apostila 2016 inglês / english student

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apostila 2016 inglês / english student
APOSTILA 2016
INGLÊS / ENGLISH
STUDENT:_____________________________
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Pemberton had already invented "French Wine Coca — The Ideal
Nerve Tonic, Health Restorer andStimulant,"and "Dr. Pembertorís Lemon
and Orange Elixir." Now he was trying to s find the right recipefor a new
invention.
Using a boat oar to stir the mixture, Pemberton cooked it up in a very
large brass pot heated over na openfire. When he wasfinished, he was certain
he hadfound a new medicine to relieve headaches.
Some days before, Pemberton had arranged to show his new medicine
to the Jacobs' Pharmacy. Happy about the results, Pemberton instructed
Venable, his assistant, to mix the syrup up with water and chill it with ice.
The two men tasted it and agreed it was delicious. But when Venable mixed
another glass, he accidentally added carbonated water instead ofplain water.
Pemberton tasted the new mixture. It was só good that he decided to sell the beverage not as a
headache remedy, but as a soft drink. The beverage contained coca leaves and cola nuts, and so
Pemberton named it Coca-Cola.
In 1886 Coca-Cola sold only about nine bottles a day. Pemberton was so unhappy about the
low
sales that he sold his nghts afewyears after. But within 40 years, Pemberton’s headache remedy had
become big business and the most popular soft drink in the world. Today, people in more than 160
countries drink about 400 million bottles ofthe soft drink every year.
Adapted from Mistakes that worked, by Charlotte Foltz Jones, Doubleday, New York, 1997.
General comprehension
Whal's it ali about?
1 - O texto trata de que descoberta ou invenção?
2 - O livro de onde foi extraído o texto intitula-se Mistakes that worked. Como se justifica a inclusão
desse episódio no livro?
3 - Você conhece outros casos semelhantes de descobertas ou invenções acidentais? Quais?
Word study
Odd man out
Em cada série de palavras "denuncie o intruso" identificando a palavra que não pertence ao grupo.
2
Word Formation: Prefixes & Sutfixes
4 - Com seus conhecimentos de prefixos e sufixos, encontre no texto as seguintes palavras:
a) o oposto do adjetivo happy.
b) o advérbio de modo derivado do substantivo accident e do adjetivo accidental.
c) o substantivo que indica o autor da ação de "restaurar, renovar", "aquele ou aquilo que restaura,
que renova".
d) o substantivo que indica o profissional ligado a pharmacy.
5 – Agora forme as seguintes palavras:
a) os adjetivos opostos a unpleasant e unlucky.*
b) os advérbios de modo correspondentes a actual e eventual.**
c) os substantivos que indicam os profissionais ligados a biology e ecology.
* Não confunda happy ("feliz, alegre") com lucky ("felizardo, sortudo").
** Lembre-se de que actual significa "real, verdadeiro" (e não "atual") e que eventual significa "final" (e não "eventual").
6 – Em uma das palavras destacadas abaixo o -er não indica um substantivo. Explique a função
desse sufixo nessa palavra.
a) Pemberton used a very large brass pot as a container for his experiment.
b) Stevie Wonder is famous both as a singer and a songwriter.
c) At first Coca-Cola sales were lower than Pemberton had expected.
Words with two meanings
Observe o sentido da palavra em destaque nesta frase:
It was so good that he decided to sell...
So é usado antes de adjetivo para expressar intensidade e significa "tão".
7 - Encontre no texto outra frase em que so tem o mesmo sentido.
3
So pode também expressar razão, motivo. Nesse caso não vem antes de adjetivo, mas no início
de uma segunda oração.
8 - Encontre no texto um exemplo desse outro uso de so.
9 - Em qual destas frases so significa "portanto", "de modo que" e expressa razão?
a) It was so cold that the water turned into ice.
b) It was cold, and só we decided to stay home near the fire.
Agora observe esta outra palavra em destaque:
It was so good that he decided to sell...
Na frase acima that é uma conjunção e significa "que".
Ela pode ser omitida da frase sem que esta perca o sentido:
It was só good he decided to sell...
10 - Encontre no texto outro exemplo de that como conjunção.
11 - Reescreva essa frase sem o that.
Em duas outras frases do texto o autor optou por omitir a conjunção that:
... he was certain he hadfound a new medicine...
The two men tasted it and agreed it was delicious.
12 - Mantendo o mesmo sentido, você seria capaz de inserir that nessas frases?
Além do uso como conjunção, that também pode ser:
•
adjetivo ou pronome demonstrativo (esse, essa, isso; aquele, aquela, aquilo):
That story is true.
That is true.
• pronome relativo (que) usado para referir-se a pessoa, animal ou coisa, substituindo who, whom
ou which:
The man that invented Coca-Cola did not become rich.
Coca-Cola is the beverage that Pemberton invented.
13 - Nas frases abaixo, identifique aquela em que that pode ser omitido.
a) That woman wants to talk to you about that problem.
b) She said that she needed help.
c) That is the writer that won the Nobel Prize for Literature.
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Detailed comprehension
Lookinq tor specific Information
Relacione os seguintes elementos do texto:
1) invenção de Pemberton anterior à da Coca-Cola
2) vendas da bebida no seu primeiro ano
3) local onde a Coca-Cola foi produzida pela primeira vez
4) ingredientes do elixir já inventado por Pemberton
5) recipiente onde Pemberton preparou a mistura
6) ingredientes que deram nome ao novo produto
7) resultado pretendido por Pemberton em 8/5/1886
8) época em que o refrigerante já era sucesso mundial
9) instrumento usado por Pemberton para mexer o xarope
10) ingrediente adicionado sem querer ao xarope
11) número atual de garrafas de refrigerante vendidas por ano
12) número atual de países consumidores do refrigerante
(
(
(
(
(
(
(
(
(
(
(
(
) a boat oar
) carbonated water
) 400 million bottles
) a headache remedy
) 1926
) coca leaves and cola nuts
) more than 160 countries
) French Wine Coca
) a very large brass pot
) nine bottles a day
) a backyard in Atlanta
) orange and lemon
The right title In the right paragraph
Numere os títulos abaixo de acordo com os cinco parágrafos do texto.
