sansi droulad ver gamoiyena. mxedvelobaSi maqvs
imave xidis mogvianebiT arasrulfasovnad afeTqebis faqti.
Seqmnili umZimesi mdgomareobidan da mTavarsardlis_ i.odiSeliZis umoqmedobidan, arsebuli situaciis Sesatyvisi taqtikuri xasiaTis RonisZiebebis argatarebidan gamomdinare,
wiTel xidTan qarTuli jaris nawillebma marcxi ganicada. aRniSnul sakiTxTan dakavSirebiT arsebuli memuaruli
da samecniero literaturiT ar dasturdeba, rom i.odiSeliZe
wiTeli da foilos xidebis mimarTulebiT usistemod `gadasrolili~ qvedanayofebis erT muStad Sekvras cdiliyo. am
SemTxvevaSi man borCalos mazraSi_ loreSi daSvebuli
taqtikuri Secdoma gaimeora.
wiTeli xidis mimarTulebiT qarTuli sajariso SenaerTebis dafantuli formiT ganlagebis suraTi mkiTxvelis mier
srulad rom iqnas aRqmuli, am mizniT a.kvitaiSvilis naSromidan Sesabamis amonawers movitan. `ai rogor iyo guriis
batalioni ganawilebuli wiTel xidze: pirveli aseuli da
mzveravTa gundi_ dgas wiTel xidze; meore_ mdinare xramisa
da mtkvris SesarTavTan; mesame_ mdinare algeTisa da mtkvris SesarTavTan; meore aseuli pirveli aseulisgan 7 kilometriTaa daSorebuli, rogor unda uSvelon am aseulebma
86
brZolis dros erTmaneTs?...
sofel sarvanSi dgas Tbilisis mesame batalioni. sofel
obelianovkaSi ki Tbilisis pirveli batalioni... Tu am ori
batalionis amocana iyo miSveleboda wiTel xidze mdgom
Cvenebs_ es xom Zneli asasrulebelia_ ocdaxuTi kilometris gasavlelad saWiroa xuTi- eqvsi saaTi... sanam Tbilisis batalionebma miiRes brZaneba wiTeli xidisken gaqanebuliyvnen, guriis batalioni ukve ganadgurebuli iyo.~34
zemoaRniSnulma taqtikurma Secdomebma erTobliobaSi
gamanadgurebeli dartyma miayena saqarTvelos SeiaraRebul
Zalebs, xolo XI armiis nawilebs brZolisa da SeteviTi
operaciebis gagrZelebis `xalisi~ da rac mTavaria, gamarjvebis imedi Causaxa. aseT umZimes situaciaSi ganxorcielda
naxevrad ganadgurebuli qarTuli jaris mTavarsardlis
Secvla. saqarTvelos mTavrobisa da Tavdacvis sabWos gadawyvetilebis Tanaxmad, i.odiSeliZis nacvlad mTavarsardlad g.kvinitaZe dainiSna. gen. al.zaqariaZe am cvlilebas
i.odiSeliZis avadmyofobiT xsnis da gverds uvlis im taqtikur Secdomebs, romlebic 11- dan 15 Tebervlis CaTvliT
i.odiSeliZis mTavarsardlobis periodSi iqna daSvebuli
da rusul- somxuri SeiaraRebuli Zalebis warmatebis ganmapirobebeli fatori gaxda.
ramdenadac 1919 wlis 13 seqtembris teraqtis dros i.odiSeliZem (saxeSi daiWra) mZime kontuzia miiRo, savaraudoa,
rom misi srulyofilad gamojanmrTeleba im etapze ver
moxerxda. miRebuli fsiqikuri Soki, nerviuli sistemis
daZabulobis SemTxvevaSi, rogorc Cans `Tavs axsenebda~.
am faqtoris gaTvaliswinebidan gamomdinare Tuki mivudgebiT sakiTxs, igi marTlac avad unda yofiliyo. winaaRmdeg SemTxvevaSi: 1)yovlad dauSvebelia, rusul jarSi general- leitenantis safexuramde (1914 wlis 11 oqtomberi)
da dasavleTis frontis me- 3 armiis (1917 wlis 12 seqtemberi), xolo imave wlis 2 oqtombridan kavkasiis rusuli
armiis sardlobamde amaRlebul pirovnebas, ruseTis saxelmwifos TiTqmis yvela umaRlesi xarisxis ordenebis (wminda stanisslavskis I da III xarisxis, wminda anas I, II da III
xarisxis, wminda vladimiris III da IV xarisxis, wminda
giorgis IV xarisxis, oqros iaraRi warweriT- `mamacobisaTvis~) mflobels, saqarTvelos pirveli respublikis yof-
87
na- aryofnis gadamwyvet momentSi, samxedro dargis profesionali maRalCinosnisaTvis warmoudgeneli da qarTuli SeiaraRebuli Zalebis TiTqmis ganadgurebis xelSemwyobi taqtikuri Secdomebi daeSva; 2)i.odiSeliZis samxedro
ganaTlebisa da mefis ruseTis armiaSi safexurebrivad
gavlili udidesi praqtikuli gamocdilebis fonze, a.gekkeri
da i.laziani samxedro saqmis diletantebad SeiZleba CaiTvalos. (a.gekkeri_ 1909 wels samxedro saswavlebeli daamTavra, xolo 1917 wels, gasabWoebuli ruseTis genStabis
samxedro akademiasTan Seqmnili daCqarebuli kursebi gaiara; i.laziani_ asoTamwyobi, gasabWoebuli somxeTis jaris
politganyofilebis ufrosi). am donis sardlebTan mouxda gen. i.odiSeliZes 1921 wlis 11 Tebervlidan 16 Tebervlis CaTvliT dapirispireba. im SemTxvevaSi, Tuki drois am
monakveTSi mimdinare sabrZolo moqmedebebis Sesaxeb g.kvinitaZis mogonebebSi motanil faqtobriv masalas sarwmunod miviCnevT, Cvens winaSe saqarTvelos SeiaraRebul ZalebTan mimarTebaSi katastrofuli suraTi warmoCndeba.
qarTuli sardlobis mier daSvebuli umZimesi Secdomebidan gamomdinare, XI armiis gaTamamebul xelmZRvanelobas,
saqarTvelos dedaqalaqis aReba ukve realobad esaxeboda.
am amocanis Sesrulebis mizniT, brZolaSi Caabes: 1)Svidi
qveiTi divizia, 2)xuTi cxenosani divizia, 3)saarmio mZime artileria # 12, 4)satanko razmi # 2, 5)javSnosani avtomobilebis razmi # 55, 6)gasabWoebuli somxeTis me- 5 da me- 6
polkebi, 7)javSnosani matareblebi # 5, 7, 61, 77, 94.
rac Seexeba saqarTvelos Tavdacvis uwyebas, gen. g.kvinitaZem mis daqvemdebarebaSi arsebuli samxedro Zalebi Tbilisis dasacavad sam ZiriTad seqtorad gadaanawila: 1)marjvena seqtori_ kojori- Savnabadas monasteris xazi. am
monakveTs gen, andronikaSvili sardlobda. mis daqvemdebarebaSi Sedioda: a)meaTe aTaseuli, b)pirveli aTaseuli,
g)samxedro skolis erTi batalioni, romelSiac Sedioda
iunkrebis erTi aseuli da nacvalTa sami aseuli, d)meoTxe
aTaseuli. mogvianebiT mas daemata gvardiis 4 batalioni,
axladSeqmnili mexuTe aTaseuli da mosangreTa aTaseuli;
2)Sua seqtori_ Savnabadadan- sadgur navTluRamde, mdinare
mtkvris sanapiromde. misi dacva gen. g.mazniaSvils qonda
davalebuli. im etapze mis gankargulebaSi imyofeboda:
88
a)aspinZis mecxre aTaseuli, b)meSvide aTaseuli, g)sadarajo
aTaseuli, d)sanapiro batalioni, e)qarTlis ori batalioni,
v)gvardiis erTi batalioni, z)gvardiis mZime metyviamfrqveveTa batalioni, T)xuTi saartilerio batarea, i)javSnian
avtomobilTa erTeuli da k)javSniani matarebeli # 3; 3)orxevis seqtori_ mdinare mtkvris marcxena sanapirodan- sofel
arajana pavlias mTamde sofel lilos CaTvliT. am xazis
dacvis uzrunvelyofa gen. jijixias qonda mindobili. mis
gankargulebaSi imyofeboda: a)imereTis meore batalioni,
b)zugdidis batalioni, g)rezervSi idga duSeTis gvardiis
batalioni, d)savele batarea #5 da e)samTo batarea, v)cxenosanTa brigadis ori polki, romelic sof. liloSi idga.35
samecniero da memuarul literaturaSi erTxmadaa aRiarebuli, rom g.kvinitaZiseulma jaris ganlagebis zemoaRniSnulma taqtikam gaamarTla. 18 Tebervlidan 22 Tebervlis
CaTvliT XI armiis yvela Semotevebi warmatebiT iqna mogeriebuli. qarTuli jaris nawilebi Setevazedac gadavida da
mowinaaRmdeges gamanadgurebeli dartymebi miayena. miuxedavad amisa, qarTuli SeiaraRebnuli Zalebis imdroindeli
mdgomareobidan gamomdinare (iaraRisa da qarxnuli wrmoebis vaznebis uqonloba), saqarTvelo gaWianurebuli omis
warmoebas ver gauZlebda. es faqtori saqarTvelos xelisuflebis maRalCinosnebs kargad qondaT gacnobierebuli. amis
naTel dadasturebas, ruseTis agresiis SesaCereblad qarTveli diplomatebisagan evropis saxelmwifoebis Carevis mcdelobebi warmoadgens. am mxriv gansakuTrebul yuradRebas,
italiaSi myofi akaki Cxenkelis mier berlinSi saqarTvelos warmomadgenlis lado axmetelisadmi 23 Tebervals
gagzavnili werili iqcevs. am dokumentSi garkveviTaa miTiTebuli,rom lado axmetyeli maqsimalurad cdiliyo, raTa
berlins garkveuli gavlena moexdina moskovze, rom mas saqarTvelos winaaRmdeg agresiuli qmedebebi SeeCerebina. `es
molaparakeba rogorc berlinSi, ise moskovSi_ vkiTxulobT
dokumentSi_ unda xdebodes sruliad saidumlod. TviT Seni
nabijebi saidumlod unda Seinaxo, amxanagebsac ar unda gaando. jer unda Seityo, aris Tu ara raime Zafi berlinsa da
moskovs Soris. sul erTia, oficialuri Tu araoficialuri. unda gaigo, saTaveSi vis uWiravs es Zafi da mere imoqmedo. CvenTvis araa sasargeblo parizSi an sxvagan icod-
89
nen, rom berlini cdilobs CvenTvis. unda dausuraTxato
mand, ramdenad aucilebelia da sasargeblo germaniisaTvis
Cveni gza, mas Semdeg rac mesopotamiaSi fexi amoakveTines.
unda daaimedo, rom baqos da erevnis ganTavisuflebac drois
sakiTxia. maSasadame, berlins SeuZlia dabejiTebiT Caagonos
moskovs, nu mtrobs saqarTvelos romelic SesaZloa komerciuli kari gaxdes TviT baqosTvis evropaSi.~ am amonaweridan kargad Cans is ZiriTadi mimarTulebebi, romelic qarTuli diplomatiuri korpusis warmomadgenlebis muSaobas germaniis xelisuflebasTan safuZvlad unda dadeboda. mxedvelobaSi maqvs germaniis mxridan saqarTvelosadmi lobirebis mizniT, sabWoTa ruseTze zemoqmedebis berketebis amoqmedebisaTvis Sesabamisi safexuris mosamzadebeli samuSaoebis Catarebis aucilebloba. Tu ramdenad iqna gaTvaliswinebuli ak.Cxenkelis zemoaRniSnuli moTxovnebi berlinSi myofi saqarTvelos warmomadgenlis l.axmetelisgan,amis Sesaxeb
srul informacias iZleva imave l.axmetelis mier ukve londonSi myofi akaki Cxenkelisadmi gagzavnili werili (1921
wlis 28 Tebervali). am dokumentidan kargad Cans: 1)germaniis samTavrobo wreebTan molaparakebaSi germaniis socialdemokratiuli muSaTa partiis liderebis aqtiurad CarTvis
procesi; 2)imave politikuri partiis liderebis ZalisxmeviT,
germaniis prezident erbertTan, l.axmetelis Sexvedris faqti. am RonisZiebis ZiriTad mizans, qveynis prezidentisadmi
Txovna warmoadgenda, raTa, garkveuli zemoqmedeba moexdina
germaniis mTavrobaze, im TvalsazrisiT, rom Sesabamis uwyebas saidumlo kavSirebi gaeba sabWoTa ruseTis umaRles
eSelonebTan da ruseT- saqarTvelos saomari moqmedebebis
SeCerebis aucileblobaSi daerwmunebina. imave Sexvedraze
l.axmetelma germaniis prezident erberts sam muxliani moTxovna warudgina: 1)dauyovnebliv moexdinaT berlinSi myofi sabWoTa warmomadgenelis gawveva da imavdroulad miecaT
winadadeba, rom moskovisTvis omis saswrafod SeCerebis aucileblobis Setyobineba gadaeca; 2)moskovSi myofi germaniis
warmomadgenelisaTvis ecnobebinaT, rom mas garkveuli formiT gavlena moexdina londonze, raTa inglisis mxridanac
yofiliyo moTxovna omis SeCerebis Sesaxeb; 3)ecnobos ulrix rauSers, rom mas germaniis saxeliT emoqmeda omis
SesaCereblad.
