ekologiuri mizezebiT adgilnacval pirTa

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ekologiuri mizezebiT adgilnacval pirTa
ekologiuri mizezebiT adgilnacval pirTa gansaxleba
arsebuli problemis gadawyveta Tu axlis Seqmna?
ekomigracia saqarTveloSi 1981-2006
tom trieri da medea turaSvili
ECMI-is monografia #6
agvisto 2007
ekologiuri mizezebiT adg
adgilnacval
ilnacval pirTa gansaxleba
arsebuli problemis gadawyveta Tu axlis Seqmna? ekomigracia saqarTveloSi 1981-2006
monografia #6
umciresobaTa sakiTxebis evropuli centri (ECMI)
direqtori: Dr. Marc Weller
Copyright © 2007 The European Centre for Minority Issues
am publikaciis an misi nawilis Targmanisa da
gavrcelebis uflebis mosapoveblad mimarTeT:
ECMI
Schiffbruecke 12
24939 Flensburg
Germany
ISBN: 978-3-940532-01-5
umciresobaTa sakiTxebis evropuli centri xels uwyobs
misi naSromebis gavrcelebas da Sesabamisi moTxovnis arsebobis
SemTxvevaSi iZleva nebarTvas mocemuli naSromis gavrcelebasa da Targmanze
2
Sinaarsi
Sesavali ................................................................
................................................................................................
................................................................................................
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...........................................................4
........................... 4
gansaxleba da saxelmwifo programebi................................
programebi ................................................................
................................................................................................
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...............................................8
............... 8
gansaxleba 1980 wlamde .......................................................................................................................................................................................... 8
ekomigrantebis organizebuli gansaxleba 1980-ian wlebSi............................................................................................ 10
daxmareba arasamTavrobo struqturebis mxridan .................................................................................................................... 16
saxelmwifo programebi SevardnaZis periodSi ...........................................................................................................................22
gansaxleba “vardebis revoluciis” Semdeg.....................................................................................................................................24
ekoregionebSi................................
................................................................
eko-migracia umciresobebiT dasaxlebul saqarTvelos regionebSi
.....................................................................
.....................................33
..... 33
Casaxleba samcxe-javaxeTSi.............................................................................................................................................................................. 33
Casaxleba qvemo qarTlSi ...................................................................................................................................................................................42
Casaxleba da eTnikuri daZabuloba umciresobebiT dasaxlebul regionebSi ............................................
............................................ 50
daZabuloba samcxe-javaxeTSi ........................................................................................................................................................................ 51
daZabuloba qvemo qarTlSi..............................................................................................................................................................................54
socialursocialur-ekonomikuri adaptacia da intereTnikuri daZabuloba ................................................................
.........................................................................
......................................... 62
saxlebis sakiTxi......................................................................................................................................................................................................... 63
miwis sakiTxi ...................................................................................................................................................................................................................65
enis sakiTxi....................................................................................................................................................................................................................... 73
daskvnebi da rekomendaciebi ................................................................
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................................................................................................
......................................................................
...................................... 74
danarTi ................................................................
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.......................................................... 82
ruka ................................................................
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....................................95
....95
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3
Sesavali
egreT wodebuli ekologiuri migrantebis, anu ekomigrantebis gansaxleba
saqarTvelos
erT-erTi
naklebad
Seswavlili
problemaa
socialuri,
politikuri da humanitaruli TvalsazrisiT. ekomigrantebi arian is pirebi,
visac stiqiuri ubedurebis gamo mSobliuri soflebis datoveba mouxda.
gadasaxleba da Sida migracia axali fenomeni ar gaxlavT saqarTvelosTvis.
jer kidev me-19 saukuneSi gadaasaxles qarTvelebi naklebad dasaxlebul
sasazRvro
raionebSi.
mogvianebiT,
1930-1950-iani
wlebis
sabWoTa
koleqtivizaciis periodSi, aTasobiT mTis mosaxle nebiT Tu ZaliT qveynis
barSi
Camosaxlda
stalinuri
da
regionebi,
deportaciebis
romlebic
Sedegad
1940-ian
mkvidri
wlebSi
masobrivi
mosaxleobisagan
daicala,
xelaxla Seivso sxva regionebidan Camosaxlebuli qarTvelebiT. 1950-1960-ian
wlebSi gansaxleba gansakuTrebiT aWaris mTiani mxaris mosaxleobas Seexo
raTa
daeregulirebinaT
mosaxleobis
zrda.
demografiuli
1980-iani
wlebis
balansi
da
dasawyisidan
mTiani
mTiani
regionebis
regionebidan
migraciis procesi kidev ufro gaaZliera klimaturma cvlilebebma, ramac
mniSvnelovani gavlena moaxdina mTis mosaxleobis yofa-cxovrebaze. metic,
ganvlili saukunis bolo meoTxedSi aTiaTasobiT adamiani darCa usaxlkarod
wyaldidobebis, mewyerebis Tu zvavebis Sedegad.
saqarTvelos mTian regionebSi momxdar bunebriv kataklizmebs sxvadasxva
mTavrobebi _ 1980-iani wlebis sabWoTa xelmZRvaneloba, gamsaxurdias reJimi,
SevardnaZis
mmarTveloba,
dabolos,
saakaSvilis
dRevandeli
mTavroba
_
gansxvavebuli midgomebiT pasuxobdnen da pasuxoben. 1980-ianebis dasawyisSi
Camosaxlebis procesi kargad iyo organizebuli. 1980-iani wlebis bolos
saqarTvelos mTian regionebSi bunebrivma kataklizmebma mkveTrad imata. amas
Tan
daerTo
sabWoTa
xelisuflebaSi
mTavrobis
zviad
gansaxlebis
wyobilebis
gamsaxurdias
politikis
damxoba
da
meTaurobiT
ZiriTadi
misi
Tanamdevi
mosuli
mizani
iyo
korufcia.
nacionalisturi
nacionalisturi
4
programis
gatareba,
kerZod,
eTnikurad
qarTveli
mosaxleobis
Casaxleba
eTnikuri umciresobebiT dasaxlebul da sazRvrispira raionebSi, ekologiuri
ubedurebis Sedegad adgilnacvali pirebi ki am politikis gatarebis iaraRad
iqcnen. SevardnaZis xelisuflebis periodSi es problema ignorirebuli iyo
pirdapiri
mniSvnelobiT,
mTavrobam
garkveuli
gadawyvetisaken,
Tumca
“vardebis
nabijebi
am
revoluciis”
gadadga
sakiTxebis
Semdeg
ki,
ekomigrantTa
gadaWrisaTvis
saakaSvilis
problemebis
mizanmimarTuli
politikis arseboba jer kidev ar SeimCneva.
1981 wlidan dRevandlamde gansaxlebis saxelmwifo programis farglebSi
daaxloebiT 11,000 ojaxi gadaasaxles (daaxloebiT 60,000 adamiani), ZiriTadad
aWarisa da svaneTis maRalmTliani regionebidan.1 amave periodSi migrantTa
daudgeneli
saqarTvelos
raodenoba,
sxva
ZiriTadad
mxareebSi
maTi
aWaridan,
damoukideblad
mSobliuri
regionebis
gadasaxlda
mosaxleobiT
gadatvirTulobisa da mciremiwianobis gamo. 1980-ianebSi da 1990-iani wlebis
dasawyisSi ekomigrantTa mimRebi ZiriTadi regionebi iyo kaxeTi, imereTi,
samegrelo, Sida qarTli, guria, samcxe da javaxeTi.2 mogvianebiT, 1990-iani
wlebis meore naxevridan moyolebuli, migrantTa ZiriTadi mimRebi gaxda qvemo
qarTli.
rogorc cnobilia, qvemo qarTli da samcxe-javaxeTi eTnikurad araqarTveli
mosaxleobiT kompaqturad dasaxlebuli mxareebia. samcxe-javaxeTi upiratesad
somxuria, gansakuTrebiT javaxeTis regioni (axalqalaqisa da ninowmindis
raionebi) alag-alag rusi duxoborebis, berZnebis da mkvidri qarTvelebis
mcirericxovani
dasaxlebebiT.
qvemo
qarTlis
sam
raionSi
(marneulSi,
1
es Sefaseba efuZneba Semdeg daangariSebebs: T. futkaraZis mixedviT (ix. qvemoT), 1981-1988 wlebSi
aWaridan mTlianobaSi 1,572-1,600 ojaxi Camoasaxles. xulos, Suaxevisa da qedis raionebis gamgeobebis
mowodebuli statistikuri masalebis mixedviT, 1989 wlidan dRemde aWaridan daaxloebiT 6,151 ojaxi
gadaasaxles, l. niJaraZis mixedviT (ix.qvemoT) ki svaneTidan, 1987 wlidan moyolebuli, ekomigrantTa
saxelmwifo programiT 2,620 ojaxi Camoasaxles. mTlianobaSi am cifrebis jami 10,857 - 10,885 ojaxs
Seadgens.
Tamaz futkaraZe, aWaris mosaxleobis migraciis istoriul-eTnologiuri problemebi, baTumi: baTumis
universiteti, 2006, gv.72.
luara niJaraZe, svanebis migracia da misi gansaxlebis arealebi, Tbilisi: Tbilisis universitetis
gamomcemloba 1999 gv.14-15.
xulos, qedisa da Suaxevis raionis gamgeobebis mier mowodebuli monacemebi ixiliT cxril 6-Si.
2 1994 wlamde samcxe da javaxeTi damoukidebeli administraciuli regionebi iyo.
5
dmanissa da bolnisSi) eTnikuri azerbaijanuli mosaxleoba dominirebs, xolo
walkis
raioni
somxebiT,
qarTvelebiTa
da
berZnebiTaa
dasaxlebuli.
erovnuli umciresobebiT kompaqturad dasaxlebul regionebSi ekomigrantebis
talRa
xSirad
armcodne,
daZabulobas
gansxvavebuli
ekomigrantebi
adgilobrivi
socialuri
adgilobriv
problemebs
iwvevs.
awydebian
TemTan
da
da
kulturuli
integraciis
arajerovnad
axalCamosaxlebulTa
mimarT
adgilobrivebsa
axalCamosaxlebulebs
da
eWvebi
da
socialuri
gzaze
sawyisebis
xSirad
Semzadebul
undobloba
Soris
normebis
seriozul
mimReb
Cndeba.
cudi
mqone
TemSi
Sesabamisad,
urTierTobebi
viTardeba.
am dokuments ormagi amocana akisria. erTi mxriv, igi aRwers da informacias
iZleva
Camosaxlebis
procesebisa
da
politikis
(an
aseTis
ararsebobis)
Sesaxeb, romelic ekologiur migrantTa gansaxlebis process warmarTavda (da
warmarTavs).
misi
mizania
Camosaxlebis
procesTan
dakavSirebuli
Zalze
saWiro monacemebis miwodeba mkiTxvelisaTvis da gadasaxlebis politikis
cvlilebasTan dakavSirebuli ZiriTadi tendenciebis gamokveTa. dokumenti
Seicavs agreTve rekomendaciebs ekologiuri migraciis menejmentis politikis
gaaqtiurebisaTvis, meore mxriv ki miznad isaxavs imis ganxilvas, Tu ratom
warmoiSoba daZabuloba CasaxlebulTa zogierT (ara yvela)
mimReb TemSi,
gansakuTrebiT ki erovnuli umciresobebiT dasaxlebul regionebSi da rogor
SeiZleba Tavidan aviciloT es daZabuloba Casaxlebis procesis menejmentis
gaumjobesebiT.
saqarTveloSi ekomigrantTa mdgomareobis Sesaxeb Zalze mwiri informacia
arsebobs.
am
sakiTxs
ratomRac
gverds
uvlis
rogorc
saqarTvelos
akademiuri da politikuri istebliSmenti, ise saerTaSoriso sazogadoeba.
amitom
am
mcireodeni
literaturuli
pirvelwyaroebis
Seswavlis
garda,
mocemuli dokumenti efuZneba mTavrobis im warmomadgenelTa, mecnierTa da
samoqalaqo sazogadoebis eqspertTa interviuebs, vinc dainteresebulia da
Seswavlili
aqvs
interviuebs
da
mocemuli
savele
sakiTxi.
kvlevebs
gansakuTrebuli
rogorc
svaneTsa
da
yuradReba
aWaraSi,
daeTmo
saidanac
6
Camoasaxles ekomigrantTa mniSvnelovani nawili, aseve interviuebs da savele
kvlevebs ekomigrantTa dasaxlebis adgilebSi, kerZod, samcxe-javaxeTsa da
qvemo qarTlSi. dokumentis pirvel nawilSi mimovixilavT sabWoTa periodSi,
gamsaxurdias, SevardnaZisa da saakaSvilis mmarTvelobis dros gatarebul
samTavrobo RonisZiebebsa da programebs, meore nawils davuTmobT samcxejavaxeTsa da qvemo qarTlSi Camosaxlebis process, daskvniT nawilSi ki
ganvixilavT, Tu ram gamoiwvia samcxe-javaxeTsa da qvemo qarTlSi situaciis
daZabva ekomigrantTa Camosaxlebis Semdeg.
naTelia, rom mTavrobis politika da ekogansaxlebis menejmenti bolo 25
wlis ganmavlobaSi, sul mcire, aramyari iyo, sustad dagegmili da calkeul
Carevebze dafuZnebuli, Tu srulebiT ugulebelyofili ara. sabWoTa kavSiris
daSlasTan erTad ekomigraciis politikis ararseboba uaryofiTad aisaxa
samcxe-javaxeTisa da qvemo qarTlis
regionebis eTnopolitikur siatuaciaze.
aman Tavisi wili `navTi daasxa~ daZabulobis zrdas im regionebSi, sadac
urTierToba xelisuflebasa da adgilobriv erovnul umciresobebs Soris
isedac Sors iyo harmoniulisgan.
saqarTvelom
uflebaTa
2005
wlis
dacvis
dekemberSi
evrosabWos
CarCo-konvenciis
(FCNM)
erovnuli
umciresobebis
ratifikaciiT
erovnuli
umciresobebis integraciisa da dacvisaken mniSvnelovani nabiji gadadga. ase
rom,
gansaxlebisa
da
Sida
saqarTveloSi
saerTaSoriso
ekomigrantebi
aWaridan
da
migraciis
gaazrebuli
sazogadoebis
svaneTidan,
didi
marTalia,
politikis
interesis
SemuSaveba
sagani
qarTvelebi
gaxda.
arian
da
erovnul umciresobebs ar warmoadgenen, magram isini izolirebuli mTiani
regionis
mosaxleobas
miekuTvnebian,
romlebsac
fesvebs
swyveten
da
saqarTvelos sxva, maTTvis sruliad gansxvavebul mxareSi, xSirad srulebiT
gansxvavebuli
kulturis
mqone
araqarTuli
eTnikuri
mosaxleobiT
dasaxlebul raionebSi asaxleben. amasTanave, es xdeba im periodSi, rodesac
mTlianad qveyana udidesi politikuri da ekonomikuri sirTuleebis winaSe
dgas. ekomigrantebi daucvelni arian da specialuri zomebis miRebaa saWiro
imisaTvis,
rom
isini
uzrunvelyofil
iyvnen
sacxovrebeli
pirobebiT
da
7
moxdes maTi integrireba mimReb TemSi. amdenadve mniSvnelovania maTi mimRebi _
mkvidri
mosaxleobis
azerbaijanelebi
ekomigrantebis
da
_
uflebebis
berZnebi
Camosaxlebas
(da
dacva,
ara
eTnikurad
romlebsac
mxolod
xSirad
isini)
araqarTul
somxebi,
warmoadgenen.
regionebSi
mimRebi
mosaxleobis uflebebis darRveva da ukmayofileba mohyveba.
ekologiuri mizeziT gadaadgilebis problemebis gadawyvetis martivi gzebi
ar arsebobs. mTavrobis politika mimarTuli unda iyos dabalansebisaken: erTi
mxriv, mTavroba ekomigrantebs unda daexmaros sacxovreblisa da sasoflosameurneo daniSnulebis miwis povnaSi; xolo meore mxriv, Tu ekomigrantebis
Casaxleba
upiratesad
erovnuli
umciresobebiT
dasaxlebul
regionebSi
moxdeba, xelisuflebam am politikis gatareba adgilobrivi mosaxleobis
interesebis
gaTvaliswinebiT
dakavSirebiT
gansaxlebis
unda
modelebis
uzrunvelyos.
proeqtirebisa
ekomigrantebTan
da
yvela
monawile
mxaresTan dialogis meqanizmebis meSveobiT realuri politikis SemuSaveba
udavod
mniSvnelovani
ekomigrantebsa
konsensusis
da
da
maT
misaRwevad
win
gadadgmuli
mimReb
adgilobriv
da,
Sedegad,
mimReb
nabiji
gaxdeba
mosaxleobas
regionebSi
mTavrobas,
Soris
daZleuli
sruli
iqneba
daZabuloba da konfliqtebi. vimedovnebT, rom mocemuli angariSiT SevZlebT,
Cveni mokrZalebuli wvlili SevitanoT ekologiuri mizezebiT adgilnacvali
mosaxleobis
gansaxlebasTan
SemuSavebaSi
samTavrobo
organizaciebsa
da
dakavSirebuli
struqturebs,
sazogadoebas
Soris
SeTanxmebuli
Sesabamis
dialogsa
da
politikis
arasamTavrobo
ganxilvebSi.
es
Tanabrad waadgeba Casaxlebul mosaxleobas da mimReb Tems, xolo momavalSi
_ saqarTveloSi regionuli integraciis processac.
gansaxleba da saxelmwifo programebi
gansaxleba 1980 wlamde
saqarTveloSi,
rogorc
xdeboda
regionebidan
mTiani
mTagorian
barSi
qveyanaSi,
saukuneebis
nebayoflobiTi
Tu
ganmavlobaSi
ZaldatanebiTi
migracia. gansakuTrebiT meoce saukunis ganmavlobaSi iseTi regionebidan,
8
rogorebicaa aWara, svaneTi, zemo samegrelo, leCxumi, raWa, zemo imereTi,
xevi, mTiuleTi, xevsureTi da TuSeTi, asiaTasobiT mTieli Camosaxlda an
Camoasaxles baris regionebSi. am procesma koleqtivizaciis Sedegad kidev
ufro moikriba Zala 1920-iani wlebis miwuruls da 1950-ian wlebamde gastana.
CamosaxlebulTa umravlesoba barSi mudmivad dasaxlda, Tumca zogierTi
axerxebda sezonuri migraciis gagrZelebas3. koleqtivizaciam Rrma gavlena
moaxdina soflis cxovrebaze da saqarTvelos mTis mosaxleobis yofaze. mTis
mosaxleoba advilad ver Seegua koleqtivizacias, ase rom, mTis regionebi
rTulad
problema
masobrivi,
sakontrolebeli
sabWoTa
da
reJimma
ZaldatanebiTi
samarTavi
1940-1950-ian
da
iyo
wlebSi
naxevrad
sabWoTa
mTis
reJimisaTvis.
glexkacobis
nebayoflobiTi
es
barSi
CamosaxlebiT
gadawyvita. magaliTad, 1940-ian wlebSi xevsureTis TiTqmis mTeli mosaxleoba
gadaasaxles da regioni praqtikulad daicala. es ar Seexo mxolod im
muSaxels,
romelic
samuSaod
iyo
kolmeurneobebSi
saWiro.4
1989
da
wlisTvis
ramdenime
iseTi
samrewvelo
regionebis
proeqtze
mosaxleoba,
rogorebicaa TuSeTi, fSavi, raWa-leCxumi da Sida qarTlis mTiani nawili,
Semcirda da meoce saukunis pirvel aTwleulebSi mcxovrebi mosaxleobis
raodenobis naxevarze naklebi Seadgina.5
koleqtivizaciis
procesSi
sabWoTa
xelisuflebis
mizani
iyo,
Seeqmna
sasoflo-sameurneo warmoebis axali sistema mTis mciremiwiani regionebidan
mosaxleobis iseT regionebSi CamosaxlebiT, rogorebicaa qvemo qarTli, gare
kaxeTi, afxazeTi da mdinare rionis auzi, sadac miwa manamde ar muSavdeboda.
Sedegad,
zemoxsenebulma
regionebma
miiRes
mTiani
mxareebidan
3
ase moxda TuSebis SemTxvevaSi, romlebic kompaqturad Caasaxles kaxeTSi, alvanis velis sam sofelSi.
bevri maTgani dRemde adis zafxulobiT TuSeTSi. xevsurebis nawilic, romlebic metwilad Tbilisisa
da rusTavis garSemo daasaxles, inarCunebs sezonuri migraciis Cveulebas.
4 1940-1950-iani wlebis represiuli politika garkveulwilad ganmeorda 1970-ianebis blos da 1980-ianebis
dasawyisSi. istorikosma ronald grigor sunim aRwera, rogor ganaviTara disidenti nacionalistebis
moTxovnebis gaTvaliwinebiT
socialisturma mTavrobam ukve 1970-iani wlebis bolos
mosaxleobis
gansaxlebis erTiani strategia da SeimuSava sazogadoebrivi azris kvlevis sistema, romelic
garkveulwilad gavlenas axdenda mTavrobis politikaze. erTma aseTma kvlevam gamoavlina, rom mTidan
iZulebiT migrirebulTa didi nawili ukmayofilo iyo gadasaxlebis gamo da amitom mTavrobam
gadawyvita, mTis zogierTi sofeli aRedgina. ronald grigor suni, qarTveli eris formireba [The Making
of the Georgian Nation] (Indiana University Press, Bloomington and Indianapolis, 1994), gv. 309-310.
5 magaliTad, Sida qarTlis _ javisa da axalgoris mTiani raionebis mosaxleoba 34.7%-iT Semcirda 1921dan 1989 wlamde. daaxloebiT 114 sofeli dacarielda. amave periodSi sami axali sofeli dafuZnda amave
raionebis dablob nawilebSi. ufro detaluri informaciisaTvis ixileT danarTSi cxrili 7. vaxtang
jaoSvili saqarTvelos mosaxleoba, Tbilisi, mecniereba, 1996w. gv 229-230.
9
Camosaxlebulebi. amave periodSi, 1940-ian wlebSi, mosaxleobis calkeuli
jgufebi, upiratesad germanelebi (1941), mesxebi (1944) da pontoeli berZnebi
(1949) koleqtiurad gaasaxles saqarTvelodan. mTlianobaSi daaxloebiT 170,000
adamiani
iqna
deportirebuli
nawilebulidan
politikis
saqarTvelodan
deportirebul
Sedegad,
milionobiT
mTavrobas
ar
_
sabWoTa
adamianTan
uWirda
kavSiris
erTad.
mciremiwiani
sxva
amgvari
regionebidan
migrirebuli mosaxleobis dasasaxleblad miwis povna. aseTi regionebi ki,
sadac mosaxleobas miwa cota hqonda, iyo aWara, svaneTi, zemo imereTi, raWa,
leCxumi da xevsureTi.6 erT-erTi Sefasebis mixedviT, qvemo qarTlis 12 yofil
germanul sofelSi raWidan, leCxumidan da zemo imereTidan 2,390 axali komli
Camoasaxles
ganmavlobaSi
mxolod
1941
wlis
Semodgomaze;
1945
wlis
meore
naxevris
imereTidan da qarTlidan 5,500 ojaxi daasaxles mesxeTSi;
xolo 1946-50 wlebSi afxazeTSi (saidanac berZnebi iqnen deportirebulni)
4,200-ze meti ojaxi Caasaxles samegrelodan, raWa-leCxumidan da svaneTidan.
mTlianobaSi
1941-dan
1950
wlamde
periodSi
mesxeTSi,
qvemo
qarTlsa
da
afxazeTSi Caasaxles daaxloebiT 60,000 adamiani.7 meore msoflio omis Semdeg
mTel sabWoTa kavSirSi, da maT Soris saqarTveloSic, mniSvnelovnad imata
industrializaciam. aman gamoiwvia saqarTvelos mTiani regionebidan barSi
migrantTa
nakadis xelaxali zrda (rogorc iZulebiT, ise nebayoflobiT).
ekomigrantebis
ekomigrantebis organizebuli gansaxleba 19801980-ian wlebSi
ekologiuri
mizezebiT
adgilnacval
pirTa
pirveli
organizebuli
gadasaxleba 1980-iani wlebis dasawyisSi moxda. 1981-83 wlebSi, mTavrobis
gadawyvetilebiT,
dedofliswyaros,
gurjaanisa
da
sagarejos
raionebSi
(kaxeTi), xobis (samegrelo), aspinZisa da adigenis raionebSi (samcxe-javaxeTi)
da kaspis raionSi (Sida qarTli) maRalmTiani aWaridan 1,010 ojaxis Casaxleba
ganisazRvra.8
6 mayvala naTmeliZe, demografiuli procesebi saqarTveloSi XX saukunis 40-ian wlebSi, Tbilisi: CIPPD
2002, gv. 86.
7 vaxtang jaoSvili saqarTvelos mosaxleoba..., gv 224-26.
8 Tamaz futkaraZe, aWaris mosaxleobis migraciis...…, gv.72.
10
gadasaxlebis es programebi kargad organizebuli da jerovnad dagegmili
iyo.
xelisuflebis
mxridan
dazaralebuli
ekomigrantebisaTvis
xdeboda
sesxis gamoyofa _ erT ojaxze 4,500 sabWoTa (rusuli) rublis9 odenobiT,
saidanac migranti ojaxebi valdebulni iyvnen, mxolod 45% daebrunebinaT.
ekomigrantebi dasaxldnen aspinZis raionisa da adigenis raionis ramdenime
sofelSi, sadac isini saxelmwifo sesxis TanxebiT axali saxlebis aSenebas
gegmavdnen. finansur daxmarebasTan erTad saxelmwifo sakuTar Tavze iRebda
saxlebisaTvis saWiro saSeni masalebisa da mowyobilobebis transportirebas.
metic, ekomigrantebs gansaxlebis adgilebSi samuSaoze miRebis upiratesi
ufleba eniWebodaT. sabWoTa periodSi ekomigrantebisaTvis gamosayofi miwis
nakveTis
minimumi
0.25
heqtars
Seadgenda,
Tumca
realurad
bevri
ojaxi
gacilebiT mets _ 1.25 heqtaramde nakveTs iRebda.
1987 wels svaneTi bolo wlebis yvelaze mZime zamTris mowme gaxda. ianvarSi
ramdenime sofeli 3-dan 5 metramde Tovlis safarqveS aRmoCnda. Tovlis
simaRle imdenad didi iyo, rom daaxloebiT 2,000 saxli zvavSi mohyva, xolo
85 adamiani gardaicvala. gansakuTrebiT dazaralda mestiisa (zemo svaneTi) da
lentexis (qvemo svaneTi) raionebi. gzebi Caiketa, soflebTan kavSiri gawyda,
komunikaciis yvela saSualeba mwyobridan gamovida. riskis zonidan 16,000
adamiani iqna evakuirebuli.10
stiqiuri ubedurebis momdevno ramdenime dReSi, 1987 wlis 12 Tebervals
sabWoTa kavSiris komunisturi partiis centralurma komitetma da sabWoTa
kavSiris
stiqiuri
ministrTa
ubedurebis
dadgenileba
sabWom
gamosca
Sedegebis
adgilobriv
dadgenileba
likvidaciisaTvis
xelisuflebasa
da
“saqarTvelos
daxmarebis
partiis
ssr-Si
Sesaxeb”.
warmomadgenlebs
avalebda qmediTi zomebis miRebas da sacxovrebeli adgilis problemebis
gadaWras. im droisaTvis, saqarTvelos ssr ministrTa sabWom daxmarebis saxiT
9
im droisTvis rusuli rublisa da aSS dolaris Sefardeba daaxloebiT 1:1 iyo.
samTavrobo komisiam daadgina, rom mTeli kuTvnili qoneba dakarga 409 ojaxma, 876 ojaxuri meurneoba
nawilobriv iyo dazianebuli, xolo 3,468 ojaxi gadasaxlebas eqvemdebarebida, Tumca maTi saxlebi ar
iyo dangreuli. luara niJaraZe, svanebis migracia da misi..., gv. 13-17.
10
11
sacxovrebeli
saxlebis
aRdgenisa
da
xelaxla
agebisaTvis,
TiTqmis
65
milioni rubli gamoyo.
svaneTSi
momxdari
stiqiuri
ubedurebis
sapasuxod
mTavrobam
gamosca
dadgenilebebi, romelTa Tanaxmad usaxlkarod darCenili mosaxleobisaTvis
axali
saxlebi
unda
aegoT.
damatebiT
miwa
gamoyves
agraruli
daniSnulebisaTvisac.11 xelisuflebam daaxloebiT 300 milioni rubli gamoyo
saxlebis
mSeneblobisaTvis
da
angariSebi
gauxsna
adgilnacval
ojaxebs.
garda amisa, saqarTveloSi da mTlianad sabWoTa kavSiris masStabiT kerZo
pirTa, kompaniaTa da organizaciaTa mier gaRebulma Semowirulobebma 74
milion
rubls
mniSvnelovani
miaRwia.12
samSeneblo
Sedegad,
5,700
samuSaoebi
saxlis
aTamde
aSeneba
samSeneblo
daigegma
firmam
da
iTava.13
daaxloebiT 2,500 ojaxi zemo da qvemo svaneTidan sacxovreblad gaanawiles
marneulis, TeTriwyaros, bolnisis, sagarejos, gardabnis, dmanisis, kaspis,
wyaltubos, xonis, ozurgeTisa da lanCxuTis raionebSi.
1989 wlis aprilSi stiqiuri ubedureba aWaras daatyda Tavs. mewyerma waleka
maRalmTiani aWara, kerZod ki, xulos, Suaxevisa da qedis raionebis soflebi,
ris Sedegadac 5,657 ojaxi (24,287 adamiani) dazaralda.14 sapasuxod, sabWoTa
xelisuflebam
daiwyo
stiqiuri
ubedurebis
Sedegad
dazaralebuli
mosaxleobis saqarTvelos sxva regionebSi gansaxleba, maT Soris zRvispira
aWaraSi da guriis, Sida qarTlis, qvemo qarTlis, kaxeTis, imereTisa da
javaxeTis
regionebSi.
mTavrobam
daiwyo
gadasaxlebis
programa
da
mniSvnelovani saxelmwifo Tanxebi gamoyo axali saxlebis mSeneblobisaTvis.
sacxovrebliT
uzrunvelyofis
garda,
programa
aWaridan
adgilnacvali
mosaxleobisaTvis iTvaliswinebda grZelvadian sesxebsac, raTa maT Tavad
SeeZinaT axali saxlebi. magram, es stiqiuri ubedureba maSin moxda, roca
11
mTavrobis rezolucia # 2, 3, 4, 1987w.
gamoyofili iqna sakmarisi finansebi, rom mTavroba adgilnacval ojaxebs daxmareboda. TiToeul
ojaxs 4,000 rubls an ojaxis TiToeul wevrs 500 rubls aZlevdnen. maT aseve ufasod uzrunvelyofdnen
avejiT da samzareulos mowyobilobebiT. garda amisa, maT SeeZloT aeRoT SeRavaTiani uprocento sesxi
4,000 rublis odenobiT.
13 ministrTa sabWos sainformacio saagento, stiqia da adamianebi [Стихия и люди], Tbilisi: sabWoTa
saqarTvelo, 1987, gv. 235.
14 44 saxli mTlianad daingra, xolo 1,152 dazianda. garda amisa, 3,250 ha. miwa sasoflo-sameurneo
saqmianobisaTvis gamousadegari gaxda. Tamaz futkaraZe aWaris mosaxleobis migraciis..., gv. 75.
12
12
sabWoTa kavSiri ukve daSlis zRvarze idga. ase rom, procesi saTanadod ar
gakontrolda. aWaraSi uSualod stiqiuri ubedurebis Semdgom geologiuri
daskvnebis
gacemis
procesi
korufciis
maRali
xarisxiT
xasiaTdeboda.
Sedegad, gansaxlebis programis farglebSi bevrma iseTma adamianma miiRo
gadasaxlebis ufleba, visac uSualod ar Sexebia stiqia da ubralod miwis da
qonebis miReba surda.15 albaT nawilobriv amiT SeiZleba aixsnas ukumigraciis
is maRali maCveneblebi, rac gadasaxlebis Semdgom wlebSi dafiqsirda (ix. gv.