(
(
(
(
(
) Forget about the remedy, we have a soft drink!
) A very fortunate accident
) Dr. Pemberton's previous inventions
) Dr. Pemberton's headache remedy is the real thing
) No more headaches, folks!
Structure
Some: A Few/Few: A Líttle/Little
Observe as palavras em destaque nestas frases:
Some days before, Pemberton had arranged...
... he sold his rights a few years after.
Few people know what it is.
Embora sejam palavras ou expressões que encontram no português correspondentes com
sentidos próximos entre si, some, a few, few, a little e little requerem uma atenção especial em
relação ao uso. Veja:
•
antes de substantivos não contáveis, sempre usados no singular:
a little = some (algum, alguma)
John is not rich, but he hás some/a little money in the bank.
little = not much (pouco, pouca)
Paul has little money, so he has to work hard.
•
antes de substantivos contáveis, usados no plural:
a few = some (alguns, algumas)
few = not many (poucos, poucas)
John has some/a few friends.
Paul has few friends, he's not popular.
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Observe que some, a little, a few indicam a existência de algo em quantidade ou número
moderados. Em contraste, little e few indicam escassez, insuficiência de algo.
Veja também que some e a few indicam um certo número de coisas ou pessoas e têm conotação
positiva, "otimista", enquanto few indica um número reduzido ou insuficiente, tendo conotação
negativa, "pessimista". O mesmo se pode dizer de some e a little em relação a little, usados para
indicar uma certa quantidade de coisas ou pessoas.
14 - Reescreva as frases, substituindo some por a little ou a few.
a) Give me some more water, please. l'm thirsty.
b) Ann lives in Rio, but she has somefriends in São Paulo.
c) l read the message but l didn't understand some words.
d) The Browns are not exactly rich, but they have some money.
15 - Agora complete as frases com little ou few.
a) The test was difficult, so very _________________ students passed it.
b) That place is almost a desert. There is very ____________ water there.
c) _____________ people here really understand modern art.
d) George is an old man now and he has _________________ patience with kids.
Past Perfect
Veja de novo estas frases do texto e observe os tempos verbais em destaque:
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
Pemberton had already invented "French WineCoca..."
Now he was trying to fina the right recipe...
... he was certain he had found a new medicine...
Some days before, Pemberton had arranged to show his new medicine to...
The two men tasted it and agreed it was delicious.
In 1886 Coca-Cola sold only about nine bottles a day.
But within 40 years, Pemberton’s headache remedy had become big business...
Pelo contexto é fácil concluir que todas as ações expressas pelos verbos referem-se a um tempo
passado.
16 - Que frase apresenta uma ação em desenvolvimento no passado e que tempo verbal foi usado
para expressá-la?
17 - Em que frases os verbos referem-se a ações que ocorreram antes de outras, portanto num
passado anterior?
Nas frases citadas na questão acima, os verbos que expressam as ações anteriores aparecem
num tempo verbal chamado Past Perfect. Esse tempo é composto pelo passado do verbo auxiliar to
have (had) e pelo particípio passado do verbo principal, para todas as pessoas. Veja um exemplo
com o verbo to leave:
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l / you / he / she / it /
had already left when they called.
/ we / you / they
18 - Complete the sentences with the correct verb form: Simple Past. Past Continuous or Past
Perfect.
a) Castro Alves was a Brazilian Romantic poet who ____________________ in the 19th century.
(lived - was living – had lived)
b) While I ___________________ down the beach, I saw a man in the distance.
(walked - was walking - had walked)
c) One day a man ______________________ home from work to find total Chaos in his house.
(came - was coming - had come)
d) The man was worried that something serious ____________________ to his wife.
(happened - was happening - had happened)
e) Jorge Amado __________________ about the people of Bahia, their customs and their
passions.
(wrote-was writing - had written)
f) The man's wife_____________________ not to do her daily routine.
(decided - was deciding - had decided)
g) Harry Potter ______________ with that horrible family when he received a mysterious
message.
(lived - was living - had lived)
h) Dr. Pemberton _________________________ to find the right recipe for a new invention.
(tried - was trying - had tried)
i) When he was finished, he was certain he ______________ a new medicine to relieve
headaches.
(found - was finding - had found)
j) Some days before, Pemberton ____________to show his new medicine to the Jacobs'
Pharmacy.
(arranged - was arranging - had arranged)
Tempos verbais compostos – Introdução
Em inglês os tempos compostos mais importantes são os continuous (ou progressive) e os
perfect.
Os primeiros são formados com o verbo auxiliar to be + forma de final -ing do verbo
principal. Assim:
• Present Continuous:
I am finishing the report now.
(Eu estou terminando o relatório agora.)
• Past Continuous:
I was finishing the report when you called me.
(Eu estava terminando o relatório quando você me ligou.)
• Future Continuous:
I will be finishing the report when you come tomorrow.
(Eu estarei terminando o relatório quando você vier amanhã.)
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Para a formação dos tempos perfeitos, usa-se o verbo auxiliar to have + particípio passado
do verbo principal. Assim:
• Present Perfect:
I have finished the report. Here it is.
(Eu terminei o relatório. Aqui está ele.)
• Past Perfect:
I had finished the report when they carne.
(Eu tinha terminado o relatório quando eles chegaram.)
• Future Perfect:
I will have finished the report by the time they come tomorrow.
(Eu terei terminado o relatório quando eles chegarem amanhã.)