90
imave werilis mixedviT, germaniis prezidents erberts,
qarTveli diplomatebisadmi micemuli dapireba Seusrulebia
da germaniis mTavrobis kabinetis 1921 wlis 25 Tebervlis
sxdomaze zemoaRniSnuli samive sakiTxi princi pulad dausvams. isic dasturdeba, rom qarTuli mxaris winadadebebi,
imave sxdomis wevrebis mier gaziarebuli iqna. Sesabamisi
masalebis miukvlevlobis gamo, jerjerobiT SeuZlebeli
xdeba imis garkveva, saqarTvelosTan mimarTebaSi Semdegi
safexurebrivi nabiji gadadga Tu ara germaniis mTavrobam
da konkretulad ra formiT Semoifargla igi. imave arqivsacavebSi mikvleuli masalebis mixedviT, qarTuli di plomatiuri korpusis warmomadgenlebi, sabWoTa ruseTisadmi
safrangeTis meSveobiT osmaleTis dasapirispirebladac muSaobdnen. amis udao dadasturebas, parizSi myofi saqarTvelos warmomadgenlobis TaTbiris (1921 wlis 19 marti) oqmi
warmoadgens. am dokumentis mixedviT irkveva, rom aRniSnuli sxdoma im sakiTxTa SeTanxmebas uZRoda win, romelic
safrangeTis sagareo saqmeTa ministrTan ak.Cxenkelis Sexvedrisas, qarTul mxares unda daesva. 1)osmaleTs uari unda
eTqva saqarTvelos teritoriis mitacebaze da 1914 wlis
monacemebiT arsebuli sazRvrebi eRiarebina; 2)osmaleTi kavkasiaze gabatonebis survils sabolood gamoTxoveboda
da am saqmeSi arbitris roli erTa ligas Seesrulebina;
3)saqarTvelos samxedro daxmareba unda mieRo ara osmaleTis saSualebiT (osmaleTis Cvendami apekunoba yovlad miuRebelia), aramed pirdapir safrangeTidan; 4)yvela zoma unda
yofiliyo miRebuli raTa safrangeTis mTavrobis CareviT
da antantis saxelmwifoTa garantiiT, osmaleTi saqarTvelosTan erTad ruseTis winaaRmdeg gamosuliyo. marTalia,
aq CamoTvlili sakiTxebi imave sxdomis monawileTa mier
mowonebuli da miRebuli iqna, magram misi praqtikulad ganxorcieleba ori ZiriTadi faqtoris gamo iyo SeuZlebeli:
1)osmaleTis parlamentis mier 1920 wlis 28 ianvars miRebuli `erovnuli paqtidan~ gamomdinare, osmaleTis saxelmwifos sazRvrebi gansazRvruli da dadgenili iyo; 2)moskovis 1921 wlis 16 martis ruseT- osmaleTis `megobrobis
xelSekrulebis~ oficialuri teqsti, ruseTTan dapirispirebis SesaZleblobas osmaleTs ar aZlevda. meore mxriv,
imave xelSekrulebiT sabolood iqna `dadgenili~ osma-
91
leT- saqarTvelos Soris gamavali saxelmwifo sazRvari.
aqedan gamomdinare, osmaleTis mxridan raime kompromisze
wasvla, evropis saxelmwifoebidan mxolod gansakuTrebuli politikuri zewoliT iqneboda SesaZlebeli; 3)ruseTsaqarTvelos saomari moqmedebebi da evropis saxelmwifoebis mxridan mayureblis poziciis daWera, osmaleTs,
mitacebuli teritoriebis SenarCunebis myar garantias
uqmnida. miTumetes, 1921 wlis 22 Tebervlis ultimatumis
Semdeg, saqarTvelo iZulebuli gaxda ardaganisa da arTvinis olqebi ubrZolvelad daeTmo. xazgasmiT unda iTqvas,
rom osmaleTis xelisuflebam, zemoaRniSnuli nabiji mas
Semdeg gadadga, roca qarTuli jaris nawilebma XI armias
gamanadgurebeli dartyma miayena. am fonze osmaleTma, samxreT- dasavleTidan saqarTvelos axali problemebi Seuqmna, xolo sabWoTa ruseTs aqtiuri moqmedebis meti SesaZleblobebi misca. imave dokumenturi masaliT irkveva, rom
n.Jordanias mier 1921 wlis 22 Tebervals ak.Cxenkelisadmi
gamogzavnil depeSaSi dasmuli moTxovna, ak.Cxenkelisgan
Sesrulebuli iqna. amasTan dakavSirebiT parizidan imave
ak.Cxenkelis mier mTavrobis Tavmjdomaris saxelze 1921 wlis
27 Tebervals gagzavnil depeSaSi vkiTxulobT; `mivdivar
londonSi, angoras Sesaxeb... protesti formaluri ganvacxade londonSi. etyoba SeTanxmeba moxda antantas da angoras Soris, am SemTxvevaSi SesaZlebelia gavlenis moxdena
angoraze. dasmulia somxeTis sakiTxi, vecdebi daisvas Cveni
sakiTxic.~ am mimarTulebiT qarTvel diplomatTa mcdelobebi uSedego aRmoCnda. es gakvirvebas ar iwvevs, radgan
im etapze inglisis politikurad gameZavebul xelisuflebas, savaWro- ekonomikuri xelSekrulebis saboloo teqsti
sabWoTa ruseTTan jer kidev 1920 wlis meore naxevarSi
qonda momzadebuli. oqros moxveWiT daxarbebul inglisis
burJuazias, qarTveli eris saxelmwifoebriobis dakargva
Ciris fasadac ar uRirda. zemoaRniSnuli xelSekrulebiT
(oficialurad xeli 1921 wlis 16 marts moewera) inglisma,
amierkavkasia sabWoTa ruseTs gadauloca. mxedvelobaSi maqvs
imave xelSekrulebaSi Cadebuli sagangebo muxli, romliTac kavkasiis saqmeebSi ardainteresebul mxared inglisi
oficialurad acxadebda Tavs. aqedan gamomdinare, inglisisa da misi sateliti qveynebisgan saqarTvelosadmi
92
raime formiT mxardaWeraze fiqri_ iluzias warmoadgenda.
sazRvargareTis qveynebidan dauxmareblobis miuxedavad,
Tbilisis misadgomebTan qarTuli jaris gmirulma brZoleblma da mtris didi danakargiT damarcxebam, qarTuli di plomatiuri korpusis warmomadgenlebs mterze gamarjvebis
rwmena gauormaga. amis dadasturebas parizSi myofi ak.Cxenkelis mier berlinSi lado axmetelisadmi gagzavnili werili warmoadgens. saqarTvelodan miRebuli `ukanaskneli
cnobebi- vkiTxulobT dokumentSi- damamSvidebelia. omi
movigeT, vfiqrobT rom borCalos sakiTxi sabolood gadawydeba Cvenda sasargeblod.~ qarTuli di plomatiis am optimizs ori faqtori ganapirobebda: 1)1921 wlis 22 Tebervlidan 24 Tebervlis CaTvliT, saqarTvelos SeiaraRebul Zalebs
yvela strategiuli daniSnulebis simaRle qonda dakavebuli; 2)sabWoTa xelisuflebis winaaRmdeg ajanyebulma somxurma mosaxleobam, qalaqi erevani aiRo. imavdroulad ajanyeba azerbaijanSi- TauzSi daiwyo. Tuki g.mazniaSvils, a.kvitaiSvils, v.TevzaZes da sxvebs verwmunebiT, XI armiis sardloba ukanasknel Zalebs ikrebda da Tbilisis aRebas maqsimalurad Cqarobda. mis amocanas, jaris nawilebSi omis msvlelobis gaWianrebiT warmoqmnili ukmayofilebis minimumamde dayvana, somxeTsa da azerbaijanSi dawyebuli ajanyebiT,
XI armiisadmi zurgSi Seqmnili mosalodneli safrTxis
gaZlierebisadmi daswreba warmoadgenda. gamouval mdgomareobaSi myofma gekkerma, samxedro xelovnebaSi damkvidrebuli eSmakobis formas mimarTa. mxedvelobaSi maqvs generaluri brZolis imitaciis Seqmnisa da am saqmeSi Jlobas
XII cxenosani diviziis moxerxebulad gamoyenebis faqti.
samxedro dargis specialistebis monacemebiT, g.kvinitaZem
kargad auRo alRo Seqmnil situacias da andronikaSvilis,
mazniaSvilis, jijixias Tavdacvis seqtorebs, 24 Tebervals
meoTxe seqtori_ patara lilodan kus tbamde xazi daumata. samwuxarod, mis xelmZRvanelad polkovniki nikoloz
gedevaniSvili iqna daniSnuli. marTalia, Teoriulad igi
maRal doneze iyo momzadebuli, magram, a.kvitaiSvilis sityvebiT rom vTqvaT, `yovlad uargisi gamodga praqtikul
brZolaSi- did SenaerTTa xelmZRvanelobisaTvis.~ imave a.kvitaiSvilis monacemebiT, polkovnik n.gedevaniSvilisa da
cxenosani jaris brigadis meTauris polkovnik sidamon-
93
erisTavis daudevrobidan gamomdinare, mtris mcireodenma
mxedrobam, patara lilos Tavdacvis xazs Semouara da
mosaxleobaSi panikis Seqmnis mizniT, avWalis rkinigzis
sadguris mimarTulebiT `patara TareSi~ ganaxorciela.
am faqtis siswores, gen. CxeiZisadmi daweril pasuxSi, javSnosani matarebelis meTauri valodia goguaZec adasturebs.
`javSnosani matarebliT avWalisken gaveSure, mtris mcire
gundi garekili iqna, milicia da sadguris mosamsaxureni
Tavis adgilze aRvadgineT.~36 xazgasmiT unda aRiniSnos, rom
saqarTvelos gasabWoebis Semdeg, polkovniki sidamon
erisTavi moskovSi iqna gadayvanili da wlebis ganmavlobaSi kremlSi_ i.stalinis `oxrankaSi~ msaxurobda. rac
Seexeba Tavdacvis meoTxe seqtoris xelmZRvanel polkovnik
n.gedevaniSvils, a.kvitaiSvilis mtkicebiT `alRo verafers
ver auRo da panikiT moculma miatova Tavisi ubani, gaeqana
mTavar StabSi mdgomareobis `asaxsnelad.~ swored am panikurma `axsna- ganmartebam iTamaSa sabediswero roli Tbilisis mitovebaSi.~37 am faqtis siswores polkovniki v.TevzaZec
adasturebs. `polkovnik gedevanisvilis dabrunebam Tebervlis 24- Si, didad dagvafiqra. is dRisiT daniSnuli iqna
frTazed moqmed jarTa ufrosad. misi arasruli SefasebiT
mteri marcxena qveiTTa jarisa da artileriis garRveviT
gvemuqreboda.~38 am monacemebis mixedviT, 24 Tebervals dRisiT
sardlad daniSnuli pirovneba, saRamos StabSi garbis, jarsa da Tavdacvis xazs meTauris gareSe upatronod tovebs
da mis mier mitanili informaciiT, Stabis wevrebSi panikas
qmnis. arada, n.gedevaniSvilis pirvelxarisxovan amocanas,
cxenosani jaris unariani marTva da arsebuli situaciis
Sesatyvisi gadawyvetilebebis drouli miReba warmoadgenda. am SemTxvevaSi, meoTxe seqtoris sardlis movaleobis
nacvlad, n.gedevaniSvilma informatorisadmi dakisrebuli
funqcia Seasrula. panikiT Sezavebuli formiT, mis mier
StabSi mitanili cnobebi gaxda mTavarsardlis mxridan
Tbilisis dasatoveblad gadawyvetilebis miRebis erT- erTi
myari safuZveli. Tuki frontis mowinave xazis centraluri
seqtoris sardalis g.mazniaSvilis memuarebSi motanili
monacemebis mixedviT vimsjelebT, mdgomareoba arcTu sagangaSo iyo. amasTan dakavSirebiT igi garkveviT wers: `frontis mdgomareoba ki 24 Tebervals aseTi iyo: mowinaaRmdegis
94
ieriSebi yvela raionSi mogeriebulni iqnen da darwmunebuli viyavi, rom mTeli dRis brZoliT daqanculi mowinaaRmdege Ramis ieriSebs ar moaxdenda, xolo diliT, radganac
mowinaaRmdege idga mTis gaSlil ferdobze da xevSi, Cveni
kargad mowyobili poziciebis pirispir, iZulebuli gaxdeboda an iaraRi aeyara, an da Tu vinicobaa ukan daixevda, mTlad gawydeboda, legionebis ufrosebTan telefonebiT laparakis dros es Cemi azri TandaTan mtkicdeboda.~ miTumetes, saintendanto da saartilerio sawyobebidan Tavdacvis
uwyebam 24 Tebervals g.mazniaSvilis seqtorSi sanovagisa
da vaznebis didi maragi Seitana. aRniSnuli faqtebi natyuari
informacia rom iyos, igi sxva samxedro maRalCinosnebis
mxridan umkacresi kritikis sagani gaxdeboda. Tumca, g.kvinitaZe, al.zaqariaZe da sxvebi, Tavis marTlebis mizniT, arsebul situacias ise warmosaxaven, TiTqos mdgomareoba katastrofuli iyo da Tbilisis datovebis garda sxva gamosavali ar arsebobda. xazgasmiT minda aRvniSno, rom am sakiTxTan mimarTebaSi, utyuar dokumentur masalaze dayrdnobiT,
samxedro dargis specialistebis mxridan siRrmiseuli samecniero kvleviTi samuSaos Cataereba da Sesabamisi saxeobis
rukebis (dawvrilebiTi monacemebis darTviT) Sedgena pirveli
rigis amocanas warmoadgens. mxedvelobaSi maqvs: a)yvela
sabrZolo operaciis (Tavdacva da Seteva); b)qarTuli jarisa
da mtris samxedro SenaerTebis 1921 wlis 24 Tebervlis
monacemebiT ganlagebis; g)imave sajariso SenaerTebis mier
24 TebervlisTvis dakavebuli punqtebis, simaRleebisa da
xevebis topografiuli saxis dawvrilebiTi rukebis Sedgena; d)somxeTsa da azerbaijanSi dawyebuli ajanyebebis (monawileTa raodenobis garkveva) moqmedebis sivrcis Sesabamisi
rukebis Sedgena. yovelive aRniSnulis erTobliobaSi ganxilva, miudgomeli da safuZvliani sinTezuri analizi SesaZleblobas mogvcems swori daskvna gavakeToT, Tu ramdenad
kanonzomieri iyo general g.kvinitaZis #131- e brZanebis safuZvelze Tbilisis ubrZolvelad datoveba.