33). bevr axaldasaxlebuls hqonda arCevani, dabrunebuliyo sakuTar saxlSi,
aWaraSi, Tuki ver SeZlebda, kargad morgeboda axal sacxovrebel garemos.
metic,
maT
SeeZloT
ekonomikuri
sargebeli
mieRoT
axaldasaxlebis
adgilebSi maTi arsebuli qonebis oficialurad Tu araoficialurad gayidvis
an gaqiravebis Sedegad. amis yvelaze naTeli magaliTia is, rac potenciuri
aWareli
ekomigrantebisaTvis
adgilas,
TeTriwyaros
savargulebiT
da
erT-erT
raionSi
saZovrebiT.
moxda.
sofel
yvelaze
es
mimzidvel
raioni
daniSnulebis
mdidaria
SavsaydarSi
20
saxnav-saTesi
saxli
aaSenes
ekomigranti ojaxebisaTvis, romlebic sofelSi realurad Camovidnen, magram
or-sam weliwadSi maT gayides an ubralod datoves es saxlebi. axali saxlebi
ki adgilobrivma mcxovreblebma iyides an daikaves.
saxelmwifo programis sawyis etapze aWaridan Camosaxlebulma 943-ma ojaxma
SeZlo
saxlis
gulisxmobda
yidva
saxelmwifo
sruliad
axali
infrastruqturiTa
da
sesxiT.
saxelmwifo
dasaxlebebis
instituciebiT;
programa
mSeneblobas,
grZelvadiani
agreTve
srulyofili
dabalprocentiani
sesxebis gacemas adgilnacvali mosaxleobisaTvis, raTa maT sakuTari ZalebiT
SeZlebodaT
saxlebis
aSeneba;
aseve
adgilnacvali
pirebis
Sesaxlebas
adgilobrivi mcxovreblebis mier mitovebul saxlebSi.16
stiqiuri ubedurebebis msxverplT, Casaxlebis raionebSi saxlebi ufasod
eZleodaT.17 yoveli ekomigranti ojaxi iRebda 0.25 h. sakarmidamo da 0.25 h.
15
interviu xulos raionis gamgeobis ltolvilTa da gansaxlebisa ganyofilebis ufros
kaxaZesTan, 6 oqtomberi, 2006 w.
16 Tamaz futkaraZe, aWaris mosaxleobis migraciis...…, gv. 75-77.
17 saqarTvelos ssr ministrTa sabWos 1988 wlis 12 ianvris # 14-r dadgenilebis mixedviT.
guram
13
saxnav-saTes miwis nakveTs. garda amisa, ekomigrantebs saSualeba hqondaT,
damatebiT, ijariT aeRoT miwis nakveTi. mTavroba aseve TiToeul ojaxs
daxmarebis saxiT 4,000 rubls da avejs aZlevda. garda amisa, ojaxebs 4,000
rublis odenobis uprocento sesxi eZleodaT saqonlis sadgomebisa Tu sxva
daniSnulebis saTavsoebis asagebad.18
ekomigrantebisaTvis gankuTvnil axal saxlebSi oTaxebis raodenoba ojaxis
wevrebis
raodenobis
etapebze
xelisufleba
gadmosaxlebuli
mixedviT
ganisazRvreboda.
Tvlida,
rom
axal
soflebSi
ojaxebi
erTi
Camosaxlebis
soflidan
erTad
unda
Tu
adreul
qalaqidan
dasaxlebuliyvnen.
magaliTad, mestiis raionis sofel xaiSidan Camosaxlebuli ojaxebi erTad
daasaxles TeTriwyaros raionis sofel durnukSi, romelsac saxeli Seecvala
da axali xaiSi ewoda. saxelmwifos mier aSenebuli saxlebi ori tipisaa:
qvemo qarTlSi aSenebuli saxlebi, Cveulebriv, orsarTuliania 6-10 oTaxiTa
da aivniT. qvemo qarTlisagan gansxvavebiT, javaxeTsa da saqarTvelos sxva
nawilebSi
saxlebi
cudi
proeqtiT
aSenda
_
gansxvavebul
doneebze
ganlagebuli oTaxebi Sida kibeebiT ukavSirdeboda erTmaneTs. ekonomikur
krizisSi myofi xelisufleba cdilobda, mSeneblobis procesis Rirebuleba
Seemcirebina arsebuli proeqtebis struqturis darRvevisa da ukve dawyebul
saxlebSi
mTliani
sacxovrebeli
farTis
Semcirebis
xarjze.
saxlis
mSeneblobis Rirebulebam daaxloebiT 45,000-55,000 rubls miaRwia. saxlebis
xarisxi sakaod dabali iyo da dRes _ daaxloebiT ori aTeuli wlis Semdeg _
Senobebi dabzarulia da bevr maTgans safuZvliani rekonstruqcia sWirdeba.
ltolvilTa
da
gansaxlebis
saministros
yovelwliuri
angariSis
(2006)
mixedviT, 1980-iani wlebis dasawyisidan saxelmwifo programis farglebSi
saqarTvelos
17
raionSi
55
axali
soflis
aSeneba
iyo
gansazRvruli.
mTlianobaSi 5,094 saxli unda aSenebuliyo, Tumca faqtobrivad mxolod 3,090
aSenda, romelTaganac 2,723 dasaxlebulia, xolo darCenili 367 Senoba an
carielia, an sxvebis mier aris dakavebuli. 280 dagegmili saxlis mSenebloba
saerTod ar dawyebula, xolo 1,724 saxli dausrulebeli darCa.
18
igive
14
saxelmwifo programebis farglebSi svaneTidan da aWaridan Camosaxlebul
ekomigrantebs
saxelmwifos
mier
maTTvis
gamoyofili
saxlebis
gayidvis
ufleba ar hqondaT 25 wlis ganmavlobaSi. garda amisa, axali saxlebis
registracia ekomigrantebis saxelze mxolod im SemTxvevaSi iyo SesaZlebeli,
Tu ojaxis yvela wevri amoewereboda Tavisi Zveli sacxovrebeli adgilidan,
romelic
geologiuri
sacxovreblad
Tu
uvargisad
hidrometeorologiuri
iqna
miCneuli.
Tumca,
daskvnebis
safuZvelze
sakmaod
racionalur
am
winapirobas saTanado yuradReba ar mieqca. rogorc sabWoTa periodSi, ise
SevardnaZis mmarTvelobis dros, ekomigrantebs saSualeba hqondaT, Tavis Zvel
saxlebs dahbrunebodnen; amdenad, rig SemTxvevebSi maT ormagi registracia
hqondaT da ukan dabrunebulT xelaxla SeeZloT daxmarebis Txovna.19
1991
wels
saqarTveloSi
ekonomikuri
da
aramyari
damoukideblobis
politikuri
gamocxadebis
situacia
Semdeg,
susti
saxelmwifos
imis
SesaZleblobas ar aZlevda, rom gansaxlebis gegmebi ganxorcielebuliyo.
metic,
xelisuflebas
ar
SeeZlo
im
saxlebis
mSeneblobis
dasruleba,
romlebic ukve dawyebuli iyo da romlebsac axali mflobelebi elodnen. aman
ekomigrantebs aSkarad seriozuli problemebi Seuqmna; problemebi, romlebsac
kidev ufro aRrmavebda susti koordinacia da informaciis TiTqmis sruli
ararseboba. bevrma migrantma mxolod dasaxlebis axal adgilebSi Casvlisas
aRmoaCina, rom maTi saxlebi an dasrulebuli ar iyo, an saerTod ar iyo
aSenebuli.
mTavrobis
daxmarebis
molodinSi,
zogjer
xelisufalTa
mier
daimedebuli mravali ojaxi axali gansaxlebis adgilebSi rCeboda da an
TveobiT
Tu
wlobiT
droebiT
TavSesafarSi
cxovrobda,
an
sakuTari
saxsrebiT qiraobda sacxovrebel farTs. aseT pirobebSi bevrma ekomigrantma
sabolood yvelanairi imedi dakarga da aWaris mSobliur sofelSi dabrunda
naTesavebTan.
konkretuli
radgan
gegma
an
ar
arsebobda
saxelmwifo
ekomigrantebis
programa
da
gansaxlebis
mimReb
raime
regionebs
ki
zemoxsenebuli problemebi hqondaT saxlebTan dakavSirebiT, mTeli 1990-iani
wlebis
19interviu
ganmavlobaSi
SeimCneoda
mravali
ekomigrantis
ukan
dabrunebis
lentexis raionis gamgebel soso qurasbedianTan, 5 ivnisi, 2006 w.
15
tendencia.
samTavrobo
struqturebis
mxridan
ignorirebis
poziciam
ekomigrantebSi imedgacrueba warmoSva.20
daxmareba arasamTavrobo struqturebis mxridan
sabWoTa kavSiris arsebobis bolo wlebSi qarTvelma erovnulma aqtivistebma
ramdenime organzacia daafuZnes. erTi aseTi organizacia iyo saqarTvelos
saadgilmamulo, mosaxleobis gansaxlebisa da daxmarebis fondi, romelic
qarTuli erovnuli moZraobis erT-erTi pirveli lideris, merab kostavas
iniciativiT
sabWos
daarsda
dadgenilebis
1989
wlis
seqtemberSi
Sesabamisad.21
fondi
saqarTvelos
Seiqna
rogorc
ssr
ministrTa
saqvelmoqmedo
organizacia. 1989 wlis oqtomberSi _ merab kostavas gardacvalebis Semdeg _
fonds misi mTavari damaarseblis saxeli daerqva: merab kostavas saxelobis
saqarTvelos
saadgilmamulo,
mosaxleobis
gansaxlebisa
da
daxmarebis
fondi.22
20
rac Seexeba aWaras, mTlianobaSi daaxloebiT 4,343 ojaxi iqna gadmosaxlebuli xulos raionidan, 1,696
Suaxevis raionidan da 112 qedis raionidan. maTgan, 1989 wlidan moyolebuli, xuloSi dabrunda 534
ojaxi, SuaxevSi _ 277 ojaxi, xolo qedaSi _ 35 ojaxi (qedisa da Suaxevis raionebis gamgeobaTa mier
mowodebuli masalebis mixedviT). dabrunebulTa umetesobam datova samegrelos, imereTis, guriis
regionebi, aseve axalqalaqi, gardabani da marneuli (qvemo qarTli). saubrebma aWaraSi dabrunebul
migrantebTan da baTumis saxelmwifo universitetis profesor, aWaraSi migraciis sakiTxebis eqspert
profesor Tamaz futkaraZesTan gviCvena, rom eTnikurad qarTuli regionebidan _ samegrelodan,
imereTidan da guriidan 2-3 wlis ganmavlobaSi ekomigrantTa ukan dabrunebis mizezebi Semdegia: 1)
saxlebi, romelTa aSenebis piroba xelisuflebam 1980-iani wlebis bolosa da 1990-iani wlebis
dasawyisSi dado, ar dasrulda. axal regionebSi Casaxlebuli ekomigrantebi iZulebuli iyvnen, droebiT
sacxovrebelSi ecxovraT mTavrobis mier mSeneblobis dasrulebis imediT (rac realurad ar
ganxorcielda, da migrantebma, romlebic ukan ar dabrundnen, sakuTari ZalebiT daasrules saxlebis
mSenebloba). 2) dasavleT saqarTvelos regionebis, guriis, imereTisa da samegrelos ekonomika metwilad
citrusebisa da Cais masStabur moyvanaze iyo damyarebuli. magram sabWoTa kavSiris daSlas mrewvelobis
bevri dargis rRveva mohyva da maT Soris soflis meurneobis iseTi dargebisac, rogorebic
mecitruseoba da meCaieoba iyo. Sedegad, marto ekomigrantebi ki ara, aramed mkvidri mosaxleobis didi
nawilic umuSevari da siRatakemede miyvanili aRmoCnda. dRemde guria, samegrelo da nawilobriv
imereTic saqarTvelos uRaribes regionebadaa miCneuli. 3) qveyana CaTreuli iyo eTnikur da samoqalaqo
omebSi, romlis erT-erTi epicentri swored afxazeTis mosazRvre samegrelo iyo. ase rom, autanelma
politikurma, socialurma da ekonomikurma pirobebma bevri ekomigranti aiZula, mSobliur mxareSi
dabrunebuliyo (detaluri informaciisaTvis ix. cxrili 5).
1989-1998 wlebSi xulos raionSi dabrunebul da 1987-2006 wlebSi SuaxevSi dabrunebul ekomigrantTa
Sesaxeb monacemebi mogvawodes xulosa da Suaxevis raionebis migraciisa da veteranTa saqmeebis
ganyofilebebma (detaluri informaciisaTvis ixileT cxrili 5).
21 miiRes rogorc Sesworeba #1 saqarTvelos saadgilmamulo, mosaxleobis gansaxlebisa da daxmarebis
fondis sakrebulos sxdomaze. (1989w. 1 seqtemberi) da registrirebul iqna saqarTvelos ssr ministrTa
sabWos #528 dadgenilebiT (1 noemberi, 1989 w).
22 kostavas fondis kidev erTi damfuZnebeli iyo vaJa adamia, romelic 1990 wels saqarTvelos uzenaesi
sabWos wevri gaxda da kvlav parlamentis wevri iyo 1992-1994 wlebSi. sxva damfuZneblebi iyvnen
politikosebi da erovnuli aqtivistebi, romlebic Tavdapirvelad mrgval magidasTan asocirdebodnen
(gamsaxurdias politikuri bloki), magram 1991 wlis agvistoSi gaemijnnen gamsaxurdias.
16
fondis
wesdebaSi
saxelobis
Camoyalibebuli
saqarTvelos
principebis
saadgilmamulo,
mixedviT
mosaxleobis
merab
kostavas
gansaxlebisa
da
daxmarebis fondi miwas unawilebda qarTvel mosaxleobas.23 fondis mizani iyo
`daxmareboda
ekologiuri
gamoeyvana
ezruna
saqarTvelos
mdgomareoba
qveyana;
qvrivebze,
erovnuli
iyo;
oblebze,
qristianuli,
usaxsro
konteqstSi
regionebi”
gulisxmobda
da
rTuli
da
demografiuli
ekonomikuri
saqvelmoqmedo
ojaxis
Tu
krizisidan
saqmianoba
mzrunvelobis
da
gareSe
24
programisa
cxovrebis
sadac
demografiuli
ewarmoebina
darCenil moxucebulebze”.
fondis
regionebs,
fraza
da
1990-ianebis
“demografiuli
regionebs,
dasawyisis
politikuri
TvalsazrisiT
problemuri
dasaxlebuls
upiratesad
erovnuli
umciresobebiT, anu afxazeTs, javaxeTs da qvemo qarTls. radgan es regionebi
saqarTvelos
kritikuli
gare
sazRvris
mniSvnelobis
gaswvriv
sakiTxad
mdebareobs,
Tvlidnen
am
erovnuli
moRvaweebi
teritoriebze
eTnikurad
qarTuli mosaxleobis warmomadgenlobis gaZlierebas, raTa gaeneitralebinaT
mezobeli saxelmwifoebis, magaliTad, somxeTisa da azerbaijanis pretenziebi
am teritoriebze da Tavidan aecilebinaT separatistuli tendenciebi.
am politikuri areulobis periodSi saqarTveloSi bevri politikuri partia
da organizacia daarsda. es opoziciuri Zalebi xSirad zustad gansazRvruli
mizniT
iqmneboda,
istoriuli
magaliTad,
Zeglebisa
da
ekologiuri
Senobebis
problemebis
dacvis
mizniT.25
gadasawyvetad
mzardi
an
erovnuli
moZraobis saerTo TvalsazrisiT, is faqti, rom eTnikuri qarTvelebi qveynis
23
merab kostavas saxelobis saqarTvelos saadgilmamulo, mosaxleobis gansaxlebisa da daxmarebis
fondi. 1989 wlis 1 seqtembris wesdebis mixedviT, fondis mTavari amocanebi da miznebi iyo: a)
saqarTvelos
erovnuli
aRorZinebis
xelSewyoba
saqarTvelos
ssr
teritoriaze
arsebuli
kanonmdeblobis Sesabamisad; b) miwis fondis Seqmna, romelic fonds gadaecemoda SeuzRudavi
sargeblobis uflebiT; g) saxlebis fondis Seqmna saqarTvelos ssr teritoriaze moqmedi saxelmwifo
da sazogadoebrivi organizaciebisagan da aseve mosaxleobisagan saxlebis Sesyidvis meSveobiT da
saxlebis aSenebis gziT; d) demografiuli TvalsazrisiT problemuri regionebis, bunebrivi
kataklizmebis msxverplTa, upatrono moxucebulTa, respublikaSi da mis farglebs gareT myof
studentTa da mravalSviliani ojaxebis daxmareba.
24 igive.
25 magaliTad, erovnuli moZraobis erT-erTi sakvanZo amocana iyo azerbaijanis sazRvarTan ganlagebuli
daviT garejis samonastro kompleqsis dacva. am istoriul Zegls safrTxes uqmnida mis maxloblad
ganlagebul samxedro poligonze mimdinare samxedro wvrTnebi, radgan Wurvebs xSirad kompleqss
uSendnen. vandalizmis aseTma aqtebma sxvadasxva erovnuli politikuri partiebis mobilizacia
gamoiwvia.
17
yvela mxareSi ar warmoadgendnen mosaxleobis absolutur umravlesobas,
saqarTvelos ganviTarebis umTavresi Semaferxebeli faqtori iyo. ramdenime
politikuri partia am sakiTxis gadaWras iuridiuli pirebisa da fondebis
meSveobiT cdilobda, romelTa daxmarebiTac finansur resursebs izidavdnen.
sxvadasxva politikuri organizaciebi zewolas axdendnen mTavrobaze, rom
misgan advilad mieRoT dafinanseba da amave dros zegavlenasac axdendnen mis
politikaze.26 marTlac, merab kostavas fondi am organizaciaTagan erT-erTi
yvelaze
gavleniani
iyo.
misi
saqmianoba
saxelmwifo
saagentoebze
da
nebayoflobiT kerZoO Semowirulobebze iyo dafuZnebuli. 1989-1991 wlebis
periodSi am Tanxebma 35 milion rubls miaRwia. Tavdapirvelad fuladi
saxsrebi
saqarTvelos sxvadasxva regionebSi TavSesafris gareSe darCenili
ojaxebisaTvis saxlebis yidvasa da aSenebaze ixarjeboda.
sabWoTa
kavSiris
rRvevis
Semdgom
ekonomikur
27
krizisTan
erTad
da
nacionalisturi, xSirad ki qsenofobiuri politikis gavleniT, romelmac
saqarTvelo
bevrma
moicva
1990-iani
warmomadgenelma
eTnikuri
berZnebis
wlebis
iwyo
Tems
dasawyisSi,
saqarTvelodan
walkisa
da
erovnuli
emigracia.
axalqalaqis
umciresobebis
emigracia
Seexo
raionebSi,
rusi
duxoborebis Tems ninowmindis raionSi, avarelTa Tems yvarlis raionSi, aseve
samcxe-javaxeTisa da qvemo qarTlis somxur da azerbaijanul Temebs. am
wlebSi
somexTa
da
azerbaijanelTa
emigracia
sakmaod
didi
iyo.
amave
periodSi saqarTvelos sxva regionebidan rusebis, berZnebis da ebraelebis
didma raodenobam datova qveyana.28
sanam erovnuli umciresobebis warmomadgenelebi sakuTar qonebas yiddnen da
qveynidan wasasvlelad emzadebodnen, kostavas fondi emigrantebisagan
iafad
yidulobda
saxlebs
ekomigrantebis
an
sxva
Zalze
potenciuri
mosaxleebisaTvis.29 fondis programa ekomigrantTa daxmarebis sxva zomebsac
26
mTavroba mosaxleobas da sxva organizaciebs mouwodebda, fuladi Sewirulobebi gaeRoT aseTi
fondebisaTvis da male mTeli saqarTvelo moicva humanitarulma aqciebma.
27 interviu kostavas fondis Tavmjdomaris movaleobis Semsrulebel daviT kupreiSvilTan, 11 marti,
2006 w.
28 detaluri informaciisaTvis ixileT cxrili 1 danarTSi.
29 interviu kostavas fondis Tavmjdomaris movaleobis Semsrulebel daviT kupreiSvilTan, 11 marti,
2006 w.
18
iTvaliswinebda, Tumca realurad sacxovrebeli saxlebisa da 0.15-dan 0.25
heqtaramde
sakarmidamo
miwis
garda
fondi
verafriT
exmareboda
maT.
imisaTvis, rom gaekontrolebinaT beneficiaris (mimRebis) damkvidreba axal
sacxovrisze,
fondis
mflobelobaSi
ar
saadgilmamulo,
mier
SeZenili
gadadioda.
saxlebi
saqarTvelos
mosaxleobis
ekomigrantebis
merab
gansaxlebisa
da
kostavas
daxmarebis
srul
saxelobis
fondi
im
pirebisaTvis, visac sacxovrebeli sWirdeboda, saxlebis SeTavazebis orgvar
proceduras
iyenebda:
pirveli
gulisxmobda
erovnuli
umciresobebis
warmomadgeneli emigrantebisagan saxlebis Sesyidvas. es saxlebi gadaecemoda
SeWirvebul qarTvel mosaxleobas, ekomigrantebis CaTvliT. axalmosaxleebs
saxlis dakavebis grZelvadiani ufleba eniWebodaT, magram saxlis Sesyidvis
Rirebuleba gadaxdili unda yofiliyo fondisa da gadmosaxlebuli ojaxis
urTierTSeTanxmebis
iTvaliswinebda
konkretuli
Sedegad
gansazRvrul
grZelvadiani
saxlebis
vadaSi.
dabalprocentiani
SesaZenad.
fuladi
meore
procedura
sesxebis
gamoyofas
Tanxebis
raime
saxiT
aradaniSnulebisamebr xarjvis an daudevrobis Tavidan asacileblad fondma
angariSebi gaxsna saxlebis gamyidvelTaTvis da Tanxis gadaricxva pirdapir
am angariSebze xdeboda. saxlebis gadacemasTan dakavSirebiT, fondi orive
SemTxvevaSi Semdegi pirobebis gaTvaliswinebiT debda xelSekrulebas: saxli
da
sakarmidamo
Tanxmobis
gareSe.
miwa
ase
ar
SeiZleboda
rom,
gayiduliyo
axalmosaxleebs
fondis
saxlebis
sruli
werilobiTi
iuridiuli
gankargvis ufleba ar eniWebodaT.30 sesxis mTlianad dafarvis Semdegac ki,
fonds
rCeboda
marTvis
ufleba,
xolo
saxlis
gayidvis
mcdelobis
SemTxvevaSi fonds hqonda upiratesi Sesyidvis ufleba.
kostavas
fonds
gaunawilebia.
Sesyiduli
isini
saxlebi
exmarebodnen
sxva
mxolod
iseT
ekomigrantebisaTvis
jgufebsac,
ar
rogorebicaa
SeWirvebuli ojaxebi da mravalSviliani ojaxebi. fondi jer kidev flobs
ramdenime aseul heqtar miwas saqarTvelos sxvadasxva regionebSi, magaliTad,
30
igive
19
daaxloebiT 250 heqtars qvemo qarTlSi, marneulis raionSi.31 mTlianobaSi
1989-1991 wlebSi kostavas fondma daaxloebiT 800 saxli Seisyida mTeli
saqarTvelos masStabiT, afxazeTis CaTvliT. am 800 saxlidan daaxloebiT 300320 ekomigrantebs gadaecaT.32 samcxe-javaxeTSi da, gansakuTrebiT, ninowmindis
raionSi,
fondma 258 saxli Seisyida ekomigrantebisa da sxva SeWirvebuli
ojaxebisaTvis (maT Soris 217 ninowmindis raionSi) fondma aWaridan wamosul
ekomigrantebs
ninowmindis
raionSi
gamouyo
saxlebi,
xolo
svaneTidan
wamosul ekomigrantebs _ afxazeTsa da qvemo qarTlSi.33
cxrili 1: merab kostavas fondis mier ekomigrantebisa da sxva SeWirvebuli
mosaxleobisaTvis gamoyofili saxlebis mdebareoba da raodenoba.34
raioni
saxlebis
raodenoba
adigenis raioni
6
axalcixis raioni
29
marneulis raioni
8
bolnisis raioni
15
mestiis raioni
5
walenjixis raioni
1
onis raioni
1
mcxeTis raioni
5
TianeTis raioni
1
yvarlis raioni
8
senakis raioni
1
ninowmindas raioni
217
31
igive. unda aRiniSnos, rom, marTalia, im periodis kanonmdebloba krZalavda sazRvridan 21
kilometris radiusSi miwis Sesyidvas, magram fondisTvis daiSva gamonaklisi, radgan mTavrobis bevri
lideri kostavas fondisa da kostavas sazogadoebis wevri iyo.
32
interviu kostavas fondis Tavmjdomaris movaleobis Semsrulebel daviT kupreiSvilTan, 15
seqtemberi, 2006 w.
33 igive.
34 merab kostavas saxelobis saadgilmamulo, mosaxleobis gansaxlebisa da daxmarebis fondis mier 2006
wlis 25 seqtembers mowodebuli monacemebi. dmanisis raionis gamgeobis mowodebuli monacemebis
mixedviT, mTavrobam, kostavas fondma da rusTavelis sazogadoebam damatebiT 575 saxli Seisyides.
kostavas fondis mier afxazeTSi Sesyiduli saxlebis Sesaxeb monacemebi xelmiuwvdomelia.
20
axalqalaqis raioni
6
ninowmindis raionis mkacri klimatis gamo javaxeTi `saqarTvelos cimbiris~
saxeliT aris cnobili
da Tanac axalmosulebTan adgilobrivi mosaxleobis
Zalze uaryofiTi damokidebulebis gamo ekomigrantebs zogadad ar hqondaT iq
Casaxlebis
survili.
1990-1995
wlebSi
javaxeTSi
politikuri
situacia
arastabiluri iyo, xolo centralurma xelisuflebam regionze faqtobrivad
kontroli dakarga. eTnikuri qarTveli migrantebi Tvlidnen, rom isini aq
safrTxeSi
aRmoCndebodnen.
ase
rom,
am
regionSi
Casaxlebis
procesis
xelSewyobis mizniT fondi cdilobda, xelsayreli pirobebi Seeqmna maTTvis,
vinc am regionis soflebSi dasaxldeboda. aq saxlebis gadacema usasyidlod
xorcieldeboda, kreditis dabrunebis nebismieri pirobis gareSe, Tumca axal
mflobelebs ufleba ar hqondaT, gaeyidaT an gaeqiravebinaT saxlebi 25 wlis
ganmavlobaSi.
xolo
im
SemTxvevaSi,
Tu
isini
saxlebis
datovebas
gadawyvetdnen, fondisgan unda mieRoT dasturi gadaadgilebaze, raTa mas
saxlebi
sxva
ojaxebisTvis
SeeTavazebina.
miuxedavad
imisa,
rom
fondma
ninowmindaSi 217 saxli Seisyida,35 am raodenobidan sinamdvileSi mxolod 68
saxli
gadavida
axali
mflobelebis
xelSi,
romlebsac
ekomigrantebi,
SeWirvebuli ojaxebi da mravalSviliani ojaxebi warmoadgendnen.36 danarCeni
saxlebi an carieli darCa, an isini adgilobrivma somxebma daikaves.
kidev
erTi
kerZo
organizacia,
romelic
ekomigrantebs
exmareboda,
iyo
rusTavelis sazogadoeba, romelic 1989 wlis martSi dafuZnda da romelic
ZiriTadad
qvemo
organizaciamac
sazogadoebisa
qarTlSi
SeiZina
da
repatriaciis
saxlebi
fondisgan
sakiTxebze
ekomigrantTaTvis,
gansxvavebiT,
muSaobda.
magram,
rusTavelis
am
kostavas
sazogadoeba
ekomigrantebs saxlebs sruliad usasyidlod gadascemda, nebismieri vadebisa
da pirobebis gareSe. bevrma ekomigrantma, vinc amgvari saxiT miiRo qoneba
35 igive. 14 saxli daba ninowmindaSi, 31 spasovkaSi, 36 efremovkaSi, 20 orlovkaSi, 47 gorelovkaSi da 69
samebaSi.
36 es iyo: 19 saxli spasovkaSi, 6 efremovkaSi, 4 orlovkaSi, 18 gorelovkaSi da 15 samebaSi.
21
rusTavelis sazogadoebisagan, mogvianebiT gayida es uZravi qoneba da regioni
datova.37
saxelmwifo programebi
programebi SevardnaZis periodSi
1991-1993
wlebidan
saqarTvelom
mravali
eTnopolitikuri
konfliqti
da
sisxliani samoqalaqo omi gadaitana. am periodSi ekomigrantebi, iseve rogorc
sazogadoebis sxva wevrebi, saxelmwifom sruliad miiviwya. es ekologiuri
migrantebis
ukumigraciis
yvelaze
maRali
maCveneblis
mqone
wlebia,
gansakuTrebiT samegrelodan _ regionidan, romelic konfliqtebis epicentrSi
iyo moqceuli. es iyo aseve periodi, rodesac mrewveloba, soflis meurneoba
da
vaWroba
mniSvnelovnad
gauaresda
da
ekonomika
kolafsis
zRvarze
imyofeboda. aseT viTarebaSi marTlac Zalze Zneli iyo ekomigrantTaTvis
Tavis Senaxva da axal garemosTan adaptireba. 1993 wlis bolos, samoqalaqo
omis dasrulebis Semdegac ki, socialur-politikuri da ekonomikuri situacia
qveyanaSi imdenad mZime iyo, rom xelisuflebas Zala ar Seswevda ekomigraciis
procesebis marTvis raime programa ganexorcielebina.
Tumca 1992 wlis ianvarSi dawyebuli miwis reforma 1998 wlamde gagrZelda.
reformis mTavari mizani iyo saxelmwifo mflobelobaSi myofi sasoflosameurneo
daniSnulebis
miwis
gadacema
kerZo
sakuTrebaSi.
am
periodSi
sxvadasxva raionebSi dasaxlebul ekomigrantTa uravlesobam saxlebi da 0.151.25 heqtari nakveTebi miiRo. ekomigrantebma miwis nakeTebi sxva moqalaqeebTan
Tanabar pirobebSi miiRes. xolo rac Seexeba saxnav-saTesi miwis ijaras,
ekomigrantebs iseve hqondaT miwis ijariT aRebis ufleba, rogorc soflis
sxva mcxovreblebs.38 miwis sakiTxi ufro detalurad iqneba ganxiluli am
dokumentis bolo nawilSi.
SevardnaZis wlebSi mTavroba mxolod gamonaklis SemTxvevebSi akmayofilebda
ekomigrantebs sacxovrebliT. 1997
wels SevardnaZem prezidentis brZaneba
37
interviu merab kostavas fondis Tavmjdomaris movaleobis Semsrulebel daviT kupreiSvilTan, 15
seqtemberi, 2006 w.
38
ix. miwis mesakuTreTa uflebebis dacvis asociacia. miwaTsargeblobis sakiTxebze erovnuli
umciresobebisa da ekomigrantebis uflebebis samarTlebrivi analizi, 2006 w.
22
gamosca,
romlis
mixedviTac
walkis
raionSi
dacarielebuli
saxlebis
SesyidvisaTvis daaxloebiT 3 milioni aSS dolari gamoyves. saxlebi SearCies
da
Seafases,
magram
realurad
mxolod
maTi
mcire
nawili
Seisyides.
gamoyofili Tanxebis didi nawili ki ukvalod gaqra.39 mogvianebiT, 2002 wels
prezidentma 160,000 lari gamoyo Tavisi saprezidento fondidan ninowmindis
raionis sofel spasovkaSi 22 saxlis SesyidvisaTvis. es saxlebi iyides im
migrantTa
dasaxmareblad,
naTesavebTan
dasaxlda.
saministros
daevala,
vinc
1990-ian
saxlebis
Tumca
wlebSi
Sesyidva
realurad
Cavida
ltolvilTa
mxolod
11
am
regionSi
da
da
gansaxlebis
saxli
Seisyides.
savaraudod korufciis gamo danarCeni saxlebis SesyidvisaTvis gamoyofili
Tanxebi ubralod aorTqlda. am procesSi CarTuli soflebi adgilobriv
xelisuflebas adanaSaulebdnen, xolo es ukanasknelni _ ltolvilTa da
gansaxlebis
saministros waromadgenlebs.
damoukideblobis
gamocxadebis
Semdeg
pirveli
saprezidento
brZaneba
ekomigraciis sakiTxebTan dakavSirebiT 1998 wels gamoica. brZaneba miznad
isaxavda ekomigrantebis socialuri da iuridiuli poroblemebis gadaWras da
iTvaliswinebda
ekologiuri
migraciis
procesebis
monitoringis
sistemis
Seqmnas. pirvel etapze monitoringma saqarTvelos 17 raioni moicva, xolo
meore etapze walkisa da ninowmindis raionebic.40
minitoringi miznad isaxavda mTavrobis mier aSenebuli saxlebis mdgomareobis
Seswavlas da saqarTvelos mTiani regionebidan CamosaxlebulTa raodenobis
dadgenas.
mTavrobis
RonisZiebebma
da
monitoringma
gamoavlina,
rom
1987
wlidan moyolebuli, 4,284 ojaxi aRiWurva uflebiT, rom axali saxlebi
mieRoT mTavrobisgan.41 Tumca realurad mxolod 2,880 ojaxi dabinavda da
3,090 saxli aigo. vinaidan bevri saxli dausrulebeli darCa, 1,155 ojaxi
39
jonaTan uiTli, konfliqtis ganeitraleba walkis raionSi, saqarTveloSi: migracia, saerTaSoriso
intervencia da saxelmwifos roli (ECMI naSromi No.36, dekemberi 2006) gv. 9
40brZanebuleba #67 - “1987 wlidan dawyebuli stiqiuri ubedurebebis Sedegad dazaralebuli ojaxebis
socaluri da iuridiuli problemebis gadawyvetis saxelmwifo programis (1998-2005)“ Sesaxeb.