Complete com os verbos nos tempos indicados entre parênteses.
a) Harry _______________ a miserable life with that horrible family when he received the visit
of a strange owl. (to live - Past Continuous)
b) Scientists___________________ that less methane is made in fields where the rice plants
_____________________________ more grain. (to discover- Present Perfect; to produce Present Continuous)
c) Researchers ___________________ with human embryos in the near future, (to work- Future
continuous)
d) Dinosaurs _________________ from the face of the Earth when human life began. (to
disappear-Past Perfect)
e) When you ____________________ that lesson, you can then go on to the next one. (to learn Present Perfect)
False friends
Aprenda e fixe o verdadeiro significado dos falsos cognatos em destaque preenchendo as
lacunas em cada frase. Quando precisar, consulte a lista de False friends em ordem alfabética.
a) When they realized their mistake, it was too late.
Quando eles ___________________ seu erro, era tarde demais.
b) "God Save The Queen" is the British national anthem.
"Deus Salve a Rainha" é o ___________________nacional britânico.
Postreading activities
Bad News on Soda Pop
TEENS ARE DROWNING IN SOFT DRINKS.
The average teenage boy in the U.S. chugs 3 1/3 cans a day — more than 110 gal.
a year. Girls arerit much better: they guzzle 2 1/3 cans daily. Kids now drink twice
8
as much soda as milk; 20 years ago, the reverse was true. The possible fallout: fat
kids, rotten teeth and brittle bones.
Time, November 2,1998.
Getting lhe message
Relacione as frases abaixo com as informações da coluna a seguir de acordo com o texto.
1)
2)
3)
4)
5)
6)
(
(
(
(
(
(
possíveis conseqüências do alto consumo de refrigerante
quantidade de refrigerante consumida diariamente por um menino
relação entre o consumo de leite e o de refrigerante hoje em dia
quantidade de refrigerante consumida diariamente por uma menina
relação entre o consumo de leite e o de refrigerante vinte anos atrás
consumo anual de refrigerante por adolescente
) 2 1/3 latas
) duas vezes mais refrigerante do que leite
) 3 1/3 latas
) 418 litros* de refrigerante
) obesidade, dentes cariados e ossos fracos
) duas vezes mais leite do que refrigerante
* l gallon (galão) = 3,8 litros.
Talk it over
Talvez as pessoas nunca fiquem sabendo a receita completa da Coca-Cola, já que a poderosa
FDA (Food and Drug Administration) norte-americana exime os fabricantes da bebida de identificar
os "ingredientes essenciais", até hoje mantidos em segredo. Popular em todo o mundo, o
refrigerante é consumido por muitas pessoas sem que se saiba bem o que se está bebendo.
Símbolo máximo do consumo e da cultura pop internacional, não há jovem que resista ao
"delicioso sabor" da real thing. Você também acha que "é isso aí..."? Volte ao texto "Bad News on
Soda Pop", a respeito dos refrigerantes em geral, e reflita. Não está na hora de fazer uma revisão
dos seus hábitos de consumo? Afinal, saúde é o que interessa!
Reading practice
Fuvest - Texto para as questões 1 e 2.
CHILE, which has South Américas most successful economy, elected its first female president
this year. But the lot of Chilean women is by many measures worse than that of their sisters
elsewhere in the region. A smaller proportion ofthem work and fewer achieve political power.
According to a recent report by the Inter-Parliamentary Union, an association of parliaments,
15% of representatives in the lower house of Chile's Congress are women, less than half the
proportion in Costa Rica and Argentina and below the levei in eight other countries in the region,
including Venezuela and Bolivia. Chilean women hope that Michelle Bachelet's presidency will
improve their position but there are worries that she will do more harm than good.
th
The Economist. August 12 , 2006.
1 - According to the text, Chilean women:
a)
b)
c)
d)
e)
have better work perspectives than other South American women.
lag behind women in other South American countries in terms of political power.
work hard but don't get good salaries despite Chile's economic development.
face many obstacles when they have to move to different regions.
are taking different measures to overcome their political problems.
2 - According to the text, the Chilean president:
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a) will fight for significant changes in women's political participation in the country.
b) has demonstrated political strength in Chile's Congress since her election.
c) is seen with caution with respect to improvement in women's position in the country.
d) hopes Chilean women will reach the same levei as women in the other South American
countries.
e) is worried about the percentage of women's political participation in Chile.
Extra reading practice
Fuvest - Texto para as questões de 1 a 4.
"CHINA has begun to enter the age ofmass car consumption. This is a great and historie
advance." So prodaimed the state-run news agency, Xinhua, last year. Environmentalists may feel
a twinge offear at this burgeoning romance with motoring. But a rapid social and economic
transformation is under way in urban China, and the car is steering it.
In 2002 demand for cars in China soared by 56%, far more than even the rosiest projections.
The next year growth quickened to 75%, before slowing in 2004 (when the government tightened
rules on creditfor car purchases) to around 15%. But in a sluggish global market, China s demand
remains mesmerising. Few expect this year's growth to dip below 10%. As long as the economy
goes on galloping at its current high-single-digit clip, many expect car sales to increase by 10-20%
annually for several years to come.
th
The Economist. June 4 , 2005.
1 - According to the passage, Xinhua:
a)
b)
c)
d)
e)
had prodaimed that China's car industry would boom in 2004.
played an important role in China's social and economic transformation.
reported, with pride, in 2004, the beginning of a new era for China.
considers the new bank lending rules to be responsible for China's mass car consumption.
pointed out, in 2004, that China's car industry would grow beyond expectations in the short run.
2 - The passage suggests that China's embrace of the car is likely to make environmentalists:
a) distressed.
b) angry.
c) scared.
d) startled.
e) apprehensive.