samwuxarod, zemoaRniSnuli brZanebis avtorobas zogierTi politikuri moRvawe n.Jordanias abralebs. mxedvelobaSi maqvs r.gabaSvilis memuarebi, sadac vkiTxulobT; `Jordanias `mTavrobis~ brZanebiT Tbilisi unda migvetovebina
da evakuacia xdeboda. amis damadasturebel sabuTad is
95
`kuriozi~ mainc gamodgeba,... rom benia CxikviSvilma... rogorc
`qalaqis Tavma,~ Tu Tbilisis `gubernatorma~ Reneral- gubernatoroba,- daTa vaCnaZes gadasca yvela Tavisi xarisxebi da movaleobani: `Tbiliss upatroneTo~ da TviTon,- baTumSi gadavida Reneral- gubernatorad.~39 im momentSi Tu
ara, memuarebis daweris dros r.gabaSvilma SesaniSnavad
icoda g.kvinitaZis (qveynis mTavarsardali) xelmoweriT
oficialurad gamocemuli zemoaRniSnuli #131- e brZanebis arseboba. XX saukunis 30- ian wlebSi, emigraciaSi myofi
samxedro dargis maRalCinosnebi, presaSi garkveviT werdnen, rom Tbilisis datovebis sakiTxi Tavdacvis sabWos sxdomam gadawyvita da ara piradad n.Jordaniam. amis Sesaxeb
dawvrilebiTaa saubari g.kvinitaZis, al.zaqariaZis, k.imnaZisa
da sxvaTa memuarebSi. vinc am pirovnebaTa mogonebebs gaecnoba darwmundeba, rom Tavdacvis sabWos sxdomaze Tbilisis datovebis sakiTxis dasmis iniciatori g.kvinitaZe iyo.
amis Sesaxeb al.zaqariaZe garkveviT wers: `Tavdacvis sabWos sxdoma gaixsna saRamos Svid saaTze Cems kabinetSi.
mTavarsardalma (g.kvinitaZem S.v.) gaukeTa mas (n.Jordanias
S.v.) dawvrilebiTi moxseneba Seqmnili mdgomareobis Sesaxeb da miawoda... frontebis meTaurTa azri, rom xval gameorebul bolSevikebis ieriSebs isini veRar gauZlebdnen...
mTavarsardali askvnida: xvalidan an brZola alyaSemortymul TbilisSi... anda daxeva mcxeTis poziciebze.~40 aRniSnul faqts g.kvinitaZe Semdegnairad gadmoscems: `saRamos 56 saaTisaTvis mTavrobis Tavmjdomares movaxsene Cemi gadawyvetileba ukandaxevis Sesaxeb. brZolis yvela saSualeba
amovwureT da alyaSi moqceva gvemuqreboda. 9 saaTisaTvis
es brZaneba (saubaria #131- e brZanebaze S.v.) gadaeca jars,
romelsac ukandaxeva Ramis 12 saaTze unda daewyo... Cemi
brZanebis Tanaxmad jars sam kolonad unda daexia ukan.~41
momdevno gverdze igive g.kvinitaZe wers: `Tbilisis datovebis sakiTxi saxelmwifo Tavdacvis sabWos kiserzea, romelmac orjer princi pulad gadawyvita is, anu dedaqalaqis
datoveba brZolis Sewyvetad da qveynis damarcxebad ar
miiCnia... gadawyvetileba drouli iyo. mxolod 25 Tebervlamde SeiZleboda jaris gadarCena.~42
k.imnaZe, romelic Tavdacvis sabWos im sabediswero sxdomas eswreboda, dawvrilebiT aRwers sxdomis mimdinare pro-
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cess. imavdroulad xazgasmiT miuTiTebs, Tu ramdenad uaryofiTi zemoqmedeba moaxdina g.kvinitaZeze Tbilisis dacvis
marcxena seqtoris sardlis gen. jijixias mier satelefono xaziT mowodebulma sasixarulo informaciam_ mtris
sastikad damarcxebis da pirvandeli sawyisi strategiuli
mniSvnelobis poziciebis dakavebis Sesaxeb. rogorc k.imnaZe
wers, Tavdacvis sabWos sxdomisadmi mis mier miwodebulma
am informaciam g.kvinitaZe gansakuTrebiT gaanerviula da
mTavrobis Tavmjdomares gadadgomiT daemuqra. igi `gaeqana
mTavrobis Tavmjdomarisken da ganucxada: `ia otstupaiu!~
es ori sityva iq myofT mexiviT daatyda Tavze... mTavrobis
Tavmjdomarem saTvale moixsna da gaocebuli gamometyvelebiT SeekiTxa mTavarsardals:- rogor, ra moxda... ukan
daxeva aucilebelia?!- diax!... –gesmiT aseTi nabijis pasuxismgebloba da RebulobT am pasuxismgeblobas Tavze?_ diax!...
da Seudga am moulodneli gadawyvetilebis dasabuTebas.~ 43
Cems mier motanili am amonaweridan gamokveTili formiTaa
naCvenebi: a)g.kvinitaZis mxridan Tavdacvis sabWos sxdomaze
Tbilisis datovebis kategoriuli moTxovna; b)gen.jijixias
seqtoridan miRebuli sasixarulo informaciidan gamomdinare misi gansakuTrebuli ganerviuleba. es faqti, gakvirvebas ar iwvevs, radgan: 1)Tavdacvis sabWosadmi SeTavazebuli
misi winadadebis sisworis dasabuTebis myar argumentad,
g.kvinitaZe marjvena seqtorze gen. jijixias warumateblobas iyenebda; 2)imave gen. jijixias mier dRis meore naxevarSi
mtris sastikad damarcxebis da gansakuTrebuli mniSvnelobis strategiuli simaRleebis dakavebis faqtma, g.kvinitaZis debulebebi safuZvlianad Searyia. yovelive es, r.gabaSvilisaTvis cnobili iyo, magram, saqarTvelos mTavrobisa da misi liderebisadmi biologiuri siZulvilis gamo_
tyuilebis gza airCia. samxedro xelovnebis sferoSi daSvebuli Secdomebidan gamomdinare, qarTveli generlebisadmi wasayenebeli braldebebis nusxa, samoqalaqo seqtorSi
gadmoitana, n.Jordaniasa da mTavrobis sxva wevrebs mZivebiviT Camohkida kiserze. misi gansakuTrebuli tendenciuroba
imaSiac vlindeba, rom i.odiSeliZis, g.kvinitaZis, i.gedevaniSvilis, n.gedevaniSvilis da sxva samxedro maRalCinosnebis
mier daSvebul momakvdinebel Secdomebze Segnebulad xuWavs Tvals da sabWoTa ruseTTan damarcxebis ganmapirobebel
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mizezebs, r.gabaSvilis sityvebiT rom vTqvaT mxolod `menSevikur mTavrobaSi~ eZebs. erTi ram dabejiTebiT SeiZleba
iTqvas: g.kvinitaZis mier Cafiqrebuli `manevri~_ TbilisSi
mtris `Semotyueba,~ mcxeTaSi gamagreba da iqedan generaluri brZolis dawyeba, gamanadgurebeli dartymebiT Tbilisis isev ukan dabruneba_ kraxiT damTavrda. es arcaa gasakviri, radgan masSi Semdegi uaryofiTi faqtorebi iyo Cadebuli: 1)qarTvelTa fsiqologiuri ganwyobis argaTvaliswineba, romelic safuZvlad daedo saqarTvelos sajariso SenaerTebis sabrZolo aRmafrenis moulodnelad Caqrobas.
Tbilisis `dakargvam~ qarTuli jaris nawilebze dambladamcemi fsiqologiuri zemoqmedeba moaxdina da uimedobidan
gamomdinare, misi brZolisunarianoba TiTqmis nulamde daiyvana; 2)TbilisSi 25 Tebervals Semosuli bolSevikebi, romlebmac saqarTveloSi sabWoTa xelisuflebis damyareba
oficialurad gamoacxada, saqarTvelos dedaqalaqs advilad
ar Seeleoda. yoveli quCisa da sadarbazos SesanarCuneblad samkvdro- sasicocxlo brZolebs gamarTavda. ukidures
SemTxvevaSi, l.trockis sityvebiT rom vTqvaT, Tbilisis
karebs ise mZlavrad miaxeTqebda, rom Tbilisidan `erTi aguric ki aRar darCeboda.~ amis gakeTeba maT ar gauWirdebodaT, radgan Sesabamisi praqtika maRal doneze qondaT gavlili; 3)Tbilisis muzeumebSi da sxva dawesebulebebSi darCenili erovnuli simdidris, Tundac metnaklebad Rirebulis,
maqsimalurad Tavmoyras da saqarTvelodan dauyovnebliv
gatanas moaxdendnen.
yovelive zemoTqmulidan gamomdinare, Tbilisis isev `dabrunebis~ da XI armiis damarcxebis g.kvinitaZiseuli gegma
qarTul sinamdvilesTan SeusabamobaSi iyo. Cemi azriT, amjerad savsebiT marTali iyo i.odiSeliZe, stambolSi wakiTxul moxsenebaSi (1922 wlis 22 marti) rom ambobda: `mTavari
mizezi Cveni jaris demoralizaciis da yvela frontebis
gaxrwnis iyo daxeva Tbilisidan uecari da gaugebari, rogorc
jarisTvis ise xalxisTvis. dawyebuli avWalidan Cveni jaris
gaxrwnas xels uwyobda pasiuri ukan daxeviTi taqtika axali mTavarsardlisa.~ xazgasmiT minda aRvniSno, rom Seqmnili mdgomareoba, XI armiis sardlobam maqsimalurad gamoiyena da ukandaxeuli qarTuli jaris nawilebs `amosunTqvis~ saSualeba ar misca. meore mxriv, gaTamamebuli formiT
98
sabrZolo moqmedebebi merve, mecxre da mecamete armiebis
Sesabamisma diviziebma gaaZlieres. 25 Tebervals mamisonis
uReltexili gadmolaxa 33- e samTo- msroleli diviziis
38- e brigadam, xolo 28 Tebervals, mterma Trusos uReltexilisa da xeobis dakaveba SeZlo. soWi- soxumis mimarTulebiT aqtiuri moqmedeba daiwyo gen. levandovskis
sardlobiT IX armiis samma qveiTma da erTma cxenosanma
diviziebma, romlebsac generali arTmelaZe Rirseulad umklavdeboda 7 martamde manam, sanam sabrZolo masalebi Semoeleoda.
rac Seexeba Cveni qveynis samxreT- dasavleTel mezobel_
osmaleTs, sabWoTa ruseTis Rirseul mokavSires, saqarTvelos winaaRmdeg saomari moqmedebebis gaaqtiureba daiwyo.
qarTuli andazis ar iyos_ `Sendebodes Seewie, iqceodes
waesie~- s mdgomareobaSi aRmoCnda saqarTvelos pirveli
respublika 1921 wlis 25 Tebervlis Semdeg. somxeTi, azerbaijani, ruseTi da osmaleTi, erTmaneTTan `Sexmatkbilebulni~ moqmedebdnen saqarTvelos saxelmwifoebriobis
winaaRmdeg da TiToeuli maTgani damsaxurebisda mixedviT
qarTvelTa istoriuli sacxovrisidan msuye teritoriul
CamonaWrebs eloda. am mxriv, saerTaSoriso doneze pirveli
gabeduli nabiji sabWoTa ruseTma 1921 wlis 16 marts gadadga. mxedvelobaSi maqvs sabWoTa ruseTsa da osmaleTs Soris
moskovSi xelmowerili `Zmobisa da megobrobis~ xelSekruleba. am dokumentis pirveli muxliT, osmaleTis CrdiloeTis sasazRvro xazi im formiT iqna gatarebuli, rom arTvinis, artaanisa da olTisis okrugebi osmaleTis SemadgenlobaSi moeqca. rac Seexeba imave xelSekrulebis meore
muxls, osmaleTi keTil nebas iCenda da baTumis okrugs
siuzerenitetis uflebiT uTmobda saqarTvelos.44
aRniSnuli xelSekrulebis oficialurad gamoqveynebuli
teqstis mixedviT, saqarTvelo_ osmaleTs Soris gavlebuli sazRvari samarTlebriv CarCoSi rom Camjdariyo, sabWoTa saqarTvelos warmomadgenelis saxeliT, saqarTvelos
sazRvris sakiTxTan dakavSirebiT, Sesabamisi komisiis sxdomis oqmze xeli mixa cxakaiam moawera. zemoaRniSnuli
dokumentis meore muxliT da damatebis I ) nawiliT, osmaleT_ saqarTvelos sazRvari mdinare WoroxTan iqna gavlebuli da baTumis okrugi saqarTvelos sazRvrebSi moaq-
99
cies. aqedan gamomdinare, baTumis okrugSi 9 marts Sesul
osmaleTis jaris nawilebs aRniSnuli teritoria dauyovnebliv unda dacla. amis sanacvlod, baTumSi Sesulma
osmaleTis jarebis sardalma qiazim- beim 17 marts Tavi
qalaqis gubernatorad gamoacxada. am qmedebiT, osmalebma
moskovis 16 martis xelSekrulebis Sesabamisi muxlebi daarRvia. osmalTa mxridan aseTi gaTavxedebuli formiT moqmedeba, misi mokavSire sabWoTa ruseTisadmi da zemoaRniSnuli xelSekrulebisadmi angariSis argaweva, momxdari faqtisadmi sabWoTa ruseTis sagareo saqmeTa saministros mxridan Sesabamisi reagirebis argakeTeba, bevr kiTxviT niSans
aCens. Cemi azriT, masze pasuxis gacemis mxolod nawilobrivi formiT SesaZleblobas, saqarTvelos demokratiuli
respublikisa da gasabWoebuli saqarTvelos warmomadgenlebis (gr.lorTqifaniZe, m.oraxelaSvili, al.svaniZe, ab.enuqiZe)
quTaisis 17 martis molaparakebis stenografiuli angariSi iZleva.