41 4,284 ojaxidan, 2,094 iyo svaneTidan, 2,145 ojaxi aWaridan da 45 ojaxi saCxeris raionidan (zemo
imereTi).
23
YTavis Zvel saxlebSi ganagrZobda cxovrebas svaneTsa da aWaraSi.42 walkis
raionis 16 sofelSi migrantebis sami kategoria ganirCeva: a) ekomigrantebi, b)
raionis
SigniT
gadaadgilebuli
pirebi
da
g)
sakuTari
iniciativiT
Camosaxlebuli pirebi.43
marTalia,
monitoringis
ekomigrantebis
gadadgmuli
es
winaSe
mdgari
pirveli
nabiji,
programa
mniSvnelovani
problemebisaTvis
magram
iyo,
rogorc
yuradRebis
programa,
miqcevisken
rogorc
aseTi,
ar
iTvaliswinebda raime Tanmimdevruli zomebis gatarebas. ar gadaidga momdevno
nabijebi adgilnacval pirTa pirobebis gasaumjobeseblad
da programa aseve
ar Seexo im ekomigrantTa problemebs, romelTac 1990-ian wlebSi dakarges
sakuTari saxlebi an miwa. mokled, miuxedavad imisa, rom damoukideblobis
Semdgomi
areuloba
aRdgena
iwyo,
ekomigrantebs
garkveul
1995-2002
an
maT,
wilad
wlebis
visac
Cawynarda
monakveTma
saxifaTo
da
ekonomikam
nel-nela
araferi
moutana
axali
zonebidan
saswrafo
gadasaxleba
sWirdeboda. mTavrobas ar hqonda Camoyalibebuli raime realuri strategia an
programa ekomigrantTa problemebis gadasawyvetad.
gansaxleba “vardebis
“vardebis revoluciis” Semdeg
2004 wlidan, mas Semdeg, rac arCeul iqna prezidenti m. saakaSvili da
dakompleqtda
garkveuli
axali
ministrTa
mcdelobebi
kabineti,
ganaxocriela
saqarTvelos
axalma
ekomigrantTa
mTavrobam
problemebis
gadasaWrelad. „vardebis revoluciis“ Semdeg ltolvilTa da gansaxlebis
pirvelma ministrma, eTer astemirovam safuZveli daudo saqarTvelos mTian
42
2,880 ojaxidan, 1,790 iyo svaneTidan, 1,045 aWaridan da 45 ojaxi saCxeridan. monitoringma agreTve
aCvena, rom 2,880 ekomigranti ojaxidan, 266 droebiT TavSesafarSi cxovrobda, radgan maTi saxlebi
dasrulebuli ar iyo. am 266 ojaxidan 20 vagonebSi an sakuTari xeliT aSenebul xis saxlebSi
cxovrobda. monitoringis jgufi agreTve waawyda migrantebis mxridan saxlebis araoficialuri
gaqiravbis ramdenime faqts. garda amisa, 178 saxli aramigrant adgilobriv mosaxleobas hqonda
dakavebuli. unda aRiniSnos, rom es cifrebi ar Seesabameba ltolvilTa da gansaxlebis saministros
2006 wlis monacemebs (citireba gv. 13)
43 “g” kategorias ekuTvnian ojaxebi, romelTac 1989 wels aWaraSi momxdari stiqiuri ubedurebis Semdeg
axalqalaqis raionSi gamouyves saxlebi, Tumca maT datoves, gayides an qveijariT gasces es saxlebi da
walkaSi gadavidnen. garda amisa, monitoringis dros aRmoCnda, rom arian migrantebi xobis raionidan
(sofeli dedalauri), romlebic maT mSobliur raionSi stiqiuri ubedurebis Semdeg gadasaxlebulni
iyvnen walkis raionSi; aseve guriidan sakuTari iniciativiT, ekonomikuri pirobebis gaumjobesebis
mizniT gadasaxlebulebi. Tamaz futkaraZe, aWaris mosaxleobis migraciis..., gv. 92
24
regionebSi
ganlagebuli
saxlebis
mdgomareobis
Sesaxeb
monacemebis
Segrovebas, geologiur daskvnebze dayrdnobiT. amave periodSi, 2004 wels,
mTavrobam wamoiwyo ekomigrantTa saxlebiT uzrunvelyofis programa.44
mTavrobis
mier
gadadgmuli
samTavrobo
dadgenilebis
ninowmindis
raionebSi
Seqmnas
konfliqtis
miReba,
ekomigraciis
iTvaliswinebda.45
aWaridan
kidev
Camosaxlebul
sapasuxod
erTi
romelic
procesebis
dadgenileba
qarTvel
momzadda.46
nabiji
walkaSi
iyo
2004
walkis,
wlis
axalqalaqisa
maregulirebeli
adgilobriv
ekomigrantebs
dadgenilebaSi
ivnisSi
komisiis
somxebsa
Soris
da
da
warmoqmnili
naTqvami
iyo,
rom
dauyovnebliv saWiroa ekomigraciis procesebis regulireba, misi iuridul
CarCoebSi moqceva da am sakiTxebis gadawyvetisaTvis axali midgomebis moZieba.
am miznebis gansaxorcieleblad brZanebuleba iTvaliswinebda maregulirebeli
komisiis Seqmnas, romelic ori kviris vadaSi CamosaxlebulTa, adgilobrivi
Temisa da sxva problemebis gadawyvetisaTvis winadadebebis formulirebas
SeZlebda.
Tumca am brZanebulebas aranairi zomebi da qmedebebi ar mohyolia. komisia ki
Camoyalibda, magram is funqcionirebad organod ar ganviTarda. ase rom, man
male arseboba Sewyvita. naTelia, rom kvlav arsebobs problemebi _ rogorc
ekomigrantTa socialuri, ekonomikuri da iuridiuli saWiroebebis mogvarebis,
ise
CamosaxlebulTa
da
adgilobrivTa
Soris
mSvidobiani
Tanaarsebobis
uzrunvelyofis TvalsazrisiT.
44
am programis amoqmedebis pirvel wlebSi 160 saxli Seisyides walkis raionSi da 10 saxli
TeTriwyaros raionSi, xolo 2004 wels kidev 53 saxli _ TeTriwyaros raionSi, 124 saxli _ walkis
raionSi, 2 saxli _ bolnisis raionSi da 1 saxli _ gardabnis raionSi 2005 wels. (informacia mogvawoda
saqarTvelos ltolvilTa da gansaxlebis saministrom, ECMI-isTvis 2005 wlis 5 dekembers miweril 1/0117/6993 werilSi).
45 2004 wlis 3 ivnisis #40
samTavrobo dadgenileba “mTiani aWaridan walkis, axalqalaqisa da
ninowmindis raionebSi ekologiuri migraciis procesebis marTvis saxelmwifo komisis dafuZnebis’
Sesaxeb.
46 2004 wlis maisSi sofel qvemo xarebaSi Semdgari fexburTis matCi _ sofelSi mcxovreb aWarel da
sofel kizilkalisadan Camosul somex bavSvebs Soris _ CxubSi gadaizarda. msxverpli ar yofila,
magram ramdenime adamiani daiWra. Sejaxebis Semdeg aWarlebi Camovidnen TbilisSi, sadac maT
saprotesto demonstracia moawyves. incidentis gamoZiebis dros, somxebma da berZnebma ganacxades, rom
aWarlebi maT uflebebs arRvevdnen, maSin roca aWarlebi acxadeben, rom somxebi da berZnebi regionSi
qarTvelebis cxovrebas ewinaaRmdegebian. am movlenebis Sedegad, mTavrobam gamosca dadgenileba,
zemoxsenebuli komisiis dafuZnebis Sesaxeb. jonaTan uiTli: konfliqtis ganeitraleba walkis raionSi,
saqarTveloSi: migracia, saerTaSoriso intervencia da saxelmwifos roli (ECMI naSromi No.36, dekemberi
2006) gv. 9
25
Tumca
garkveuli
katastrofebis
zomebi
gamomwvevi,
iqna
miRebuli
mimdinare
mTian
da
regionebSi
ekologiuri
mosalodneli
problemebis
gamosavlenad. 2005 wlis maisSi ltolvilTa da gansaxlebis axali ministris
–-
giorgi
xeviaSvilis
daniSvnis
Semdeg,
2006
wlis
martSi,
saministrom
aamoqmeda axali programa, romelic miznad isaxavda bunebrivi kataklizmebis
Sedegad
dazaralebuli
da
saswrafo
gadasaxlebis
aucileblobis
winaSe
mdgari ojaxebis monacemTa sainformacio bazis Seqmnas. saministrom SeimuSava
Sefasebis sistema, raTa gansazRvruliyo dazianebis xarisxi da am daskvnebis
Sesabamisad momxdariyo mosaxleobis gansaxleba. dazianebis Sefasebis sistema
Semdeg oTx kategorias moicavda:
I kategoria: stiqiuri ubedurebis Sedegad saxli an misi nawili dangreulia;
II
kategoria:
stiqiuri
ubedurebis
Sedegad
saxli
dazianebulia,
sacxovreblad gamousadegaria da aRdgenas ar eqvemdebareba;
III
kategoria:
stiqiuri
ubedurebis
Sedegad
saxli
dazianebulia,
magram
aRdgenas eqvemdebareba;
IV kategoria: saxli dauzianebelia, magram saxlis mimdebare miwis nakveTi
ganadgurebuli da gamoyenebisaTvis uvargisia.
saqarTvelos
ltolvilTa
da
gansaxlebis
saministros
migraciis,
repatriaciisa da iZulebiT adgilnacval pirTa departamentis xelmZRvanelis
informaciis mixedviT mTeli qveynis masStabiT I-IV kategoriebis saxlebis da
samosaxloebis raodenoba Semdegnairad gamoiyureba:
cxrili 2: dazianebuli saxlebi kategoriebisa da saqarTvelos regionebis
mixedviT.
regionebi
I kat.
II kat.
III kat.
IV kat.
sul
samcxe-javaxeTi
678
52
1,226
8
1,964
mcxeTa-mTianeTi
85
84
467
132
765
guria
308
359
995
895
2,554
26
imereTi
1,203
2,629
8,506
666
13,004
samegrelo-zemo
305
739
1,341
678
3,066
raWa-leCxumi
316
544
999
922
2,781
kaxeTi
123
59
557
160
899
Sida qarTli
798
614
1,279
67
2,758
qvemo qarTli
32
11
236
0
279
aWara
189
469
558
2,052
3,268
sul
4,037
5,560
16,164
5,580
31,341
svaneTi
pirvelwyaro: ltolvilTa da gansaxlebis saministros 2006 wlis angariSi
mTiani aWaridan da svaneTidan I-IV kategoriis saxlebis raodenoba mocemulia
cxrilSi qvemoT:
cxrili
3:
dazianebuli
saxlebi
kategoriebis
mixedviT
mTiani
raioni
I kat.
I kat.
I kat.
I kat.
sul
xulos raioni
48
55
97
952
1,152
13
105
153
661
932
qedis raioni
10
24
45
368
310
sul
71
184
295
1,981
2,531
aWaris
raionebSi
Suaxevis
raioni
pirvelwyaro:
aWaris
jandacvis,
Sromisa
da
socuzrunvelyofis
saministros,
ltolvilTa da gansaxlebis departamenti
cxrili 4: dazianebuli saxlebi kategoriebis mixedviT svaneTSi
raioni
I kat.
I kat.
I kat.
I kat.
sul
mestiis raioni
18
218
418
827
1,481
27
lentexis
130
239
388
587
1,344
138
457
806
1,414
2,825
raioni
sul
pirvelwyaro: mestiisa da lentexis raionis gamgeobebi
bunebrivia,
yvelaze
saswrafoa
I
da
II
kategoriis
samosaxloebidan
mosaxleobis gayvana, radgan maT sakuTar saxlebSi cxovreba an saerTod ar
SeuZliaT, an usafrTxod ver cxovroben. III da IV kategoriis ojaxebi zogjer
ganixileba potenciur ekonomikur an demografiul migrantebad, anu isini
metwilad Tavs ver inaxaven saxnav-saTesi miwis naklebobis gamo. adgilobrivi
xelisuflebis
warmomadgenelTa
Tanaxmad,
xulos
da
Suaxevis
raionebSi
tipuri aWaruli ojaxi 0.25-0.75 heqtaramde miwas flobs mTis regionebSi miwis
naklebobis gamo.47 radgan mTis regionebSi soflis mosaxleobisaTvis miwa
xSirad
Semosavlis
erTaderTi
wyaroa,
aWarlebi
ekonomikuri
siduxWiris
seriozuli problemis winaSe dganan, rac maT qveynis sxva regionebSi axali
ekonomikuri SesaZleblobebis Ziebisaken ubiZgebs.
mTlianobaSi, marto mTiani aWaridan I-IV kategoriis 2,531 ojaxs sWirdeba
gansaxleba
saqarTvelos
sxva
nawilebSi
mokle
Tu
saSualo
vadaSi.
xangrZlivi periodis perspeqtivaSi mosaxleobis zrdisa da miwis simciris
gaTvaliswinebiT,
gadasaxleba
am
sami
gaxdeba
raionis
saWiro
mosaxleobis
imisaTvis,
rom
bevrad
didi
regionSi
nawilis
racionaluri
ekologiuri pirobebi iqnas SenarCunebuli.
potenciuri
migrantebis
raodenoba,
gansakuTrebiT
ki
aWaris
xulosa
da
Suaxevis raionebSi, imdenad didia, rom mTavrobis zogierTi warmomadgenlis
SefasebiT, migraciis procesebis warmatebulad samarTavad ramdenime milioni
dolaria
saWiro.48
mTavrobis
mier
saxlebis
Sesyidvis
procesi
ki
mosaxlebisaTvis Zalze neli da arasakmarisia.
47
interviuebi Suaxevis da xulos raionebis ltolvilTa da gansaxlebis ganyofilebebis ufrosebTan,
nodar qaTmaZesa da guram kaxaZesTan, 6-7 oqtomberi, 2006 w.
48 interviu aWaris janmrTelobis, socialuri dacvisa da dasaqmebis saministros, ltolvilTa da
gansaxlebis departamentis ufros kaxa guCmaniZesTan, 9 oqtomberi, 2006 w.
28
udavoa, rom ekologiuri mizezebiT dazianebuli an dazianebis saSiSroebis
winaSe
mdgari
saxlebisa
amsaxveli
amgvari
mianiSnebs
am
Tu
monacemTa
problemiT
miwis
bazis
mTavrobis
nakveTebis
Seqmna
axlandeli
mniSvnelovani
daiinteresebaze
da
mdgomareobis
dasawyisia,
rac
ltolvilTa
da
gansaxlebis saministro am arsebiTi nabijis gadadgmisaTvis qebas imsaxurebs.
2004-2005 wlebSi ltolvilTa da gansaxlebis saministrom 264 saxli Seisyida
am raionSi.49 rac Seexeba saxlebis Sesyidvas 2006 wels, saministrom 216 saxli
Seisyida ekomigrantebisa da mesxi repatriantebisaTvis. maTgan 156 saxli
walkis raionSi iqna Seisyida, 26 _ TeTriwyaros raionSi, 17 _ axmetis raionSi
da erTi saxli _ gardabnis raionSi. repatriantebisaTvis 6 saxli iqna
Sesyiduli goris raionSi. unda aRiniSnos, rom walkis raionSi Sesyiduli
saxlebi ukve ukanonod hqondaT dakavebuli migrantebs, xolo sxva Sesyiduli
saxlebi gadaecaT mTiani aWaridan da svaneTidan wamosul ekomigrantebs.50 es
ki imisaTvis gakeTda, rom momxdariyo im ekomigrantTa statusis legalizeba,
vinc
ukve
raionebSi
daikava
SeZenili
walkis
raionis
saxlebi
ki
berZenTa
svaneTidan
kuTvnili
da
mTiani
saxlebi.
danarCen
aWaridan
wamosul
ekomigrantebs gadaecaT.
ltolvilTa da gansaxlebis saministros mier gadadgmuli kidev erTi nabiji
iyo 2006 wlis zafxulSi sacxovrebeli pirobebis Sefaseba walkis raionSi.
saministrom
Seqmna
monitoringis
jgufi,
romelSic
Sevidnen
saministros
warmomadgenlebi, walkis raionis adgilobrivi administracia da Tbilisisa
da walkis berZnuli Temis warmomadgenlebi. monitoringi miznad isaxavda
saxlebis
mdgomareobis
garkvevas,
gasayidi
saxlebis,
legalurad
da
aralegalurad dakavebuli saxlebis Sesaxeb informaciis moZiebas da a.S.
monitoringis
Sedegad, ltolvilTa
da
gansaxlebis saministrom
walkaSi
arsebuli situaciis naTeli suraTi miiRo da es informacia, saministros
49
dawvrilebiTi informaciisaTvis ixileT sqolio 44.
interviu saqarTvelos ltolvilTa da gansaxlebis saministros, migraciis, repatriaciisa
adgilnacval pirTa sakiTxebis departamentis xelmZRvanel zaza imedaSvilTan. 26 ianvari, 2007 w.
50
da
29
gancxadebiT, ekologiur migrantTa mimarT politikis SemuSavebis safuZveli
gaxdeba.
2007 wlis ganmavlobaSi saministro gegmavs ekologiuri migraciis mkafio
politikis
formulirebas,
romelic
ekologiur
daaregulirebs.
gazrdas.
vinaidan
am
laridan
(2006
aseve
saministros
saxlebis
da
ekologiur
apirebs
wina
laramde
Sesyidvis
biujetidan
sakiTxebs
2007
wels
naklebi
iqneba,
dafinanseba
2007
Seqmnas,
moculobis
varaudiT,
SedarebiT
Semcirda
bazis
migrantTa
saxlebis
wlebTan
saxelmwifo
1,000,000
sakanonmdeblo
warmomadgenlebis
raodenoba
daniSnulebiT
wels)
saTanado
migraciasa
saministro
Tumca,
Sesyiduli
aseve
wels.51
1,257,000
amgvarad,
saministro mxolod 175-190 saxlis Sesyidvas moaxerxebs 2007 wels, 2006
welTan (216 saxli) SedarebiT.
svaneTsa da aWaraSi mdgomareoba dRemde ar gamosworebulia. mestiis raionis
administraciam (gamgeobam) gadasaxlebis 219 Txovna miiRo, romelTaganac 34
ojaxs dauyovnebeli gadasaxleba sWirdeboda.52 lentexis raionSi daaxloebiT
600 ojaxs aqvs oficialuri geologiuri daskvna, romelic adasturebs, rom
maT saxlebs safrTxe emuqreba.53 amitom TandaTanobiT izrdeba potenciuri
migrantebis raodenoba.
svaneTis msgavsad, Zalian bevri ojaxi elodeba Camosaxlebas aWaridanac.
aWaris ltolvilTa da gansaxlebis departamentis statistikuri informaciis
mixedviT, xulos, Suaxevisa da qedis raionebidan (I da II kat.) mTlianobaSi 255
ojaxs sWirdeba dauyovnebeli gadasaxleba, xolo kidev 2,276 ojaxs mTavrobis
daxmareba sWirdeba saxnav-saTesi miwis naklebobis gamo (III da IV kat.). amave
dros
aWaraSi
ekologiuri
mdgomareoba
kvlav
arasaimedoa.
stiqiuri
ubedurebebi ar Sewyvetila. isini mTeli 1990-iani da 2000-iani wlebis manZilze
grZeldeboda, bolo ki 2005 wlis agvistoSi moxda. Zlieri wvimis Sedegad
51
igive.
interviu ltolvilTa da gansaxlebis saministros warmomadgenelTan
murgvlianTan, 4 ivnisi, 2006 w.
53 interviu lentexis raionis gamgebel soso qurasbedianTan. 2 ivnisi, 2006 w.
52
mestiis
raionSi,
eliso
30
qedis raionis dandalos xeobaSi Camowva mewyeri, romelmac ramdenime saxli
da
eleqtroenergiis
mimwodebeli
qvesadguri
daaziana,
xolo
5
ojaxi
evakuirebul iqna. noemberSi uxvTovlobis Sedegad Suaxevis raionis sofel
nigazeuls
mewyeri
Camoawva.
soflis
raionul
centrTan
damakavSirebeli
centraluri gza Caiketa, ris Semdegac, mewyeris ganmeorebis saSiSroebis gamo
soflis mosaxleobam evakuacia moiTxova. amgvari viTareba mudmivad auaresebs
arsebul socialur-ekonomikur situacias. naTelia, rom aTasobiT aWareli
mTieli sasowarkveTil mdgomareobaSia. igive SeiZleba iTqvas mosaxleobis
nawilze svaneTSic.
mTlianobaSi, potenciur migrantTa ricxvi zrdis tendenciiT xasiaTdeba,
gansakuTrebiT mTian aWaraSi. garda mewyerebisa da wyaldidobebisa, aWaris
regions
gamoarCevs
ori
Zalze
mniSvnelovani
maxasiaTebeli,
romelic
aucileblad unda iqnes gaTvaliswinebuli migraciis sakiTxis ganxilvisas.
maTgan pirvelia
mTian aWaraSi (xulo, Suaxevi, qeda) Sobadobis maCvenebeli,
romelic mniSvnelovnad aRemateba qveynis saSualo maCvenebels da saSualod
erT ojaxze 3-5 bavSvs Seadgens. meore sakiTxia aWaraSi, rogorc mTian
regionSi, saxnav-saTesi da saZovari teritoriebis simcire. SedarebisTvis,
aRmosavleT kaxeTis dedofliswyaros raioni (2,529 km2) daaxloebiT samjer
ufro didia, vidre xulos raioni (710 km2), maSin, roca mosaxleobis mixedviT
dedofliswyaros
mosaxleobis
raionis
(32,288
mosaxleoba
adamiani)
(23,087
mxolod
adamiani)
xulos
Seadgens.54
72%-s
raionis
garda
amisa,
dedofliswyaros raionis saxnav-saTesi miwa bevrad ufro nayofieria. es ori
faqtori
mniSvnelovan
rols
darRvevaSi.
sabWoTa
farTsa
mosaxleobis
da
adamianis
sxva
TamaSobs
xelisufleba
cdilobda,
raodenobas
regionebSi
aWaraSi
Soris
demografiuli
rom
yovel
es
Seusabamoba
aTwleulSi
daebalansebina.55
gadasaxlebiT
balansis
miwis
aTasobiT
Tumca,
demografiuli inJineriis amgvari RonisZiebebi sabWoTa kavSiris rRvevasTan
erTad
Sewyda.
mosaxleobis
54
55
Sedegad,
simravles
dRes
mTiani
bunebrivad
aWara
moaqvs
Warbadaa
miwis
dasaxlebuli.
nakleboba.
ojaxebis
saqarTvelos 2002 wlis aRwera.
detaluri informaciisaTvis ixileT danarTSi cxrili 4.
31
dayofisas
miwis
simcire
axal
ojaxebs
Sors,
mTis
ferdobebze,
miwis
damuSavebisaken ubiZgebs. am dros mTis ferdobebze tye ise ikafeba, rom
buneba kompensirebas ver axerxebs da auarebeli wylis arxebi da irigaciis
sistemebi
safrTxes
uqmnis
problema
ekologiur
mTebis
problemebs
geologiur
amwvavebs
da
balanss.
demografiuli
ekologiur
katastrofebs
warmoSobs. asobiT aWaruli ojaxi uimedod elodeba gadasaxlebas. garda
amisa, aTasobiT ojaxi aWaraSi SeiZleba ekologiuri ubedurebis uSualo
safrTxis winaSe ar dgas, magram maT Zalze mcire miwa abadiaT. aseTi
adamianebi
_
jgufi,
romelsac,
SegviZlia,
“demografiuli
migrantebi”
vuwodoT _ mowadinebulni arian, saqarTvelos sxva mxareSi gadasaxldnen da
isini xSirad Cndebian saqarTvelos sxva nawilebSi spontanuri migrantebis
saxiT.
mTiani aWaris tipur ojaxs 4-5 Zroxa da zogjer ramdenime cxvari an Txa
hyavs. erT ojaxze 0.25 heqtarze meti ar modis da es maSin, rodesac miwa
ukiduresad saWiroa saqonlisa da saojaxo meurneobis Sesanaxad, aucilebeli
kulturebis
soflis
moyvanaze
mesveurTa
rom
mkacri
aRaraferi
vTqvaT.
mflobelobis
yoveli
qveS
kvadratuli
imyofeba,
xolo
metri
zogierT
sofelSi gzebi ise viwroa, rom iq transportis gavla ar xerxdeba da
samSeneblo
masalebs
sacxovreblis
Sesabamisad,
soflis
Sesasvlelidan
gadakeTeba
Zalze
ekologiuri
da
did
xeliT
drosa
demografiuli
da
ezidebian.
muSaxels
migracia
Sedegad,
moiTxovs.
adgilobrivi
mosaxleobisa da administraciis mTavari problemebia da mTavrobis mxridan
dauyovnebliv yuradRebis miqceva sWirdeba.
Cven ganvixileT ekomigraciis procesis zogadi tendenciebi da am sakiTxTan
dakavSirebuli saxelmwifo politika. Semdeg nawilSi SevafasebT im pirobebs,
romlebSic aRmoCndnen ekomigrantebi mimReb regionebSi Casvlisas. yuradRebas
gavamaxvilebT samcxe-javaxeTsa da qvemo qarTlze. es is regionebia, sadac
ekomigrantebis yvelaze didi nawili dasaxlda da sadac upiratesad erovnul
umcresobaTa warmomadgenlebi cxovroben.
32
ekoeko-migracia umciresobebiT dasaxlebul saqarTvelos regionebSi
Casaxleba samcxesamcxe-javaxeTSi
samcxe-javaxeTSi ekomigrantTa Casaxleba gansakuTrebiT intensiuri 1981 da
1990 wlebs Soris iyo. Casaxleba ramdenime mcire talRad ganxorcielda: 198183, 1985, 1989 da 1990 wlebSi, xolo amis Semdeg am regionSi sul ramdenime
ekomigranti Casaxlda. ekomigrantebis umetesoba aq mTiani aWaris _ xulos
raionis
soflebidan
Camovida,
saidanac
is
mewyerebsa
da
gamoeqca. aWaris sxva raionebidan aq mxolod mcire nawili
wyaldidobebs
Camovida. samcxe-
javaxeTSi svaneTidan wamosuli ekomigrantebi ar Casaxlebulan, radgan am
regionidan ekologiuri mizezebiT adgilnacvali pirebi sxvagan, dasavleTSi
_ afxazeTSi da samxreTSi _ qvemo qarTlSi gadasaxldnen.
1981-1988
wlebSi
Camosuli
mosaxleoba
metwilad
aspinZisa
da
adigenis
raionebSi Caasaxles.56 es regionebi ori mizeziT iyo mimzidveli migrirebuli
mosaxleobisaTvis. pirvel rigSi imitom, rom isini mTian aWarasTan axlosaa
da miuxedavad imisa, rom am regionebs Soris damakavSirebeli gzebi cud
mdgomareobaSia. meore mxriv imitom, rom am raionebSi Casaxlebis istoriuli
gamocdileba ukve arsebobs 1940-iani wlebidan, rodesac mesxebi iZulebiT
iqnen
deportirebulni
Sua
aziaSi
da
maT
nacvlad
saqarTvelos
sxva
nawilebidan Camoasaxles aq xalxi (ix. zemoT). is faqti, rom samcxis qarTuli
mosaxleobis umetesoba regionSi axlaxans Casaxlda, bevri migrantis azriT,
ufro stumarTmoyvares xdis am regions axalCamosulTaTvis.
soflebi iveria, gulsunda da miraSxani sruliad axali soflebia, romlebic
ekomigrantTaTvis
gaSenda
aspinZis
raionSi.
1944
wels
Turqi
mesxebis
samcxidan da javaxeTidan deportirebis Semdeg am adgilebSi mxolod mesxTa
56
aspinZis raionSi soflebi oSora, miraSxani, iveria, gulsunda, rusTavi da oTa. adigenis raionSi
soflebi Wela, zanavi, sairme, cixisubani da kikineTi.
33
saxlebis
nangrevebiRa
daefuZnebina
es
iyo
soflebi
darCenili.57
da
iq
mTavrobam
gadawyvita,
ekomigrantTaTvis
xelaxla
saxlebi
aeSenebina.
aRsaniSnavia, rom dRes miraSxani aspinZis raionis samagaliTo sofelia, sadac
saukeTeso xarisxis miwa da wyalia. 1980-ian wlebSi aspinZisa da adigenis
raionSi Casaxlebul ekomigrantebs 0.5 heqtar miwas aZlevdnen, saidanac 0.15
sakarmidamo miwa iyo, xolo 0.35 - savarguli.
1989-90
wlebis
CamosaxlebasTan
SedarebiT,
1982-83
wlebisa
da
1985
wlis
Camosaxlebebi ufro mcire masStabisa iyo.58 1989 wlis aprilis mewyerebis
Sedegad dazaralda mTiani aWara. kerZod, xulos, Suaxevisa da qedis raionis
soflebSi
5,657-ma
ojaxma
(24,287
adamiani)
ganicada
ekologiuri
ziani.
Camosaxlebebma moicva samcxe-javaxeTis sxva raionebic: borjomi, axalqalaqi
da ninowminda. am raionebSi manamde ekomigrantebi ar CausaxlebiaT.59
1989
wels
saxelmwifo
programis
daxmarebiT
477
ojaxis
(1,693
adamiani)
Casaxleba ganisazRvra axalqalaqis raionSi, Tumca dRes am regionSi mxolod
221 ojaxia (968 adamiani), romelTaganac 15-ma sakuTari saxsrebiT iyida saxli,
12
ojaxs
ki
is
saerTod
ara
aqvs.60
danarCenebi
an
Tavisi
pirvandeli
dasaxlebis adgilebs daubrundnen, an javaxeTSi arsebuli sirTuleebis gamo
walkaSi gadasaxldnen. metic, vinaidan ar arsebobda adgilze saxelmwifo
kontrolis meqanizi, zogierTma ekomigrantma aralegalurad, Zalze dabal
fasad gayida Tavisi saxli da regionidan wavida. amis kargi magaliTia
axalqalaqis
raionis
sofeli
azmana.
sofeli
mxolod
ekomigrantTaTvis
aSenda. saxelmwifo 70 saxlis aSenebas gegmavda, romelTaganac mxolod 50
dasrulda. axalqalaqis gamgeobis mier mowodebuli monacemebis mixedviT
sofelSi ekomigrantTa raodenoba 1989 wels 70 ojaxs Seadgenda, magram 1991
wlisaTvis ukve mxolod 38 ojaxi darCa. dReisTvis am sofelSi ekomigrantTa
40 ojaxi (125 adamiani) cxovrobs.
57
Turqi mesxebis deportaciis Sesaxeb dawvrilebiTi informaciisaTvi ixileT: tom trieri da andrei
xanJini: Turqi mesxebi gzis gasayarze. integracia, repatriacia Tu gadasaxleba?. hamburgi: LIT.
58 dawvrilebiTi informacia ixileT danarTSi, cxrili 2.
59 im periodSi ekomigrantebis mimRebi soflebi iyo axalqalaqis raionSi: okami, azmana, gogaSeni, apnia,
ptena, CunCxa da koTelia, ninowmindis raionSi _ spasovka da borjomis raionSi _ balanTa.
60 axalqalaqis gamgeobis mier mowodebuli oficialuri monacemebi (2006 w.)