3 - The passage says that the demand for cars in China:
a)
b)
c)
d)
e)
was extremely high both in 2003 and 2004.
is still quite impressive.
may dip below 10% this year.
fell by 15% when bank lending rules were tightened in 2004.
has been badly hit by the sluggish global market.
4 - Which of these statements is true according to the passage?
a) China became a car culture in 2003 thanks to the governmenfs industrial development policy.
b) Car sales in China are expected to increase by 10% at most as soon as the global market
recovers.
c) Unless the global economy slows down, China's rate of growth will remain in high single figuroe.
d) The car industry hás been crucial for the radical changes urban China is undergoíng.
e) Despite ali rosy projections, China's economic growth for the next few years may be quite slow.
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Read more about it

The Real Thing — Truth and Power at the Coca-Cola Company, Constance L. Hays, Random House, 2004. Por deus, pela pátria e pela
Coca-Cola — A história não autorizada do maior dos refrigerantes e da companhia que o produz, Mark Pendergrast, Ediouro, 1993.

Coca-Cola versus guaraná — História da Coca-Cola no Brasil — Available at: <www.terrabrasileira.net/ folclore/influenc/cocacola.html>.
th
Dec. 10 , 2009.

Muito açúcar, pouco leite... danos à saúde de adolescentes — Available at: <www.emedix.com.br/ not2000/00jul21 unc-stmth
alimentacao.shtml>. Dec. 10 , 2009.
Methane is the second most important greenhouse gas after carbon dioxide, and
ricefields are among the biggest sources ofmethane. It's produced by bacteria living in the wet soil
of the paddy field, the flooded field where rice is grown.
Now scientists from Europe and the Philippines
have discovered that less methane is made infields
where the plants are producing more grain. The reason is
that making methane needs carbon.
Plants absorb carbon from the air. They use
some for making grain and somefinds its way to the roots
and then into the soil, where the bacteria can use it w to
produce methane. So if more carbon is tied up in making
grain, there's less in the soil, and that means less
methane.
Rice is one ofthe cheapest sources of food
energy and protein, with half the world's population
depending on it. But rice yields vary widely from region to
region. Afew months ago scientists revealed the genome
sequence ofrice — a tool of great potential use to
researchers for trying to develop new varieties ofrice with
higher yields.
This latest research will now help guide
scientists towards the genes they can work with to design
those new varieties of rice and at the same time help to
protect the environment.
Adapted from Better Rice, Less Global Warming, by Richard Black. Available at: <http://www.bbc.co.uk/worldservice/
th
learníngenglish/news/words/general>. Nov. 20 , 2009.
General comprehension
Whafs it ali about?
1 - Existe uma relação de causa e efeito expressa no título? Justifique.
2 - O texto revela um problema ambiental relacionado à produção de arroz. Qual?
3 - E o que dizem os resultados de uma pesquisa recente sobre o assunto?
Word study
Discourse markers
Em cada frase abaixo há um marcador do discurso em destaque. Com um colega,
indique a função que eles exercem, com base nas opções do quadro.
relacionar causa e efeito • estabelecer referência
de tempo • indicar seqüência • indicar lugar •
expressar consequência, resultado
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a) ... some finds its way to the roots and then into the soil...
b) ... where the bacteria can use it to produce methane.
c) So if more carbon is tied up in making grain...
d) They are less harmfui to the environment because the mak less of the greenhouse das
methane
e) Afew months agoscientists revealed...
Detailed comprehension
The rlght title in the riaht paraaraph
Relacione os cinco parágrafos do texto com os títulos que melhor serviriam para cada um.
Looking for specific Information
Junto com um colega, complete as frases com os substantivos do quadro.
rice • grain • roots • greenhouse • environment • carbon • warming • sources • crop • air
a) ________________________________________________ is necessary to make methane.
b) Plants absorb carbon from the ________________________________________________.
c) Rice is one of the least expensive _________________________ of food energyand protein.
d) Genetic engineering will cause less global _______________________________________.
e) Carbon dioxide is bad for the __________________________________________________.
f) Some carbon eventually gets to the ___________________________________of the
plants.
g) Scientists are trying to develop new kinds of rice ________________which can produce
more.
h) Rice is the world's most important cereal ________________________________________.
j) A paddy field is a flooded field where ____________________________________ is grown.
12
Look, read, and choose
Rice is planted, farmed, and harvested ali over the world. What in the world are they doing in
those pictures? Write the number of the picture that corresponda to each of the situations
escribed below.
( ) Rice planting is collective work. These women are planting new rice in a flooded field in
Orissa, India.
( ) Dinner is almost ready! A woman is cooking rice in a village in Ghana, Western Africa.
( ) In Asia rice is often grown in terraces. These women are making new rice paddy terraces in
the Yunnan province, China.
( ) Merchants unload bags of rice from boats on the Thu Bom River at Hoi An, Vietnam.
( ) There's a time to plant and a time to harvest. This machine is harvesting rice on a farm at
Uruguaiana, Brazil.
Structure
Quando comparamos pessoas ou coisas, podemos estabelecer relações de:
• igualdade: as + adjective + as
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Rice is as important as wheatfor human consumption.
• superioridade: more + adjective + than
In Asia, rice is more important than wheat.
• inferioridade: less + adjective + than
In Asia, wheat is less important than rice.
Nas comparações que indicam superioridade com adjetivos curtos (de uma sílaba ou
mesmo alguns de duas), em vez do uso de more faz-se o acréscimo de -er ao adjetivo.
(expensive)
(cheap)
Wheat is more expensive than soya.
Soya is cheaper than wheat.
No caso dos adjetivos curtos terminados na sequência consoante-vogal-consoante, dobrase a consoante final antes de acrescentar -er.
(big)
In modem Brazil, there is a bigger export marketfor soya than for coffee.