Tuki am dokuments guldasmiT gavecnobiT, iseTi STabeWdileba Seiqmneba, rom gasabWoebuli saqarTvelos warmomadgenlebi (ab.enuqiZe, m.oraxelaSvili, al.svaniZe) winaswar
`dawerili scenariT~ moqmedebdnen. mxedvelobaSi maqvs baTumis okrugis saqarTvelos SemadgenlobaSi darCenisadmi
mxardaWeris sanacvlod, gasabWoebuli saqarTvelos xelisuflebis aRiarebisa da misi legitimaciis mcdeloba. maT kargad esmodaT, rom osmaleTis saokupacio jarebis baTumis
okrugidan gasadevnad, erT- erTi mniSvnelovani roli XI
armiis samxedro SenaerTebs unda Seesrulebina. gasabWoebuli saqarTvelos `mTavrobis~ (revkomis) mesveurebTan SeTanxmebaze, demokratiuli saqarTvelos warmomadgeneli uars
Tu ganacxadebda, qveynis kanonieri xelisuflebis mxridan
baTumis okrugis osmaleTisadmi gadacemis braldebis ideologiur bazas, bolSevikebi advilad Seqmnidnen da warmatebuladac gamoiyenebdnen. es da sxva danarCeni faqtebi, romlis Sesaxebac qvemoT meqneba saubari, saqarTvelos kanonieri xelisuflebis warmomadgenelze zemoqmedebis meqanizmis xelovnurad Seqmnas isaxavda miznid. qarTveli bolSevikebis moqmedeba, osmaleTTan gasaidumloebuli formiT
winaswari garigebis STabeWdilebas tovebda. miTumetes, molaparakebis procesSi, ab.enuqiZem ruseT- osmaleTis xelSek-
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rulebazec gaamaxvila yuradReba da baTumis okrugis saqarTvelos SemadgenlobaSi darCenas sagangebod gausva xazi.
imavdroulad gr.lorTqibaniZes sabWoTa mTavrobis aRiareba mosTxova. analogiur pozicias TavgamodebiT icavda m.oraxelaSvili. misi `mtkicebiT~: 1)erT teritoriaze ori mTavrobis arseboba SeuZlebeli iyo da uzenaesoba erT (sabWoTa)
mTavrobas unda qonoda miniWebuli; 2)sabWoTa mTavrobis
sasargeblod unda gadawyvetiliyo Tu vis daeqvemdebareboda demokratiuli saqarTvelosa da XI armiis sajariso
SenaerTebi; 3)saqarTveloSi saxelisuflebo gadatrialebidan gamomdinare, `Cveni pirveli moTxovnileba aris- ambobda m.oraxelaSvili,- meore mxarem scnos gadatrialeba saqarTveloSi da aRiaros damoukidebeli saqarTvelos socialisturi sabWoTa respublika da misi dRevandeli... revoluciuri komiteti... Tu es ar iqneba miRebuli, rasakvirvelia
sxva detalebis miReba zedmeti iqneba... umTavresi moTxovnileba Cveni platformisa aris cnoba baTumis mTavrobis
(n.Jordanias S.v.) mier saqarTvelos revoluciuri komitetisa da aRiareba saqarTvelos damoukidebeli sabWoTa respublikisa. am sakiTxSi Tu SevTanxmdebiT,... danarCen sakiTxebSi SeTanxmebis niadagi ukve gamorkveuli iqneba da gagviadvilebs saqmes... Tuki dResve iqneba ariarebuli sabWoTa
gadatrialeba saqarTveloSi da am gadatrialebidan gamosuli saqarTvelos revoluciuri komiteti.~
am vrceli amonaweridan kargad Cans, rom baTumis okrugis
saqarTvelos SemadgenlobaSi darCenisaTvis mxardaWeris
sanacvlod, `baTumis xelisuflebisgan~ (n.Jordanias mTavrobisgan S.v.) m.oraxelaSvili TviTlikvidaciis gamocxadebas
moiTxovda, romelic axali xelisuflebis legitimacias
daedeboda safuZvlad; 4)saqarTvelos demokratiuli respublikis mTavrobis mier, misi kontrolirebadi teritoriis Zaldautaneblad `sabWoTa mTavrobisadmi~ gadacema, osmalebis safrTxisgan momdinareobda, magram igi Tavis Tavs
gauqmebulad ar acxadebda. arsebuli realoba ki `mas ukarnaxebs- ambobda m.oraxelaSvili- gadadges da adgili dauTmos meore mTa-vrobas... yovlad SeuZlebelia teritorias
wmindavdes da imavdroulad acxadebdes_ Cven viyaviT da
vrCebiT kanonier mTavrobaTo. es CvenTvis miuRebelia.~ Tu
ratom, am kiTxvaze pasuxs al.svaniZe iZleva. `saqarTvelos
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demokratiuli mTavroba itovebs mudam uflebas da rodesac Sesaferis SemTxvevas i povis Tavs gamoacxadebs mTavrobad.~ am SesaZleblobis SenarCuneba iyo miuRebeli qarTveli bolSevikebisaTvis. maT mizans, saqarTvelos demokratiuli respublikis mTavrobisaTvis samarTlebrivi statusis
CamorTmevis miRweva waroadgenda. am amocanis gadasawyvetad,
baTumis okrugSi osmalo askerebis yofnis gamoyenebas maqsimalurad cdilobdnen.
imave dokumentidan kargad Cans, rom gr.lorTqifaniZem
Rirseuli pasuxi gasca mis oponentebs (m.oraxelaSvili, ab.enuqiZe, al.svaniZe) da dausabuTa: 1)ramdenadac saqarTveloSi
Sinauri gadatrialeba ar ganxorcielebula da saxelisuflebo cvlileba ucxo qveynis samxedro SenaerTebma moaxdina, Zalmomreobaze dafuZnebuli mTavrobis legitimacias,
saqarTvelos demokratiuli respublikis mTavroba ver moaxdenda; 2)saqarTvelos mTavrobas Zalauflebis gadacema sxvisTvis ar SeeZlo, radgan am uflebis wyaros saqarTvelos
damfuZnebeli kreba warmoadgenda, romelic saqarTvelos
mosaxleobis mier iyo arCeuli; 3)saqarTvelos mTavroba
iyo da rCeboda kanonier mTavrobad. igi im etapze mxolod
`axali mTavrobis~ sasargeblod, mis mier kontrolirebad
teritorias Tmobda mxolod im pirobiT, rom XI armiis nawilebi saqarTvelosTvis baTumis okrugis SenarCunebas SeZlebda; 4)ramdenadac saqarTvelos sabWoTa xelisufleba
xalxis mier ar iyo arCeuli, igi fiqtiur saxes atarebda.
rac Seexeba sabWoebs da SemdegSi misi arCevnebis Catarebas,
samomavlo proeqts warmoadgenda. gr.lorTqifaniZis aseTi
poziciis miuxedavad, saqarTvelos teritoriuli mTlianobis SenarCunebis interesebidan gamomdinare, igi xazgasmiT
miuTiTebda: `saqarTvelos demokratiuli respublikis mTavrobam gadawyvita, saqarTvelos teritoriis SesanarCuneblad omis likvidacia moaxdinos. xeli Seuwyos da yovelgvari saSualeba ixmaros, rom baTumis okrugi darCes saqarTvelos sazRvrebSi da es teritoria gadaeces im xelisuflebas, romelic dRes aq aris warmodgenili.~ imave dokumentidan irkveva, rom m.oraxelaSvili da sxdomis sxva wevrebi,
iZulebulni gaxdnen, gr.lorTqifaniZis winadadebas daTanxmebo d nen. mi T u met es, baT u mi s o kr u gSi qi az i m- bei sa d a o smal o asker ebi s T ar eSi s f aqt i s , gasabWo ebu l i saqar T vel o s
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revkomis salegitimaciod gamoyenebis maTi mcdeloba- uSedego aRmoCnda. am SemTxvevaSi gadamwyveti roli gr.lorTqifaniZis saRma azrovnebam da logikuri msjelobis maRalma
donem Seasrula. am faqtorma, sabWoTa xelisuflebis mesveurebi iZulebuli gaxada, mis mier SeTavazebul winadadebebs daTanxmebodnen. 18 marts xelmowerili 17 punqtiani SeTanxmebis_ pirvelidan meeqvse muxlis CaTvliT, sabWoTa xelisuflebas baTumis okrugis teritoriis gakontrolebis, xolo XI armiis nawilebs Tavisuflad gadaadgilebisa da baTumSi uproblemod Sesvlis ufleba mieca. marTalia, am dokumentis VI punqti orive mxaris sajariso SenaerTebis osmalo askerebis winaaRmdeg erTobliv moqmedebas iTvaliswinebda, magram, igi sabWoTa xelisuflebis mesveurTa mxridan Seusrulebeli darCa. amas garkveuli ganmapirobebeli
mizezebi qonda. am mimarTulebiT srulfasovani pasuxis
gacema mxolod mas Semdeg gaxdeba SesaZlebeli, roca gavarkvevT, baTumis okrugi damoukidebeli saqarTvelos xelisuflebam gadasca osmaleTs Tu, am sakiTxiT sabWoTa ruseTi
mani pulirebda da ruseT- osmaleTs Soris Sesabamisi winaswari garigebebi arsebobda. am sakiTxs pirvelad yuradReba prof. l.ToiZem miaqcia. man savsebiT kanonzomierad dasva kiTxva, Tu riT iyo ganpirobebuli osmaleTis xelisuflebis mxridan moskovis 1921 wlis 16 martis xelSekrulebis pirveli da meore muxlebis, damatebiTi pirveli ) punqtis darRveva. amasTan dakavSirebiT mis mier gamoTqmuli
iqna mosazreba, imis Sesaxeb, rom Tuki osmaleTi baTumis okrugSi sabWoTa ruseTs jaris Seyvanas daaswrebda, mis winaaRmdeg ruseTi iaraRs ar gamoiyenebda da amaSi qiazim- bei daimedebuli iyo. am mosazrebis sasargeblo argumentad, ruseTosmaleTis mokavSireoba da saberZneTis winaaRmdeg osmaleTisadmi sabWoTa ruseTis daxmareba daasaxela.45 varaudis doneze gamoTqva axali mosazreba imis Sesaxeb, rom demokratiuli saqarTvelos mTavrobam, TiTqos winaswari garigebiT baTumis okrugSi osmalebi mdinare Coloqamde SemouSva. am SemTxvevaSi l.ToiZe saqarTvelos demokratiuli
respublikis erT erTi yofili moxelis, baTumis cixis yofili komendantis i.furcelaZis mogonebebs eyrdnoba, romlis
nawyveti v.nozaZis wignSia dabeWdili.46 TiTqmis analogiuri
pozicia uWiravs g.mazniaSvilsac. misi TqmiT, `qiazim- beis
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tkbili zRaprebiT~ gabruebulma saqarTvelos xelisuflebam `dauTmo osmaleTs... jer axalcixis mazris nawili da
mTeli ardaganisa da arTvinis olqebi.~47
xazgasmiT minda aRvniSno: 1)am sakiTxTan mimarTebaSi i.furcelaZisa da g.mazniaSvilis mogonebebi, XX saukunis 20_
30- iani wlebis monakveTSi daiwera da im periodis sabWoTa
ideologiiT gaTvaliswinebul moTxovnebs pasuxobs. es araa
gasakviri imdenad, ramdenadac orive pirovneba, saqarTvelos
gasabWoebis Semdeg, garkveuli mosazrebebidan gamomdinare,
sabWoTa jarSi sapasuxismgeblo Tanamdebobebze muSaobda.
maTi pozicia garegnulad sabWoTa ideologiiT gaTvaliswinebul propagandas unda damTxveoda. amis aucileblobas
im etapze saqarTveloSi mimdinare politikuri procesebi
moiTxovda. rac Seexeba ardaganisa da arTvinis okrugebis
osmaleTisaTvis `daTmobas,~ es nabiji qiazim- beis `tkbili
zRaprebiT~ ki ar iyo ganpirobebuli, aramed, rogorc zemoTac mqonda aRniSnuli iZulebidan gamomdinareobda da amis
Sesaxeb Sesabamisi dokumenturi masalac arsebobs; 2)saqarTvelos pirveli respublikis mTavrobis mxridan baTumis okrugis osmaleTisadmi `daTmobis~ dabralebis ideologiuri
safexuris Semqmneli f.maxaraZea. mis mier gazeT `komunistSi~ 1921 wlis 26 marts gamoqveynebulma werilma_ `risTvis
gaiqcnen?~ zemoaRniSnuli yalbi Sexedulebis damkvidrebas
daudo saTave. `Jordania- ramiSvilis yofilma mTavrobamwers igi- ukanasknel Jams osmaleTis askerebs gauRo baTumis karebi; magram rogorc viciT aqac maTi Ralati droze
iqna gamoaSkaravebuli da dauyovneblivi zomebis miRebiT
misi Sedegi gabaTilebuli iqna... gaqceuli yofili mTavrobis Savi ganzraxva aSkaraa. aSkaraa isic Tu ra bedi ewia
imaT moRalatur, danaSaulebriv avanturas.~
saqarTvelos pirveli respublikis mTavrobis f.maxaraZiseuli es daxasiaTeba, gasabWoebuli saqarTvelos mmarTveli wreebis ideologiis erT- erT dasayrden nawilad iqca.