34
rogorc ukve aRvniSneT, ninowmindis raionSi kostavas fondma 217 saxli
Seisyida
duxoborebisagan
maTi
didi
nawilis
qveynis
gareT
(ZiriTadad
ruseTSi) migrirebis periodSi, 1989-1991 wlebSi.61 es saxlebi gankuTvnili iyo
ara
mxolod
ekomigrantebisaTvis,
ojaxebisaTvisac.
jamSi
215
aramed
ojaxi
sxva
moamzades
gaWirvebuli
qarTuli
CasaxlebisaTvis,
magram
faqtobrivad mxolod 159 dasaxlda. gadmosaxlebulTa did nawils axal
klimatTan, socialur da politikur mdgomareobasTan adaptacia gauWirda da
umetesobam regioni datova. gamonakliss mxolod spasovkaSi Casaxlebulebi
warmoadgenen. aq kompaqturad Casaxlebulma ekomigrantebma darCena moaxerxes
(ixileT
qvemoT).
rac
Seexeba
sxva
soflebSi
Casaxlebul
migrantebs,
axalCasulebi sami barieris winaSe aRmoCndnen, romlebmac maT am soflebSi
(gorelovka, efremovka, orlovka da sameba) mudmivad darCenas SeuSala xeli.
pirveli iyo klimati, romelic aq Zalze mZimea, zamTarSi temperatura -25 С°mde ecema da gzebi didTovlobis gamo Svid Tves Caketilia. meorec, zog
SemTxvevaSi, gansakuTrebiT araekologiuri mizeziT migrirebulni, soflis
cxovrebas - miwis damuSavebas Tu saqonlis moSenebas _ ar iyvnen Cveulni.
dabolos,
maTi
gansakuTrebiT
Casaxlebis
daZabuli
ekomigrantebma),
romelTac
adreul
iyo.
ase
wlebSi
rom,
kostavas
SidaeTnikuri
Casaxlebulma
fondma
gadasca
situacia
qarTvelebma
saxlebi,
(ara
metwilad
datoves es soflebi da sadReisod mxolod ramdenime qarTuli ojaxia iq
darCenili. Tumca, bevrma ekomigrantma ninowmindisa da axalqalaqis raionebSi
Casaxlebis pirvelsave wlebSi datova Casaxlebis adgilebi imave mizeziT,
romliTac araekologiurma migrantebma.
sainteresoa sofel spasovkis magaliTi, radgan aq Camosaxlebuli eTnikuri
qarTuli
ojaxebi
umravlesobas
somxuri).
ZiriTadad
rusi
maTi
qarTvelebisaTvis,
duxoborebi
saxlebi
an
darCnen.
an
`farvanam~
1989
wlamde
Seadgendnen
kostavas
da
aq
(mxolod
fondma
`javaxkma~
mosaxleobis
did
oTxi
iyo
Seisyida
(somxuri
ojaxi
eTnikuri
organizaciebi)
61 Tamaz futkaraZe, aWaris mosaxleobis migraciis... gv. 78-79; hedvig lomi, “duxoborebi saqarTveloSi:
kvleva ninowmindis raionSi miwis mflobelobis da intereTnikuri urTierTobebis sakiTxis Sesaxeb”
(ECMI naSromi No. 35, noemberi 2006 w).
35
eTnikuri somxebisaTvis.62 soflis dRevandeli Semadgenloba aseTia: sofelSi
mcxovrebi 104 ojaxidan 84 qarTulia, 16 somxuri da 4 rusi duxoborebisa.63
spasovkaSi mcxovrebi ekomigrantebi xulos raionidan Camoasaxles da isini
sakmaod dramatul viTarebaSi aRmoCndnen. 1990 wlis gazafxulze xulodan
ninowmindis
raionisaken
117
ojaxi
gamoemgzavra,
raTa
dasaxlebuliyvnen
saxlebSi, romlebic maT kostavas fondma SesTavaza. amave periodSi somxebi
javaxeTSi qarTvelebis Casaxlebis sawinaaRmdego demonstraciebs awyobdnen
da
centralurma
javaxeTSi
mTavrobam
saprotesto
metwilad
gamosvlebis
dakarga
gamo
kontroli
da
am
regionze.
mosalodneli
eTnikuri
areulobebis Tavidan asacileblad xelisuflebam gadawyvita im migrantebis
SeCereba,
romlebic
gaegrZelebinaT
gza.
ukve
axalcixeSi
Sedegad,
migrantTa
iyvnen,
rom
didi
nawili
ninowmindisken
xuloSi
ar
dabrunda,
magram darCa 22 ojaxi, romelic kvlav cdilobda, daniSnulebis adgilamde
mieRwia. sabolood isini spasovkaSi Cavidnen da TavianT saxlebSi Sesaxldnen.
dasaxlebulTa dasacavad policiis Zalebi gamoyves, romlebic srul sam
wels
darCnen
sofelSi.
migrantTa
am
pirveli
talRis
Semdeg
danarCeni
ojaxebic Camovidnen spasovkaSi.
cxrili 5: ekomigrantTa Casaxleba spasovkaSi, 1990-2004 ww.
Casaxlebis
ojaxebis/adamianTa warmoSobis
weli
raodenoba
raioni
1990
22 ojaxi
xulo
-
3 ojaxi
axalcixe
-
2 ojaxi
aspinZa
1991 - 1992
3 ojaxi
xulo
1995
4 ojaxi
xulo
1996
18 ojaxi
xulo
62
`farvana~ da `javaxki~ somxuri organizaciebia, romebic javaxeTis somxebma daafuZnes. es
organizaciebi daarsda, rogorc somexi nacionalistebis pasuxi qarTuli erovnuli fondebis (kostavasa
da rusTavelis) mimarT. lia meliqiSvili faruli konfliqtebi mravaleTnikur sazogadoebaSi.
mSvidobis, demokratiisa da ganviTarebis kavkasiuri instituti, Tbilisi 1998.
63 interviu ninwmindis raionis gamgeblis moadgile akaki vanaZesTan, 25 seqtemberi, 2006 w.
36
1997 - 1998
1 ojaxi
xulo
-
1 ojaxi
aspinZa
2000 - 2001
13 ojaxi
xulo
-
1 ojaxi
adigeni
2002 - 2003
14 ojaxi
xulo
-
1 adamiani
aspinZa
-
1 ojaxi
axalcixe
2004
1 ojaxi
xulo
-
1 adamiani
axalcixe
pirvelwyaro: monacemebi mogvawoda ninowmindis raionis gamgeobam.
Tavidan spasovkaSi sacxovrebeli pirobebi autaneli iyo. sam ojaxs uwevda
erT saxlSi cxovreba. miuxedavad imisa, rom kostavas fondma ramdenime saxli
iyida
mimdebare
soflebSi,
ekomigrantebs
eSinodaT
spasovkis
datovebisa,
sadac aWarlebi kompaqturad cxovrobdnen da ar undodaT sxva soflebSi
marto
gadasvla.
garkveuli
drois
Semdeg
zogierTma
ojaxma
sakuTari
saxsrebiT daiwyo saxlebis SeZena ruseTSi mimavali duxoborebisagan. magram
sacxovreblis problema sofelSi dRemde ar aris srulad gadaWrili. 1990-ian
wlebSi zogierTi ekomigranti sakuTari iniciativiT Camovida spasovkaSi da
maTgan 16 ojaxs dRemde ara aqvs sakuTari saxli da naTesavebTan an Zvel,
dazianebul, duxoborebis mier mitovebul saxlebSi cxovroben.64 saintereso
faqtia,
rom
zogierTma
ojaxma
gayida
maTTvis
kostavas
fondis
mier
gadacemuli saxlebi. miuxedavad imisa, rom saxlis mflobelobis Sesaxeb
dokumentacia kostavas fondSi inaxeboda da 25-wliani periodis ganmavlobaSi
maTi
gayidva
araformalurad
kanoniT
ikrZaleboda,
moaxerxes
sakuTari
saxlebis
saxlebis
pirobiTma
gayidva.
mflobelebma
aseTi
saxlebis
myidvelebi, Cveulebriv, an ekomigrantebi iyvnen, romlebic aWaridan spasovkaSi
mogvianebiT Camovidnen, an zogjer adgilobrivi somxebi, romlebic ZiriTadad
mTis
64
moSorebuli
soflebidan
Camodiodnen
aq,
gansakuTrebiT
sofel
interviu ninowmindis raionis gamgeblis moadgile akaki vanaZesTan, 25 seqtemberi, 2006 w.
37
fokidan.65
raionSi
ase
rom,
Seisyida,
adgilobrivma
bevri
an
saxli,
dangreulia,
somxebma
daikaves
romelic
an
fondis
Sig
kostavas
fondma
ekomigrantebi
nebarTvis
gareSe.
ninowmindis
cxovroben,
an
spasovkisa
da
gorelovkis mcxovrebni, rogorc qarTvelebi, ise duxoborebi, romlebsac am
kvlevasTan dakavSirebiT gamokiTxva CautardaT, amboben, rom kostavas fondis
mier Sesyiduli saxlebis nawili dangreulia. isini ZiriTadad adgilobrivma
somxebma daangries, nawilobriv imitom, rom maT sakuTari miwebis gafarToeba
an samSeneblo masalis gamoyeneba surdaT, nawilobriv ki imitom, rom xeli
SeeSalaT
qarTvelTa
dasaxlebisaTvis
am
regionSi.
rogorc
ninwmindis
raionis gamgeblis moadgilem, akaki vanaZem ganacxada, mxolod sofel samebaSi
maT 70 saxli daangries.66
oficialuri
monacemebiT,
kostavas
fondis
sakuTrebaSi
myofi
50
saxli
adgilobriv somex mcxovreblebs aqvT dakavebuli.67 kostavas fondi mzadaa,
mWidrod iTanamSromlos ltolvilTa da gansaxlebis saministrosTan, rom
darCenili
saxlebis
Semdgomi
dazianeba
aicilos
Tavidan.
Tumca
fondi
keTilgonivrulad ikavebs Tavs da somxebs Zalis gamoyenebiT ar aiZulebs
fondis sakuTrebaSi myofi saxlebis daclas.68 am dros spasovkaSi mcxovrebi
ojaxebi, romlebsac sacxovreblis seriozuli problemebi aqvT, an ojaxebi,
romlebic gaizarda da dayofa surT, mzad arian axlomdebare soflebSi
gadasaxldnen, sadac kostavas fondis kuTvnili saxlebi jer kidev metnaklebad normalur mdgomareobaSia darCenili, magram did somxur TemebSi
dasaxlebisa eSiniaT.
ekomigrantebis dabinavebasTan dakavSirebiT kidev ufro rTuli mdgomareobaa
borjomis raionis sofel balanTaSi. saxelmwifo programis mixedviT am
sofelSi 32 ojaxis Casaxleba iyo gansazRvruli da maTTvis 50 saxli unda
aSenebuliyo. magram balanTaSi 1989 wels mxolod 20 ojaxi Camovida xulodan.
65
hedvig lomi, “duxoborebi saqarTveloSi: kvleva ninowmindis raionSi miwis mflobelobis da
intereTnikuri urTierTobebis sakiTxis Sesaxeb”, (ECMI naSromi No. 35, noemberi, 2006), gv. 12.
66 interviu ninowmindis raionis gamgeblis moadgile akaki vanaZesTan, 25 seqtemberi, 2006 w.
67 10 saxli orlovkaSi, 10 gorelovkaSi, 14 efremovkaSi, 15 samebaSi da erTi qalaq ninowmindaSi.
monacemebi mogvawoda ninowmindis gamgeobam.
68
interviu kostavas fondis Tavmjdomaris movaleobis Semsrulebel daviT kupreiSvilTan, 15
seqtemberi, 2006 w.
38
maT aRmoaCines, rom maT CamosvlisTvis mxolod 6 saxli iyo aSenebuli da
didma nawilma sakuTari xeliT aSenebul xis saxlebSi gadawyvita dasaxleba
im
imediT,
mSeneblobas.
rom
mTavroba
ra
gasakviria,
axaldasaxlebis
adgilebi
bolos
rom
da
bolos
umravlesobam
datova,
radgan
daasrulebda
ori
saxlebi
wlis
ar
saxlebis
ganmavlobaSi
aSenda
da
dRes
sofelSi mxolod erTi ekomigranti ojaxiRaa darCenili. rogorc balanTis
sakrebulos xelmZRvanelma agvixsna, ekomigrantTa wasvlis mizezi mkacri
klimaturi pirobebi, ekonomikuri siduxWire da sacxovreblis ararseboba
iyo.69 bevri ojaxi, romelmac balanTa datova, xuloSi aRar dabrunebula da
spontanurad dasaxlda qvemo qarTlSi.
axalqalaqis raionis sofeli azmana erTaderTi sofelia javaxeTSi, romelic
mTlianad
ekomigrantebiTaa
dasaxlebuli
da
somxuri
mosaxleobiT
dasaxlebul sivrceSi patara eTnikur qarTul kunZuls warmoadgens.70 aris
aseve soflebi, romlebic nawilobriv ekomigrantebiT da nawilobriv mkvidri
qarTvelebiT aris dasaxlebuli.71 eTnikurad qarTuli soflebis urTierToba
mezobel
soflebTan
mosaxleobis
migrantebma
SezRudulia.
umravlesoba
metwilad
qarTul
somxuri
javaxeTSi
enas
ar
ar
ician.
dasaxlebuli
flobs,
ase
xolo
rom,
somxuri
qarTvelma
intereTnikuri
komunikaciebisaTvis xSirad rusuli ena gamoiyeneba. es gansakuTrebiT exeba im
Taobas,
romelmac
sabWoTa
periodSi
daamTavra
skola.
Tumca
aWaridan
Camosuli ekomigrantebis umetesobam sustad icis rusuli. sainteresoa, rom
javaxeTis mkvidri qarTuli mosaxleoba Cveulebriv somxuradac laparakobs,
rasac ver vityviT ekomigrantTa umetesobaze. bunebrivia, rom ekomigrantTa
axalgazrda Taoba ukeTesad laparakobs somxurad, vidre ufro asakovani.
magaliTad,
okami
Sereuli
qarTul-somxuri
sofelia,
sadac
dRes
bevri
ekomigranti cotaTi mainc laparakobs somxurad.
69
interviu balanTis sakreblos ufros iuri berZeniSvilTan 16 oqtomberi, 2006.
mxolod ekomigrantebiT dasaxlebuli soflebi (iveria, gulsunda, miraSxani) gaSenda aseve aspinZis
raionSi.
71 es soflebia koTelia da ptena axalqalaqis raionSi da oSra, rusTavi da oTa _ aspinZis raionSi.
70
39
rogorc zogadad samcxe-javaxeTis soflis mosaxleoba, ise ekomigrantebic
wvrili
fermerobiT
irCenen
Tavs
da
ZiriTad
Semosavals
iReben
mesaqonleobiT, mecxvareobiT da miwaTmoqmedebiT (ZiriTadad kartofili da
Tiva). ojaxebis umetesobas 2-4 Zroxa hyavs, zogierTebs ki damatebiT ramdenime
cxvari. garda sakarmidamo miwisa, soflis mcxovrebTa umetesoba amuSavebs 1,25
heqtar miwis nakveTs, romelic maT 1992-1998 wlebis miwis reformis periodSi
aiRes ijariT. dRes soflis mosaxleobas damatebiTi miwis nakveTebis aReba
SeuZlia ijariT _ 1 heqtarze 15-20 larad (teritoriul-administraciuli
erTeulisa da miwis xarisxis mixedviT). Tumca mas Semdeg, rac saqarTvelos
xelisuflebam 2005 wels sasoflo-sameurneo miwis privatizaciis meore etapi
daiwyo,
ijariT
aRebuli
sasoflo-sameurneo
miwebi
produqtebs,
nel-nela
kerZo
rogoricaa
rZe,
gadava.72
sakuTrebaSi
xorci
da
kartofili,
ZiriTadad piradi moxmarebisaTvis awarmoeben, xolo Warbi produqcia an
adgilobriv bazarze gaaqvT gasayidad, an ufro Sors miaqvT, gansakuTrebiT
axalcixeSi, quTaissa da TbilisSi.
saqarTvelos bevri regionisaTvis Cveuli socialur-ekonomikuri problemebi,
bunebrivia, rom samcxe-javaxeTisTvisacaa damaxasiaTebeli. samcxe-javaxeTis
mosaxleobaze, miuxedavad eTnikuri kuTvnilebisa, Rrma gavlena moaxdina im
ekonomikurma krizisma, romelic sabWoTa kavSiris rRvevas mohyva. umuSevrobis
maRalma
maCvenebelma
gamoiwvia
sezonuri
migracia
ruseTSi;
susti
infrastruqturis gamo adgilobrivi mosaxleobisaTvis somxeTSi gamgzavreba
ufro mimzidvelia, vidre saqarTvelos sxva mxareebSi; javaxeTis adgilobriv
mosaxleobaSi
qarTuli
enis
arasakmarisi
codna
iwvevs
maT
izolirebas
saqarTvelos danarCeni sazogadoebisagan; bunebrivi gazis, eleqtroenergiis,
wylis, kanalizaciisa da gzebis infrastruqtura, 1980-iani wlebis bolodan
moyolebuli, ar SekeTebula. iseve rogorc saqarTvelos sxva mxareebSi, aqac
korufciis
da
organizebuli
danaSaulis
maRali
maCvenebelia.
regionSi
72
saqarTvelos kanoni “saxelmwifo sakuTrebaSi myofi sasoflo-sameurneo miwis privatizaciis Sesaxeb”
2005 wlis 8 ivlisis monacemebiT.
40
stabilurobis gauaresebis SemTxvevaSi, kidev erTi potenciurad Zalze saSiSi
faqtori iCens Tavs _ cecxlsasroli iaraRis ukanono floba da Senaxva.73
mTlianobaSi, samcxe-javaxeTSi aWareli ekomigrantebi dasaxlebulni arian
aspinZis raionSi (oSra, iveria, miraSxani, rusTavi, gulsunda, oTa), adigenis
raionSi (Cela, sairme, zanavi, kirkineTi), axalqalaqis raionSi (koTelia,
ptena, CunCxa, okami, azmana, afnia, gogaSeni) da ninowmindis raionSi (spasovka).
mTlianobaSi aWaridan samcxe-javaxeTSi 679 ojaxi Camosaxlda saxelmwifo
programis
farglebSi.
Tumca
mkacri
klimaturi
pirobebisa
da
eTnikuri
daZabulobis gamo ramdenime aTeuli ojaxi Tavisi pirvandeli dasaxlebis
adgilebs daubrunda an ramdenime weliwadSi sxvagan gadasaxlda. potenciuri
migrantebi xSirad maTi saWiroebebis saTanado Sefasebisa da adgilobrivi
mkacri
bunebis
Tu
sasoflo-sameurneo
pirobebis
gauTvaliswineblad
irCeodnen. metic, bevrma axalCasulma (ara ekomigrantma) saxlisa da qonebis
SeZenis
formiT
materialuri
mdgomareobis
gaumjobesebis
SesaZlebloba
gamoiyena da maleve datova regioni.74
Tumca, iyvnen iseTi Casaxlebulebic, romlebmac regionSi darCena moaxerxes,
maT winaSe mdgari sirTuleebis miuxedavad. es metwilad is ekomigrantebi
iyvnen, visac marTlac arsad hqonda wasasvleli, radgan maTi saxlebi aWaraSi
dangreuli iyo. aseTi iyo ninowmindis raionis sofel spasovkaSi Casaxlebuli
ekomigrantebis SemTxveva. axali spasovkis dasaxlebis xangrZlivi arsebobis
mizezi
is
upiratesoba
iyo,
rom
aq
ekomigrantebi
kompaqturad
iyvnen
Casaxlebulni. amis sapirispirod, axalqalaqis soflebidan Zalze didi iyo
ukumigraciis maCvenebeli. TiTqmis yvela, visac aWaraSi saxli da miwa hqonda,
ukan dabrunda.
73
javaxeTSi arsebuli socialur-ekonomikuri sitaciis detaluri ganxilvisaTvis, ixileT jonaTan
uiTli. javaxeTis mxaris regionuli integraciis xelisSemSleli faqtorebi [Obstacles Impeding Regional
Integration of the Javakheti Region of Georgia], ECMI naSromi #22, seqtemberi 2004.
http://www.ecmi.de/download/working_paper_22.pdf.
74 lia meliqiSvili faruli konfliqtebi mravaleTnikur sazogadoebaSi. mSvidobis, demokratiisa da
ganviTarebis kavkasiuri instituti, Tbilisi 1998.
41
Tumca, unda aRiniSnos, rom spasovkis mosaxleobis mdgomareoba srulebiT ar
aris saxarbielo da is ver iqneba STagonebis wyaro da magaliTi gansaxlebis
axali programebisaTvis. marTalia, ninowmindis raionSi SemorCnen migrantebi,
magram spasovka Tavidanve eTnikuri qarTvelebis patara kunZulad aRiqmeboda
somxur zRvaSi. Zalze dabalia regionis sazogadoebasTan maTi integraciis
done da Zalze iSviaTia urTierToba somex mcxovreblebTan.
dRes samcxe-javaxeTis xuTi raionis gamgeobaTa monacemebis mixeviT, regionSi
ekomigrantTa 650 ojaxi cxovrobs (ix. cxrili 2).
Casaxleba qvemo qarTlSi
pirveli
Camosaxlebebi
qvemo
qarTlSi
1987
wels
svaneTidan
da
1989-1990
wlebSi mTiani aWaridan daiwyo. svani da aWareli migrantebi qvemo qarTlis
eqvs raionSi Caasaxles.75 qvemo qarTlSi miwis ganawilebasa da saxlebis
mSeneblobasTan dakavSirebiT xelisuflebam ramdenime rezolucia gamosca.76
mTlianobaSi
ekomigrantebisaTvis
584,32
heqtari
miwa
gamoiyo
bolnisis,
gardabnis, marneulis, TeTriwyarosa da dmanisis raionebSi; daigegma 49 axali
soflisa da 5,700 saxlis mSenebloba.77 Tumca, 1993 wlis bolosTvis ki
realurad saxlebis mxolod erTi mesamedi (1,992) iyo dasrulebuli.
1987 wlis zvavebis Semdeg zemo da qvemo svaneTidan daaxloebiT 2,500 ojaxis
Camosaxleba
ganisazRvra
marneulis,
gardabnis,
bolnisis,
dmanisisa
da
TeTriwyaros raionebSi. Tumca realurad mxolod 1,645 ojaxi Camovida. 1989
wels,
aWaraSi
talRaSi
momxdari
ZiriTadad
stiqiuri
xulos,
qedisa
ubedurebebis
da
Suaxevis
Sedegad
Camosaxlebis
raionidan
wamosuli
ekomigrantebi Sediodnen. daaxloebiT 708 ekomigranti ojaxi qvemo qarTlis
regionis oTxi raionis aT sofelsa da erT qalaqSi gaanawiles.78 svaneTidan
75
ixileT danarTSi cxrili 3.
saqarTvelos ssr ministrTa sabWos 1987 wlis # 2, 3, 4, 5, 6 dadgenilebebi.
77 laura niJaraZe, svanebis migracia da misi...…, gv.13-17.
78 gardabnis raionis soflebi: vaziani, muxrovani, krwanisi; marneulis raionis soflebi: axali
dioknisi, xixani, Sulaveri, kulari; bolnisis raioni: qalaqi bolnisi da soflebi: xatissofeli,
disveli; TeTriwyaros raioni: sofeli samRereTi; walkis raioni calke iqneba ganxiluli.
76
42
Camosaxlebis msgavsad, aqac mTavrobis rezolucia ekomigrantebs uflebas ar
aZlevda, saxlebi gaeyidaT an sxvisTvis gadaecaT 25 wlis ganmavlobaSi.
svanebis
Casaxlebebi
qvemo
qarTlSi,
kerZod
ki
bolnisSi,
TeTrwyaroSi,
marneulSi, gardabansa da dmanisSi daaxloebiT erTnairi sqemiT moxda. garda
svaneTidan
Camosaxlebuli
1,645
ojaxisa
(ixileT
zemoT),
147
ojaxi
Camoasaxles leCxumidan da 1989 wels _ 708 ojaxi aWaridan. miuxedavad imisa,
rom es xuTive raioni mravaleTnikuria, umeteswilad ekomigrantebi qarTul
soflebSi Caasaxles, gansakuTrebiT ki im soflebSi, romlebic 1950-ian - 1960ian
wlebSi
sabWoTa
urbanizaciis
periodSi
kavSirSi
dawyebuli
industrializaciis
mosaxleobam.79
datova
garda
amisa,
Tanamdevi
ekologiuri
migrantebisaTvis ramdenime axali sofeli aSenda.
garda imisa, rom mTavrobam bolnisis raionis sam sofelSi ekomigrantTaTvis
aaSena
saxlebi,
azerbaijanuli
TviT
q.
bolnisSic
ojaxisagan
(5000
Seisyida
adamiani),
saxlebi
romelic
daaxloebiT
1989-1990
980
wlebSi
azerbaijanSi gadasaxlda _ maT Soris bevri nacionalisti aqtivistebisa da
organizaciebis Zlieri zewolisa da bolnisis intereTnikuri urTierTobebis
seriozulad
daZabvis
gamo.
am
saxlebidan
daaxloebiT
320
svaneTidan,
aWaridan da leCxumidan Camosaxlebul ekomigrantebs gadaecaT.80
kvlevis periodSi adgilobrivi xelisuflebis warmomadgenlebTan da aWarel
mosaxleobasTan saubrebma gamoavlina, rom TeTriwyaros raioni arsebuli da
potenciuri
ekomigrantebisaTvis
yvelaze
sasurveli
adgilia.
aWaris
mosaxleobas maT mSobliur mxareSi miwis naklebobis gamo didi survili aqvs,
miwis damuSavebaSi CaerTos Camosaxlebis Semdeg. amave dros, TeTriwyaro
vrceli
da
maRalmosavliani
sasoflo-sameurneo
savargulebiT
mdidari
raionia. garda amisa, regionSi kargad aris ganviTarebuli mesaqonleoba,
79
magaliTad, bolnisis raionis sofeli tanZia Zveli sofelia. aq cnobili mwerali da sazogado
moRvawe sulxan-saba orbeliani daibada me-17 saukuneSi. svani ekomigrantebis Camosvlis periodSi am
sofelSi mxolod 40 qarTuli ojaxi cxovrobda. dRes, adgilobrivi oficialuri pirebis informaciiT,
es bolnisis raionis erT-erTi yvelaze ayvavebulia sofelia, kargad ganviTarebuli miwaTmoqmedebiTa
da mesaqonleobiT.
80 interviu bolnisis raionis sakrebulos xlmZRvanel petre daneliasTan. 29 agvisto, 2006 w.
43
xolo
msgavsi
sasoflo-sameurneo
saqmianoba
mTis
mosaxleobisTvisac
Semosavlis tradiciuli wyaroa. amitom savaraudoa, rom 1987 wels svaneTSi
Camowolili zvavebis Semdeg sabWoTa xelmZRvanelobam swored am mizeziT
gadawyvita saxlebis yvelaze masobrivi mSenebloba TeTriwyaros raionSi
ganexorcielebina.
rva
sofelSi
918
saxlis
aSeneba
iyo
gansazRvruli,
romelTagan realurad mxolod 591 saxli dasrulda. xuTi sruliad axali
sofeli dafuZnda.81 sainteresoa sofel Savsaydris SemTxveva, sadac naTlad
Cans
xelisuflebis
mier
migraciis
kontrolis
procesSi
daSvebuli
Secdomebi. am sofelSi oci saxli aSenda da ojaxic amdenive Camoasaxles.
magram migraciis procesis arasaTanado marTvis gamo ekomigrantebma saxlebi
mkvidr mosaxleobas mihyides da sami wlis ganmavlobaSi nel-nela svaneTSi
dabrundnen. adgilobrivi xelisuflebis warmomadgenelma dagvidastura, rom
saxelmwifo sakuTrebaSi myofi ramdenime saxli ukanonod gasxvisda, Tumca,
arc aseTi saxlebis zusti raodenobaa cnobili da arc raime zomebi miuRia
vinmes.82
ekologiuri migraciis kvlevisas sainteresoa dmanisis raionis SemTxvevac.
dmanisis
somxebi,
raionis
berZnebi
mosaxleobas
da
rusi
Seadgenen
duxoborebi.
qarTvelebi,
garda
300
azerbaijanelebi,
ekomigranti
ojaxisa,
dmanisis raionma afxazeTidan iZulebiT adgilnacvali pirebic miiRo. sofeli
ganTiadi ekomigrantebsa da mkvidr mosaxleobas (am SemTxvevaSi ZiriTadad
qarTvelebs)
Soris
warmoadgens.
es
cudi
urTierTobebis
dmanisis
raionis
arcTu
erTaderTi
sasiamovno
sofeli
magaliTs
iyo,
sadac
ekomigarntTaTvis axali saxlebi aSenda. gegmis mixedviT ganTiadSi 1991 wels
svanebis Svidi ojaxi Camoasaxles, Tumca mcire xanSi saSineli incidentis
gamo yvela iZulebuli gaxda, sofeli daetovebina. 1992 wels mTvrali svani
axalgazrdebis
jgufma
soflis
axalgazrda
adgilobrivi
mcxovrebi
(qarTveli) mokla, ris Semdegac soflis mcxovreblebma saSinlad iZies Suri
da sruliad udanaSaulo svani migranti mokles. umokles droSi sofelSi
81
82
soflebi xaiSi, golTeTi, didgori, marabda da samRereTi.
interviu TeTriwyaros raionis gamgeblis moadgile enver gabuldanTan, 20 oqtomberi, 2006 w.
44
Camosaxlebulma svanma migrantebma an miatoves saxlebi (romlebic Semdeg
adgilobrivma ojaxebma daikaves) an gacvales, rom soflidan wasuliyvnen.
adgilobrivi xelisuflebis warmomadgenelTa TqmiT, dmanisis raionSi bevri
SemTxeva
dafiqsirda,
rodesac
saxelmwifos
mier
aSenebuli
saxlebi
adgilobriv mkvidr mosaxleobas an iZulebiT adgilnacval pirebs mihyides,
maSin, roca im pirebma _ ekomigrantebma, visTvisac saxlebi iyo gankuTvnili,
raioni
datoves
raionis
da
mSobliur
gamgeobam
daubrundnen.83
mxares
adgilobrivi
mosaxleobis
2004
wels
kuTvnili
dmanisis
saxlebis
(ekomigrantebisa da iZulebiT adgilnacvali pirebis CaTvliT) registracia
daiwyo. saxlebs maT uformeben, vinc amJamad, registraciis mimdinareobisas, iq
cxovrobs da didia albaToba, rom saxelmwifos mier ekomigrantebisaTvis
aSenebuli saxlebi araekologiur migrant mosaxleobas gauformdes.
garda imisa, rom saxelmwifom, rusTavelis sazogadoebasTan da kostavas
fondTan
erTad
saxlebi
aaSena,
dmanisis
raionSi
575
saxlic
Seisyida
eTnikurad araqarTveli mosaxleobisagan, romelic 1989-1992 wlebSi qveynidan
wavida.84
dmanisis
raionis
sofeli
guguTi
imis
magaliTad
SeiZleba
moviyvanoT, Tu rogor mimdinareobda xSirad es procesi. guguTi uSualod
saqarTvelo-somxeTis sazRvarTan mdebare patara sofelia, romelic 1990-ian
wlebSi daarsda gansaxlebis saxelmwifo programis gegmis faglebSi. sofeli
daarsda ori iqve arsebuli azerbaijanuli soflis, muRalosa da saaTlos
gaerTianebis
Sedegad.
mosaxleobis
94%
kostavas
fondma
1989
wels
azerbaijanSi
239
saxli
muRalosa
wavida
Seisyides.
da
da
saaTlos
rusTavelis
adreul
1990-ian
azerbaijanuli
sazogadoebam
wlebSi
da
guguTSi
migrantebi dasaxldnen, romelTaganac 43 ojaxi aWaridan sakuTari surviliT
Camosaxlebuli ekomigranti iyo. Tumca bevrma maTganma an gayida saxli, an
miatova
da
mogvianebiT
gayida.
saxlebi
mihyides
qalaq
dmanisidan
da
saqarTvelos sxva regionebidan Camosul mosaxleobas, rogorc sazafxulo
83 interviu dmanisis raionis ltolvilTa da gansaxlebis ganyofilebis xelmZRvanel dali kvicianTan,
22 oqtomberi, 2006w..