Nos adjetivos de duas sílabas terminados em y, troca-se o y por i antes de acrescentar -er.
(easy)
Soya is easier to find in Brazilian supermarkets than rye.
Os adjetivos good e bad têm formas irregulares de comparativo, respectivamente better e
worse:
(good)
(bad)
Better rice also means less global warming.
Global warming is a worse problem than pollution.
Popcorn & pop culture
Complete as frases com as formas de comparativo dos adjetivos entre parênteses.
Oriente-se pelas indicações de igualdade, superioridade ou inferioridade em cada caso.
a) Popcorn is
chocolate. (= delicious)
b) Popcorn is
chocolate as a snack at the movies. (+ popular)
c) l think Cameron Diaz is
Julia Roberts. (= pretty)
d) l also think Juliana Paes is
Cameron Diaz. (+ pretty)
e) Angelina Jolie is
Meryl Streep. (+young)
f) But l think Meryl Streep is a
(+good)
actress
Angelina Jolie.
g) Sean Connery is not
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Sylvester Stallone. (=strong)
h) Fernanda Montenegro is
Fernanda Torres. (+ oid)
i) l think Eddie Murphy is
Jim Carrey (+funny)
j) Tropa de Elite was
Estômago. (+ successfui)
k) l think Japanese movies are
American movies. (- interesting)
I) Rodrigo Santoro is not
Leonardo di Caprio. (=famous)
What about you?
Working in pairs, take turns asking and answering these questions and telling about your
personal opinion. You may add the names of other actors and actresses if you wish.
Who do you think is a better actor: Brad Pitt or George Clooney? Tom Cruise or Tom Hanks?
And a better actress? Julia Roberts or Cameron Diaz? Nicole Kidman or Jennifer Lopez?
Comparative or Superlative?
Quando nos referimos a um grupo de pessoas ou coisas e destacamos um dos elementos,
usamos o adjetivo no grau superlativo de:
•
superioridade: the most + adjective
Rice is the most important cereal crop in Asia.
ou de
•
inferioridade: the least + adjective
For consumers, soya is one of the least expensive cereais.
De modo semelhante ao que acontece com o grau comparativo, o superlativo de
superioridade de adjetivos curtos é formado não com o uso de most, mas com o acréscimo de est ao adjetivo.
(old)
(large)
Wheat is one ofthe oldest cultivated grains in the world.
China is the largest wheat producer in the world.
No caso dos adjetivos curtos terminados na sequência consoante-vogal-consoante, dobrase a consoante final antes de acrescentar -est.
(big)
In Brazil now, soya is the biggest export produce.
Nos adjetivos de duas sílabas terminados em y, troca-se o y por i antes de acrescentar -est.
(happy)
They are the happiest people in the world.
Os adjetivos good e bad têm formas irregulares de superlativo, respectivamente, best e
15
worst:
(good)
The best varieties ofrice are those that help to protect the environment.
(bad)
The worst varieties are those that produce the most methane.
Veja de novo estes trechos do texto e escolha no quadro a melhor tradução para as formas
de adjetivo em destaque.
última, mais recente • a maior •
as mais baratas • melhor • superiores • o ... mais importante
a) Better rice
b) Highery yields
c) ... the second most importante greenhouse gas
d)... the biggest source ot methane
e) ... this latest research
f) ... rice is one of the cheapest sources of food energy and orotein
• Os adjetivos e advérbios de duas sílabas terminados em le, ow e er podem fazer o comparativo
e o superlativo de duas formas: com O acréscimo de -er e -est ou antepondo-se more e most ao
grau normal dos adjetivos e advérbios.
•
Adjetivo
gentle (suave, leve)
Comparativo
gentler / more gentle
Superlativo
gentlest / most gentle
narrow (estreito)
narrower / more narrow
narrowest / most narrow
dever (inteligente)
cleverer / more dever
deveres / most dever
Quando o adjetivo ou advérbio terminar em e, acrescenta-se apenas -r e -st:
wide (largo)
late (tarde)
wider
later
widest
latest
• Quando o adjetivo ou advérbio monossilábico terminar em y precedido de consoante, trocase o y por i, antes de acrescentar -er ou -est, como acontece com os dissilábicos:
dry (seco)
dirty (sujo)
drier
dirtier
driest
dirtiest
Mas shy (tímido) pode ter as duas formas: shyer/shyest ou shier/shiest.
Outras formações irregulares
16
much (muito)
many (muitos)
little (pouco)
far (longe)
•
more
more
less
farther / further
most
most
least
farthest / furthest
CASOS ESPECIAIS
• O comparativo de inferioridade (less ... than: menos ... do que) e o superlativo de
inferioridade (theleast...: o menos ...) são formados com adjetivos curtos ou longos, mas são
pouco usados, sendo geralmente substituídos assim:
The São Francisco is less long than the Amazon.
pouco comum
(O São Francisco é menos longo que o Amazonas.)
The São Francisco is not as long as the Amazon.
mais comum
(O São Francisco não é tão longo quanto o Amazonas)
The Amazon is longer than the São Francisco.
(O Amazonas é mais longo que o São Francisco)
mais comum
• Para expressar aumento gradual, eqüivalendo em português a "cada vez mais...", usa-se o
mesmo comparativo duas vezes separados por and:
He is getting fatter and fatter.
(Ele está ficando cada vez mais gordo.)
We became more and more interested in the story.
(Nós ficamos cada vez mais interessados na história.)
• Para expressar uma relação entre duas ações ou acontecimentos paralelos, equivalendo
em
português a "quanto mais... mais...", usam-se dois comparativos precedidos de the:
The older we get, the wiser we should become.
(Quanto mais velhos ficamos, mais sábios deveríamos nos tornar.)
The sooner I finish this, the better.
(Quanto mais cedo terminar isto, melhor.)