isic faqtia, rom sabWouri istoriografia mis ganvrcobasa
da dakanonebas cdilobda. i.furcelaZisa da g.mazniaSvilis
mogonebebis didi nawili, Sesabamisi uwyebis zemoqmedebidan
gamomdinare, am ideologiuri CarCos moTxovnebis SesabamisobaSia moyvanili. winaaRmdeg SemTxvevaSi g.mazniaSvili
nebiT namdvilad ar dawerda: `Tu mTavrobis wevrebi mar-
104
Talni iyvnen, ratom ar unda darCeniliyvnen CvenTan da
ratom ar unda gaeziarebinaT CvenTan erTad damarcxebulTa bedi?~48 damoukidebeli saqarTvelos mTavrobis wevrebi
s.orjonikiZes da sabWour `Cekas~ xelSi rom Cavardnoda,
advili warmosadgenia ra yofaSi aRmoCndeboda isini. miTumetes, rogorc zemoTac mqonda miTiTebuli, bolSevikebis
mizans, saqarTvelos kanonieri xelisuflebisgan kapitulaciis oficialurad aRiarebis miRweva warmoadgenda. am SemTxvevaSi qarTveli bolSevikebi saqarTvelos kompartiis centraluri komitetis 1921 wlis 12 martis dadgenilebiT moqmedebdnen. am dokumentis mixedviT, `menSevikebi~ da sxva
politikuri partiebi Tuki oficialurad aRiarebdnen gasabWoebuli saqarTvelos mTavrobas, maTi warmomadgenelebi
revkomisa da saxelmwifo xelisuflebis umaRlesi organoebis SemadgenlobaSi iqneboda daSvebuli. aRniSnuli dadgenilebis sajarod gaxmovaneba or ZiriTad datvirTvas
atarebda: 1)qarTveli bolSevikebis marionetul xelisuflebas, saqarTvelos pirveli respublikis mmarTveli politikuri partiis liderebis ZiriTadi nawilis satyuar ankesze
wamogeba hqondaT miznad dasaxuli. Tuki saqarTveloSi maT
darCenas SeZlebdnen, sabWouri wamebis araadamianuri meTodebis gamoyenebiT, revkomTa xelisuflebis oficialurad
aRiareba da `samarTlebriv CarCoSi~ moqceva advilad gaxdeboda SesaZlebeli; 2)saqarTvelos pirveli respublikis damarcxebuli mmarTveli politikuri Zalis mimarT, adgilobriv mosaxleobaSi undoblobis elementebis Setanis paralelurad, axali xelisuflebis `kompromisuli~ da `humanuri~
politikuri kursi, garkveuli formiT ideologiurad wina
planze unda yofiliyo wamoweuli.
rac Seexeba baTumis okrugis osmaleTisadmi `nebayoflobiT~ daTmobas, amis Sesaxeb zemoaRniSnul pirovnebaTa mogonebebis garda, braldebis damadasturebeli saarqivo dokumenti jerjerobiT arcerT mkvlevars ar warmoudgenia. arc
imis analizi gaukeTebiaT, ramdenad iyo SesaZlebeli, qiazim
_beisTan sityvieri SeTanxmebis safuZvelze, saqarTvelos
teritoriis osmaleTisadmi samarTlebrivad gadacema. aseTi sakiTxebis qiazim- beis doneze gadawyveta SeuZlebeli
iyo. misi ganxorcieleba mxolod ori saxelmwifos mTavrobaTa meTaurebis an sagareo saqmeTa ministrebis oficialu-
105
rad xelmowerili dokumentiT unda momxdariyo, sadac orive
mxaris garkveuli valdebulebebi da masTan SesabamisobaSi
moyvanili pirobebi iqneboda warmodgenili. sanam mkvlevarTa mxridan saxelmwifoebriv doneze Seqmnili aseTi
saxis saarqivo dokumenti ar iqneba mikvleuli, sabWoTa
ideologiis wnexis qveS moqceuli generlebisa da oficrebis memuarebze dayrdnobiT qveynis teritoriis gasxvisebaSi saqarTvelos pirveli respublikis mTavrobis dadanaSauleba, f.maxaraZiseuli gzis gagrZelebad da istoriis
falsifikaciis morig mcdelobad unda CaiTvalos. miTumetes, am gzis mimdevarTa mxridan dRemde pasuxgaucemeli
rCeba: 1)Tuki saqarTvelos pirveli respublikis mTavrobam
baTumis okrugi osmaleTs gadasca, maSin ra mizans emsaxureboda saqarTvelos mTavrobis Tavmjdomaris n.Jordanias
1921 wlis 16 martis brZaneba_ qalaqis TviTmmarTvelobisadmi baTumis xelisuflebis gadacemis, cixidan 1000 bolSeviki patimrisa da maTi meTaurebis ganTavisufleba, baTumis okrugis komisaris g.giorgaZisadmi davalebis micema_
bolSevikebTan molaparakebis gamarTvisa da okrugis masStabiT maTi mxridan Zalauflebis dauyovnebliv xelSi aRebis Sesaxeb?; 2)ramdenad sandoa patimrobidan 17 marts ganTavisuflebuli T.JRentis mier g.mazniaSvilisadmi miwodebuli informacia_ `gaqceuli mTavrobis nebarTviT, ramdenime dRis winaT, baTumSi Semovidnen osmalebis jarebi.~
saidan icoda T.JRentma, osmalebi baTumSi 9 marts `nebarTviT~ Semovidnen Tu unebarTvod? igi 17 martamde xom cixeSi ijda da `gare samyarosTan~ naklebi urTierToba qonda?; 3)saqarTvelos kanonier xelisuflebas baTumis okrugi da TviT baTumi osmaleTisTvis rom gadaeca, sabWoTa
xelisuflebis maRalCinosnebis (m.oraxelaSvili, S.eliava,
ab.enuqiZe) winaSe, baTumis okrugis saqarTvelos SemadgenlobaSi darCenis kategoriuli formiT dayenebas gr.lorTqifniZe namdvilad ver SeZlebda. miTumetes, saqarTvelos revkomis mesveurni, momxdar faqts quTaisis 17 martis molaparakebaze sagangebo msjelobis sagnad gaxdida
da gr.lorTqifaniZis winaaRmdeg warmatebulad gamoiyenebda. imave sxdomis stenografiul CanawerebSi dadasturebulia, rom qiazim- beis da osmalo askerebis mxridan baTumis okrugis da TviT baTumis dakaveba, sxdomis Tavmjdo-
106
marem ab.enuqiZem ki ar dagmo, aramed mis gamarTlebas Seecada
da Tavisi poziciis dasasabuTebel ZiriTad argumentad,
antantis qveynebidan baTumTan mimarTebaSi mosalodneli
safrTxe daasaxela. amasTan dakavSirebiT imave doku-mentSi vkiTxulobT: `osmaleTis jarebis ufross –ganacxada
ab.enuqiZem_ sxvadasxva pirobebi... ukarnaxebs imas, rom isargeblos imiT, rom antanta mudmivi da dauZinebeli mteria
ruseTisa. isargebla ZaliT, rom baTumi daisakuTros.~ am
amonaweridan kargad Cans, rom baTumis okrugis osmaleTis
mxridan dakaveba, antantis saxelmwifoebisgan ruseTisadmi dauZinebeli mtrobis motivaciiT da Zalismieri meTodis gamoyenebiT ganxorcielda; 4)Cems mier arqivsacavebSi
mikvleul dokumentur masalebSi garkveuli formiTaa warmodgenili arTvin- ardaganis okrugebidan qarTuli jaris
gamoyvanis ganmapirobebeli iZulebiTi garemoebebi. imave
dokumentebSi safuZvliani SiSia gamoTqmuli im mosalodneli safrTxeebis Sesaxeb, romelic osmalebis mxridan
axalcixis mazrasa da baTumis okrugs emuqreboda. am sakiTxTan dakavSirebiT, n.Jordanias mier parizSi myofi ak.Cxenkelisadmi 1921 wlis 22 Tebervals gagzavnil depeSaSi
vkiTxulobT: `dRes ocdaor Tebervals miviReT angoris
mTavrobisgan nota, romliTac gvacnobeben, rom xval ocdasami Tebervlidan iWeren ardaganisa da arTvinis olqebs.
Cven exla winaaRmdegobas ver gavuwevT. faqtiuraT SemouSvebT, xolo xels ar movuwyobT. gveSinia baTumi da axalcixe ar daikavon. waradgineT dasabuTebuli protesti
londonis konferenciis winaSe.~ ardaganisa da arTvinis
okrugebSi osmalebis `SemoSveba~ rogorc aRniSnuli mqonda,
samxreTis frontis argaxsniT da saomari moqmedebebisadmi Tavis aridebiT, baTumis okrugisa da axalcixis mazris
gadarCenis mizniT iyo ganpirobebuli. meore mxriv, es imisTvisac gakeTda, rom 22 Tebervals qarTulma SeiaraRebulma
Zalebma brwyinvale gamarjveba moi pova XI armiis sajariso SenaerTebze da qarTuli jaris sardloba 23_ 24 Tebervals XI armiisgan generaluri Setevis dawyebas elodeboda. am umZimes situaciaSi, osmaleTis mxridan axali frontis oficialurad gaxsna qarTuli jarisaTvis momakvdinebeli dartyma iqneboda. im SemTxvevaSi, Tuki saqarTvelos
mTavrobis mier gadadgmul am nabijs Cemi kolegebi dai-
107
wuneben, keTili inebon da daasabuTon, rom evropisgan mitovebuli da TiTqmis uiaraRod darCenili saqarTvelo,
oTxi saxelmwifos (ruseTi, somxeTi, azerbaijani, osmaleTi) winaaRmdeg brZolas gaumklavdeboda.
saarqivo masalebidan irkveva, rom saqarTvelos xelisuflebis mesveurni, osmaleTisgan zemoaRniSnuli okrugebis
(ardagani, arTvini) mitacebas ar egueboda da xelsayreli
politikuri situaciis SeqmnisTanave, misi dabrunebis sakiTxis dauyovnebliv dasmas axdenda. amis dadasturebas
saqarTvelos mTavrobis Tavjdomarisadmi ak.Cxenkelis mier
1921 wlis 12 marts parizidan gamogzavnili daSifruli
depeSa warmoadgens. `SeTanxmeba angorasa da antantas Soris
miRweulia, mxolod saboloo ar aris. amitom, aqtiuri gamosvla angoras CvenTan, jer uimedoa. didi Secdoma iqneboda dauTmoT angoras Tugind artaani, manam, sanam saerTo
SeTanxmeba ar moxdeba Cveni angorasTan- artaanis monawileobiT. Cveni safuZveli unda darCes ruseT- osmaleTis
1914 wlis sazRvrebi.~ aq garkveviTaa naTqvami, Tu ra CarCoSi unda moqceuliyo saqarTvelos teritoria. im SemTxvevaSi, Tuki artaanis sakiTxi daismeboda dRis wesrigSi, misi
bedi artaanis politikur elitasTan erToblivi SeTanxmebis safuZvelze unda gadawyvetiliyo.
osmaleTis saokupacio qmedebasTan qarTuli mxaris Seurigeblobas da am saqmeSi safrangeTis xelisuflebis aqtiurad Carevis mcdelobebze miuTiTebs k.sabaxtaraSvilis mier
1921 wlis 13 marts ak.Cxenkelisadmi parizSi gagzavnili
depeSa. `dRes SevaliesTan erTad Cavedi konstantinopolSi,
Cveni jaris xazia Sorapani, rioni, zugdidi. mTavroba baTumSia. cxra marts qemalis jarebi baTumSi Semovida. vcdilobT Tu saWiro iqneba brZola gavagrZeloT baTumis
olqSiac, risTvisac saWiroa qemalistebma xeli ar SegviSalon. unda vecadoT qemalistebis mier samxedro okupaciiT dakavebul Cvens olqebSi SevinarCunoT Cveni suverenoba safrangeTis mandatiT. amis Sesaxeb dRes meqneba laparaki general pelesTan. vimedovneb, pelec da Sevaliec mxars
damiWeren da saTanado depeSasac gavugzavni safrangeTis
mTavrobas.~ am dokumentis mixedviT, baTumSi osmalTa jarebis Sesvla, saqarTvelos mTavrobis `mi patiJebiT~ rom momxdariyo, sagareo saqmeTa ministris moadgile k.sabaxtaraSvili
108
sityva Semovidas nacvlad, SemoviyvaneT- dawerda. da rac
mTavaria, osmalebis jaris mier dakavebul saqarTvelos
kuTvnil okrugebs_ okupirebulad ar gamoacxadebda. rac
Seexeba osmalo askerebis qmedebisadmi im etapze dumiliT
Sexvedras, igi iZulebiTi faqtorebiT_ meore frontis argaxsniT da XI armiis nawilebTan meomari qarTuli jaris
qvedanayofebis ardanakuwebiT iyo ganpirobebuli. aRniSnul dokumentSi es garkveviTaa miTiTebuli.
baTumis okrugSi osmaleTis jarebis `mipatiJeba~ saqarTvelos mTavrobas rom moexdina, es faqti osmaleTis armiis
yofili sardlis vexib- faSasTvisac da berlinSi saqarTvelos diplomatiuri warmomadgenelis lado axmetelisTvisac
cnobili iqneboda. am formiT sakiTxis dasma imiT aris
ganpirobebuli, rom Cems mier arqivebSi mikvleuli dokumentis mixedviT, poloneTSi saqarTvelos di plomatiuri misiis mrCeveli da imJamad berlinSi myofi vl.baqraZe, lado
axmetelis TxovniT, 1921 wlis 16 marts, saRamos 5 saaTze
valter bernSteinis binaSi vexib- faSas Sexvda. rogorc
moxsenebis teqstidan irkveva, saubari ZiriTadad saqarTvelos mdgomareobas Seexo. imave dokumentis mixedviT, `vexibfaSam ilaparaka kidev RimiliT `patara Secdomebze~ romlebic viTom dauSva saqarTvelos mTavrobam. am Secdomebis
Sedegia sxvaTa Soris vexib- faSas azriT is mdgomareoba,
romelSidac Cavarda exla saqarTvelo. yovel SemTxvevaSi
saqmis gamosworeba kidev SeiZleba... me mivdivar ramdenime
dRis Semdeg romSi, sadac Sevxvdebi Cvens (angoras) delegacias, londonidan angoraSi mimavals. me SemiZlia wagiyvanoT Tqven da SexvdeT Cvens delegacias. saqarTvelosTvis,
sTqva man, aris exla erTaderTi gamosavali, Tavis nebiT
xeli aiRos baTumze da baTumis olqze da dakmayofildes
im teritoriis farglebSi romelic mas ekuTvnis mis mier
dadebul (?!) xelSekrulebis (albad baTumis 1918 wlis 4
ivnisis, romlis ratifikacia saqarTvelos parlamentma ar
moaxdina S.v.) ZaliT. maSin Cvens Soris megobruli kavSiri
damyardeba da Cven dagexmarebiT. Tu jerjerobiT aSkarad
ara, farulad mainc bolSevikebTan brZolaSi. Semdeg daiwyo mtkiceba, Cven bolSevikebi ar varT, bolSevikebi mxolod
droebiT mokavSireni arian Cveni da bolomdis maTTan siaruli ar Sedis... Cvens gegmaSi. bolSevikuri `sistema~_ Rimi-
109
liT da ironiuli kiloTi Tqva man, _CvenTvis sruliad miuRebelia. Cveni gzebi male erTmaneTs daSordeba.~ am vrceli amonaweridan kargad Cans baTumis okrugisadmi vexibfaSas damokidebuleba. Tuki saqarTvelos xelisuflebam
baTumis okrugi osmalebs 9 marts nebayoflobiT marTlac
gadasca, maSin raSi dasWirda imave vexib- faSas `momxdari
faqtidan~ erTi kviris Semdeg baTumis okrugis osmaleTisadmi gadacemis aucileblobis xelmeored dasma. xolo
am operaciis osmaleTis sasargeblod warmatebiT gadawyvetis SemTxvevaSi, saqarTvelos xvalindeli dRis `ukeTesobisken~ Semobrunebis, saqarTvelo- osmaleTis megobruli urTierTobis SesaZlo gaRrmavebis da bolSevikuri
ruseTis winaaRmdeg brZolaSi daxmarebis dapirebebis mani pulireba?