84 ufro zustad, dmanisis raionis gamgeobis 2004 wlis 24 noembris #182 dadgenilebis mixedviT, saxlebi
Seisyides: qalaq dmanisSi (461 saxli), soflebSi
guguTi (239 saxli), loxandara (9), irganCai (23),
dalari (22), salamaleiqi (46), vake (3), qvemo orozmani (6), useinkendi (3), amamlo da kariani (1).
45
kotejebi.85 arsebobs saSiSroeba, rom uaxloes momavalSi cudi sacxovrebeli
pirobebis gamo sofels es mudmivi mcxovreblebic datoveben. naTelia, rom
CamosaxlebisaTvis
migrantTa
SerCevisas
menejmentis
sisustis,
SerCevis
procesisaTvis damaxasiaTebeli korufciisa da gansaxlebis procesis marTvis
erTiani politikis ararsebobis gamo aq mudmivi dasaxleba aRar iarsebebs.
qvemo
qarTlSi
migraciis
ekologiurma da
dasaxleba.
yvelaze
moyolebuli
berZnebiTa
arastabilurobasTan,
saqarTvelos
demografiuli
regionia.
azerbaijanelebiTa
tendenciebis
faza
1997-1998
wlebze
movida,
rodesac
araekologiurma migrantebma spontanurad iwyes walkaSi
walka
rTuli
meore
da
es
da
TvalsazrisiT
me-19-e
saukunis
pirveli
somxebiT,
da
SedarebiT
mcire
raodenobiT
dasaxlebuli.86
politikur
ekonomikis
berZnulma
erT-erTi
raioni
qarTvelebiTac
gaRvivebasTan
saqarTvelos
erTad,
iyo
daRmasvlasTan
rac
mosaxleobam,
sabWoTa
maT
da
kavSiris
Soris
naxevridan
nacionalisturi
rRvevas
walkis
mohyva,
raionidanac,
saberZneTSi daiwyo migracia. 1979 da 2002 wlebs Soris periodSi walkis
berZnuli mosaxleoba 85%-iT Semcirda da 30,811 adamianidan 4,589-mde Camovida.
es procesi grZeldeba da 2006 wlis bolosTvis, walkis raionis gamgeobis
gaangariSebiT, raionSi mxolod 1,234 berZeni darCeba.87 amave dros walka
ekologiuri mizezebiT adgilnacval pirTa da sxva migrantebis
masobrivi
Camosvlis mowme gaxda. marTalia, walkaSi migrirebis procesi, 1998 wlidan
moyolebuli, dRemde grZeldeba, magram es procesi mainc or talRad SeiZleba
daiyos: pirveli talRa daemTxva 1997-1998 wlebs, xolo meore -2002-2003 wlebs.
walkaSi migraciis pirveli talRa 1997 wels daiwyo, rodesac prezident
SevardnaZis brZanebulebiT,
3,000,000 aSS dolari iqna gamoyofili berZnebis
mier mitovebuli saxlebis SesaZenad (soflebSi gumbaTi, qvemo xareba da
xando). am drois ganmavlobaSi mxolod daaxloebiT 50-ma ekomigrantma ojaxma
85
rac Seexeba 2006 wlis bolos monacemebs, sofelSi 142 ojaxi cxovrobda, romelTagan mxolod 54 iyo
mudmivi mcxovrebi -aWaridan Camosaxlebuli 11 ojaxis CaTvliT. 239 saxlidan 86 dazianebuli iyo. maTgan
umetesoba aRdgenas ar eqvemdebareboda.
86ixileT cxrili 1 danarTSi, ufro detaluri informaciisaTvis.
87 monacemebi mogvawoda walkis raionis gamgeobam. jonaTan uiTli “konfliqtis ganeitraleba walkis
raionSi, saqarTveloSi: migracia, saerTaSoriso intervencia da saxelmwifos roli (ECMI naSromi No.36,
dekemberi, 2006) gv. 9.
46
moaxerxa
am saxlebSi
dasaxleba. xelisuflebam marto saxlebis
sworad
ganawileba ki ara, aramed maTi saTanadod registrirebac ki ver SeZlo, vinc
mTavrobisagan es saxlebi miiRo.88
migraciis
meore
uzarmazari
talRis
raodenoba
ganmavlobaSi,
Cavida
2002
wlidan,
saqarTvelos
walkaSi
sxvadasxva
migrantTa
regionebidan.
romelTaganac 70% mTiani aWaridan, kerZod ki xulos raionidan Camosuli iyo.
es migracia spontanurad da araorganizebulad moxda. 2002-2003 wlis nakadSi
Camosulebis
umravlesobas
ekologiuri
ki
ara,
ekonomikuri
migrantebi
warmoadgendnen, romlebic baqo-Tbilisi-jeihanis navTobsadenis mSeneblobaze
samuSaos povnis perspeqtivam miizida. zog SemTxvevaSi es adamianebi yofili
ekomigrantebi
iyvnen,
romlebic
Tavis
droze
dasaxldnen
ninowmindis,
axalqalaqis, adigenis, guriis da saqarTvelos sxva raionebSi, Tumca ki
warumateblad.89
gavida
dro
da
spontanur
migrantTa
ricxvi
mkveTrad
gaizarda. magaliTad, sofel guniakalaSi, sadac 2002 wels mxolod 7 svanuri
da 2-3 aWaruli ojaxi saxlobda, axla 27 svanuri da 100 aWaruli ojaxia.90
xelisufleba aranair zomebs ar iRebs migraciis regulirebisaTvis. am wlebis
ganmavlobaSi, axalCamosulebma ukanonod daikaves berZnebis mier mitovebuli
saxlebi soflebSi Tikilisa, avralo, guniakala da karakomi da aseve TviT
qalaq
walkaSi.
sakuTrebas
Zalian
mezobel
xSirad,
berZnebs
adgilobriv
somxebsac).
miaqiraveben
xolme
rodesac
an
darCenili
Tavisi
berZnebi
naTesavebs
berZnebi
midian,
utoveben
ki
Semdeg
mezoblebis/naTesavebis
(zog
isini
Tavis
SemTxvevaSi
araoficialurad
mitovebul
saxlebs
axalCamosulebs, vidre es ukanasknelni damoukideblad SeZlebdnen miwis,
sakuTrebis SeZenas an ijariT aRebas.
88
igive
ltolvilTa da gansaxlebis saministros mier 2001 Catarebuli monitoringis mixedviT walkis
raionSi 371 axali ojaxi (1,855 adamiani) iyo Camosuli, romelTaganac 204 ojaxi stiqiuri ubedurebisgan
iyo dazaralebuli, xolo danarCeni 127 ojaxi sakuTari surviliT gadmosaxlda walkis raionSi
ninowmindis, axalqalaqis, adigenis, guriis da saqarTvelos sxva raionebidan. Tamaz futkaraZe aWaris
mosaxleobis migraciis..., gv. 98-90.
90 interviu sofel guniakalas skolis direqtoris moadgile ineza korZaiasTan, 15 agvisto, 2006w;
walkis gamgeobis mier mowodebuli masalebis mixedviT, walkis raionSi 1997 wels 19 ojaxi Camovida,
1998 wels 134, 1999 wels 98, 2000 wels 144, 2001 wels 137, 2002 wels 195, 2003 wels 331, xolo 2004 wels 115
ojaxi.
89
47
Cveulebriv,
adgilobrivi
berZnebi
araformalurd
500-600
aSS
dolarad
yiddnen saxlebs. Tumca gayidvis procesSi sabuTebi ar formdeboda, ase rom,
am gayidvas iuridiuli Zala ar gaaCnia da registrirebuli ar aris.91 sxva
SemTxvevebSi,
migrantebi
ubralod
ikavebdnen
cariel
saxlebs.
nebismier
SemTxevaSi, situacia Zalze garTulda, radgan umetesoba berZnebisa, vinc
saxlebi datova da saberZneTSi gadasaxlda, kvlav am qonebis oficialuri
mflobelia da axalCamosulebi dakavebul saxlebze maTi Tanxmobis gareSe
mflobelobis uflebas ver aformeben. ase rom, vinaidan axalCamosulebi ar
arian
saxlebis
registrirebuli
mflobelebi,
isini
ver
registrirdebian
sofelSi da miwis privatizaciaze ganacxadis gakeTebis uflebac ara aqvT.
mxolod ramdenime iRblianma moaxerxa saxlis yidva da legalizeba mTavrobis
daxmarebiT.92
dabinavebasTan erTad ekomigrantebisTvis erT-erTi mTavari problemaa miwis
ganawlebis sakiTxic. umetesobam, vinc Casaxlda da berZnebis saxlebi daikava,
ar icoda, Tu sad mdebareobda saxlis kuTvnili miwa. magaliTad aviRoT
sofeli, sadac mxolod 10 berZnuli ojaxia darCenili. es ojaxebi floben (an
uSualod Tavisas, an naTesavebis da mezoblebis qonebas) yofili koleqtivis
miwis mTel teritorias, maSin, roca asobiT axalCamosuli verafers iRebs.
Tumca berZnebi zogjer ijariT aZleven miwas migrant ojaxebs.93 miuxedavad
imisa,
rom
darCenili
berZnebi
TavianTi
naTesavebis
araformaluri SeTanxmebis safuZvelze gankargaven,
aqvT.
ase
rom,
erTi
mxriv,
berZnebs
kuTvnil
miwas
maT amis ufleba mainc
iuridiuli
ufleba
aqvT
miwis
gankargvaze, im miwis CaTvliT, romelic wasulma naTesavebma da mezoblebma
andes maT; magram meore mxriv, amgvari SeTanxmeba axalCamosuli aWarlebisa da
svanebis ukmayofilebas iwvevs da xSirad es konfliqtSic gadaizrdeba xolme.
magaliTad, sofel guniakalaSi ori berZeni “miwaTmflobeli” gankargavda
soflis yofili kolmeurnebis kuTvnil miwas ijaris xelSekrulebiT da
Semdeg isini qveijariT aZlevdnen mas migrantebs. Tumca, es ori piri ijaris
91
92
93
jonaTan uiTli “konfliqtis ganeitraleba walkis..., gv.10
interviu walkis raionis gamgebel mixeil cqitiSvilTan, 2006 wlis 15 ivlisi.
igive
48
gadasaxads mTavrobas mxolod im miwisaTvis uxdida, romelsac isini Tavis
pirad sargeblobaSi itovebdnen. soflis qarTvel da berZen mosaxleobas
Soris amasTan dakavSirebiT bevri usiamovneba moxda da 2006 wlis dasawyisSi
mdgomareoba ise daiZaba, rom saWiro gaxda gamgeblis Careva, raTa problema
mogvarebuliyo. Sedegad, miaRwies SeTanxmebas, rom sadavo miwa (anu yofili
kolmeurneobis miwa, romelsac wasuli berZnebis naTesavebi flobdnen da
zedmeti miwa, romelzec msxvili miwaTmflobelebi ijaris gadasaxads ar
ixdidnen)
Tanabrad
ganawildeboda
da
erTi
wlis
ganmavlobaSi
yvela
moixmarda, visac sWirdeboda. miwiT sargeblobisaTvis ki mcire renta unda
gadaexadaT.94
migraciis procesma piks 2002-2003 wlebSi miaRwia. 2004-2006 wlebSi procesis
tempi
davarda,
xelisuflebam
Tumca
migracia
problemis
kvlav
gadawyveta
grZeldeba.
daiwyo;
bolo
saxelmwifo
periodSi
programis
farglebSi 2005 wels 21 ekomigranti ojaxi Caasaxles walkis raionis sofel
oliankaSi. metic, gamoiyo fuladi saxsrebi walkaSi ukve aralegalurad
mcxovrebi 264 ekomigranti ojaxisaTvis da migrantebi registraciaSi gaatares.
ase rom, maTi yofna legalizebulia.
jamSi,
pirveli
axalmosaxleebi
svaneTidan
da
aWaridan
1987-1989
wlebSi
gamoCndnen, 1990-iani wlebis bolos ki, gaxSirebuli zvavebis gamo svaneTisa
da, gansakuTrebiT, aWaris mosaxleobam isev iwyo walkis raionSi dasaxleba.
garda amisa walkis raionSi ara mxolod ekologiuri, aramed, ekonomikuri
motivaciiT
ganpirobebuli
migraciac
gaZlierda,
gansakuTrebiT
2002-2003
wlebSi. amJamad TeTriwyaros, dmanisis, bolnisis, marneulisa da gardabnis
raionebSi
mTlianobaSi
2,341
aWaruli
da
svanuri
ojaxi
(10,701
adamiani)
cxovrobs, romelic aq saxelmwifo programis Sedegad Caasaxles. garda amisa,
walkis gamgeobis mier mowodebuli monacemebis mixedviT walkis raionSi 2006
wlis
zafxulisTvis
1,950
aWaruli
da
svanuri
ojaxi
(daaxloebiT
7,685
adamiani) cxovrobs, romelTaganac mxolod 20%-ia ekomigranti.95 am cifrs
94
interviu sofel guniakalas skolis direqtoris moadgile ineza korZaiasTan, 15 agvisto, 2006w.
walkis gamgeobis mier mowodebuli moncemebis mixedviT. procentuli Sefardeba mogvawoda walkis
raionis gamgeblma, mixeil cqitiSvilma, 2006 wlis 12 ivliss.
95
49
emateba 381 ojaxi
saqarTvelos sxvadasxva regionebidan, maT Soris samcxe-
javaxeTidan, imereTidan, samegrelodan, guriidan da sxva (yvelaze metni arian
aWarlebi,
romlebic
pirvelebi
Camosaxldnen
aq)
da
aseve
iZulebiT
adgilnacvali pirebi (245 ojaxi) afxazeTidan, romelTac amJamad walkis
raioni maspinZlobs.96
Casaxleba
Casaxleba da eTnikuri daZabuloba umciresobebiT dasaxlebul
regionebSi
zemoT ganvixileT ekologiuri migraciis tendenciebi, am sakiTxis mimarT
arsebuli gansxvavebuli saxelmwifo midgomebi da samcxe-javaxeTsa da qvemo
qarTlSi CasaxlebasTan dakavSirebuli monacemebi. axla ki
vagrZelebT imave
Temis ganxilvas, qvemoT mocemul TavSi yuradRebas gavamaxvilebT mimReb
TemebSi arsebul situaciaze, kerZod ki socialur-ekonomikur
adaptaciasa da
migrantebsa
urTierTobebis
da
mkvidr
mosaxleobas
Soris
daZabuli
sakiTxebze.
saqarTvelo
mravaleTnikuri
moyolebuli,
erovnuli
qveyanaa
da,
umciresobebis
marTalia,
1980-iani
warmomadgenelTa
wlebidan
xvedriTi
wili
qveyanaSi mniSvnelovnad Semcirda, magram saqarTvelos mTliani mosaxleobis
16%
kvlav
erovnuli
umciresobebis
warmomadgenlebze
modis
(2002
wlis
aRweris mixedviT). magram integraciis done, gansakuTrebiT ki umciresobebiT
kompaqturad dasaxlebul regionebSi - samcxe-javaxeTsa da qvemo qarTlSi kvlav Zalze dabalia, rac xels uSlis am regionebisa da misi mkvidri
mosaxleobis srul socialur-politikur da ekonomikur monawileobas. Tu
sabWoTa periodSi qveynis demografiuli Semadgenloba safrTxes ar uqmnida
SidaeTnikur Tanxmobas, sabWoTa kavSiris daSlis Tanamdevma gardamavalma
wlebma
_
damaxasiaTebeli
eTnopolitikuri
daZabulobiT
da
ekonomikuri
krizisiT _ postsabWoTa saqarTvelos teritoriuli mTlianoba kiTxvis qveS
daayena. albaT arsebobda struqturuli da istoriuli mizezebi, ris gamoc
totalitaruli
96
reJimis
rRvevas
eTnopolitikuri
daZabulobis
warmoSoba
igive
50
mohyva, magram faqtia, rom zviad gamsaxurdias meTaurobiT xelisuflebaSi
xisti nacionalisturi reJimis mosvlam
xeli ar Seuwyo saxelmwifos Senebis
process, romelic uSualod damoukideblobis gamocxadebamde, 1991 wels da
mas Semdeg unda dawyebuliyo. damoukideblobis gamocxadebis pirvel wlebs
Tan axlda erovnuli uciresobebis mimarT saxelmwifos gaucxoeba da qveynis
araqarTvel mosaxleobaSi daucvelobis farTod gavrcelebuli SegrZneba.
es
periodi
daaxloebiT
daemTxva
tragikul
ekologiur
katastrofebs
svaneTsa (1987w.) da aWaraSi (1989w.). aucilebeli gaxda Zalian bevri xalxis
gadasaxleba.
sabWoTa mTavrobam gadawyvita, saqarTvelos TiTqmis yvela
regionSi gaenawilebina isini, maT Soris javaxeTsa da qvemo qarTlSi, sadac
mosaxleobis
umetesobas
mniSvnelovanwilad
erovnuli
komunisturi
umciresobebi
reJimis
warmoadgendnen.
totalitarulma
bunebam
maSin
Seakava
eTnikuri daZabulobis da eTnikuri konfliqtis gaRviveba regionSi, magram
1989 wlidan da, gansakuTrebiT 1991 wlidan, eTnopolitikuri konfliqtebi
saqarTvelos yvelaze didi problema aRmoCnda. qveyana samoqalaqo omSi iqna
CaTreuli
samxreT
centraluri
qveyanaSi,
oseTTan
xelisufleba
rom
aRaraferi
(1990-92ww.)
mTlianobaSi
vTqvaT
da
afxazeTTan
ver
erovnuli
(1992-93).
akontrolebda
umciresobebiT
metic,
situacias
kompaqturad
dasaxlebul regionebze, sadac bevri ekomigranti iyo Casaxlebuli.
daZabuloba samcxesamcxe-javaxeTSi
1990-iani
wlebis
dasawyisSi
samxreT
oseTisa
da
afxazeTis
garda
gansakuTrebiT daiZaba situacia javaxeTSi. aq adgilobrivma somxebma uari
ganacxades prezident gamsaxurdias mier daniSnuli regionis aRmasrulebeli
xelisuflebis warmomadgenlis, prefeqtis, miRebaze da regionSi avtonomiis
gamocxadebisaken
moTxovnebs
mimarTuli
axmovanebda
kampania
regionaluri
gaaCaRes.
adgilobrivi
saparlamento
organizacia
somxebis
javaxki,
romelic im droisaTvis didi adgilobrivi Zala gaxda. im dros axalqalaqSi
axali Camosulebi iyvnen ekomigrantebi mTiani aWaridan da ekomigrantebis sxva
jgufebi ki ninowmindisken miemarTebodnen. rogorc ukve aRvniSneT, javaxeTSi
aWarlebis
Camosvlas
SiSi
da
eWvebi
mohyva.
adgilobrivi
mosaxleoba
51
metwilad
ewinaaRmdegeboda
saxelmwifo
politikas.
eTnikuri
qarTvelebis
saqarTvelos
erovnuli
maTTan
mTavrobis
Casaxlebis
RonisZiebebi
demografiuli balansis Secvlisa da mkveTrad antisomxuri tonis mqone
qmedebad
aRiqmeboda.97
somxurma
rodesac
mosaxleobam
demonstraciebi
aWarlebi
regionSi
moawyo
da,
javaxeTSi
qarTvelTa
sxvagvarad
Cavidnen,
Casaxlebebis
rom
vTqvaT,
javaxeTis
sawinaaRmdego
Seecada,
regionSi
axalCamosulTa Casaxleba ar daeSvaT.
spasovkis qarTul mosaxleobas (ninowmindis raioni) miaCnia, rom Camosaxlebis
dRidan isini mudmiv diskriminacias ganicdian adgilobrivi xelisuflebis
mxridan. qarTvelebi amtkiceben, rom miwa, romelzec isini cxovroben, maT
winaprebsa da qarTvel ers ekuTvnis. ase rom, maTi azriT, maT unda hqondeT
yvela is ufleba da Tavisufleba, rac saqarTvelos sxva moqalaqeebs aqvT.98
am
argumentis
istoriulad
ekuTvniT.
sapirispirod
cxovrobdnen
metic,
isini
javaxeTis
javaxeTis
pretenzias
somxebi
acxadeben,
rom
teritoriaze, ase rom, es
gamoTqvamen,
rom
isini
miwa
sxvadasxva
maT
qarTuli
mTavrobebi Segnebulad cdiloben samcxe-javaxeTSi demografiuli suraTis
Secvlas da somxuri mosaxleobis fardobiTi wilis Semcirebas.99
unda
aRiniSnos,
rom
adreul
1990-ian
wlebSi
merab
kostavas
fondma,
romelsac xels uwyobdnen rogorc saqarTvelos mTavroba, ise mosaxleobis
farTo masebi, Riad ganacxada, rom surda, mTavrobis mimarT “loialuri
sazogadoeba”
Camoeyalibebina
javaxeTSi
daniSnuli
cnobdnen)
umciresobebiT
(Semdgari
aRmasrulebeli
dasaxlebul
qarTvelebisgan,
xelisuflebis
regionebSi
vinaidan
somxebi
warmomadgenlebs
da
qveynis
ar
sazRvrebi
gaemagrebina eTnikuri qarTveli mosaxleobiT.100 1990-iani wlebis gansaxlebis
programebi
97
mxolod
ekologiuri
migrantebisaTvis
ki
ar
iyo
Seqmnili,
rostom sarkisiani. 2002. “javaxki: socialur-ekonomikuri ugulebelyofa Tu eTnikuri areuloba”,
diplomatia da msoflios movlenebi, DWA Discussion Paper no 101, ix:
http://departments.oxy.edu/dwa/papers/101b.pdf
98 interviuebi sofel spasovkis mcxovreblebTan, 24 seqtemberi, 2006 w.
99 lia meliqiSvili, faruli konfliqtebi mravaleTnikur sazogadoebaSi. mSvidobis, demokratiisa da
ganviTarebis kavkasiuri instituti, Tbilisi 1998.
100 interviu merab kostavas fondis Tavmjdomaris movaleobis Semsrulebel daviT kupreiSvilTan, 15
seqtemberi, 2006 w.
52
romelTac marTlac saswrafod sWirdebodaT saxlebi da miwis nakveTebi,
aramed sxva qarTuli mosaxleobisTvisac. eTnikurad qarTuli mosaxleoba
Cavida
javaxeTSi
aspinZidan,
Tbilisidan.
amasTan,
bevri
patriotuli
motivebiT
xaragaulidan,
acxadebda,
rusTavidan,
rom
xelmZRvanelobda.
am
kaspidan
regionSi
sinamdvileSi
da
dasaxlebisas
iyo
ekonomikuri
motivaciac _ ufaso saxlebisa da miwis miReba mniSvnelovnad gaaumjobesebda
maT ekonomikur mdgomareobas.101 Tumca, vidre gadawyvetilebis mimRebi centri
Tavis nacionalistur programas asrulebda _ CasaxlebisaTvis emzadeboda da
saxlebs yidulobda momaval mcxovrebTaTvis, mas gamorCa mTavari _ is, rom
axalCasulebs gauWirdebodaT adaptacia regionTan, nawilobriv javaxeTis
mkacri klimaturi pirobebis, izolirebuli geografiuli mdgomareobisa da
nawilobriv mcxovrebTa socialuri mowyobis wesis gansxvavebulobis gamo. es
gansxvavebebi aixsna, rogorc „eTnikuri“ Seusabamoba adgilobriv somxebsa da
Camosul
qarTvelebs
adaptaciasTan
Soris.
dakavSirebiT
am
yvelaferma
seriozuli
qarTul
problemebi
mosaxleobaSi
da
imedgacrueba
gamoiwvia. amis gamo CasaxlebulTa didma nawilma or-sam weliwadSi javaxeTi
datova.
Sedegad,
qarTveli
migrantebisaTvis
kostavas
fondis
mier
gadacemuli saxlebis (217 saxli) didi nawili an daangries, an adgilobrivma
mosaxleobam daiwyo misi sacxovreblad an saqonlis sadgomad gamoyeneba.
gansaxlebis
SemTxveviTma
xasiaTma,
mimRebi
mosaxleobis
Tvalsazrisis
gauTvaliswineblobam, korufciam da saxlebis aTvisebis gegmis ararsebobam
didi fuladi saxsrebis, droisa da mcdelobis fuWad xarjva gamoiwvia.
regionSi
(gansakuTrebiT
axalqalaqis
raionSi)
qarTveli
migrantebis
Casvlisas, adgilobrivi somxebis mxridan wamosuli erT-erTi pretenzia is
iyo, rom axalCamosulebs axal saxlebs aZlevdnen, maSin, roca adgilobrivi
Raribi mosaxleoba patara qoxebSi agrZelebda cxovrebas.102 aq adgilobrivma
mosaxleobam Tavi ignorirebulad da axalCamosul qarTvelebTan SedarebiT
diskriminirebulad igrZno. amave dros axalqalaqisa da ninowmindis raionSi
axalCasaxlebuli
101
102
qarTvelebi
Ciodnen,
rom
mTavroba
maT
yuradRebas
ar
igive, Tamaz futkaraZe aWaris mosaxleobis migraciis..., gv. 136-137.
igive.
53
aqcevs, rom maTi uflebebi daculi ar aris da rom adgilobrivi somxebi maT
`meorexarisxovan moqalaqeebad~ Tvlian.103 marTlac, aman Zalze gaarTula
maTi adaptacia adgilobriv pirobebTan.
daZabuloba qvemo qarTlSi
adreuli Casaxlebebi qvemo qarTlSi ufro kargad iyo organizebuli da
dagegmili, vidre javaxeTSi. es
nawilobriv
im
faqtiT
aixsneba,
rom
aq
pirveli didi Casaxleba sabWoTa periodSi _ 1987 wels moxda, rodesac
centraluri xelisufleba ufro Zlieri iyo, vidre 1989 wlis Casaxlebebis
dros. miuxedavad imisa, rom ekomigrantebi kompaqturad da xSir SemTxvevaSi
srulebiT
axal
soflebSi
ganaTavses
(xixani,
axali
dioknisi,
disveli,
xatissofeli), iyo Sereuli eTnikuri soflebic (Sulaveri, krwanisi, vaziani,
muxrovani, samRereTi).
qvemo
qarTlSi
eTnikuri
urTierTobebis
mxriv
javaxeTTan
SedarebiT
ganxvavebuli suraTi iyo. marTalia, axalCamosulTaTvis adaptaciis procesi
advili ar iyo, magram sirTuleebi aucileblad eTnikuri sakiTxebidan ar
gamomdinareobda. javaxeTisagan gansxvavebiT, qvemo qarTlis mravalricxovani
azerbaijaneli mosaxleoba Riad ar acxadebda, rom ekomigrantebs ar miiRebda.
sul ramdenime SemTxveva iyo, rodesac qvemo qarTlis mosaxleoba xmamaRla
alaparakda ekomigrantebis Camosaxlebaze. magram ekomigrantTa Camosaxlebis
pirveli
talRidan
adgilobrivi
ramdenime
weliwadSi
azerbaijanelebisa
TvalsazrisiT.104
svani
da
Camosaxlebuli
ekomigrantebis
sadac adgilobrivi mcxovrebTa
mdgomareoba
integracia
gauaresda,
svanebis
kerZod,
urTierTobis
da adaptacia
regionSi,
umravlesoba eTnikurad da kulturulad
gansxvavebuli azerbaijaneli iyo, rTuli aRmoCnda rogorc svanebis, ise
azerbaijanelebisaTvis.
103
Tamaz futkaraZe “aWaris mosaxleobis migraciis..., gv.138;
lia meliqiSvili faruli konfliqtebi
mravaleTnikur sazogadoebaSi. mSvidobis, demokratiisa da ganviTarebis kavkasiuri instituti, Tbilisi
1998.
rogorc zemoT aRvniSneT, qvemo qarTlSi Casaxlebul ekomigrantTa umetesoba svaneTidan iyo. walkis
raioni calke iqneba ganxiluli, radgan am regionSi eTnikuri urTierTobebis da daZabulobis
specifikuri modeli vlindeba.
104
54
aWarlebisgan
gansxvavebiT,
svanebi
xSirad
kriminalebad
aRiqmebian
qvemo
qarTlis mkvidri mosaxleobis mier. imisTvis, rom es warmodgena aixsnas,
aucilebelia, gaviTvaliswinoT, rom qvemo qarTlSi, kerZod ki marneulis,
gardabnis, TeTriwyaros, bolnisisa da dmanisis raionebSi svan ekomigrantTa
ojaxebi ufro metia, vidre aWarlebisa. ase rom, svani migrantebi ufro Canan
regionSi. garda amisa, aWarlebTan SedarebiT, svanebi ufro urbanul garemoSi
daasaxles, magaliTad, bolnisSi, dmanissa da gardabanSi, ris gamoc maT
saSualeba
miecaT,
ufro
aqtiurad
Cabmuliyvnen
raionebis
socialur-
ekonomikur cxovrebaSi. SedarebiT urbanul garemoSi moxvedris gamo svanebs
aWarlebTan SedarebiT, romlebic, rogorc wesi, kompaqturad cxovrobdnen
soflebSi, bevrad ufro didi Sexeba hqondaT adgilobriv mosaxleobasTan.
radgan
svanebi
bevrjer
sisxlis
samarTlis
danaSaulSi
aRmoCndnen
mxilebulni, maT kriminalebis iarliyi miekeraT, ase rom, qvemo qarTlis
romelime raionSi momxdari danaSaulis Camdenad xSirad isini miiCnevian.
sabWoTa kavSiris daSlis Semdgom qaossa da ukanonobaSi danaSaulebaTa
ricxvi mTel postsabWoTa sivrceSi arnaxulad gaizarda. qvemo qarTlSi,
sadac svanebis nakadis Camosvla TiTqmis daemTxva sabWoTa xelisuflebis
aRsasruls,
svanebis
adgilobrivma
CamosvliT
marneulisa
yaCaRobiT,
da
iyo
dmanisis
qurdobiT
da
mosaxleobam
CaTvala,
ganpirobebuli.
aseTi
raionebSi.
rom
iyo
adgilobrivi
mkvlelobebiT
iyo
danaSaulis
ganwyoba
mosaxleoba
Sewuxebuli
da
zrda
gardabnis,
ZarcviT,
mosaxleobis
sasowarkveTa raRac momentSi gadaizarda konfliqtebSi, romlebsac eTnikuri
sarCuli
daedo.
magaliTad,
1989
wlis
ivnisSi
svan
da
azerbaijanel
axalgazrdebs Soris dawyebuli Cxubi masobriv demonstraciaSi gadaizarda
qalaq marneulSi. es SemTxeva marneulelma, gardabnelma, bolniselma da
dmaniselma
aqtivistebma
regionisTvis
avtonomiis
miniWebis
moTxovnis
gasaxmovaneblad gamoiyenes. sawyisi SemTxeva ki sruliad trivialuri iyo:
axalgazrda svani da axalgazrda azerbaijaneli taqsis rigSi SekamaTdnen,
rac Semdeg muSti-krivSi gadaizarda. mimdebare SenobaSi mcxovrebma svanebma,
Cxubi SeamCnies, gamovidnen nacnobis misaxmareblad da azerbaijanels scemes.
sapasuxod imave dRes azerbaijanelTa jgufi svanebis saxlebs daesxa Tavs.
55
situacia rusTavidan da Tbilisidan Casulma policielebma gaaneitrales.
Tumca, momdevno dRes marneulSi 10,000 adamiani gamovida demonstraciaze.
isini moiTxovdnen qvemo qarTlidan svanebis gaZevebas, regionSi avtonomiis
gamocxadebas, adgilobrivi xelisuflebis organoebSi qarTveli Cinovnikebis
azerbaijanelebiT Canacvlebas da a.S. imave periodSi azerbaijanelTa jgufebi
Tavs
daesxnen
gardabnis
raionis
policias
da
brZola
gaimarTa
azerbaijanelebsa da qarTvelebs Soris qalaq bolnisSi, ris Sedegadac 14
adgilobrivi mosaxle daiWra. demonstraciebis Tanamdevi qaosi ivnisis pirvel
naxevramde gagrZelda.105 Tumca, unda aRiniSnos, rom es dramatuli movlenebi
qvemo qarTlSi 1989-1990 wlebSi arsebuli saerTo daZabulobis fonze moxda
da orive mxares _ qarTvelebsa da azerbaijanelebs Soris myofi agresiulad
ganwyobili nacionalisti agitatorebis waqezebiT ganxorcielda. qarTveli
liderebis
nacionalisturma
situaciis
gamwvavebaSi,
bolnisidan
politikam
rac
aTasobiT
mniSvnelovani
sabolood
azerbaijanelis
qvemo
wvlili
qarTlidan
emigrirebiT
Seitana
da,
kerZod,
damTavrda.
eTno-
politikuri klimatis kidev ufro gamwvavebis SiSiT maT saqarTvelo datoves
da azerbaijans miaSures.