The more you read, the more you learn.
(Quanto mais você lê, mais você aprende.)
Resolva estas questões de exames vestibulares:
4 - (Ufscar-SP) His wife is * than his sister.
a) very pretty
b) prettier
c) prettiest
d) pretty
5 - (FMU/Fiam-SP) * you study, * you’ll be.
17
a) The more/the best
b) The most/the best
c) The more/the better
d) The most/the better
6 - (PUCC-SP) The first lesson in the book was certainly * than the others; but it was not * in
the book.
a) easier - the best
b) easy - the better
c) easiest - the best
d) easiest - the better
7 - (Fuvest-SP) Substitua o * pelo grau adequado dos adjetivos indicados:
They are three brothers. Peter is * (old) of them, but not * (intelligent).
8 - (FMU/Fiam-SP) The weather is getting *.
a) hotter and hotter
b) hottest and hottest
c) hottest
d) hotter and hottest
False friends
Aprenda e fixe o verdadeiro significado dos falsos cognatos em destaque preenchendo as
lacunas em cada frase. Quando precisar, consulte a lista de False friends em ordem alfabética.
a) A sensible person would never do such a foolish thing.
Uma pessoa ....................................................... jamais faria tamanha tolice.
b) Don't worry. The thieves will be arrested presently.
Não se preocupe. Os ladrões serão ........................................................ .
Postreading activities
In some countries, rice is considered to be a gift from the gods.
• In Thailand, whenyou call your family to a meai you say, "Eat rice!".
• In índia, it is said that the grains ofrice should be like two brothers — dose, but not stuck
together.
• In Japan, the word for cooked rice is the same as the word for meal. To encourage
Japanese
children to eat all oft heir rice, the grains are affectionally called little Buddhas.
• The Chinese word for rice is the same as the word for food. Younggirls who dorit want to eat
are warned that every grain of rice they leave in their rice bowls represents a pock mark on the
face of their future husband.
• In Bali, one ofthe islands in Indonesia, every morning after cooking the daily rice, as an
offering, the women put rice on banana leaves around the home and garden where spirits are
probably going to be.
Rice, the Amazíng Grain, Marie Simmons. Available at: http://www.washingtonpost.com. Jan. 2004.
Getting the message
18
Identifique o país correspondente
a cada informação.
Talk it over
O texto desta unidade trata de
duas questões muito importantes: a
produção de um alimento básico em maior
quantidade e com mais qualidade, o que é
fundamental para o combate à fome no
mundo, e a redução do aquecimento
global. Felizmente, graças à engenharia
genética, esses dois resultados podem ser
alcançados simultaneamente por haver
uma única e boa solução para ambos. Mas nem sempre é assim. Torna-se cada vez mais caro
solucionar os problemas do mundo moderno. Estamos acostumados a ver avanços da ciência
e da tecnologia em uma área trazerem prejuízos para outra, e geralmente quem mais sofre é o
meio ambiente. A crescente demanda de recursos e espaços parece levar o mundo a um
desequilíbrio ou à exaustão. Soluções "mágicas" como a que vimos no texto desta unidade são
cada vez mais raras. O que você sabe sobre a produção de alimentos e o problema da fome
no mundo? Que relações há entre o aquecimento do planeta e o progresso tecnológico? Como
essas questões são tratadas em nosso país? O que cada um de nós pode fazer? Procure
saber mais e refletir sobre esse assunto. Debata-o com seus colegas e professores. É preciso
fazer a nossa parte, exercer a cidadania.
Readmg practice
(Fuvest) Texto para as questões 1 a 3.
Researchers and public-health officials have long understood
that to maintain a given weight, energy in (calories consumed) must
equal energy out (calories expended). But then they learned that
genes were important, too, and that for some people this formula was
tilted in a direction that led to weight gain. Since the discovery
ofthefirst obesity gene in 1994, scientists havefound about 50 genes
involved in obesity. Some ofthem determine how individuais lay down
fat and metabolize energy stores. Others regulate how much people
want to eat in the first place, how they know when they've had enough
19
and how likely they are to use up calories through activities ranging from fidgeting to running
marathons. People who can get fat on very little fuel may be genetically programmed to survive
in harsher environments. When the human species got its start, it was an advantage to be
efficient. Today, when food isplentiful, it is a hazard.
Availableat: http://www.nytimes.com/2006/08/13/magazine/13obesity.html>.
1 - In the text, the central idea is that:
a)
b)
c)
d)
e)
obesity should be genetically treated.
fat people may use different formulae to lose weight.
fat regulates our feeling of satiety.
genes contribute to obesity.
researchers are discussing the consequences of obesity.
2 - According to the text,
a) today's obesity may be linked to evolutionary factors.
b) the human species is programmed to eat as much as possible to survive.
c) the ingestion of large quantities of food was na advantage in the past.
d) obese people have some advantaaes over slim people.
e) very little food is necessary to survive in some environments.
3 - In the text, the pronoun "Others" refers to:
a) calories.
b) individuais.
c) energy stores.
d) scientists.
e) genes.
Extra reading practice
(Fuvest) Texto para as questões 1 a 6.
The role ofwomen in Spanish society has changed fast since the country became a
democracy after General Franco died in 1975. He had swept away liberal reforms introduced in
the 1930s, when Spain was a republic. For women specifically, these included a benevolent
divorce law and certain property rights. In the 1930s many women played a bigpart on the left,
often fighting side by side with men in the pro-Republic militias during the 1936-39 civil war. But
after it the new regime, for the mostpart applauded by the church, put them back in the home as
wives and mothers, with divorce forbidden and working outside frowned on.
Change began in the 1960s when Spain opened up to tourists. Faced with competition
from sexually liberated north Europeans, Spanish women "dedared war on them, on men and
on their elders," in the words of Lucia Graves, author of "A Woman Unknown," which recounts
her life as an Englishwoman married to a Spaniard at the time. That aggressive self-assertion
continues.