rac Seexeba TviT qiazim- beis, igi saqarTvelos garSemo
Seqmnili umZimesi politikuri situaciiT sargeblobda da
zRvars gadacilebul TviTnebur qmedebebs eweoda. amis erTerT saukeTeso nimuSs, mis mier 1921 wlis 17 marts qalaq
baTumSi gavrcelebuli proklamacia warmoadgens. `ukanasknel dros_ vkiTxulobT dokumentSi,_ saqarTvelos
mTavrobis TanxmobiT, baTumis mxare da axalqalaqisa da
axalcixis olqebi Cveni jarebis mier iqmnen dakavebuli.
osmaleTis didi erovnuli krebis mTavrobis dadgenilebiT,
romelic emyareba sxva da sxva drois xelSekrulebebiT
mravaljer dadasturebul erovnul uflebebs, es mxareebi
dReidan brundebian samSoblos sazRvrebSi da politikuradac, da administraciuladac eqvemdebarebian osmalur erovnul mTavrobas.~49 am amonaweridan kargad Cans osmaleTis
miznebi da amocanebi saqarTvelosTan mimarTebaSi, magram am
proklamaciis paralelurad qiazim- beim ratom ar gamoaCina is `Tanxmobis~ dokumenti, romelic saqarTvelos mTavrobam
viTom rom misca osmaleTis warmomadgenels? mkiTxvels
Sevaxseneb n.Jordanias 22 Tebervlis depeSis erT monakveTs:
`gveSinia baTumi da axalcixe ar daikavon~ osmalebma. xazgasmiT minda aRvniSno, rom qiazim- beis, saqarTvelos xelisuflebis mxridan baTumis okrugis da TviT qalaq baTumis, axalqalaqisa da axalcixis osmaleTisadmi gadacemis,
an osmaleTis jaris Semoyvanis `Tanxmobis~ raime xelCasaWidi sabuTi rom qonoda, yovelgvari moridebis gareSe, ba-
110
Tumis revkomis Tavmjdomares da imave revkomis wevrebs
aufrialebda da Tavis pretenziasac samarTlebrivad dasbuTebul formas miscemda. imavdroulad, osmaleTis parlamentisgan 1920 wlis 28 ianvars miRebuli `erovnuli paqtis~
meore muxlis (romlis mixedviTac osmaleTis sazRvari
mdinare Coloqze gadis)- saerTaSoriso samarTlis safuZvelze amoqmedebis sakiTxsac daayenebda.
osmalo okupantebis TavaSvebuli qmedebebisadmi saqarTvelos mTavrobam Tu ra damokidebuleba gamoavlina, es kargad Cans e.gegeWkoris 1921 wlis 23 martiT daTariRebuli
depeSiT. `ukanasknel dReebSi osmalebi iseT zomebs iRebdnen- vkiTxulobT dokumentSi,- rom SeuZlebeli Seiqmna omis
gagrZeleba. 17 marts qiazim- beim Tavisi Tavi gamoacxada
baTumis general- gubernatorad, baTumis olqis aneqsiiT
SeerTebulad. mTavrobas winadadeba misca jarisTvis iaraRi agveyara da mTavroba wasuliyo. mTavroba iZulebuli
gaxda ultimatumi uareyo. moexsna fronti da Seewyvita
winaaRmdegoba bolSevikebisaTvis.~ am dokumentis mixedviT
Tuki vimsjelebT, quTaisis molaparakeba, bolSevikebTan
Sesabamisi SeTanxmebis gaformeba da XI armiisaTvis baTumis mimarTulebiT gzis gaxsna, romlis Sesaxeb zemoTac
mqonda saubari, mxolod da mxolod baTumis okrugis dakargvis safrTxiT iyo ganpirobebuli da ara bolSevikebisadmi simpaTiiT.
4)prof. l.ToiZem gansakuTrebuli yuradReba 1921 wlis 16
martis moskovis xelSekrulebis pirveli, meore muxlebisa
da damatebis pirveli ) punqtis osmaleTis mxridan Seusruleblobas, ruseT- osmaleTis sajariso SenaerTebisgan
baTumis dakavebisTvis daswrebis gamoyenebis da mxareebis
faqtis winaSe dayenebis mcdelobas miaqcia.50 Tu riT iyo
ganpirobebuli maTi mxridan `maraTonuli siswrafiT~ baTumSi Sesvlis survili, amis Sesaxeb uaRresad angariSgasawevi faqtia motanili Salva maRlakeliZis mogonebebSi. masSi dawvrilebiTaa saubari xaSuri- borjomi- axalcixis gziT, goderZis uReltexiliT baTumisken wamosuli
Jlobas cxenosani diviziisadmi dakisrebuli amocanis Sesaxeb. imave S.maRlakeliZis mtkicebiT, moskovis konferenciis
gaxsnamde (1921 wlis 9 marti), osmalo askerebisaTvis baTumSi Sesvla Jlobas unda daeswro. amasTn dakavSirebiT mis
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memuarebSi vkiTxulobT: `Jloba ver gadmovida goderZis
uReltexilze, didi Tovli ido. amdenad Wkviani iyo lenini. baTumi rom ar dakargoda Jlobas miando_ xaSurs rogorc
miaRwevdnen, borjomis gziT axalcixeSi unda gaWriliyo,
gasuliyo goderZis uReltexilze da pirveli Casuliyo
baTumSi, imitom rom xelSekruleba aqvs lenins TurqeTTan
saqarTvelos gayofaze,- romel teritoriasac daikavebs
TurqeTi, misi iqneba da Jlobas miando, rom daaswros Turqebs,
magram didi Tovloba iyo da ver gadmovida, Turqebma daaswres da baTumi daikaves. amitomac dResac `seatos~ da
`sentos~ organizacia baTums xmelTaSuazRvis paqtiT TurqeTisad Tvlis, magram bolSevikebma es sakiTxi gadaitanes
ise, rom menSevikebi gadmovidnen Cvens mxarezeo. tyuili!
menSevikebma baTumi rom wagvarTveso.~ v.rcxilaZis SekiTxvaze_ `marTla xom qarTulma jarma gandevna Turqebi?~
S.maRlakeliZem upasuxa: `diax, menSevikebma gandevnes da marTali arian Turqebi. Cven menSevikebma gagvdevna, Tqvenma mtrebmao da Cven SeTanxmebuli viyaviT: romelsac Cven davikavebT,
Cven gvrCebao da romelsac Tqven daikavebT is Tqven grCebaTo. pirdapir weria saidumlo molaparakebaSi leninsa
da aTa- Turqs Soris, rom `vse zemli v rezultate vaini,
kotorie budut zaniati libo Castiami tureckimi, libo
sovetskimi, im prenadleJat eti samie zemli...~ Jloba meubneba: `mi svami oba pogibli!~ ratom- Tqo_ SevekiTxe, `nikogda ne prastit mne etovo!~ e.i. baTumi ver davikaveo. `glavnoe, papaSa ne prastit.~ papaSao e.i. leninio. oriveni isev
movbrundiT ukan baTumSi, sastumroSi. Jlobasgan gavige me,
rom ruseTsa da TurqeTs daunawilebiaT Turme saqarTvelo. e.i. saidumlo samxedro SeTanxmeba yofila ruseTsa da
TurqeTs Soris, ingliselebis dasturiT.~51
im SemTxvevaSi, Tuki zogierTi Cemi kolega f.maxaraZis zemoaRniSnul sagazeTo statiaSi, g.mazniaSvilisa da i.furcelaZis memuarebSi motanil faqtebs ucxadebs ndobas, analogiuri damokidebuleba ratom ar unda gamoviCinoT general S.maRlakeliZesTan mimarTebaSi? miTumetes, mis mier
mowodebuli informacia, sabWoTa xelisuflebis samxedro
maRalCinosanTa korpusis gamoCenili warmomadgenelisgancxenosani diviziis sardlisgan qonda miRebuli. S.maRlakeliZis zemoaRniSnuli informaciis namdvilobis mxardaW-
112
eraze metyvelebs l.ToiZis mier motanili faqtebi: 1)go-derZis uReltexilze Jlobas winsvlis SesaCereblad qiazim- beis mier daqiravebuli xalxisgan gavrcelebuli natyuari informacia, TiTqos baTumi inglis- safrangeTis jars
da sazRvao flots qonda dakavebuli da rusis jars baTumSi xafangs umzadebdnen.52 am faqtma da didTovlobam,
Jlobaze garkveuli zemoqmedeba moaxdina da goderZis uReltexilze gadasvla droebiT gadaafiqrebina; 2)roca sergo orjonikiZes acnobes Jlobas gadawyvetileba, ganrisxebulma `sergo orjonikiZem maSinve aparatTan moixmo cxenosani armiis samxedro komisari, romelsac ubrZana, brZanebis SeusruleblobisaTvis daepatimrebina Jloba da piradad gaZRoloda armias win baTumisaken. es brZaneba Jlobamac moismina. daSinebuli, TviTon wauZRva armias, didi Tovlis gadalaxvis SeuZleblobis Sesaxeb krintic ar dauZravs
da uReltexilic warmatebiT gadalaxa,~53 magram dagvianebiT.
osmalebi 9 martidan ukve baTumSi iyo Sesuli. S.maRlakeliZis mier motanili zemoaRniSnuli `daswrebis~ faqtis sasargeblod metyvelebs v.leninis mier g.CiCerinisadmi gagzavnili werili: `amx. CiCerin! metad SeSfoTebuli varT, rom
Turqebi aWianureben baTumis Sesaxeb SeTanxmebis xelmoweras, dros igeben, sanam maTi jarebi baTumisken midian. aseTi
gaWinurebis saSualeba ar unda mivceT...~ moskovis 16 martis ruseT- osmaleTis xelSekrulebis samxedro saidumlo
nawilSi `daswrebis~ muxlis arseboba rom ara, osmalebi
baTumisken winaswar jaris gadaadgilebas da xelsayreli
`sastarto poziciebis~ daWeras ar moaxdendnen. miTumetes,
rogorc aRniSnuli mqonda, am dokumentis ZiriTadi teqsti
orive mxarisTvis Sesabamisi damatebiTi muxlebiT 1920 wlis
dekembridan cnobili iyo. miuxedavad imisa, rom xelSekrulebis meore muxliT, baTumis okrugi saqarTvelos rCeboda, baTumSi myofma osmalebma, wiTeli armiis 33- e diviziis 292- e polkis qalaqSi SeSvebaze 17 marts uari ganacxada. maTi es qmedeba winaswar gaTvlil ideologiur samzadiss efuZneboda. mxedvelobaSi maqvs osmaleTis Sesabamisi
uwyebis mesveurTa mxridan, evropis qveynebis liderebisa
da imave qveynebSi myofi saqarTvelos elCebis darwmunebis
mcdeloba_ baTumi da misi okrugi saqarTvelos kanonierma
xelisuflebam TiTqos osmaleTs gadasca. am mimarTulebiT
113
gaweuli propagandistuli saqmianobiT iseTi foni Seqmnes,
rom osmaleTis mier baTumis dakavebas, ruseT_ osmaleTis
saidumlo garigeba ki ara, saqarTvelos xelisuflebisgan
osmalebis `mi patiJeba~ edo safuZvlad. amis erT- erT dadasturebad, inglisSi myofi saqarTvelos elCis ak.Cxenkelisa
da lord kerzonis Sexvedra_ saubris stenografiuli angariSi warmoadgens. am dokumentis mixedviT, lord kerzons ak.CxenkelisaTvis uTqvams: `rogorc gavige, saqarTvelos
mTavrobam TviTon moiwvia osmalebi baTumSi... Cveni cnobebi
da sami- beis naTqvami eTanxmeba erTmaneTs imaSi, rom saqarTvelos mTavrobam moiwvia osmalebi.~ amasTan dakavSirebiT, saqarTvelos mTavrobis Tavmjdomarisgan oficialurad adre
gamogzavnil dokumentze dayrdnobiT, ak.Cxenkelma, lord
kerzons dasabuTebuli formiT upasuxa: `ara, me macnoba mTavrobis Tavmjdomarem, rom osmalebi Cvens nebadaurTvelad
Semovidnen jer artaanSi da arTvinSi da Semdeg baTumSi.
vinaidan Cven ruseTi yoveli mxridan gvebrZoda, iZulebuli
viyaviT ubrZolvelad dagvetovebina xsenebuli adgilebi...