SevardnaZis
mmarTvelobis
wlebSi
SidaeTnikuri
gamosworda
da,
svanebsa
da
urTierToba
konfrontaciis
magaliTebic
marTalia,
mTlad
da/an
TiTze
Tbilad
Temebs
ver
situacia
adgilobriv
CaiTvleba,
Soris
CamosaTvlelia.
mosaxleobas
Soris
magram
Zaladobrivi
gamo
mobilizaciis
konfliqtis
Tumca
mTlianobaSi
ramdenjerme
umniSvnelo
daZabuloba seriozul konfliqtebSi gadaizarda. erT-erTi bolo 2003 wels
moxda.
sofel
jandaris
azerbaijanuli
mosaxleoba,
romelic
svanebiT
dasaxlebul sofel lemSvenieras maxloblad mdebareobs, maTgan gardabnis
mimarTulebiT mimaval gzaze mudmivma Zarcvam, srolam da Zaladobam Seawuxa.
jandaris mcxovreblebma policiis pasiuri poziciis gamo mitingi moawyves da
protesti gamoTqves, Tumca ki uSedegod. mogvianebiT azerbaijanelebma ori
masobrivi
mitingi
moawyves
qalaq
gardabanSi
policiis
ganyofilebis,
105
gia tasoevi “ra xdeboda qvemo qarTlSi”, literaturuli saqarTvelo, 30 ivnisi, 1989 w, gv 2; iakob
futkaraZe dayofa dauSvebelia. komunisti 6 ivlisi, 1989 w. gv 3.
56
generaluri
prokuraturisa
da
qalaqis
sasamarTlosTan.
meore
mitingi
dasrulda svanis gasamarTlebiT, romelsac Zarcva edeboda bralad, magram
sasamarTlom
igi
gaanTavisufla,
ris
Semdegac
masobrivi
mitingi
sazogadoebriv areulobaSi gadaizarda: demonstrantebma Senobebis fanjrebis
msxvreviT daiwyes, mogvianebiT ki rkinigzis blokireba moaxdines. iusticiis
sabWos xelmZRvaneli demonstrantebs Sexvda da maT svanis gaTavisuflebaze
pasuxismgebeli mosamarTlis samsaxuridan gaSvebas dahpirda. am incidentis da
mosamarTlis
Tanamdebobidan
gaTavisuflebis
Semdeg
Tavdasxmebi
azerbaijanul mosaxleobaze Sewyda da situacia damSvidda.
qvemo qarTlis bevri mcxovrebi _ rogorc qarTveli, ise azerbaijaneli _
Tvlis,
rom
maTi
eTnikuri
jgufis
uflebebi
xSirad
irRveva.
bevri
azerbaijaneli darwmunebulia, rom miwebis gamoyofis, sajaro Tanamdebobebze
daniSvnisa
da
vaRiaroT,
rom
mosaxleoba
sxva
SemTxevebSi
marTlac
daCagrulia.
aris
qarTvelebs
raRac
magaliTad,
upiretesobas
sferoebi,
im
faqtis
sadac
gamo,
rom
aniWeben.
unda
azerbaijanuli
azerbaijaneli
qalebi ZiriTadad saxlSi mSobiaroben, maT ar SeuZliaT dabadebis mowmobis
aReba,
ase
rom,
ver
iReben
oficialur
sabuTebs
Tavisi
SvilebisaTvis.
Sesabamisad, aris ojaxebi da arian adamianebi, romlebic pasportebisa da
regitrirebuli sakuTrebis gareSe cxovroben. isini saxlebs ver iformeben,
radgan
saWiro
xelisuflebis
sabuTebi
ara
warmomadgenelma
aqvT.
aRniSna,
rogorc
marneulis
“axalCamosuli
adgilobrivi
qarTvelebi
ufro
legalurad cxovroben, vidre mkvidri azerbaijanuli mosaxleoba”.106 meore
mxriv, Camosaxlebuli qarTvelebi Tvlian, rom isini araTanabar pirobebSi
arian azerbaijanul mosaxleobasTan SedarebiT _ ekonomikuri pirobebiT,
umuSevrobiTa
da
eTnikuri
qarTvelebis
gare
migraciis
maRali
maCveneblebiT.107
106
interviu marneulis raionis privatizaciis ganyofilebis ufros zaal nadiraZesTan, 14 noemberi,
2006w.
107
kavkasiis mSvidobis, demokratiisa da ganviTarebis instituti, qvemo qarTlis regionSi
kulturaTSorisi TanamSromlobis kavSiri “mosti”, saqarTvelos azerbaijanel qalTa kavSiri:
“marneuli-gardabnis raionebSi konfliqtis faqtorebis analizi: sociologiuri kvlevis Sedegebi,
Tbilisi, 2003. marTlac, qarTuli mosaxleoba zogadad ekonomikurad ufro SeWirvebulia, vidre
azerbaijanelebi. Tumca, adgilobrivi qarTveli mosaxleobis varaudebi, qarTvelebis gare migraciis
maRali maCveneblis Sesaxeb ar mtkicdeba.
57
unda aRiniSnos, rom qvemo qarTlis xuTi raionis TiTqmis yvela oficialuri
piri
(walkis
garda)
uaryofs
raionebSi
qarTul
da
azerbaijanul
mosaxleobas Soris seriozuli daZabulobisa da, gansakuTrebiT, eTnikuri
safuZvlis mqone daZabulobis arsebobas. yvela aRiarebs, rom situacia Zalze
daZabuli
soflis
iyo
ekomigrantebis
mosaxleobas
kargi
Camosaxlebis
urTierToba
adreul
aqvs
wlebSi, magram dRes
erTmaneTTan;
isini
erTad
aRniSnaven dResaswaulebs da zeimebs da iSviaT SemTxvevebSi qorwindebian
kidec.
marneulis
marneulis raioni
eTnikuri
raionis
migraciisa
da
ganyofilebis
ufrosis
azriT,
eTnikuri stabilurobiT xasiaTdeba, radgan sxvadasxva
warmomavlobis
damokidebulni
privatizaciis
adamianebi
ekonomikurad
arian
erTmaneTze
da erTimeoresTan dakavSirebulni.108 Tumca dmanisis raionis
gansaxlebis
ganyofilebis
ufrosma
aRniSna,
rom
svan
ekomigrantebs, iseve rogorc iZulebiT adgilnacval pirebs, dmanisis raionSi
isev
“axalmosulebis”
iarliyi
aqvT,
ase
rom,
maT
adgilobrivi
mosaxleobisagan advilad gamoarCevT.109
vidre walkis raionSi arsebuli situaciis aRweraze gadavalT, sainteresoa,
erTmaneTs SevadaroT qvemo qarTlsa da javaxeTSi integraciis procesebisa
da intereTnikuri urTierTobebis ganviTareba ekomigrantebis Camosaxlebis
Semdeg.
aSkaraa,
rom
upiratesad
umciresobebiT
dasaxlebul
regionebSi
ekologiuri migrantebis sruli integracia ar momxdara, magram SesamCnevia,
rom ekomigrantebi qvemo qarTlSi (walkis gamoklebiT) zogadad ufro kargad
arian integrirebulni, vidre javaxeTSi.
jer erTi, qvemo qarTlis azerbaijanuli mosaxleoba mTlianobaSi bevrad
ufro
stumarTmoyvare
aRmoCnda
ekomigrantebis
mimarT,
vidre
javaxeTis
somxuri mosaxleoba, miuxedavad 1989-1990 wlebSi qarTul da azerbaijanul
Temebs
Soris
warmoqmnili
daZabulobisa.
amis
sapirispirod,
javaxeTis
108
interviu marneulis raionis privatizaciis ganyofilebis ufros zaal nadiraZesTan, 14 noemberi,
2006w.
109 interviu dmanisis raionis ltolvilTa da gansaxlebis
ganyofilebis ufros dali kvicianTan, 22
oqtomberi, 2006w.
58
somxuri
mosaxleoba
Camosaxlebebs,
mTlianobaSi
rasac
imiT
mizanmimarTulad
xsnidnen,
“gaqarTulebis” mizanmimarTul
rom
mcdeloba
Casaxlebis
iyo, rac,
ewinaaRmdegeboda
procesi
rogorc
regionis
ukve vnaxeT,
garkveulwilad simarTles Seesabameboda, kerZod, 1980-iani wlebis bolosa da
1990-ianebis dasawyisSi. es argumentebi gamyarda masobrivi demonstraciebiTa
da
avtonomiis
mosaxleoba
gamwvavebuli
ar
moTxovniT.
ewinaaRmdegeboda
qvemo
qarTlSi
qarTveli
azerbaijanuli
ekomigrantebis
Casvlas.
mTlianobaSi azerbaijaneli aqtivistebi naklebad radikalurni iyvnen, vidre
maTi javaxi kolegebi da sakuTar moTxovnebSi ZiriTadad azerbaijanelTa
uflebebis
dacvisa
da
adgilobriv
mmarTvelobaSi
umciresobaTa
CarTvis
moTxovniT Semoifarglebodnen.
meore, qvemo qarTlSi ufro Sereuli soflebia da axalCamosulebi da mkvidri
mosaxleoba
ufro
gaxsnilia
urTierTobisaTvis,
maSin,
roca
qarTuli
soflebi javaxeTSi ZiriTadad sruliad izolirebulia sxva soflebisagan da
praqtikulad ar arsebobs komunikacia somxur da qarTul mosaxleobas Soris.
mesamec,
qarTvelebi
ufro
metad
arian
warmodgenilni
qvemo
qarTlis
adgilobrivi mmarTvelobis oraganoebSi, vidre javaxeTSi. es, erTi mxriv,
kargia,
radgan
ekomigrantebs,
izRudeba
es
regioni
magram,
eTnikuri
meore
ukeTes
mxriv,
sacxovrebel
cudia,
pirobebs
radgan
amgvarad
azerbaijanuli mosaxleobis politikuri
marneulis,
gardabnis,
bolnisis,
adgilobriv
sakrebuloebsa
da
dmanisisa
gamgeobebSi
da
axalCamosaxlebulebic
sakmarisad
arian
Cvenma
informatorma
rom
qarTlSi
axsena,
qvemo
nawilobriv
monawileoba.
TeTriwyaros
qarTuli
Soris
sTavazobs
raionis
mosaxleoba
warmodgenilni.
da
maT
erT-erTma
gansakuTrebiT
maRal
Tanamdebobebs svanebi aRweven.110 isic aRiniSna, rom 1980-iani wlebis bolos
(erovnuli
mobilizaciis
talRis
periodSi)
qvemo
qarTlSi
ramdenime
gamorCeuli azerbaijaneli gadaayenes postidan (magaliTad, kolmeurneobis
Tavmjdomare) da axalCamosaxlebuli svanebiT Secvales.111 amis sapirispirod,
110
igive
111 jonaTan uiTlis interviuebi, ivlisi, 2006 w.
59
dabalia ekomigrantTa warmomadgenloba javaxeTis ori raionis, ninowmindisa
da axalqalaqis adgilobrivi mmarTvelobis organoebSi.
zemoT moyvanili faqtorebi arTulebs ekomigrantTa integracias adgilobriv
TemTan, gansakuTrebiT javaxeTSi. javaxeTSi mcxovrebi ekomigrantebi xSirad
namdvil
patriotebad,
saqarTvelos
teritoriaze
qarTvelebis
uflebis
damcvelebad Tvlian Tavs sakuTar miwa-wyalze. isini xSirad grZnoben, rom
somxebs maTi javaxeTidan gasaxleba, avtonomiis gamocxadeba da somxeTTan
mierTeba undaT. qvemo qarTlSi aseTi nacionalisturi tendenciebi (walkis
garda)
naklebad
gansxvavebulma
SeimCneva.
aSkaraa,
gamocdilebam
rom
gavlena
Casaxlebis
moaxdina
da
imaze
adaptaciis
Tu
rogori
damokidebuleba aqcT migrantebs axal mezoblebze.
rac
Seexeba
walkis
raions,
aq
ekomigrantTa
socialur-fsiqologiuri
adaptacia kidev ufro rTuli iyo, vidre javaxeTis regionSi. Casaxlebis
procesis gaTvaliswinebiT, naTelia, rom migrantTa didi umravlesoba am
raionSi
aralegalurad
dasaxlda.
maT
ZiriTadad
migrirebuli
berZnebis
kuTvnili dacarielebuli saxlebi daikaves. rogorc zemoT ukve aRvniSneT, am
migrantebis umravlesoba ekologiuri migranti ki ara, aramed ufro isini
iyvnen, vinc sakuTari ekonomkuri mdgomareobis gaumjobesebis gzebs eZebda da
vinc
baqo-Tbilisi-jeihanis
perspeqtivam
miizida.
navTobsadenis
2002-2003
wlebSi
mSeneblobaze
dawyebuli
samuSaos
migrantebis
Sovnis
masobrivi
spontanuri Casaxlebebis Semdeg danaSaulebaTa ricxvi aq mkveTrad gaizarda.
saxalxo damcvelis 2005 wlis angariSSi sisxlis samarTlis rva seriozuli
danaSauli moxvda, 2005 wlis mxolod pirveli 3 Tvis ganmavlobaSi. angariSis
mixedviT, damnaSaveebi svaneTidan da aWaridan Camosuli migrantebi iyvnen,
romlebic sisastikes iCendnen ZiriTadad berZnuli mosaxleobis mimarT.112
zogierT
saqmeSi
adgilobrivi
mezoblebisa
da
kriminalebi
esxmodnen
konfrontacia.
112
naTesavebis
aseTi
Tavs.
somxebi
dacvas
am
SemTxvevebis
acxadebdnen,
cdilobdnen,
gancxadebam
damaxasiaTebeli
rom
isini
romelTac
kidev
berZeni
qarTveli
ufro
magaliTia
gaaRviva
danaSauli,
saqarTvelos parlamentisadmi wardgenili saxalxo damcvelis angariSi, 23 dekemberi, 2005.
60
romelic
2005
(savaraudod
wlis
martSi
qarTvelebi)
moxda
sofel
avraloSi.
binis
qurdebi
moxucebuli
berZeni
wyvilis
saxlSi
SeiWrnen,
mflobelebs scemes da 850 aSS dolari waiRes. imave saRamos
mezobeli
soflis, kizilkilisas mkvidri somxebi xis komblebiT SeiaraRdnen da sofel
avraloSi
Cavidnen,
sadac
maT
scemes
daaxloebiT
10
qarTvels,
soflis
mcxovreblebs, romelebic maT SemTxveviT Sexvdnen quCaSi. isini SeiWrnen
adgilobriv skolaSic da iqauroba daarbies. Tu rogor moxda es SemTxveva da
misi eskalacia, imaze miuTiTebs, rom raionis zogierT nawilSi adgilobriv
mosaxleobas
Soris
urTierTobebi
Zalze
daZabulia
da
dauyovnebel
yuradRebas saWiroebs.
walkis raionSi sisastikis sxva ramdenime SemTxvevac moxda. Tumca, Cans,
walkis mosaxleobam konsensuss miaRwia, radgan 2005 wlis martSi walkaSi
policiis
Zalebis
Semdeg113
Casvlis
kanoni
amoqmedda
da,
Sedegad,
seriozulad iklo danaSaulma. aman pozitiuri gavlena moaxdina Temebs Soris
arsebul
daZabulobazec,
dakavSirebuli
problemebi
Tumca
jer
miwis
isev
nakveTebTan
daZabulobis
da
saxlebTan
potenciur
wyaros
warmoadgens.114
imisTvis, rom vaCvenoT, Tu rogor aisaxeba regionSi arsebuli daZabuloba
qveynis stabilurobaze da ramdenad mtkivneuli SeiZleba gaxdes es sakiTxi
mTavrobisaTvis, upriani iqneba, gavixsenoT 2006 wlis 9 martis movlenebi.
mTvral svanebsa da somxebs Soris momxdari Cxubi 23 wlis gevorq gevorqianis
sikvdiliT
dasrulda.
miuxedavad
imisa,
rom
eWvmitanilebi
saswrafod
daakaves da gamoZieba daiwyo, romelic mkvlelebis gasamarTlebis xangrZliv
procesSi
gadavida,
adgilobrivi
somxebi
walkis
policiis
Senobis
win
Seikribnen da eWvmitanil borotmoqmedTa linCis wesiT dasjas iTxovdnen.
masobrivi
gamosvlis
gamgeobis
SenobaSi
eskalaciis
SeiWrnen,
Sedegad saprotesto
sadac
fanjrebi
aqciis
Caamtvries
monawileebi
da
inventari
daazianes. walkis daZabuli situacia mezobel javaxeTsac gadaedo. 12 marts
113 2006 wlis ivlisSi saberZneTis mTavrobam sapatrulo policiis 16 manqana aCuqa walkis raionis
policias.
114 miwisa da saxlebis sakiTxi ganxiluli iqneba qvemoT, TavSi socialur-ekonomikuri migraciis Sesaxeb.
61
axalqalaqSi somxurma organizaciebma, gaerTianebulma javaxkma da virkma,
demonstracia
adgilobriv
moawyves.
Semdeg
brbo
filialSi
SeiWra
da
Tbilisis
saxelmwifo
gaaprotesta
im
universitetis
eTnikuri
qarTvelebis
raodenoba romlebic iq swavlobdnen. SeiWrnen adgilobrivi sasamarTlos
SenobaSic. bolos ki gaafTrebulma brbom regionis qarTuli saepiskoposos
rezidencia
amoiRo
mizanSi.
isini
eklesias
iaraRis
damalvaSi
adanaSaulebdnen. Zalovanebi da saepiskoposos administracia daTanxmda, rom
aqciis monawileni SigniT SeeSvaT; rogorc ki demonstrantebi darwmundnen,
rom SigniT iaraRi ar iyo, brbo gabrunda.115
marTlac,
aRiqvams
javaxeTis
qarTuli
regionebSi.
qarTul
ganwyobilebebis
demonstraciebi
sazogadoeba
gavlenas
situacias
mediasaSualebebsac
gaRvivebaSi
javaxeTis
axdens
imaze,
Tu
umciresobebiT
miuZRviT
somxebis
dasaxlebul
wvlili
Sesaxeb
rogor
negatiuri
statiebis
iseTi
hedlainebiT, rogoricaa: “samcxe-javaxeTis separatistebs saqarTvelosTan omi
undaT” an “neli moqmedebis bombi _ separatistebis moTxovnebi javaxeTSi”.116
mediis
amgvari
damokidebuleba
stereotipebis
rRvevisa
da
regionaluri
integraciis aSkara Semaferxebeli faqtorebia. bevri magaliTi arsebobs imisa,
rodesac media erovnuli umciresobebis zogadad uaryofiT suraTs xatavs.
garkveulwilad
mediaSi
erovnuli
umciresobebis
mimarT
negatiuri
yuradRebis gamaxvilebis Sedegad, gansakuTrebiT javaxeTis somxebis mimarT,
qarTuli
sazogadoebis
ZiriTadi
nawilisaTvis
qveyanaSi
eTnikuri
umciresobebis problemebi ugulvebelyofilia, meore mxriv, bevri eTnikuri
qarTveli miiCnevs, rom qarTuli mosaxleoba yvelaze diskriminirebuli da
Seviwroebuli eTnosia umciresobebiT dasaxlebul regionebSi.
socialursocialur-ekonomikuri adaptacia da intereTnikuri daZabuloba
bunebrivia, rom socialur-ekonomikuri faqtori arsebiT rols TamaSobs axal
dasaxlebebSi
115
116
ekomigrantebis
adaptaciisa
da
integraciis
procesSi.
`mesinjeri` 16 marti, 2006, #50; `axali Taoba~ 17 marti, 2006, 74
`axali Taoba~ 19-25 marti, 2006, #76; `kviris palitra~ 20-26 marti 2006, #12.
62
miuxedavad
imisa,
rom
migrantTa
dasaxlebebis
dafuZnda,
sabWoTa
saxelmwifos
nawili
epoqis
mier
qveynis
dasrulebas
kontrolirebadi
damoukideblobis
Tan
mohyva
ekologiur
gamocxadebamde
uamravi
sirTule
ekomigrantebisaTvis, gansakuTrebiT javaxeTSi. saxelmwifo ekonomikis daSlas
Tan mohyva regionis mwiri resursebis ganawilebisaTvis brZola adgilobriv
mosaxleobasa da ekomigrantebs Soris, ris Sedegadac axalmosaxleebsa da
maspinZlebs Soris daZabuloba gazarda.
sabWoTa epoqis miwuruls javaxeTSi somxebi da duxoborebi, xolo qvemo
qarTlSi
azerbaijanelebi,
somxebi
mesaqonleobas,
wvril
meurneobas,
da
berZnebi
vaWrobasa
da
tradiciulad
msubuq
misdevdnen. am regionebSi Camosvlis Semdeg ekomigrantebs
soflis
mrewvelobas
mxolod axal
eTnikur da kulturul garemosTan ki ar mouxdaT Segueba, aramed isini
aRmoCndnen gansxvavebul socialur-ekonomikur garemoSi, sadac adgili unda
daemkvidrebinaT.
ekomigrantebis
winaSe
wamoWrili
umTavresi
problemebi
socialur-ekonomikuri TvalsazrisiT iyo (da dResac aris) saxlebis, miwisa
da enis sakiTxebi. es sakiTxebi cal-calkea ganxiluli momdevno TavebSi.
saxlebis sakiTxi
javaxeTsa da qvemo qarTlSi adreul etapze gansaxlebul bevri ekomigrant
ojaxs cudi sacxovrebeli pirobebi hqonda. rogorc aRvniSneT, saxelmwifom
ar daasrula ekomigrantebisaTvis axali soflebis Seqmnis ambiciuri gegmebi,
ris Sedegadac bevrma ekomigrantma Camosvlisas aRmoaCina, rom misi saxli
naxevrad iyo aSenebuli, zogi ki saerTod ar uzrunvelyves sacxovrebliT.
visac amis SesaZlebloba hqonda, sakuTari saxsrebiT daasrula mSenebloba,
sxvebma ki droebiTi TavSesafarisaTvis primitiuli xis saxlebi aiSenes im
imediT, rom bolos da bolos maT xelisufleba daexmareboda da saxlebs
dausrulebda.
rogorc adre aRvniSneT, ekomigrantebs axalaSenebuli saxlebi im pirobiT
gadasces, rom isini am sacxovreblis iuridiuli mflobelebi 25 wlis Semdeg
gaxdebodnen. Tumca, bevr SemTxvevaSi es winapiroba dairRva. ekomigrantebma,
63
vinc axal garemos ver Seegua, saxlebi an aralegalurad gayides, an ubralod
datoves da wavidnen. Sedegad, registraciis, iuridiuli mflobelobisa da
gankargvis
uflebis
sakiTxebi
qaosma
moicva.
dRes
aTasobiT
adamiani
cxovrobs saxlebSi, romlebic maT oficialurad ar ekuTvniT da romlis
gankargvis uflebac ara aqvT.
arc ise didi xnis win qvemo qarTlis regionalurma administraciam saxlebis
registrireba daiwyo. am RonisZiebis farglebSi gaTvaliswinebulia agreTve
ekomigrantebisaTvis
oficialuri
dokumentaciis
gadacema
im
saxlebze,
romlebic dakavebuli aqvT. es procesi ukve daiwyo dmanisis, TeTriwyaros,
marneulisa
da
ekomigranti
gardabnis
raionebSi.
oficialuradaa
rac
Seexeba
registrirebuli,
javaxeTs,
Tumca
aq
yvelas
bevri
ara
aqvs
miRebuli saxlis mflobelobis sabuTebi. magaliTad, spasovkaSi (ninowmindis
raioni) im saxlebis dokumentacias, romelic ekomigrantebs kostavas fondma
gadasca,
kvlav
fondi
ganagebs,
Seesabameba (25 wlis wesi).
sakuTari
iniciativiT
rac
kostavas
fondis
pirobas
srulad
xolo sxva ekomigrantebi - vinc spasovkaSi
Camosaxlda
-
maT
mier
dakavebul
saxlebs
formaluradac ar floben, radgan, rogorc wesi, saxlebi araoficialuri
SeTanxmebis Sedegad iyides Zveli mflobelebis - duxoborebisgan. aseve aris
SemTxvevebi,
rodesac
mcxovreblebma
es
kostavas
saxlebi
fondis
mier
araoficialurad
gadacemuli
mihyides
saxlebis
axalCamosul
ekomigrantebs da Tavad walkaSi gadasaxldnen.
rogorc
ukve
ganvixileT,
saxelmwifo
1980-iani
wlebis
bolos
ekomigrantebisaTvis axali soflebis daarsebas gegmavda - saWiro SenobebiT
da
infrastruqturiT:
skolebiT,
sabavSvo
baRebiT,
saavadmyofoebiT,
kulturuli centrebiT da a.S. Tumca sabWoTa kavSiris daSlis Semdgomi
ekonomikuri rRvevis Sedegad mTavrobam ver SeZlo am amocanis Sesruleba. ase
rom,
kidev
erTi
ekomigrantebis
seriozuli
winaSe
dgas,
problema,
irigaciisa
romelic
da
sasmeli
zogierT
wylis
sofelSi
sistemebis
64
ararsebobaa.117 es problema gansakuTrebiT mwvavea gardabnis, marneulisa da
axalqalaqis
raionebSi
soflebisaTvis.
es
1980-ian
problema
wlebSi
Zalze
gaSenebuli
arTulebs
ekomigrantTa
ekomigrantTaTvis
miwis
damuSavebas da arsebobis erTaderT wyarod maT mesaqonleoba rCebaT.
sadac
ekomigrantebi
sasmeli
wylis
ukve
sistema
arsebul
soflebSi
gayvanilia,
Tumca
Caasaxles,
aseT
iq
soflebSi
sarwyavi
da
ekomigrantebs
problemebi eqmnebaT saxnav-saTesi miwis xelmiuwvdomlobis gamo, rac xSirad
adgilobriv
mosaxleobasTan
daZabulobasa
da
konfliqtebSi
gadaizrdeba
xolme. amgvari daZabuloba zogjer eTnikur daZabulobad aRiqmeba, rogorc
Sida qarTlSi, ise javaxeTSi.
miwis sakiTxi
sabWoTa
periodSi
meurneobebis
saxnav-saTesi
(saxelmwifo
miwa
fermebis)
kolmeurneobebisa
mflobelobaSi
iyo
da
da
sabWoTa
saxelmwifos
ekuTvnoda. soflis mcxovreblebs mxolod sakarmidamo nakveTebi hqondaT.
sasoflo-sameurneo
miwebis
privatizaciis
procesi
damoukideblobis
gamocxadebis Semdgom reformebTan erTad daiwyo da sakuTrebis sakiTxma
bevri kamaTi da konfliqtic warmoSva. miwis mflobelobis sakiTxi udavod is
mTavari impulsia, rac ekomigrantebsa da adgilobriv mosaxleobas Soris
daZabulobis warmoSobas aZlevs biZgs.
miwis privatizebis procesi saqarTveloSi SeiZleba or fazad daiyos: 1992
wlidan 1998 wlamde da 2005 wlis Semdeg. 1992-1998 wlebis miwis reformam
daadgina, rom kerZo mesakuTris mflobelobaSi unda gadasuliyo sasoflo sameurneo miwis 0.15-dan 1.25 heqtaramde zomis nakveTebi (qveynis mTian nawilSi
3.0 heqtaramde). darCenili miwa ki saxelmwifo sakuTrebaSi darCa da mxolod
gamoyenebis uflebiT ganawilda.118 ase rom, 1992-1998 wlebis miwis reforma ar
117
es sakiTxi exeba soflebs: axal diokniss, xixans da Sulavers –marneulis raionSi, lemSvenieras,
krwaniss da muxrovans _ gardabnis raionSi, koTelias, okamsa da ptenas _ axalqalaqis raionSi.
118 saqarTvelos ministrTa kabinetis 1992 wlis 18 ianvris #48 rezoluciis mixedviT, termini
“gamoyeneba” gulisxmobs ‘ijaras’, ‘qiravnobas’, ‘uzufruqts’ an ‘aRnagobas’. amave dros, kanonmdeblobiT
ganisazRvra, rom miwis reforma ar SeiZleba ganxorcielebuliyo saqarTelos saxelmwifo sazRvris
gaswvriv, 21km-ian sasazRvro zonaSi, rac gulisxmobda, rom samcxe-javaxeTisa da qvemo qarTlis
65
gulisxmobda
miwis
privatizebas
privatizacia
mxolod
2005
Tavisi
wels,
SinaarsiT.
„saxelmwifo
qveyanaSi
realuri
sakuTrebaSi
arsebuli
sasoflo-sameurnelo daniSnulebis miwis privatizaciis Sesaxeb saqarTvelos
kanonis“ miRebis Sedegad daiwyo. dRes samcxe-javaxeTsa da qvemo qarTlSi
bevri miwis nakveTia gankuTvnili privatizaciisaTvis.
2005
wlis
kanonis
mixedviT
sasoflo-sameurneo
daniSnulebis
miwebis
privatizacia pirdapiri miyidvis, specialuri auqcionebisa da Ria auqcionebis
meSveobiT unda ganxorcieldes. pirebs, romlebsac ukve ijariTa aqvT aRebuli
saxelmwifo sakuTrebaSi myofi miwa, miwis pirdapiri Sesyidvis upiratesoba
eniWebaT.
miwa,
eqvemdebareba.
soflis,
romelic
amgvar
dabis,
ijariT
auqcionSi
Temisa
da
ar
iyo
gacemuli,
monawileobis
qalaqis
specialur
ufleba
sakrebulos
aqvT
auqcions
konkretuli
teritoriul
sazRvrebSi
mcxovreb („sakomlo wignSi“ aRricxul) an piradobis mowmobis safuZvelze
adgilobrivi registraciis mqone saqarTvelos moqalaqeebs. ijariT gaucemeli,
an
adre
ijariT
gacemuli
sasoflo-sameurneo
daniSnulebis
miwis
privatizacia xorcieldeba Ria auqcionis formiT da am SemTxvevaSi Ria
auqcionSi monawileobis miRebis ufleba aqvs saqarTvelos yvela moqalaqesa
da saqarTveloSi registrirebul kerZo samarTlis iuridiul pirs.
kanonmdebloba
raime
SezRudvebs
ar
iTvaliswinebs
saxelmwifo
mflobelobaSi arsebuli sasoflo-sameurneo daniSnulebis miwis ijarasTan
somxeTis, azerbaijanisa da TurqeTis sazRvrTan mdebareobis gamo am regionebis zogierTi nawilis
mosaxleoba ver miiRebda tradiciul 0.15-1.25 heqtar miwas. mizezi qveynis saxelmwifo sazRvris dacvis
amocana iyo. Tumca es wesi ar daicves mTeli qveynis masStabiT. SezRudvebi gamoiyenes qvemo qarTlSi,
samcxe-javaxeTSi da Savi zRvis sanapiros gaswvriv, 3-kilometrian zonaSi. realurad yvelaze metad es
politika Seexo qvemo qarTlSi azerbaijanelebs da samcxe-javaxeTSi somxebs, iseve, rogorc am
regionebis yvela sxva mcxovrebs. da mainc, umTavresi gansxvaveba, rac samcxe-javaxeTsa da qvemo qarTls
Soris SeiniSneba, is aris, rom brZanebulebis miuxedavad, samcxe-javaxeTSi mosaxleobas mainc dauriges
miwebi sasazRvro zonaSi, radgan aq adgilobrivi administracia ZiriTadad eTnikuri somxebisgan
Sedgeba, romlebic sakuTari interesebis dasacavad gauTvaliswinebel RonisZiebebs mimarTaven da
eTnikur somxebs arakanonierad unawileben miwas. ase rom, samcxe-javaxeTSi miwa SedarebiT
samarTlianad gaanawiles. gansxvavebuli mdgomareobaa qvemo qarTlSi, sadac raionisa da soflis
gamgeblebi (gansakuTrebiT es ukanasknelebi) xSirad miwas ijariT aZlevdnen kerZo pirebsa da
kompaniebs. ase rom, 1993-96 wlebSi 21-kilometriani zolis didi nawili ijariT aRmoCnda gacemuli
raionis gamgeblis naTesavebisa da axloblebisaTvis. Tumca zogjer soflis gamgeblebi (ZiriTadad
azerbaijanelebi da qarTvelebi) raionis avtoritetebTan garigebis Sedegadac naxulobdnen sargebels.
mogvianebiT, 1994 wlidan, 21-kilometriani SezRudva gauqmda da reformis Sedegad qvemo qarTlisa da
samcxe-javaxeTis mosaxleobam 0.15-dan 1.25 heqtaramde sasoflo-sameurneo miwa miiRo eTnikuri
warmomavlobis miuxedavad. interviu “miwis mesakuTreTa uflebebis dacvis asociaciis” direqtor jaba
ebanoiZesTan, 27 noemberi, 2006 w.