Not wholly successfully. At universities, women students now outnumber men. A typical
couple has one or two children these days, a far cry from the days when families of eight or ten
were common. But Spanish women still face the problems of their sisters in northern Europe.
Their progress at work is often blocked, their pay often lower than men’s.
th
The Economist. August 11 , 2001.
1 - According to the passage, since 1975,
a) the role of left-wing Spanish women hás changed quite fast.
b) the new regime hás faced problems when bringing about changes in the role of Spanish
women.
c) there have been changes in the role of Spanish women.
d) Spanish women have played an important part in the governmenfs adoption of reformist
policies.
e) many Spanish women have assumed the role of social reformers.
20
2 - The passage states that:
a) most of the liberal reforms introduced in the 1930s were approved by the church. .
b) liberal reforms introduced when Spain was a republic were abolished under Franco's regime.
c) many Spanish women fought in the pro-Republic militias in the early 1930s.
d) all liberal reforms introduced when Spain was a republic benefited women.
e) Spanish women obtained a benevolent divorce law and certain property rights after Franco
died.
3 - The passage tells us that after the civil war:
a)
b)
c)
d)
e)
divorced women were not allowed to work outside.
the church prohibited wives and mothers from working outside.
most women continued to fight for liberal reforms.
many women were unwilling to work outside.
Spain was under a regime that no longer allowed divorce.
4 - Which of these statements is true according to the passage?
a) Although tourists helped Spain to develop in the 1960s, Spanish women dedared war on
them.
b) Spanish women rebelled against north European tourists who married Spaniards in the
nineteen sixties.
c) Tourists started visiting Spain in the nineteen sixties, after the country underwent changes.
d) For Spanish women, the arrival of sexually liberated north Europeans in the 1960s was most
unwelcome.
e) In the 1960s, sexually liberated Spanish women had to compete with their north European
counterparts.
5 - The passage tells us that Lúcia Graves:
a)
b)
d)
e)
portrays what her own life was like in the nineteen sixties in "A Woman Unknown".
wrote a book about the problems she faced after marrying a Spaniard.
recounts the life of Spanish women after the civil war in "A Woman Unknown".
was a very aggressive English writer married to a Spaniard.
6 - Which of the following statements does NOT reflect the situation in Spain now, according to
the passage?
a)
b)
c)
d)
e)
A family of eignt is quite unusual.
Female workers are seldom paid higher wages than male ones.
Despite their gains, Spanish women have not achieved total success.
There are roughly equal numbers of male and female students at universities.
Spanish women are quite self-assertive.
21
Read more about it




A aventura do arroz, Raphaelle Brice & Aline Riquier, Globo, 1998.
Arroz — o prato do dia na mesa e na lavoura brasileira,
Renato Vanderlei Anselmi, ícone, 1988.
th
Sistemas de cultivo — Available at:<www.cnpaf.embrapa.br>. July 8 , 2010.
Many people go to the beach to get that nice tan. "They should be careful,"
recommends Dr. s Christopher Zachary, a professor of dermatology at the University ofMichigan
Medicai Center.
Although some sun is beneficial and even necessary ifyou want to stay healthy, you should not
expose yourself to the sunlight without protection for a long time. It may cause dry skin or sunburn.
It might even cause melanoma, a particularly deadly form of skin cancer.
To avoid the ill ejfects of too much radiation from the Sun, people ought to "take it slow",
increasing the time gradually. "You must not stay out in the sun during thepeak hours (from 10 to
3)," Dr. Zachary warns emphatically. "Thafs when the Sun's rays are most intense."
If you want to maintain that nice tan, you should use a good sunscreen, one with an SPF
rating ofat least 15. Light-skinned people should protect themselves with na SPF rating of 30. Try
to fina a sunscreen that contains Parsol 1789, a new ingredient that is very ejficient against the
harmful
ultraviolet rays. But you should never rely on sunscreen as your only protection. A good idea is to
wear a long-sleeved shirt to protect those vulnerable areas on the shoulders and back. Don't forget
to wear a hat, and you can keep 70% ofthe Sun's rays offyour face and neck.
Adapted from USA Today, April 12,1984 and Time, June 29,1998.
General comprehension
Whafs it ali about?
1 - Que elemento da natureza é a "estrela", a personagem principal do texto?
2 - Que efeitos da ação desse elemento da natureza são comentados: os benéficos ou os
maléficos?
3 - Qual é o tom usado pelo autor: de advertência ou de proibição?
4 - Traduza a relação de causa e efeito implícita no título do texto.
Word study
22
Odd man out
Em cada coluna, "denuncie o intruso" identificando a palavra que não pertence ao grupo.
Parts of the Body
Abstract Nouns
"Sun Words"
skin
health
ray
shoulder
protection
radiation
hat
trouble
sunscreen
back
shirt
beach
face
rating
tan
neck
risk
university
Noun groups
Encontre no quadro os substantivos que completam as locuções nominais.
people • shirt • tan • form • effects • trouble • câncer • rating
a) a long-sleeved
uma camisa de mangas compridas
b) light-skinned
pessoas de pele clara
c) that nice
aquele belo bronzeado
d) ill
efeitos maléficos
e) a deadly
uma forma mortal
f) an SPF
classificação quanto ao fator de proteção solar
g) serious
problema sério
h) skin
câncer de pele
Word Formation: Prefixes & Suffixes
5 - Encontre no texto três advérbios de modo formados com o sufixo -ly.
23
A palavra deadly, que também aparece no texto, apesar de terminar em -ly, foge à
regra. Dead corresponde ao adjetivo "morto", e deadly, no seu uso mais comum, corresponde a
outro adjetivo: "mortal":
... a deadly form of skin câncer...