me am ori dRis winaTac miviRe stambolidan depeSa, damadasturebeli imisa, rac mogaxseneT. sami_ beim mec miTxra, rom
osmaleTis jari TiTqos saqarTvelos mTavrobis TanxmobiT Sesuliyos baTumSi da iq osmalos sardlobas TiTqos
daetovebinos saqarTvelos mTavrobis uzenaesoba da misi
moxeleni.~
stenogramis am amonawerSi garkveviTaa naTqvami: a)lord
kerzonisadmi miwodebuli informacia, mxolod osmalur wyaroebs eyrdnoboda da natyuari iyo; b)am dokumentSi garkveviTaa miniSnebuli_ osmaleTis xelisuflebis namoqmedaris gamarTlebis mizniT, saerTaSoriso arenaze ra maRali aqtiurobiT moqmedebda osmaleTis warmomadgeneli samibei. rac Seexeba sabWoTa ruseTis neitralitets baTumTan
mimarTebaSi da mimdinare procesebisadmi Soridan mayureblis ampluaSi yofnas, logikuri kategoriis arcerT formaSi ar Tavsdeba. Tundac im elementaruli mizezis gamo,
rom: 1)1921 wlis 25 Tebervlidan, sabWoTa ruseTi saqarTvelos pirveli respublikis xelisuflebas kanonierad aRar
cnobda. am fonze, gakvirvebas iwvevs fsevdo `mi patiJebis~
osmalTa mxridan wina planze wamoweva da umaRles `samarTlebriv~ kategoriamde ayvanis mcdelobis faqti; 2)mosk-
114
ovis 1921 wlis 16 martis oficialuri xelSekrulebiT,
sazRvris aRsadgenad sabWoTa ruseTi valdebuli iyo, osmaleTis winaaRmdeg Zalismieri meTodis gamoyenebisTvis
miemarTa. ramdenadac am mimarTulebiT adeqvaturi nabiji
ar gadadga, momxdari faqti gvafiqrebinebs, rom aq gadamwyveti roli im `maraTonulma gadarbenam~ Seasrula, romelic teritoriis dakavebasTan dakavSirebiT, osmalo askerebma Jlobas cxenosan divizias mougo. am faqtis Sesaxeb imave
l.ToiZis mier motanil dokumentSi vkiTxulobT: Salva
dadianTan misul 292- e polkis meTaurs ganucxadebia, rom
mas miRebuli aqvs `saqarTveloSi sabWoTa ruseTis warmomadgenelis Seimanis brZaneba, Sevides baTumSi da gadavides
samxedro sabWos gankargulebaSi, magram Turqi askerebi amis
saSualebas ar aZleven. Salva dadiani da 292- e polkis meTauri qiazim- beis ewvivnen mosalaparakeblad. qiazim- beim
kategoriuli uari ganucxada baTumSi 292-e polkis SeSvebaze. darCa erTi gamosavali: Setakeba. asec moxda. Salva dadianis brZanebiT qarTuli SeiaraRebuli razmebi daiZra
292- e polkTan SesaerTeblad. askerebma winaaRmdegoba gaswies. orsaaTiani sisxlismRvreli brZolebis Semdeg... Turqebi gandevnes TavianTi poziciebidan da 18 marts 292- e polki baTumSi Sevida... am brZolebSi qarTulma jarma didi
danaklisi ganicada.
sul male askerebma Tavi mouyares TavianT Zalebs, fortebTan cecxli gauxsnes qarTul jars da ganaviTares Seteva
barcxana- mixailovos yazarmebze. qarTulma mxedrobam brZaneba miiRo, fexosnebica da cxenosnebic kontrSetevaze
gadasuliyvnen da Turqebi baTumidan ganedevnaT. es amocana
brwyinvaled Seasrula qarTulma mxedrobam ise, rom wiTeli armiis 33- e diviziis 292- e polks araviTari sabrZolo
monawileoba ar miuRia. amave qarTulma mxedrobam daikava
gandevnili Turqi askerebis poziciebi da fortebi...~54
am vrcel amonawerSi kargadaa warmoCenili damoukidebeli saqarTvelos pirveli respublikis sajariso SenaerTebis Tavgamodebuli brZolis faqtebi osmalo dampyroblebis winaaRmdeg. imavdroulad isicaa naCvenebi, Tu ra pasiur
mdgomareobaSi imyofeboda wiTeli armiis meomrebi (292- e
polki, Jlobas 3000 kaciani cxenosani divizia) osmalo dampyroblebTan mimarTebaSi. Tuki XI armiis nawilebis aseTi TavSe-
115
kaveba moskovis 1921 wlis 16 martis `megobruli~ xelSekrulebis oficialuri teqstidan gamomdinareobda, imave teqstis (# 1, 2 muxlebi da I ) punqti) mixedviT, osmaleTis jaris nawilebs baTumis okrugi uproblemod unda daetovebina, radgan xelSekrulebis oficialuri teqstiT, baTumis
okrugi saqarTvelos kuTvnilebadaa aRiarebuli da sazRvari mdinare WoroxTanaa gavlebuli. arsebul problemasTan mimarTebaSi obieqturi daskvnis gakeTebis mizniT, Cemi
azriT Semdegi ZiriTadi faqtorebi unda iqnas gaTvaliswinebuli: 1)osmaleTis mxridan xelSekrulebis oficialuri
teqstisadmi daumorCilebloba; 2)sabWoTa ruseTis sagareo
saqmeTa saxalxo komisariatisgan osmaleTisadmi oficialuri protestis argagzavna; 3)wiTeli armiis sajariso SenaerTebis osmalo askerebTan saomar procesebSi arCabma da
maqsimalurad Tavis Sekaveba. miTumetes, saqarTveloSi rsfsr sruluflebiani warmomadgenelis a.Seimanisagan, 292- e
polkis sardlobas baTumSi Sesvla qonda nabrZanebi; 4)yovelive zemoaRniSnulTan erTad, qiazim- beis Tavxeduri qmedebebisadmi baTumis revkomis wevrTa gansakuTrebuli moridebuli damokidebuleba, myar safuZvels qmnis imisaTvis, rom
Salva maRlakeliZis mogonebebSi Jlobas naambobze dayrdnobiT, moskovis 1921 wlis 16 martis xelSekrulebis samxedro
nawilSi- baTumis okrugSi Sesvlis daswrebis saidumlo
muxlis arseboba_ sinamdviled iqnas miCneuli. es garemoeba srul SesaZleblobas iZleva ganvacxado: a)moskovis 1921
wlis 16 martis xelSekrulebis teqsti Sesabamisi damatebebiT, rogorc zemoTac mqonda aRniSnuli, ramdenadac
1920 wlis dekembrisaTvis iyo mzad, masSi Cadebuli yvela
debuleba, sabWoTa da osmalo maRalCinosnebis garkveuli
wrisaTvis saidumloebas ar warmoadgenda. swored amitom
aCqarebda s.orjonikiZe baTumSi Sesasvlelad Jlobas. rac
Seexeba am dokumentze oficialurad xelmoweras, orive
mxare mxolod xelsayreli politikuri situaciis Seqmnas_ ruseTis mxridan saqarTvelos winaaRmdeg saomari
moqmedebebis dawyebas elodeboda; b)osmalo askerebis baTumis okrugSi, TviT baTumSi da axalcixeSi Sesvlas, saqarTvelos pirveli respublikis mTavrobisgan `mi patiJeba~, ki ara, aRniSnuli xelSekrulebis damatebiT nawilSi
Cawerili pirobebis_ okrugSi SesvlisaTvis daswreba_ `ma-
116
raTonuli rbena~ edo safuZvlad. arc isaa gamoricxuli,
rom quTaisis molaparakebis dros, sabWoTa xelisuflebis
warmomadgenlebis mier, saqarTvelos kanonieri mTavrobis
mxridan kapitulaciis oficialurad gamocxadebis miRwevis mcdeloba, am garemoebiT yofiliyo nakarnaxevi;
g)rogorc zemoTac mqonda miTiTebuli, amjeradac erTxel
kidev xazgasmiT minda aRvniSno, rom saqarTvelos pirveli
respublikis mTavrobis mxridan osmalebis baTumSi `mi patiJeba~ rom momxdariyo, es umniSvnelovanesi faqti, m.oraxelaSvilsa da S.eliavas yuradRebis miRma ar darCebodada da 17 marts quTaisSi gamarTuli molaparakebis dros,
gr.lorTqifaniZesTan diskusiis procesSi warmatebulad
gamoiyenebdnen.
Cems mier motanili masalebis erTobliobaSi gaanalizebis safuZvelze, arasworad mimaCnia saqarTvelos damfuZnebeli krebis 1921 wlis 16 martis sxdomis mier_ ruseTTan
saqarTvelos damarcxebis ganmapirobebeli mizezebis Sesaxeb
miRebuli dadgenileba. mkiTxvels Sevaxseneb am dokumentis
ZiriTad muxlebs: `1. mTavroba sruliad moumzadebeli aRmoCnda qveynis TavdacvisaTvis, Tumca icoda, rom mteri saqarTveloze Tavdasxmas amzadebda da TviTonac araerTxel
ganucxadebia, rom respublikis dasacavad yvela saTanado
zoma miRebuli aqvs; 2. mTavrobam ver Seqmna respublikis
dasacavad samxedro Zala da mravali daudevrobisa da Secdomis gamo, srulad ver gamoiyena Tavdacvis is Zalebi, romelic mis gankargulebaSi iyo; 3. omis warmoebis drosac
mTavrobam ver gamoiCina saWiro simtkice da Seiqmna panikisa da arevdarevis wyarod.
damfuZnebeli kreba aRniSnavs, rom Tumca qarTvelma xalxma yovelive miitana samSoblos dacvis samsxverploze, dRevandelma mTavrobam mainc ver SeZlo saqarTvelos damoukideblobisaTvis brZolis xelmZRvaneloba da ucxadebs mas undoblobas.~55 am dokumentze xelmomweri politikuri partiebis (socialist- federalistebi, socialist- revolucionerebi, damoukidebeli social- demokratebi (sxivelebi), erovnul demokratebi) liderebi, Cems mier zemoT motanili saidumlo dokumenturi masalis 1%- sac ar icnobdnen. aRniSnulis gaTvaliswinebidan gamomdinare, sbWoTa ruseTTan damarcxebis ganmapirobebeli mizezebis maTi mxridan mxolod
117
saqarTvelos pirveli respublikis mTavrobisadmi gadabralebis zemoT motanili samive debulebis ZiriTadi nawili_ sinamdvilis gayalbebis mcdelobaze dafuZnebul araswor formulirebebs Seicavs.
amrigad, 1)qarTveli sardlebis (i.odiSeliZe, i.gedevaniSvili, g.sumbaTaSvili) mier daSvebulma taqtikurma Secdomebma
da sajariso SenaerTebSi gamefebulma udisci plinobam, bambakis xeobaSi qarTuli jaris samarcxvino damarcxebas, 3/
4 -iT ganadgurebas da XI armiis sardlobis gaTamamebas
Seuwyo xeli. Tbilisis dasacavad gen. g.kvinitaZis mier
sajariso SenaerTebis seqtorebad gadanawileba, taqtikuri
TvalsazrisiT swor gadawyvetilebas warmoadgenda. mis
mier gatarebuli TavdacviTi RonisZiebebi, 1921 wlis 18dan 22 Tebervlis CaTvliT, mtris Semotevebis warmatebiT
mogeriebis safuZveli gaxda. 2)IV TavdacviTi seqtoris xelmZRvanelis- n.gedevaniSvilis mxridan arsebuli situaciis sworad verSefasebam, genStabSi mis mier mitanilma
panikiT aRvsavse informaciam, fsiqologiuri teroris funqcia Seasrula da Tbilisis TavdacviTi brZolebis gagrZelebaze uaryofiTi zemoqmedeba moaxdina. g.kvinitaZis brZanebis (# 131) safuZvelze Tbilisis datoveba, mcxeTaSi
gamagrebis gegma da generluri brZoliT Tbilisis isev
dabruneba, qarTvel jariskacTa fsiqologiuri ganwyobis
argaTvaliswinebas warmoadgenda. igi qarTul sinamdvilesTan SeusabamobaSi modioda, radgan momxdarma faqtma,
qarTul mxedrobaze fsiqologiurd dambladamcemi funqcia Seasrula da maTi brZolisunarianoba maqsimalurad
daaqveiTa. 3)saqarTvelos pirveli respublikis mTavrobis
mxridan, baTumis okrugis mdinare Coloqamde osmaleTisadmi daTmobis Sesaxeb qarTul istoriografiaSi gamoTqmuli mosazreba, arcerTi saarqivo dokumentiT ar dasturdeba. am braldebis Seqmna f.maxaraZisa da T.JRentis saxelrbTanaa dakavSirebuli da man garkveuli formiT sabWoTa jarSi mosamsaxure samxedro maRalCinosnebis memuarebSiac hpova asaxva. naSromSi motanili faqtebis analizi
adasturebs, rom baTumis okrugSi da TviT baTumSi osmalebis Sesvla, garkveuli politikuri mosazrebidan gamomdinare, sabWoTa ruseTisa da osmaleTis maRalCinosanTa winaswari garigebis safexurs Sicavda. damoukidebeli saqa-
118
rTvelos pirveli respublikis xelisuflebisadmi am faqtis `mi patiJebis~ formiT gadabraleba, bolSevikebis mxridan mis diskreditaciaze iyo gaTvlili da istoriis falsifikaciis morig mcdelobas warmoadgenda.