66
dakavSirebiT.
2005
ekomigrantebsa
da
wels
sxva
sasoflo-sameurneo
privatizebis
privatizebis
fermerebs,
daniSnulebis
sruli
ufleba
meore
etapis
romelTac
ijariT
miwebi,
eniWebaT
aRebuli
dawyebis
hqondaT
miwis
kanonmdeblobaSi
Semdeg,
aRebuli
nakveTebis
gansazRvruli
principebis Sesabamisad.119 anu ekomigrantebs sruli ufleba aqvT, monawileoba
miiRon
pirdapir
zemoT
aRvniSneT,
SesyidvebSi
am
da
uflebebis
specialur
auqcionebSi,
gamoyenebisaTvis
Tumca,
saWiroa,
rogorc
rom
isini
registrirebulni iyon sakrebulos „sakomlo wignSi“.120
aqve unda iTqvas, rom, marTalia, kanonis mixedviT yovel pirs erTnairi
ufleba aqvs arsebuli miwis miRebaze, magram bevri ekomigranti Civis, rom
miwa
araTanabrad
nawildeba.
magaliTad,
sofel
spasovkis
mcxovrebni
xazgasmiT aRniSnaven, rom ninowmindis raionSi arian fermerebi, romlebic 500800 heqtar miwas floben, maSin, roca aWarel fermerebs 2.5 heqtarze meti ara
aqvT. msgavsi situaciaa axalqalaqis raionis zogierT nawilSic. xSirad miwis
floba eTnikur kuTvnilebasTan aris dakavSirebuli. bevri Civis, rom maT
Segnebulad eubnebian uars ufro meti miwis gamoyofaze im niSniT, rom isini
somxur TemSi mcxovrebi qarTvelebi arian.121 amgvari pretenziebi namdvilad
ar uwyobs xels mezobluri urTierTobebis gaumjobesebas.
1990-iani wlebis ganmavlobaSi privatizaciisa da miwis ganawilebis process
Cveulebriv adgilobrivi xelisufleba akontrolebda da xSirad adgilobrivi
xelisufleba Zalauflebas ametebda. garda amisa, adgilobrivi mosaxleoba
iCagreboda sakuTari uflebebis arcodnisa da miwis privatizebis an ijariT
aRebisaTvis
finansuri
SesaZleblobebis
uqonlobis
gamo.
metic,
miwis
nakveTebis mniSvnelovani nawili adgilobrivi xelisuflebis warmomadgenelTa
xelSi iyo koncentrirebuli, an naTesauri Tu korufciuli garigebis obieqti
xdeboda,
rac
mosaxleobis
uaryofiT
reaqcias
iwvevda
miwebis
119
saqarTvelos kanoni “saxelmwifo sakuTrebaSi arsebuli sasoflo-sameurneo daniSnulebis miwis
privatizaciis Sesaxeb”, 2005 wlis 8 ivlisis redaqcia.
120 agreTve saWiroa aRiniSnos, rom “sakomlo wignSi” Canaweri
Sesabamis dasaxlebaSi miwis an saxlis
sakuTrebaSi flobis safuZvelze keTdeba. aris SemTxvevebi, rodesac ekomigrantebi “sakomlo wignSi” ar
arian registrirebulni da, amdenad, maT ufleba ara aqvT, monawileoba miiRon specialur auqcionebSi.
121 saubrebi sofel spasovkis mcxovreblebTan, 24 seqtemberi, 2006w.
67
diskriminaciuli
dayofis gamo.
amasTanave
ijaris xelSekrulebebis
didi
nawili jerovnad ar iyo momzadebuli, rac amJamad dawyebul privatizaciis
meore etaps aferxebs.122 ekomigrantebi xSirad miviwyebulad da izolirebulad
Tvlian Tavs mTavrobisagan, romelmac im konkretul adgilebSi daasaxla
migrantebi da regionSi integrirebis procesSi arafriT daexmara.
sainteresoa,
daCagrulad
rom
ekomigrantebi
grZnoben
Tavs,
miwis
magram
miRebasTan
qvemo
qarTlis
dakavSirebiT
bevri
xSirad
azerbaijaneli
fiqrobs, rom zogjer miwis ganawilebisas upiratesoba eTnikur qarTvelebs
eniWebaT, gansakuTrebiT ki svanebs. magaliTad, sofel kapanaxCis sabWoTa
meurneobis yofil Tavmjdomares (svans) adgilobrivma azerbaijanlebma brali
dasdes, rom man 2003 wels mTeli arsebuli miwa Tavis naTesavebs gaunawila,
ramac
seriozuli
mosaxleobas
yovelTvis
ar
daZabuloba
Soris.123
Tumca
acxadeben.
warmoSva
azerbaijanel
azerbaijanelebi
azerbaijanuli
da
qarTvel
ukmayofilebas
mosaxleoba
sakuTari
(svan)
xmamaRla
uflebebis
darRvevis Sesaxeb oficialur gancxadebebs ZiriTadad ar akeTebs, Tumca iyo
SemTxvevebi, rodesac adgilobrivma fermerebma orjer moawyves demonstracia
qalaq marneulSi 2004 wels.124
122
kanoni gansazRvravs, rom saijaro xelSekrulebis qonis SemTxvevaSi moqalaqes ufleba eniWeba,
pirdapiri SesyidviT moaxdinos im miwis privatizeba, romelic ijariT hqonda aRebuli. Tu moqalaqis
saijaro xelSekruleba araadekvaturia, moqalaqes specialur auqcionSi mouxdeba monawileobis miReba.
123 “konfliqturi faqtorebis analizi marneul-gardabnis raionebSi: sociologiuri kvlevis Sedegebi,”
kavkasiis
mSvidobis,
demokratiisa
da
ganviTarebis
instituti;
qvemo
qarTlis
regionSi
kulturaTaSorisi TanamSromlobis kavSiri “most” da saqarTvelos azerbaijanel qalTa kavSiri, 2003w.
124 kidev erTi aRsaniSnavi faqti moxda 2004 wlis 3 dekembers marneulis raionSi. sofel kuTliaris
daaxloebiT 300-mde azerbaijaneli mcxovrebi Tavs daesxa adgilobrivi sacxenosno fermis mepatroneebs,
romlebic gankargavdnen soflis mimdebare miwis umetes nawils. mosaxleoba 320 heqtari miwis xelaxla
gadanawilebas moiTxovda. Setakebis Sedegad mokles xanSi Sesuli azerbaijaneli qali, ramdenime
adamiani ki daiWra. situacia imdenad mZime iyo, rom problemis gadawyvetasTan dakavSirebul
molaparakebebSi azerbaijanis mTavrobis warmomadgenlebma da diplomatebma miiRes monawileoba.
saqarTveloSi azerbaijanis elCma peticia miswera saqarTvelos prezidents, sadac marneulis
azerbaijanuli mosaxleobisaTvis miwis saWiro raodenobis gamoyofisken mouwodebda. incidents mohyva
kidev erTi _
azerbaijanuli arasamTavrobo organizaciebis jgufis Ria werili saqarTvelos
prezidentis mimarT, sadac laparaki iyo saqarTveloSi miwis privatizebis sakiTxTan dakavSirebiT
azerbaijanuli Temebis uflebebis darRvevis Sesaxeb. es SemTxveva naTlad gvaCvenebs, rom miwis sakiTxi
erT-erTi sakvanZo sakiTxia, rogorc qarTveli, ise araqarTveli adgilobrivi mosaxleobisaTvis. radgan
miwa Semosavlis miRebis erTaderTi wyaroa soflis mosaxleobisaTvis, isini ibrZvian ara ubralod
miwis nakveTis, aramed arsebobis wyarosaTvis. SeiZleba iTqvas, rom am konfliqts ufro ekonomikuri
safuZveli aqvs, vidre eTnikuri. miuxedavad amisa, daZabulobas eTnikuri aspeqti aqvs da arsebobs
realuri riski, rom miwis Taobaze kamaTi gamwvavebis SemTxvevaSi Sereul Temebs Soris Ria eTnikur
konfliqtSi gadaizardos.
marika liparteliani, “Tavdasxma sacxenosno fermaze kuTlarSi danakargiT dasrulda”, rezonansi, 6
dekemberi, 2004 w, #333
sivil jorjia, “azerbaijaneli arasamTavroboebi Sewuxebulni arian azerbaijanelTa uflebebis gamo
saqarTveloSi”, 9 dekemberi, 2004 w.
68
miwis
sakiTxis
TvalsazrisiT
walkis
raioni
sruliad
gansakuTrebuli
SemTxvevaa. walkis raionSi axalCamosulebsa da mkvidr mosaxleobas Soris
arsebuli mTavari problema miwis simcirea. rogorc ukve aRvniSneT, saerTod
walkaSi Camosulebs Soris ekomigrantebis wili Zalze mcirea. marTalia, sxva
axalCamosulTagan
(spontanuri
migrantebi)
gansxvavebiT,
ekomigrantebi
regionSi Cveulebriv oficialurad arian dasaxlebulni, magram ekomigrantebs
da sxva axalCamosulebs mainc saerTo problemebi aqvT, kerZod: arc erT am
jgufs ar miuRia miwa, Tu ar CavTvliT 0.2 heqtar sakarmidamo nakveTs.
tradiciulad berZnul soflebSi migrantebi miwas berZnebisgan iReben ijariT.
es ukanasknelni TavianTi imigrirebuli naTesavebis kuTvnil _ TiTqmis mTeli
soflis saxlebsa da miwebs akontroleben. logikuria, rom berZnebs am miwis
gankargvis
ufleba
axalCamosuli
hqondeT,
magram
qarTvelebisaTvis
aSkara
diskomfortis
materialuri
mizezi
uTanasworoba
xdeba.
qarTvelebi
xSirad amboben, rom `sakuTar qveyanaSi~, `sakuTar miwaze~ maT ise epyrobian,
rogorc stumrebs”.125 es grZnoba zrdis daZabulobas, migrantTa moTxovnebi
ufro
agresiuli
xdeba,
miT
umetes,
rom
miwa,
romelsac
migrantebi
berZnebisgan ijariT iReben, ver iqneba privatizebuli.
adgilobrivi
xelisuflebis
warmomadgenelTa
gancxadebiT,
1999
wlis
saxelmwifo gadawyvetileba iTvaliswinebda walkaSi yofili kolmeurneobis
kuTvnili miwis 0.5-1.15 heqtaramde ganawilebas yvela ojaxisaTvis, miuxedavad
maTi
eTnikuri
kuTvnilebisa,
magram
zemoT
aRniSnuli
mizezebis
gamo
aWarlebis umravlesobas miwa ar misces. garda amisa, aWareli migrantebis
umetesoba regionSi 1999 wlis Semdeg Camovida. ase rom, ekomigrantebis did
nawils da da sxva Sida migrantebs walkis raionSi formalurad miwa ar
ekuTvniT.126
rogorc ki walkaSi miwis privatizaciis meore etapi daiwyeba (2005 wlis
kanonis safuZvelze), 2000 wlis Semdeg sakuTari iniciativiT Camosaxlebuli
ixileT saitze: http://www.civil.ge/eng/article_ngo.php?id=8542.
125 interviuebi walkis raionSi, 25-26 ivlisi, 2006 w.
126 interviu walkis raionis gamgebel mixeil cqitiSvilTan, 25 ivlisi, 2006 w.
69
migrantebi seriozuli problemebis winaSe dadgebian. saxlebis Rirebuleba
xSirad nawil-nawil aris gadaxdili da ramdenime sofelSi ekomigrantebs
jerac ara aqvT dafaruli adgilobrivi mosaxleobisagan (berZnebi da somxebi)
nayidi saxlebis mTliani Rirebuleba. Rirebulebis srul dafarvamde qoneba
(iuridiulad) im Zveli mflobelis an gamyidvelis sakuTrebaSi rCeba, vis
saxelzec
iyo
registrirebuli
Tavidan.
Sesabamisad,
Semsyidvelebi
(migrantebi) ar arian gaformebulni am saxlebSi, ase rom, ufleba ara aqvT,
monawileoba miiRon miwis privatizaciis specialur auqcionebSi. maT jer
kidev aqvT Ria auqcionSi monawileobis imedi, magram umetes SemTxvevaSi
sasurveli adgilobrivi miwis Sesyidvis albaToba minimaluria. marTalia,
spontanurad CamosulTa umravlesoba ekomigranti ar aris, magram sakuTari
iniciativiT Camosul ekomigrantTa Sefardeba ar aris umniSvnelo. magaliTad,
TeTrwyaroSi
maTi
raodenoba
daaxloebiT
220-ia.127
Tu
es
sakiTxebi
ar
mogvarda, aman, SesaZloa, daZabulobis axali wyaro warmoSvas.
problemebi arsebobs miwis privatizaciis TvalsazrisiTac. pirvel rigSi,
miwis privatizaciis kanoni ar exeba adre berZnebis mflobelobaSi myof miwas,
romelic formalurad axlac im berZnebs ekuTvnis, vinc ukve datova qveyana.
xSirad
es
maRali
xarisxis
niadagia,
romelic
xelmiuwvdomelia
axalCamosuli migranti mosaxleobisaTvis. meorec, miwis privatizaciis kanoni
iTvaliswinebs arakerZo mflobelobaSi arsebuli miwis gayidvas specialuri
auqcionebis saSualebiT, magram am auqcionSi monawileobis ufleba mxolod
soflis sakrebuloSi registrirebul pirebsa aqvT.
ase rom, axalCamosulebs
amis aranairi ufleba ar gaaCniaT. am mizeziT walkis raionis gamgebelma
mixeil cqitiSvilma raionSi privatizaciis kanonis ganxorcieleba droebiT
SeaCera.
is
cdilobs,
centraluri
xelisufleba
daarwmunos,
rom
an
auqcionebSi monawileobis Tanabari ufleba miscen axalCamosulebs, an sxva
saSualebebiT
gadaWran
es
problema.128
es
problema
mainc
centraluri
xelisuflebis warmomadgenlebma unda moagvaron.
127
128
interviu TeTriwyaros raionis gamgeblis moadgile enver gabuldanTan, 20 oqtomberi, 2006 w.
interviu walkis raionis gamgebel mixeil cqitiSvilTan, 15 ivlisi, 2006w.
70
am dros walkis somxuri mosaxleobac Civis diskriminaciis Taobaze.
acxadeben,
rom
adgilobriv
xelisuflebaSi
Tanamdebobebis
isini
dakavebisas
qarTvelebs upiratesoba eniWebaT da, Sedegad, somxebs daskvna gamoaqvT, rom
axalCamosulebisaTvis
xSirad
ufro
advilia
maTi
iuridiuli
da
administraciuli problemebis gadaWra, vidre somxebisa da berZnebisTvis. es
pretenzia
exeba
samuSao
adgilebsac.
adgilobrivi
somxebisaTvis
gansakuTrebiT mtkivneuli Temaa baqo-Tbilisi-jeihanis navTobsadenis proeqti,
romelic 2002-2005 wlebSi walkis raionisTvis samuSao adgilebis mTavari
wyaro iyo. marTlac, aRmoCnda, rom daqiravebuli somxebisa da adgilobrivi
muSaxelis wili gacilebiT naklebi iyo, vidre qarTvelebisa xolo proeqtSi
dasaqmebuli
qarTvelebi,
rogorc
wesi,
iyvnen
aWaridan
da
svaneTidan
axalCamosulebi, ekomigrantebis CaTvliT. milsadenidan 2 kilometrSi mdebare
sofel
kizilkilisas
somexi
mcxovreblebi
Ciodnen,
rom
maTi
soflidan
mxolod 5 adamians misces milsadenze samuSao adgili.129 aseTma viTarebam
somexi mosaxleobis ukiduresi ukmayofileba gamoiwvia da udavod seriozuli
gavlena moaxdina regionSi SidaeTnikur urTierTobebze.
rac Seexeba miwis sakiTxs javaxeTSi, mdgomareoba arc aq aris ukeTesi _ Tu
uaresi
ara.
gansakuTrebiT
es
exeba
sofel
spasovkas,
sadac
miwasTan
dakavSirebuli daZabuloba gansaxlebis adreul wlebSi TiTqmis Zaladobriv
konfliqtSi
gadaizarda.
Casaxlebis
pirvel
wlebSi
(1990)
ekomigrantebma
TxovniT mimarTes soflis adgilobriv xelmZRvanels (erovnebiT somexs), rom
maTTvis ijariT gamoeyo 1,000 heqtari miwa. es Txovna kanonis farglebs ar
scildeboda,
Tumca
adgilobrivma
xelisuflebam
masze
uari
ganacxada.
Sedegad, qarTvelma migrantebma gadawyvites, sakuTari uflebebi daecvaT da
soflis
skolis
win
demonstracia
moawyves
arsebuli
pirobebis
mimarT
protestis gamosaxatad. ekomigrantebsa da soflis adgilobriv mmarTvelobas
Soris situacia gamwvavda. amasTanave sofelSi sxva soflebidan 500 somexi
Semovida.
safrTxis
winaSe
damdgarma
aWarlebma
ninowmindis
raionis
xelisuflebas mimarTes. am dros kostavas sazogadoebasTan asocirebuli
129 mSeneblobis periodSi bp-s politika mimarTuli iyo adgilobrivi mosaxleobis daqiravebisken.
amasTan prioriteti eniWeboda mosaxleobas, romelic milsadenidan 2 km-s zonaSi an miwiszeda
konstruqciebidan 5 km-s zonaSi cxovrobda.
71
qarTuli paramilitaristuli jgufebi daba ninowmindaSi iyvnen ganlagebulni.
rodesac spasovkaSi miliciis nawilebi Cavida, situacia ukve ukiduresad iyo
daZabuli. rogorc iqauri aWarlebis lideri acxadebda, maT eSinodaT, rom
somxebi daesxmodnen Tavs. miliciis jgufma orive mxaresTan molaparakebis
Sedegad moaxerxa konfliqtis ganmuxtva da sabolood qarTvel migrantebs
miwa gamouyves.130
mogvianebiT kidev erTma incidentma gamoiwvia daZabuloba. 1995 wels spasovkis
mcxovreblebs saTibebi CamoarTves. miwis mflobelobasTan dakavSirebuli es
saqme
bundovani
iyo
da
adgilobrivma
oficialurma
pirebma
gadawyvites,
spasovkis mcxovrebTaTvis am miwis gamoyeneba SeezRudaT. bunebrivia, aman
seriozuli ukmayofileba gamoiwvia qarTul mosaxleobaSi. saerTod, spasovkis
mcxovrebelebi Civian, rom soflis miwebi sxva soflebis somex mcxovreblebs
gadasces, maSin, roca spasovkaSi Casaxlebulebi miwis naklebobas ganicdian.
1996
wlisaTvis
daaxloebiT
ekomigrantebs
4
heqtari
miwa
spasovkaSi
aeRoT
saSualeba
ijariT.
hqondaT,
miuxedavad
ojaxze
imisa,
rom
ekomigrantebma miwis ijariT aRebis TiToeul kontraqtze 80 lari gadaixades,
maT ar miuRiaT oficialuri kontraqtebi, riTac am miwis ijariT aRebis
SeZlebdnen.131
dadasturebas
dRes
_
privatizaciis
moaxloebisas
_
oficialuri dokumentebis arqona niSnavs, rom maT, visac miwis privatizeba
moundeba, amis SesaZlebloba ar eqnebaT, radgan isini miwis ijariT aRebis
sabuTs ver waradgenen.
Tumca, unda aRiniSnos, rom es problemebi xSirad gvxvdeba mxolod somxebiT
dasaxlebul soflebSic, sadac garkveul jgufebs _ xSirad oficialuri
pirebis naTesavebs _ privilegirebulad aZleven miwas. spasovkis mcxovrebTa
SemTxvevaSi
ki
arsebobs
daZabulobis
eTnikur
konfliqtSi
gadasvlis
albaToba.132 dRes spasovkaSi miwis naklebobaa, rac ekomigrantebs ojaxebis
zrdasTan
130
131
132
erTad
walkaSi
gadasvlisaken
ubiZgebs,
maSin,
rodesac
sxva
interviu sofel spasovkis mkvidr jemal vanaZesTan, 24 seqtemberi, 2006 w.
igive
interviuebi spasovkaSi, 23-25 seqtemberi, 2006 w.
72
(somxuri) soflebis mcxovreblebi spasovkis mimdebare miwebs ijariT iReben.
es faqti qarTuli mosaxleobis did ukmayofilebas iwvevs.
enis sakiTxi
ekomigrantebis
integraciisa
da
adaptaciis
mniSvnelovani sakiTxi da arsebiTi faqtoria
procesSi
kidev
erTi
enis sakiTxi. rogorc walkis
adgilobrivi xelisuflebis warmomadgenelma ganacxada saubrisas, „megobrebs
konfliqtebis gadawyveta erTmaneTSi komunikaciiT SeuZliaT, magram, rodesac
jgufebi
komunikacias
ver
axdenen
enobrivi
barieris
gamo,
konfliqtis
gadaWris sxva meqanizmi ar arsebobs.”133 es problema arsebobs rogorc qvemo
qarTlSi, ise javaxeTSi.
rogorc ukve aRvniSneT, qvemo qarTlsa da javaxeTSi qarTuli soflebi
somxuri da azerbaijanuli soflebiTaa garSemortymuli, magram am soflebs
Soris urTierToba Zalze SezRudulia. es gansakuTrebiT exeba im qarTul
soflebs,
romlebic
mxolod
ekomigrantebiTaa
dasaxlebuli.
aWareli
ekomigrantebis Zalian mcire procenti laparakobs rusulad, xolo somxuri,
azerbaijanuli da berZnulii mosaxleobis Zalian mcire nawili _ qarTulad.
marTalia,
erovnuli
umciresobebis
bevr
warmomadgenels
aqvs
qarTulis
swavlis survili da gansakuTrebiT axalgazrdebi acnobiereben, rom es maT
qarTul
sazogadoebaSi
integraciasa
da
karieruli
SesaZleblobebis
gafarToebas daexmareba, magram wlebia saWiro, rom qveynis yvela Temma erT
saerTo enaze SeZlos urTierToba. udavo faqtia, rom gansxvavebuli eTnikuri
Temebi Znelad amyareben urTierTobas erTmaneTTan da erTad ar ganixilaven
socialur an ekonomikur sakiTxebs. ase rom, eTnikur safuZvelze Seqmnili
komunaluri
problemebis
mogvareba
Znelia
adgilobrivi
xelisuflebis
warmomadgenlebis (gamgobis) Carevis gareSe.
mTlianobaSi,
Camosaxlebuli
da
adgilobrivi
mosaxleobis
ZiriTadi
problemebi socialuri da ekonomikuri xasiaTisaa. miwis mcire nakveTebze
martivi
133
SekamaTebac
ki
SeiZleba
advilad
gadaizardos
seriozul
interviu walkis raionis gamgebel mixeil cqitiSvilTan, 15 ivlisi, 2006 w.
73
konfliqtSi,
aRqmuli
romelic
ara
bevr
mxolod
SemTxvevaSi
mosaxleobis,
eTnikur
aramed
konfrontaciad
adgilobrivi
iqneba
xelisuflebis
warmomadgenelTa da sxvadasxva interesTa jgufebis mierac. am mxriv qvemo
qarTli da javaxeTi gansakuTrebiT nayofieri niadagia da eWvgareSea, rom
socialur-ekonomikur
situaciaSi
arsebuli
konfliqtis
gaRvivebis
SesaZlebloba safrTxes uqmnis stabilurobas regionSi. es faqti kidev ufro
usvams xazs saqarTvelos mTavrobis mier adgilobriv erovnul umciresobebsa
da Camosaxlebulebs Soris daZabulobis winaaRmdeg politikis SemuSavebis
aucileblobas. aseve umniSvnelovanesi sakiTxia sistematuri zomebis miReba
ekologiuri migraciis regulirebisaTvis.
daskvnebi da rekomendaciebi
migraciis umarTavma procesma, romelic ekonomikur krizissa da politikur
areulobas daemTxva, bolo 20 wlis ganmavlobaSi aTasobiT saqarTvelos
moqalaqe datova samarTlebriv vakuumSi. migraciis procesebs qveynis zogierT
regionSi eTnikur jgufebs Soris urTierTobebis gauareseba mohyva.
radgan stiqiuri ubedurebebis Sedegad dazaralebuli ojaxebis ricxvi Zalze
didia
rogorc
aWaraSi,
ise
svaneTSi
da
60,000-ze
meti
adamiani
iyo
gansaxlebuli bunebrivi kataklizmebis gamo, ekologiuri migraciis sakiTxi
bevrad meti yuradRebis daTmobas imsaxurebs, vidre es dRemde xdeba. saWiroa,
Camoyalibdes migraciis marTvis politikis sistema. 2006 wels saqarTvelos
mTavroba afxazeTsa da samxreT oseTSi samoqalaqo omis Sedegad qveynis
SigniT
gadaadgilebul
dakavebuli
pirTa
intergaciis
strategiis
SemuSavebiT
iyo
da saTanado yuradReba ver dauTmo ekomigrantebs. sayovelTaod
cnobilia, rom ekomigraciis menejmenti rTuli da resurstevadi sakiTxia.
uaxloes
warsulSi
garkveuli
winsvla
SeimCneva.
“vardebis
Semdeg axalma xelisuflebam mniSvnelovani nabijebi gadadga
revoluciis”
mTeli qveynis
masStabiT (svaneTisa da aWaris CaTvliT) ekologiuri mizeziT dazaralebuli
74
an potenciur migranti ojaxebis monacemTa bazis Seqmnis dasrulebisTvis.
Tumca es qveynis winaSe mdgari seriozuli problemis realurad gadawyvetis
kompleqsuri strategis SemuSavebis mxolod sawyisi etapi unda iyos.
mocemul dokumentSi vecadeT, ekologiuri migraciisaTvis damaxasiaTebeli
bevri aspeqtidan orze gagvemaxvilebina yuradReba: pirveli, ekomigrantebis
mdgomareobis gaanalizebiT, mogvewodebina
saWiro informacia ekologiuri
migraciis menejmentis strategiis SesamuSaveblad, sadac ekologiuri mizeziT
gadaadgilebulTa
moTxovnebi
iqneboda
gaTvaliswinebuli;
da
meore,
SevecadeT yuradReba gagvemaxvilebina upiratesad erovnuli umciresobebiT
dasaxlebul regionebze da im problemebze romlebac Tavi iCines ekologiuri
migraciebis Sedegad.
pirveli sakiTxi qvemoT iqneba konkretulad ganxiluli. mas Tan darTuli
aqvs rekomendaciebi. Cveni azriT, saWiroa, SemuSavebul iqnes ekomigrantebis
dacvis
sakanonmdeblo
struqtura
da,
rac
aranakleb
mniSvnelovania,
ekologiuri migraciis procesis marTvis mravalmxrivi saxelmwifo strategia.
meore
sakiTxi,
mimoxilvas.
am
ekomigrantebis
kvlevis
dasaxleba,
Sedegad
naTeli
aseve
gaxda,
saWiroebs
rom
saboloo
ekomigraciam
zogan
seriozuli daZabuloba warmoSva mimReb TemebSi. kerZod, am naSromSi aqcenti
gakeTda samcxe-javaxeTsa da qvemo qarTlze da mis eTnikuri umciresobebis
warmomadgenel mosaxleobaze. es imas ar niSnavs, rom problemebi ar iyo
mimReb
qarTvel
TemebSi.
faqtia,
rom
samegreloSi
Casaxlebuli
bevri
ekomigrantic ukan dabrunda da maT adgilobriv mosaxleobasTan daZabuloba
SeeqmnaT bevr sxva regionSic. Tumca umciresobebiT dasaxlebul regionebSi
Casaxlebisas
ikveTeba
tendencia,
rom
Casaxleba
eTnikur
TvalsazrisiT
ganixileba da adgilobriv mcxovreblebsa da Camosulebs Soris daZabulobac
eTnikur
konfliqtad
damaxasiaTebeli
aRiqmeba.
gegmis
postsabWoTa mTavrobebis
xeli
mimReb
TemebSi
eWvgareSea,
ararsebobam,
rom
sabWoTa
migraciis
procesisaTvis
xelmZRvanelebisa
da
mier daSvebulma Secdomebma mniSvnelovnad Seuwyo
daZabulobis
Seqmnas.
arada,
adgilebze
ukeTesi
75
politikis
arsebobis
SemTxvevaSi
am
problemebis
didi
nawili
Tavidan
iqneboda acilebuli.
savaraudoa, rom saxelmwifo gansaxlebis politika nawilobriv sasazRvro
ubnebsa
da
umciresobebiT
dasaxlebul
regionebSi
eTnikuri
qarTvelebis
warmomadgenlobis gaZlierebis nacionalisturi programiT iyo nakarnaxevi.
Tumca,
isic
unda
vaRiaroT,
rom
gansaxlebisas
im
faqtiTac
xelmZRvanelobdnen, rom mza saxlebi ufro xelmisawvdomi iyo erovnuli
umciresobebis mier datovebul regionebSi, rogorc, magaliTad, walkaSi 1990iani wlebis bolos da Semdgom periodSi.
am konteqstSi mniSvnelovania umciresobebiT dasaxlebul regionebSi Sida
migrantTa dasaxlebis mimarT dabalansebuli midgomis SemuSaveba. mocemuli
naSromis mizani ar aris iseT kompleqsuri SekiTxvebze pasuxis gacema, Tu ra
moculobiT
SeiZleba
ekologiuri
da
sxva
Sida
migrantebis
Casaxleba
umciresobebiT dasaxlebul iseT regionebSi, rogoric javaxeTi da qvemo
qarTlia. Tumca sasargeblo da realuri iqneboda erovnuli umciresobebis
uflebaTa dacvis CarCo-konvenciis gaxseneba da misi pirobebis _ rogorc am
mimarTulebiT
politikis
warmarTvis
gaTvaliswineba.
2005
dekemberSi
wlis
saxelmZRvanelo
saqarTveloSi
principebis
_
ratificirebuli
am
konvenciis me-16 muxlSi dadgenilia, rom:
mxareebma Tavi unda Seikavon iseTi qmedebebisgan, romlebic erovnuli umciresobebiT
dasaxlebul
romlebic
teritoriebSi
miznad
isaxavs
mosaxleobis
raodenobriv
CarCo-konvenciidan
Sefardebas
gamomdinare
cvlis
uflebebisa
da
da
Tavisuflebebis SezRudvas.
erovnuli umciresobebis CarCo-konvenciis ganmartebiT moxsenebaSi (muxli 8182) miTiTebulia, rom es muxli krZalavs “mxolod im zomebs, romlebic CarCokonvenciaSi
mocemuli
uflebebisa
da
Tavisuflebebis
SezRudvas
isaxavs
miznad“. aseve aRniSnulia, rom es akrZalva ar vrceldeba uflebebisa da
Tavisuflebebis iseT amkrZalav RonisZiebebze, romlebic dasabuTebuli da
76
legitimuria.
dasabuTebuli
mcxovrebTa gadasaxleba
SeiZleba
gansaxlebis
magaliTia
soflis
kaSxlis mSeneblobis SemTxvevaSi. meore magaliTi ki
iyos
ekologiuri
aq
mniSvnelovania
farglebSi.
erT-erTi
mizeziT
moqalaqeTa
is,
Casaxleba
rom
gadasaxleba
xdeba
qveynis
CarCo-konvenciis
Sesabamisad. am mxriv CarCo-konvenciis aSkara darRveva iqneboda imis xazgasma,
rom ekomigrantebisaTvis gansaxlebis adgilis SerCevisas miznadaa dasaxuli
erovnuli
umciresobebiT
dasaxlebul
regionebSi
demografiuli
suraTis
Secvla, Tumca konvenciis darRveva ar iqneboda adgilnacval pirTaTvis
Sesaferisi gansaxlebis adgilis pona.
rogorc
qvemoTaa
aRniSnuli
ekologiuri
migraciis
SemuSavebaSi
uzrunvelyofili
warmomadgenlebis,
rekomendaciebSi,
strategiis
aramed
SemuSaveba.
unda
mimRebi
iyos
Temebis
ara
Cveni
azriT,
gansaxlebis
mxolod
monawileoba;
saWiroa
politikis
ekomigrantTa
amasTanave
es
monawileoba mxolod politikis SemuSavebiT ki ar unda Semoifarglebodes,
aramed orive jgufma aqtiurad unda iTanamSromlos ufro praqtikul etapzec
_ rodesac moxdeba ekomigrantTa axali ganTavsebis adgilebis gansazRvra.
momaval mimReb TemebTan konsultaciebis procesi ukiduresad mniSvnelovani
iqneba
imisaTvis,
rom
davrwmundeT,
rom
erovnuli
umciresobebi
(aseve
qarTuli mimRebi Temebic) ar arian winaaRmdegni. amgvarad Tavidan aviridebT
daZabulobas ekomigrantebis dasaxlebis adgilebSi.
axla
davubrundeT mTavar sakiTxs anu ekomigrantebs. vfiqrobT, rom am
problemebis mogvarebis saxelisuflebo mcdelobebi or sivrces unda Seexos:
pirvel
rigSi,
xelisuflebam
unda
imuSaos
momavalSi
ekologiuri
adgilnacvalobis gegmaze da, saWiroa, rom man gansaxlebis mravalmxrivi
strategia Camoayalibos; meore rigSi, muSaoba unda Seexos im ekomigrantTa
problemebs,
romlebic
1987
wlidan
Casaxldnen
da
dRemde
awydebian
sirTuleebs, ZiriTadad saxlebisa da miwebis formalur mflobelobasTan
dakavSirebiT.
77
rekomendaciebi:
saSualo da grZelvadiani RonisZiebebi
RonisZiebebi
ekologiuri
miReba.
migraciis
Sesaxeb
kanonmdebloba
warmatebuli
Sesabamisi
ekologiuri
politikisa
da
am
kanonmdeblobis
migraciis
sakmaod
susti
SemuSaveba
Sesaxeb
jgufis
da
gansaxlebis
dacvis
erT-erTi
umTavresi safuZvelia. dRes ekomigrantebi, maTi situaciis specifikurobis
gamo, uufleboni da daucvelni arian. arsebuli qarTuli kanonmdeblobis
farglebSi
ar
aris
valdebulebebis
dacva.
gaTvaliswinebuli
am
mizniT
ekomigrantTa
saqarTvelos
uflebebisa
parlamentma
unda
da
miiRos
kanoni ekologiuri mizeziT adgilnacval pirTa Sesaxeb. amis alternativa
SeiZleba aseve iyos arsebul kanonmdeblobaSi Sesworebebis Setana. qveynis
SigniT adgilnacval pirTa Sesaxeb saqarTvelos kanoni134 (bolos Sesworda
2006 wlis ivnisSi) ar ganixilavs bunebrivi da/an xelovnuri katastrofebis
Sedegad
adgilnacval
pirebs
da,
amdenad,
ewinaaRmdegeba
“Sida
adgilnacvalobis ZiriTad principebs”, romlebic gaerom 1998 wels daadgina.135
ekologiuri
mizeziT
adgilnacval
pirTa
uflebebis
dacvis
mizniT
saqarTvelos parlaments SeuZlia, Sesworebebi miiRos adgilnacvali pirebis
Sesaxeb
ukve
arsebul
kanonSi
ekomigrantTa
statusis,
uflebebisa
da
valdebulebebis CamatebiT Sida adgilnacvalobasTan dakavSirebiT gaeros
saxelmZRvanelo
principebis
Sesabamisad.
amas
mohyveba
_
gaeros
saxelmZRvanelo pricipebis Sesabamisad _ “adgilnacvali piris” ganmartebis
gakeTeba, rogorc “pirisa, romelic iZulebuli gaxda, daetovebina mudmivi
sacxovrebeli adgili da gadaadgilebuliyo qveynis teritoriis farglebSi
SeiaraRebuli
konfliqtis,
bunebrivi
adamianis
Tu
adamianis
moqmedebiT
uflebebis
gamowveuli
masobrivi
ubedurebis
darRvevis
gamo,
an
an
mis
Tavidan asacileblad”.
ekologiuri migraciis marTvis grZelvadiani strategia. sasurvelia, rom
centralur doneze
dafuZndes uwyebaTaSorisi organo, romelic ltolvilTa
134 kanoni ixileT veb-gverdze: http://www.unhcr.org/home/RSDLEGAL/44ab85324.pdf
135 sruli teqsti ixileT veb-gverdze: http://www.reliefweb.int/ocha_ol/pub/idp_gp/idp.html
78
da gansaxlebis saministros, finansTa saministros, garemos da bunebrivi
resursebis dacvis saministros, soflis meurneobis saministros da sxva
Sesabamisi
aRmasrulebeli
organoebis
maRali
rangis
pirebiT
iqneba
dakompleqtebuli. es saxelmwifo uwyebebi, maTi kompetenciebis Sesabamisad,
SeZleben, adekvaturad dagegmon da Camoayalibon gansaxlebis grZelvadiani
stretegia. garda amisa, centralurma xelisuflebam unda imuSaos ramdenime
adgilobriv
da
organizaciebTanac,
saerTaSoriso
raTa
organizaciasTan,
gansaxlebis
programis
aseve
donor
Camoyalibebisa
da
Sesrulebis procesSi maTi finansuri da informaciuli daxmareba moipovos.
amave dros, saWiroa, mTavrobam iTanamSromlos adgilobriv da saerTaSoriso
organizaciebTan, informaciisa da monacemTa, aseve gamocdilebis gaziarebis
mizniT da aqtiurad CarTos erovnuli da saerTaSoriso saagentoebi (UNHCR,
IOM, CoE, INGOs) strategiuli gegmis SemuSavebaSi. amdenadve mniSvnelovania
ekologiur migrantTa Temebis da mimRebi Temebis warmomadgenelTa CarTva
strategiis
SemuSavebaSi.
ekologiuri
migrantebis
strategiis
SemuSavebisaTvis
mdgomareobis
Semdgomi
aucilebeli
kvleva.
metic,
iqneba
saWiroa,
Casaxlebamde gamokvleul iqnes savaraudo mimRebi Temebic. garemos dacvis
sakiTxebi, ekonomikuri pirobebi eTnikuri da demografiuli faqtorebi da
kulturuli
gansxvavebebi
adaptaciis
procesis
mTavari
ganmsazRvreli
faqtorebia.136
gansaxlebis
strategia
ramdenime
punqts
unda
moicavdes,
romlebic
urTierTkavSirSia:
moqmedebaTa saTadarigo gegma. centralur xelisuflebasa da adgilobrivi
TviTmmarTvelobis organoebs moulodneli stiqiuri ubedurebis SemTxvevaSi
moqmedebis specialuri strategia sWirdebaT. unda Camoyalibdes specialuri
samoqmedo gegma, romelic stiqiuri
adamianebis
saWiroebebs
ubedurebebis Sedegad dazaralebuli
daakmayofilebs.
barSi
unda
aSendes
droebiTi
136 swrafi da mSvidi adaptaciis procesi sxvadasxva kulturis, eTnikuri da religiuri kuTvnilebis
adamianebs Soris mSvidobiani da megbruli urTierTobis damyarebas Seuwyobs xels. metic, adaptaciis
procesis warmatebas xels Seuwyobs mimReb regionebSi adeqvaturi dagegmva.
79
TavSesafarebi da ganTavsebis adgilebi; unda Seiqmnas specialuri sarezervo
fondebi _ samedicino da humanitaruli daxmarebisaTvis da a.S.
gansaxlebis
daxmarebis
programa.
daxmarebis
am
programam
migrantebs xeli unda Seuwyos ekonomikur adaptacaSi
ekologiur
Casaxlebis yvelaze
rTul _ pirvel periodSi. Casaxlebis dros ekomigrantebs xeli unda SeewyoT
finansuri daxmarebebiT. saxelmwifos daxmarebis gareSe ekomigrantisaTvis
ukiduresad Znelia axali cxovrebis dawyeba ucnob adgilas. saqarTvelos
SigniT adgilnacval pirTa (ekologiuri Tu omis mizeziT) ukve arsebuli
gamocdileba gviCvenebs, rom 10, 15 an 20 wlis Semdegac ki, adgilnacvali
pirebi sustad arian adaptirebulni maTi dasaxlebis adgilas. adgilnacvali
pirebi sazogadoebis erT-erT uRaribes segmentad rCebian.
integraciis
programa,
romelic
socialur-ekonomikuri,
kulturuli
da
saganmanaTleblo integraciis yvela aspeqts moicavs. programaSi saTanadod
unda iyos gaTvaliswinebuli mimRebi Temebis adgilobrivi specifika da axali
mimRebi Temebis SerCevis procesSi sistematuri Sefasebisa da konsultaciebis
praqtika.
1987 wlidan Casaxlebuli ekomigrantebisaTvis daxmarebis aRmoCenis programa.
programa mimarTuli iqneba im ekomigrantebis daxmarebisken, visac jer kidev
aqvs
problemebi
saxlebis
formalur
mflobelobasTan
da
miwis
xelmisawvdomobasTan TuU mflobelobasTan dakavSirebiT.
moklevadiani RonisZiebebi
ECMI
-
aWaris
damoukidebel
JurnalistTa
saxlTan
TanamSromlobiT
iniciativas aiRebs da organizebas gaukeTebs xelisuflebisa da samoqalaqo
sazogadoebis warmomadgenelTa monawileobiT mrgvali magidis Sexvedrebis
serias, romlis mizani iqneba grZelvadiani miznebis xelSemwyobi qmedebebis
inicireba.
80
ltolvilTa
saerTaSoriso
da
gansaxlebis
arasamTavrobo
saministro,
savaraudod
organizaciebTan
adgilobriv
TanamSromlobiT,
da
SeZlebs,
Seafasos miwis mflobelobasTan dakavSirebuli mdgomareoba, gansakuTrebiT
walkis
raionSi.
arsebul
mdgomareobaSi,
rodesac
miwis
didi
nakveTebi
emigrirebuli berZnebis mflobelobaSia, saWiroa kvlevis Catareba, romelic
daadgens miwis arsebul mflobelebs, ris safuZvelzec miReben Sesabamis
zomebs am miwis Sesyidvisa da amJamad soflebSi mcxovrebTa Soris misi
oficialur gadanawilebis uzrunvelsayofad.
xelisuflebam meti yuradReba unda dauTmos ekologiur migrantebs da meti
Tanxebi unda gamoiyos maTi gansaxlebis programebisaTvis. 2004-2005 wlebSi
saxelmwifos mier Sesyiduli saxlebi ZiriTadad imaTTvis iyo gankuTnili,
vinc
ukve
mimRebebs
Casaxlda
udavod
iq
sakuTari
sWirdebodaT
iniciativiT.
sakuTari
marTalia,
statusis
daxmarebis
legalizeba,
am
magram
saxelmwifo veRar daexmara bevr im ojaxs, romelic saswrafo gadasaxlebas
saWiroebs.
ekomigrantebisa da ekomigraciis mimarT sistematizebuli midgomis SemuSaveba
qmediT
saxelmwifo
xelisuflebas,
politikaze
moaxdinos
socialuri
dayrdnobiT
krizisebis
saSualebas
prevencia
da
miscems
xangrZliv
perspeqtivaSi Seamciros finansuri danaxarjebi, amave dros xeli Seuwyos
integraciisa
da
ganviTarebis
procesebs
qveyanaSi.
xangrZlivi
periodis
perspeqtivaSi amgvari RonisZiebebi xels Seuwyobs mTavrobis SesaZleblobebis
gafarToebas, qveyanaSi stabilurobisa da usafrTxoebis SenarCunebas.
81
sul
saqarTveloSi
Tbilisi
baTumi
walka
dmanisi
TeTriwyaro
marneuli
gardabani
bolnisi
borjomi
aspinZa
adigeni
axalcixe
ninowminda
axalqalaqi
raioni
cxrili 1
danarTi
3,433.011
68.75%
371,608
7,44%
1979 wlis aRwera
qarTve
ruseb
l.
i
3,067
1,788
4.40%
2.57%
370
3,830
1.1%
10.46%
21,702
2,910
43.10%
5,78%
18,007
424
90.15%
2.13%
9,651
56
77.76%
0.45%
25,351
1,631
68.10%
4.38%
12,032
1,377
17.52%
2,00%
46,306
6,614
46.01%
6,57%
6,453
3,250
6.42%
3,32%
15,665
2,416
44.4%
6,86%
5,774
691
12.95%
1.55%
1,710
360
3.47%
0,73%
73,126
24,781
59.80%
20,26%
656,431
129,143
62.15%
12,23%
95,105
1,90%
70
0.10%
33
0.09%
230
0,46%
21
0.11%
14
0.11%
1,403
3.77%
2,031
2,96
1,423
1,41%
3,791
3,77%
3,637
21,68%
3,537
7.94%
30,811
62,45%
2,576
2,11%
16,179
1,53%
berZn.
448,000
8,97%
somxe
bi
63,692
91,70%
32,231
87.99%
24,035
47,74%
1,263
6.32%
2,654
21.38%
4,699
12.62%
6,396
9,31%
2,093
2,08%
12,986
28,37%
5,044
14,32%
2,308
5.18%
13,996
38,37%
13,936
11,40%
152,900
14,48%
255,678
5,12%
142
0,20%
87
0.24%
119
0,24%
46
0.23%
14
0.11%
64
0.17%
45,914
66.84%
39,956
39.70%
72,965
72,57%
2,336
6,63%
32,164
72.16%
2,231
4,52%
528
0,43%
12,867
1,22%
azer.
3,787.393
70.1%
341,172
6.3%
1989 wlis aRwera
qarTve
rusebi
l
3,005
1,737
4.3%
2,5%
454
3,161
1.2%
8.3%
25,648
3,426
46.8%
6,2%
19,491
294
91.6%
1.4%
10,753
45
80.1%
0.3%
28,057
1,768
82.0%
4.53%
17,688
1,210
21.7%
1.48%
52,396
6,263
45.7%
5.5%
7,805
2,930
6.5%
2.43%
16,732
2,367
45.9%
6.5%
14,590
579
28.1%
1.1%
1,613
320
3.6%
0,7%
90,253
21,112
65.9%
15,14%
824,412
124,867
66.1%
10,0%
100,324
1.9%
68
0,10%
35
0.09%
239
0,4%
23
0.1%
15
0.11%
1,313
3.36%
2,345
2.87%
1,522
1.3%
3,657
3.4%
8,413
23.1%
3,174
6.1%
27,127
61,0%
2,747
2,0%
21,722
1,7%
berZn.
437,211
8.1%
somxe
bi
63,092
91,3%
33,964
89.62%
23,469
42,8%
1.237
5.8%
2,565
19.1%
3,877
9.94%
5,545
6,8%
1,617
1.4%
12,581
10.45%
4,520
12.4%
187
0.4%
12,671
28,5%
13,394
9,8%
150,138
12,0%
82
307,556
5.7%
171
0.2%
43
0.11%
118
0.2%
50
0.23%
11
0.08%
61
0.15%
53,808
65.98%
48,781
42.5%
91,923
76.35%
2,499
6.8%
33,107
63.9%
2,281
5.1%
665
0.9%
17,986
1.4%
azer.
3,661.173
83.75%
67,671
1,55%
2002 wlis aRwera
qarTve
ruseb
l.
i
3,124
157
5.27%
0.06%
476
963
1.39%
2.75%
28,473
410
64.72%
0,89%
19,860
101
95.70%
0.46%
10.671
34
82.02%
0.26%
27,301
585
84.21%
18.0%
19,926
414
26.82%
0,56%
60,832
994
53.20%
0,87%
9,503
523
8.04%
0,44%
18,769
689
74.03%
2,72%
8,759
156
31.24%
0.56%
2,510
125
12.02%
0,60%
104,313
6,300
85.64%
5,17%
910,712
32,580
84.19%
3,01%
15,166
0,35%
51
0.08%
5
0.01%
129
0,28%
7
0.03%
8
0.06%
540
1.67%
438
0,59%
236
0,21%
396
0,33%
1,281
5,05%
218
0.78%
4,589
21,97%
587
0,48%
3,792
0,35%
berZn
248,929
5,69%
somxe
bi
57,516
94,33%
32.857
95.78%
16,879
36,59%
698
3.36%
2,273
17.47%
3124
9.64%
4,316
5,81%
1,060
0,93%
9,329
7,89%
2,632
10,38%
147
0,52%
11,484
54,98%
7,517
6,17%
82,586
7,63%
284,761
6,51%
3
0,00%
2
0.00%
13
0,03%
17
0.08%
0
0.00%
24
0.27%
49,026
65.98%
49,993
43.72%
98,245
83.10%
1,641
6,47%
18,716
66.76%
1,992
9,54%
301
0,25%
10,942
0,01%
azer.
xulo
xulo
kikineTi
cixisubani
xulo
xulo
xulo
xulo
xulo
xulo
xulo
apnia
gogaSeni
okami
azmana
CunCxa
ptena
koTelia
1989
1989
1989
1989
1989
1989
1989
1988
1985
1985
66
53
67
53
80
60
131
27
42
22
53
34
34
101
ar aris
cnobili
ar aris
cnobili
ar aris
cnobili
ar aris
cnobili
ar aris
cnobili
12
14
15
24
15
36
78
14
32
25
254
43
36
42
70
53
83
registrirebuli
mosaxleoba
(ojaxebis mix.)
78
58
140
xulo
zanavi
1982-83
ar aris
cnobili
ar aris
cnobili
ar aris
cnobili
ar aris
cnobili
ar aris
cnobili
36
78
14
32
25
254
43
dasrulebuli
saxlebis
raodenoba*
axalqalaqi
xulo
sairme
1982
36
78
14
32
25
254
43
gegmurad
asaSenebeli
saxlebis
raodenoba*
78
xulo
1981
19821982-83
1982-83
1980-1981
1981
Casaxlebis
wlebi
jami
adigeni
Wela
xulo
xulo
xulo
xulo
xulo
rusTavi
iveria
gulsunda
miraSxani
oTa
jami
xulo
oSra
aspinZa
warmoSobis
raioni
Casaxlebis
adgili
soflebi
Casaxlebis
raioni
36
37
22
53
55
34
70
78
12
14
15
24
15
36
78
14
32
25
254
mosaxleobis
realuri
raodenoba
(ojaxebis
mix.)
43
35 (145 adamiani)
7 (34 adamiani)
62 (222
adamiani)
40 (171 adamiani)
38 (209
adamiani)
35 (127 adamiani)
16 (60 adamiani)
78 ojaxi
12 ojaxi
14 ojaxi
15 ojaxi
24 ojaxi
49 (261
adamiani)
36 (175 adamiani)
80 (335 adamiani)
14 (75 adamiani)
60 (280 adamiani)
25 (153 adamiani)
1279 adamiani
254 ojaxi
15 ojaxi
dRes mcxovrebi
ekomigrantebi**
cxrili 2: saxelmwifos programiT gansaxlebuli ekomigrantTa raodenoba samcxe-javaxeTSi 1981-1990 ww.
balanTa
xulo
1989
50
50
6/danarCenebi
cxovroben
vagonebSi
6
873
32
32
32
32
19 gadaeca
ekomigrantebs
19
477
313
679
20
20
20
22
307
1 ojaxi (6
adamiani)
650 ojaxi
84 ojaxi
(336 adamiani)
1 ojaxi (6
adamiani)
233 ojaxi
968 adamiani
84 ojaxi
(336 adamiani)
borjomis gamgeobebSi 2005-2006
84
** soflebis mixedviT ekomigrantTa raodenoba, oficialuri registraciis moancemebiT adigenis, aspinZis, axalqalaqis, ninowmindis da
pirvelwyaro: * borjomis, adigenis, ninowmindis, axalqalaqis, aspinZis raionebSi Segrovebuli monacemebi
sul samcxe-javaxeTSi
jami
borjomi
jami
1990
31 saxli
iyida
kostavas
fondma
31
xulo
ninowminda
spasovka
510
jami
jami
dmanisi
jami
bolnisi
jami
1987
1987
1987
mestia
mestia
1989
1989
1989
leCxumi
aWara
svaneTi
qalaqi
dmanisi
ganTiadi
1989
xulo
xatissofe
li
qalaqi
bolnisi
1987
1989
mestia
xulo
tanZia
disveli
jigraSeni
mestia
xaiSi
(dumuki)
WivWavi
goleTi
marabda
CxikvTa
Savsaydari
samRereTi
aleqseevka
1987
Casaxlebis
wlebi
350
120
gegmurad
asaSenebeli
saxlebis
raodenoba
169
32
dasrulebu
li
saxlebis
raodenoba
350
120
registrireb
uli
mosaxleoba
(ojaxebis
mix.)
20
152
80
8
300
292
424
8
300
292
252
ekomigrantebma daikaves
1989 wels
azerbaijanelebis mier
datovebuli saxlebi
52
152
220
85
8
300 ojaxi
292
saxlebs
7
258 ojaxi
251
539
147
37
135
147
37
135
743
20
120
80
561
92
171
15
2
20
63
maT
187
31
mosaxleobis
realuri
raodenoba
(ojaxebis mix.)
52
152
220
lentexi
1987
101
92
101
lentexi
1987
199
194
199
lentexi
1987
15
15
15
mestia
1987
30
0
30
mestia
1987
20
20
20
xulo
1989
83
69
83
osuri sofeli, romelsac osebi toveben da ekomigrantebi
yiduloben (xelisuflebis daxmarebis gareSe)
yofili berZnuli sofeli. daaxloebiT 100-150 saxli carielia
918
591
918
mestia
didgori
TeTriwyaro
warmoSobis
raioni
Casaxlebis
adgili
soflebi
Casaxlebis
raioni
adamiani)
--129 ojaxi
587 adamiani
129 (587 adamiani)
537 ojaxi
2583 adamiani
147 (750
individual.)
37 (180 adamiani)
135 (631 adamiani)
20 (107 adamiani)
553 ojaxi
2262 adamiani)
118 (478 adamiani)
80 (437 adamiani)
89 (490 adamiani)
171 (680 adamiani)
12 (64 adamiani)
2 (8 adamiani)
0
63 (284 adamiani)
187 (594
32 (142 adamiani)
dRes arsebuli
mosaxleoba
cxrili 3: saxelmwifos programiT gansaxlebuli ekomigrantTa raodenoba qvemo qarTlSi, 1981-1989 ww.
3569
793
45
105
240
150
110
143
75
122
49
815
350
219
registrireb
uli
mosaxleoba
(ojaxebis
mix.)
2480
460
34
54
94
120
82
76
57
109
36
662
301
159
mosaxleobis
realuri
raodenoba
(ojaxebis mix)
86
pirvelwyaro: TeTriwyaros, bolnisis, dmanisis, marneulisa da gardabnis gamgeobis reestrebi. 2006.
1992
40
0
3239
45
105
92
150
82
0
20
485
350
115
dasrulebu
li
saxlebis
raodenoba
sul qvemo
qarTlSi
(walkis
gareSe)
1987
mestia
xulo
240
150
110
143
75
122
47
804
350
210
gegmurad
asaSenebeli
saxlebis
raodenoba
364
1992-1995
1987
1991
xulo
mestia
xulo
1989-90
1989-90
1989-90
aWara
aWara
aWara
1989
1987
mestia
Suaxevi
1987
Casaxlebis
wlebi
lentexi
warmoSobis
raioni
793
Sulaveri
(mareti)
xixani
Tamarisi
axali
ioknisi
weraqvi
yulari
(maradisi)
qalaqi
gardabani
lemSvenier
a
krwanisi
vaziani
muxrovani
Casaxlebis
adgili
soflebi
jami
marneuli
jami
gardabani
Casaxlebis
raioni
arsebuli
460 ojaxi
2473 adamiani
2341 ojaxi
10,701 adamiani
34 (146 adamiani)
54 (245 adamiani)
94 (366 adamiani)
120 (870 adamiani)
82 (396 adamiani)
76 (450 adamiani)
57 (269 adamiani)
109 (424 adamiani)
36 (129 adamiani)
662 ojaxi
2796 adamiani
301 (1383 adamiani)
159 (591 adamiani)
dRes
mosaxleoba
Casaxlebis adgili
1961-70 w. Casaxlebuli
ojaxebi
1971-80 w. Casaxlebuli
ojaxebi
306
120
180
470
1655
120
70
115
112
598
168
sul 1961-89 wlebSi
Casaxlebuli
ojaxebi
579
1980-89 w. Casaxlebuli
ojaxebi
42
277
141
6
534
Suaxevis raioni
(1989-2006)
98
30
68
30
9
xulos raioni
(1989-1998)
36
84
97
54
26
54
36
35
qedis raioni
(1989-2006)
3
3
26
3
cxrili 6. ekomigrantebi mTiani aWaridan 1989-2005 w.
87
SeniSvna 1: ukan dabrunebuli 277 migrantidan 22 ekomigranti dasaxlda baTumSi, qobuleTSi, ozurgeTsa da walkaSi, xolo danarCeni 253
kvlav Suaxevis raionSi dabrunda. SeniSvna 2: 534 ukan dabrunebuli ekomigrantebidan yvela xolos raionSi dabrunda. pirvelwyaro:
xulosa da Suaxevis gamgeobebis mier 2006 wlis oqtomberSi mowodebuli monacemebi.
samegrelo
guria
imereTi
qvemo qarTli
kaxeTi
Sida qarTli
aWara (baTumi, qobuleTi,
xelvaCauri)
samcxe-javaxeTi
sxva
sul
mimRebi regioni
cxrili 5. sxvadasxva mimRebi regionidan Suaxevis, qedisa da xulos raionebSi ukumigracia.
aWara: qobuleTisa da
278
140
xelvaCauris raionebi
2
baTumi
116
70
3
krasnodaris mxare
50
(ruseTi)
4
gardabnis raioni
65
5
ozurgeTis raioni
178
160
6
jami
572
485
pirvelwyaro: Suaxevis gamgeobis oficialuri monacemebi, noemberi 2006 w.
1
#
1961-89 wlebSi
cxrili 4. demografiuli balansisa da stiqiuri ubedurebebis gamo mosaxleobis gansaxleba Suaxevis raionidan
xelvaCauris
raioni
qobuleTis
raioni
baTumi
Casaxlebis
raioni
27
59
7
6
2
1
6
1
1993
1994
1995
1996
26
43
16
10
3
3
5
6
1
1
242
102
57
20
15
39
32
6
1
1989
1990
1991
1992
1989
1990
1991
1992
1993
1994
1995
1996
1997
1998
1990
1991
1992
1993
1994
1995
1996
1997
1998
xulos raioni
mogvawoda xulos
2006.
weli
ojaxebis
radenoba
114
514
sul
raionSi
gamgeobam
1993
1994
1995
1996
1989
1990
1991
1992
1989
1990
1991
1992
1993
1994
1995
1996
1997
1998
1989
1990
1991-92
1993
1997
1999
2000
2001
2004-05
1
92
65
1
2
3
91
50
3
1
84
114
3
5
2
2
3
1
33
Suaxevis raioni
mogvawoda Suaxevis
2006.
weli
ojaxebis
raodenoba
151
244
88
sul
raionSi
gamgeobam
1989
1
qedis raioni
mogvawoda
gamgeobam2006
weli ojaxebis
raodenoba
1
sul
raionSi
qedis
bolnisis
raioni
ozurgeTis
raioni
lanCxuTis
raioni
Coxatauris
raioni
1989
1990
1991
1992
1993
1994
1996
1997
1998
2000
1989
1990
1993
1995
1998
1989
1990
1991
1992
1993
1994
1995
1996
2000
51
42
2
14
7
1
1
2
28
3
31
88
13
4
2
173
71
1
4
4
2
1
1
1
105
17
6
1
1
2
1998
1989
1990
1991
1992
1995
2
1997
151
138
258
130
113
1989
-
1989
1990
1991
-
1989
1990
1991
1992
1993
1994
1995
1996
2000
1989
1990
1991
1992
1995
1997
19982003
1
51
11
1
117
154
2
3
1-1
1
63
271
5
160
89
1989
1990
1993
1996
1998
1989
1990
1991
1992
1993
1994
1995
1996
2000
-
2
1
-
2
-
1
4
rusTavi
walkis
raioni
TeTriwyaros
raioni
gardabnis
raioni
marneulis
raioni
67
7
5
19
4
7
1
1
87
38
49
1997
1998
1999
2000
27
45
1
1
2
3
2
352
2
3
2
1
15
17
3
8
2
1
9
6
2
1989-91
1992-93
1994-96
1997-98
1999
2002-05
1989
1990
1994
1995
1997
1998
2003
1989-90
1991
1992
1993
1994
1996
1997
1998
1999
2000
2001
2002
2003
2006
109
1
81
423
1997
1998
1999
2000
-
1989
1990
1991
1995
1997
1998
2003
1989-90
1991
1992
1993
1994
1996
1997
1998
1999
2000
2001
2002
2003
2006
1
2
-
1
87
65
2
0
155
0
90
1997
1998
1999
2000
1989
1990
1992
2005
-
5
1
2
6
-
-
8
0
wyaltubos
raioni
abaSis
raioni
zestafonis
raioni
baRdadis
raioni
Terjolis
raioni
samtrediis
raioni
vanis raioni
dmanisis
raioni
xonis raioni
80
121
1989
10
1
1990
1993
1989-90
1
1
0
41
74
2
2
1
3
1
2
197
15
1
1
1
247
17
1
1
-
41
100
182
42
1990
1990
1993
1989
1990
1991
1992
1993
1994
1998
1989-90
1989
1990
1991
1992
1993
1989
1990
1992
1996
2000
2001
2002
2003
2004
2005
80
11
1
1
124
266
215
2
580
1989
1990
1990
1993
-
1989
1993
1989
1990
1991
1992
1993
1994
2005
1989-90
1989
1990
1991
1992
1993
1989
1990
1992
1996
2000
2001
2002
2003
2004
2005
-
33
2
1
1
3
50
11
-
103
28
1
136
49
2
3
7
2
9
185
2
0
2
64
131
1
26
91
1989
1990
1992
1996
2000
1989
2001
2002
2003
2004
2005
2
2
33
2
1
4
13
24
37
50
goris raioni
kaspis raioni
yvarlis
raioni
axmetis
raioni
lagodexis
raioni
sagarejos
raioni
siRnaRis
raioni
dedofliswya
ros raioni
yvarlis
raioni
walenjixis
raioni
zugdidis
raioni
xobis raioni
-
-
55
7
1
17
2
49
4
1
2
1989
1990
1991
1994
1989
1990
2000
1989
1989
24
69
2
3
1989
1990
1994-95
2004-05
103
40
9
2
1
7
22
3
206
28
2
1989
1989
1990
1991
1993
1989
1990
1989
1990
1989
1990
1997
63
17
56
24
74
103
52
29
0
3
236
121
1989
1990
2000
1989
1990
1991
1994
2005
1989
1989
1990
1991
1993
1989
1990
1989
1990
1990
1989
1990
1997
7
-
11
9
11
1
-
-
18
3
67
5
4
62
2
0
7
0
11
9
12
0
21
71
64
37
92
1990
1999
2000
3
4
7
1989
1990
1995-97
1989-93
1994
1995
1996
1997-98
2001
1989
1990
1991
1992
1993
1996
1997
1999
1989-1994
1995
1996
1990
36
7
5
-
70
3
4
3
7
2
385
59
2
18
17
36
13
1
88
2
5
2
48
0
89
4,857
531
95
4
1989
1989
2
1
-
-
-
0
2
1
1,696
-
0
93
* walkis raionis Sesaxeb monacemebi mogvawoda walkis gamgeobam, 2006
pirvelwyaro: qedis, Suaxevisa da xulos raionis gamgeobebi, 2006.
sul
foTi
aspinZis
raioni
adigenis
raioni
axalqalaqis
raioni
ninowmindis
raioni
1989
4
112
4
-
-
4,074
8,843
9,282
4,985
5,067
svaneTi
raWa-leCxumi
TuSeTi
xevi
mTiuleTi
xevsureTi
fSavi
2,259
3,589
10,483
8,727
1,618
10,1292
18,823
1926
-
-
-
-
-
99,126
27,128
1939
1,411
2,047
8,522
7,976
543
75,700
31,000
1959
-
-
-
-
-
56,900
30,400
1979
1,127
652
6,822
6,376
101
46,600
26,120
1989
-77.7%
-87.8%
-26.5%
-27.9%
-97.5%
-54%
+38.77%
cvlileba
1886-1989
94
pirvelwyaro: vaxtang jaoSvili, saqarTvelos mosaxleoba, Tbilisi, mecniereba, 1996, gv 130 da 170.
1886
regioni
cxrili 7. mTiani regionebis mosaxleoba 1886-2002 wlebis aRwerebis mixedviT
ruka
95

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