119
daskvnebi
saqarTvelos pirveli respublikis istoriaSi yvelaze rTuli monakveTis_ 1921 wlis Teberval- martis movlenebis
katastrofiT damTavrebis ganmapirobebeli mizezebis gamokvlevisa da sazogadoebisadmi dasabuTebuli formiT swori
informaciis miwodebis mizniT, Cems mier Seswavlilma saarqivo masalebma, Semdegi daskvnebis gakeTebis SesaZlebloba
momca:
1)qarTuli politikuri elitis mcdeloba, erovnuli saxelmwifos formirebis paralelurad qarTuli jaris Sesatyvisi raodenobiT da srulyofili SeiaraRebiT Seqmna
moexdina, finansebisa da iaraRis uqonlobam Seaferxa.
qarTul istoriografiaSi dRemde gavrcelebuli mosazreba
_saqarTveloSi arsebul samxedro sawyobebSi TTiTqos N
raodenobis iaraRi iyo, natyuar informacias emyareba da
sinamdviles ar Seesabameba;
2)dasavleT evropis saxelmwifoebisgan 1919 wlis gazafxulze Sepirebuli daxmarebis (iaraRi, amunicia, sursaTi,
fuli) droulad miRebis mcdeloba, 1921 wlis 25 Tebervlamde uSedego aRmoCnda. naSromSi motanili dokumenturi
masalebi adasturebs, rom zemoaRniSnuli danapirebis Sesasruleblad, safrangeTis xelisuflebam pirveli qmediTi
nabiji mxolod 1921 wlis 25 Tebervals gadadga. stambolSi arsebuli safrangeTis kuTvnili samxedro sawyobebidan
saqarTvelosadmi miyiduli vrangelis naqoni iaraRi, uvargisi da im etapze sabrZolo moqmedebebisaTvis gamousadegari iyo;
3)vargisiani iaraRis saqarTvelosTvis miyidvis gadawyvetileba, safrangeTis xelisuflebis mxridan mxolod 1921
wlis 17 marts iqna miRebuli. es faqti, saqarTvelos kanonieri mTavrobisa da gasabWoebuli saqarTvelos warmomadgenlebs Soris (gr.lorTqifaniZe, m.oraxelaSvili ab.enuqiZe,
S.eliava) brZolis Sewyvetis Sesaxeb quTaisSi miRweul
SeTanxmebas, da saqarTvelos pirveli respublikis xelisuflebis mier qveynis teritoriis datovebas (17 marti) daemTxva. dasavleT evropis saxelmwifoTa wajeq- ukujeqis
politikuri kursidan gamomdinare, saqarTvelos pirveli
respublikis SeiaraRebuli Zalebi, gasabWoebuli ruseTis
120
1921 wlis Teberval- martis agresias, arsenalSi kustarulad damzadebuli rusuli vaznebiTa da sagangebod Seqmnil saxelosnoebSi SekeTebuli SaSxanebiT Sexvda.
4)qarTveli sardlebis (i.odiSeliZe, i.gedevaniSvili, g.sumbaTaSvili) mier daSvebulma taqtikurma Secdomebma da
sajariso SenaerTebSi gamefebulma udisci plinobam, bambakis xeobaSi qarTuli jaris samarcxvino damarcxebas, 3/
4 -iT ganadgurebas da XI armiis sardlobis gaTamamebas
Seuwyo xeli. Tbilisis dasacavad gen. g.kvinitaZis mier
sajariso SenaerTebis seqtorebad gadanawileba, taqtikuri
TvalsazrisiT swor gadawyvetilebas warmoadgenda. mis
mier gatarebuli TavdacviTi RonisZiebebi, 1921 wlis 18dan 22 Tebervlis CaTvliT, mtris Semotevebis warmatebiT
mogeriebis safuZveli gaxda.
5)IV TavdacviTi seqtoris xelmZRvanelis- n.gedevaniSvilis mxridan arsebuli situaciis sworad verSefasebam, genStabSi mis mier mitanilma panikiT aRvsavse informaciam,
fsiqologiuri teroris funqcia Seasrula da Tbilisis
TavdacviTi brZolebis gagrZelebaze uaryofiTi zemoqmedeba
moaxdina. g.kvinitaZis brZanebis (# 131) safuZvelze Tbilisis datoveba, mcxeTaSi gamagrebis gegma da generluri brZoliT Tbilisis isev dabruneba, qarTvel jariskacTa fsiqologiuri ganwyobis argaTvaliswinebas warmoadgenda. igi
qarTul sinamdvilesTan SeusabamobaSi modioda, radgan
momxdarma faqtma, qarTul mxedrobaze fsiqologiurd dambladamcemi funqcia Seasrula da maTi brZolisunarianoba maqsimalurad daaqveiTa.
6)saqarTvelos pirveli respublikis mTavrobis mxridan,
baTumis okrugis mdinare Coloqamde osmaleTisadmi daTmobis Sesaxeb qarTul istoriografiaSi gamoTqmuli mosazreba, arcerTi saarqivo dokumentiT ar dasturdeba. am
braldebis Seqmna f.maxaraZisa da T.JRentis saxelrbTanaa
dakavSirebuli da man garkveuli formiT sabWoTa jarSi
mosamsaxure samxedro maRalCinosnebis memuarebSiac hpova asaxva. naSromSi motanili faqtebis analizi adasturebs,
rom baTumis okrugSi da TviT baTumSi osmalebis Sesvla,
garkveuli politikuri mosazrebidan gamomdinare, sabWoTa ruseTisa da osmaleTis maRalCinosanTa winaswari garigebis safexurs Sicavda. damoukidebeli saqarTvelos pirve-
121
li respublikis xelisuflebisadmi am faqtis `mi patiJebis~ formiT gadabraleba, bolSevikebis mxridan mis diskreditaciaze iyo gaTvlili da istoriis falsifikaciis
morig mcdelobas warmoadgenda.
122
damowmebuli wyaroebi da literatura
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
scssa. f.1836. aRw. 1. saq. 2. furc. 14
g.mazniaSvili. mogonebebi. baTumi. 1990. gv. 6
iqve. gv. 170
iqve. gv. 169
r.gabaSvili. mogonebebi. ix. `dabruneba~ t.3. Tbilisi. 1992.
gv. 314- 315
6. gr.oniani. stalini da menSevikuri mTavroba. gaz. `saqarTvelo da msoflio~ 2015. 3- 9 ivnisi, #20
7. scssa. f.1836. aRw. 1. saq. 2. furc. 16
8. saqarTvelos demokratiuli respublikis samarTlebrivi
aqtebis krebuli. Tb. 1990. gv. 49- 54
9. a.kvitaiSvili. ruseT_ saqarTvelos omi 1921 wels. ix.
Jurn. `ganTiadi~ 1990. #2. gv. 115
10. iqve. gv. 116
11. iqve.
12. osTa sakiTxi. Tbilisi. 1996. gv. 303
13. iqve. gv. 316- 320
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Jurn. `ganTiadi~ 1990. #2. gv. 115
16. a.zaqariaZe. saqarTvelos demokratiuli respublika 1917_
1921. Jurn. `mxedari~ 1994. #1- 4. gv. 52
17. a.kvitaiSvili. ruseT_ saqarTvelos omi 1921 wels. ix.
Jurn. `ganTiadi~ 1990. #2. gv. 116
18. a.zaqariaZe. saqarTvelos demokratiuli respublika 1917_
1921. Jurn. `mxedari~ 1994. #1- 4 gv. 57
19. scssa. f. 2115. saq. 119. furc. 1
20. scsa. f. 1864. saq. 483. furc. 9
21. g.mazniaSvili. mogonebebi. gv. 155
22. scsa. f. 1864. saq. 483. furc. 16
23. iqve. furc. 12
24. Jurn. `mxedari~ 1991. # 3. gv. 62; a.CaCxiani. istoriis
sabediswero gakveTilebi_ `Cven momakvdinebeli safrTxis winaSe vdgevarT...~ ix. axali da uaxlesi istoriis
sakiTxebi. 1(14). Tbilisi. 2014. gv. 240
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26. l.ToiZe. intervenciac, okupaciac, ZaldatanebiTi gasabWoebac, faqtobrivi aneqsiac. Tbilisi. 1991. gv. 69
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Jurn. `ganTiadi~ 1990. #2. gv. 118- 119
28. g.kvinitaZe. mogonebebi. saqarTvelos damoukideblobis
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29. iqve. gv. 268
30. a.kvitaiSvili. ruseT_ saqarTvelos omi 1921 wels. ix.
Jurn. `ganTiadi~ 1990. #2. gv. 119
31. g.urataZe. ori sardali. ix. qarTuli emigrantuli Jurnalistikis istoria. t. VI. Tbilisi 2005. gv.89
32. g.kvinitaZe. mogonebebi. saqarTvelos damoukideblobis
wlebi 1917_ 1921 wlebi. II. Tbilisi 1999. gv. 269
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44.
. . 3.
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125
Shota Vadachkoria
For Clarifying of Some Facts of the
Hostilities between Russia and Georgia
in February – March, 1921
Summary
On the basis of the documentary materials in the work it is
stated that: 1)the attempt of the Georgian political elite to
form Georgian army with adequate amount of warriors and
complete armament in parallel with the formation of the national state, was prevented with financial problems and lack
of weapons. The still existed in the Georgian historiography
viewpoint that there were enormous amount of weapons in
the military depot, is based on false information and is not
true. 2)Till February, 1921 all attempts to receive in time the
aid (weapons, ammunition, food and money) from the Western European states promised in spring, 1919 was impossible. The documents that are given in the work prove that the
first effective step to fulfill the promise was made by the French
government only in February, 25, 1921. From the military depot
in Istanbul that was belonging to France the weapons that
were used by Wrangell and sold to Georgia was worthless and
out of service at that time. 3)The French government received
decision to sell to Georgia weapons fit for military affairs only
in March, 17, 1921. This decision was received when the legitimate government of Georgia and the representatives of
Soviet Georgia (G. Lordkipanidze, M. Orakhelashvili, A.
Enukidze, Sh. Eliava) reached the agreement in Kutaisi and
when the government of the first republic of Georgia left the
country. Because of this policy of the Western European countries the military forces of the first republic of Georgia met the
aggression of Soviet Russia in February – March with Russian,
handicraft maid cartridges and Russian rifles mended at specially created workshops. 4)the tactical errors committed by
the Georgian commanders (I.Odishelidze, I.Gedevanishvili,
126
G.Sumbatashvili) and indiscipline that prevailed in military units
promoted shameful defeat of the Georgian army in Bambaki
gorge, annihilation of the three-quarter of the army and encouraged commanders of the 11th army. General G.Kvinitadze’s
decision to redistribute military units by sectors for defense of
Tbilisi was positive from the point of view of tactics. The measures of defense carried on by him in February 18 – 22 made
possible to repulse successfully an attack of the enemy.
5)N.Gedevanishvili, the head of the 4th sector of defense, was
unable to assess the given situation properly. The information, which he brought to the General Staff, contained panic.
This information had played the role of psychological terror
and had a negative impact on the further continuation of defensive military operations for Tbilisi. G.Kvinitadze’s order
(¹131) to leave Tbilisi, strengthen in Mtskheta and return Tbilisi
back with battles did not take into account the psychological
mood of the Georgian soldiers. It was not relevant with Georgian reality because, the fact psychologically had the impact
of paralysis on the army and their combat capability had been
completely deteriorated. 6)The fact that the first government
of the republic ceded the Ottoman Empire Batumi district till
river Choloki, the viewpoint put forward in Georgian historiography, is not proved by a single archive document. The authorship of this accusation is associated with the name of
P.Makharadze and somehow it also is reflected in the memoires of the Soviet high rank army officials. The analyses of the
facts given in the work proves that the Ottomans’ entry in
Batumi district and in Batumi as well was one of the stages of
the Soviet Russia– Ottoman high officials transaction which
had a certain political background. Shift the blame for this
fact on the government of independent Georgia seeks to discredit the government and to falsify history.
Tbilisi. 2015 wlis 24 ivnisi
127
rukebi
noe Jordaniadan_
mixeil saakaSvilamde
(1920 wlis agvistodan_ 2008 wlis 12 agvisto)
128
`eris sikvdili maSin iwyeba, roca kuTvnil teritorias mowinaaRmdeges nebayoflobiT uTmobs, an ZalmomreobiT mitacebulis ukan dabrunebas ar cdilobs!~
napoleon bonaparte.
istorikosebo! am Segonebidan da Cveni qveynis dRevandeli yofidan (400,000 devnili) gamomdinare, saqarTvelos samive respublikis teritoriuli sazRvrebis SedarebiTi analizis fonze gansazRvreT: a)romelma xelisuflebam ukeT upatrona bedkruli saqarTvelos qarTul mosaxleobas da b)umokles droSi (1028 dRe), vin
ukeT SesZlo saqarTvelos teritoriuli mTlianobis
istoriul sazRvrebSi ZiriTadad aRdgena. miukerZoebeli poziciidan SeafaseT- romeli xelisufleba imsaxurebs pativiscemas an Zagebas! saqarTvelos teritoriis # 1 rukis sazRvrebSi aRmdgeni mTavrobis_ sabWouri istoriografiisa da r.gabaSvilis stilSi augad
xsenebis mxardamWerebs Sevaxseneb: `politika ganizomeba
misi SedegebiT! misaRebia mxolod is politikuri kursi,
romelic qveynisTvis saukeTeso nayofis momcemia!~ (ix.
ruka # 1 da ruka # 5) aqedan gamomdinare, Tuki Savis
da TeTris garCeva xelgewifebaT, keTili inebeT da
samive respublikis xelisufalTa mimarT, daskvnebi da
Sefasebebi mxolod logikuri kategoriebis umkacresi princi pis dacviT, naSromSi motanili saarqivo
dokumentebisa da aRniSnuli rukebis gaTvaliswinebiT
gaakeTeT! miTumetes, saqarTvelos teritoriuli sivrcis, 87 wlis manZilze gazafxulis TovliviT daCqarebuli tempiT dnoba, qarTveli eris moaxloebuli
sikvdilis garduvalobaze migvaniSnebs. es realuri
saSiSroeba, Cvens winaSe aisbergiviTaa aRmarTuli da
daZruli. misi SeCereba mxolod winaparTa Rvawlis
dafasebis kriteriumis aRdgenis safuZvelze, eris gajansaRebuli da swori azrovnebis Sedegad gaxdeba
SesaZlebeli.
129
130
131
132
133
134
135
Sinaarsi
Sesavali ____________________________________ 3
$ 1. evropisgan mizanmimarTulad motyuebuli saqarTvelos pirveli respublika _____________________ 9
$ 2. qarTveli sardlebis taqtikuri Secdomebi da
sabWoTa ruseTTan damarcxebis ganmapirobebeli
mizezebi ____________________________________ 69
daskvnebi ____________________________________ 120
damowmebuli wyaroebi da literatura _________ 123
reziume inglisur enaze ______________________ 126
rukebi. noe Jordaniadan_ mixeil saakaSvilamde
(1920 wlis agvistodan_ 2008 wlis 12 agvisto) ___ 128
SoTa ilias Ze vadaWkoria
sabWoTa ruseTTan saqarTvelos damarcxebis
zogierTi faqtoris dazustebisaTvis
(1921 wlis Teberval- marti)
Tbilisi
2016
saaRricxvo- sagamomcemlo Tabaxi 8
sabeWdi qaRaldi 60 X 84 1/16
136

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