Observe a diferença nestas frases:
A gun can be a deadly weapon. (adjetivo)
Ayrton Senna was fatally injured in Grana Prix accident at Imola, Italy, in 1994.
(advérbio)
6 - Traduza as palavras destacadas no texto acima.
7 - Encontre no texto os adjetivos opostos a careless e harmless e traduza-os.
8 - Identifique também um adjetivo formado com o substantivo health.
9 - Com o mesmo sufixo do adjetivo acima, forme os adjetivos que derivam de dirt (sujeira),
wealth (riqueza) e cloud (nuvem). Traduza-os.
10 - Encontre ainda no texto um substantivo da família do verbo protect.
Words ín conlext
Choose the word that best completes each sentence.
11 - * it was raining, the kids wanted to go to the beach.
a) But
b) However
c) Although
d) During
c) never
d) against
c) protects
d) avoids
c) choose it
d) warn it
12 - You should protect yourself * the harmful Sun's rays.
a) again
b) without
13 - Stress * your resistance to other diseases.
a) asks for
b) lowers
14 - l don’t know Michael's address, but l can *.
a) rely on it
b) find it out
15 - If you don't want to wear a hat, you should * use a good sunscreen.
a) too much
b) even
c) at least
d) at last
c) increasing
d) wearing
16 - John is in the kitchen * bacon and eggs for breakfast.
a) paying
b) frying
24
Detailed comprehension
Looking for specific Information
Em que parágrafos do texto encontram-se as seguintes afirmações?
a) Filtro solar não é o bastante para nos proteger dos perigosos raios de Sol.
b) Tomar um pouco de sol é bom para a saúde.
c) Muito tempo de exposição ao sol pode causar uma grave doença de pele.
d) Não se deve ficar exposto ao sol sem proteção nas horas em que ele está mais forte.
e) O tempo de exposição ao sol deve ser aumentado pouco a pouco.
f)
Pessoas de pele clara devem usar filtro solar de fator mais alto.
Fun in the sun: right or wrong?
These pictures show people sunbathing. Some of the people are taking the right attitude, protecting
themselves from the Sun's rays. Thafs the right thing to do. Others are not taking the necessary
precautions. Thafs wrong. Read the captions that go with each picture and mark R for the right
attitude or W for the wrong one.
Structure
Modal
Auxiliary
Verbs
Além
dos verbos
auxiliares
be, have e
do, usados
na
formação
dos tempos
contínuos,
perfeitos,
voz
passiva,
negações e
25
interrogações, existe o grupo dos modal auxiliary verbs, ou modal verbs, de características
especiais, usados junto com um verbo principal para indicar "possibilidade", "capacidade",
"obrigação", etc.
Os modal verbs são:
can • will • shall • may • must • could • would • should • might • oughtto
Características especiais, comuns aos modal auxiliary verbs:
•
Têm forma única para todas as pessoas:
I can, you can, he can, etc.
I must, you must, he must, etc.
•
Forma negativa: acrescenta-se not após o verbo:
I cannot, you must not, etc.
Boris the Polar Bear
Is smarter than you think.
On those rare summer days
He just loves to lie out there
Enjoying the Sun's rays
And having a cold drink.
Answer in English:
17 - Whafs the name of the polar bear?
18 - Whafs he doing now?
• Forma interrogativa: esses verbos vão para o início da pergunta, dispensando o uso de
do/does/did:
Can you...? Must he...?
• São usados com outros verbos sempre no infinitivo sem to. O único modal auxiliary verb que é
seguido de infinitivo com to é ought:
Marta can speak English.
(Marta sabe falar inglês.)
She ought to study Spanish too.
(Ela devia estudar espanhol também.)
• São verbos defectivos, sem infinitivo, sem particípio passado, sem forma em -ing e sem futuro.
Nesses casos, são substituídos por verbos ou locuções verbais com o mesmo sentido.
Assim, para dizer, por exemplo:
poder, ser capaz de: to be able to (como infinitivo de can) eu tive de: I had to (como passado de
must) ele poderá, terá permissão de: he will be allowed to (como futuro de may)
• Quase todos os modal auxiliary verbs expressam mais de um sentido, exigindo estudo em
separado, o que faremos na Unit a seguir.
Sublinhe as respostas entre parênteses que substituem os * .
26
a) l can dance. lt's good to * dance, (can - be abie to - can't)
b) * come to the party tomorrow? (Do they-WÍH they - They will)
c) lt's raining now. You * stay at home. (should- ought to -must)
d) You must * smoke in Class. (don't-not-doesn't)
•
MAY/MIGHT
Observe os verbos destacados nas frases a seguir.
... if you stay on the beachfor hours without any protection, you may be askingfor trouble.
It may cause dry skin or sunburn.
It might even cause melanoma...
Podemos concluir que os modal auxiliary verbs may e might correspondem a "poder",
expressam possibilidade de que algo aconteça. A diferença é que may expressa uma
possibilidade maior (mais viável) do que might.
Veja mais estes exemplos:
I may call them tonight. I might even write them a letter.
They may fall in love. They might even get married.
Outro uso de may, próprio da linguagem formal, é para pedir permissão.
Compare com can:
May I sit down?
respeitoso, formal (Posso me sentar?)
Yes, you may. No, you may not. (Sim, pode. Não, não pode.)
Can I sit down?
comum, informal (Posso sentar? Será que posso sentar?)
Yes, you can. No, you cannot/can't. (Sim, pode. Não, não pode.)
I asked Mr. Smith ifl might borrow his dictionary.
(Eu perguntei ao Sr. Smith se eu podia pegar emprestado seu dicionário.)
Para expressar possibilidade no passado, usa-se may/might + have + particípio passado do
verbo principal.
She may/might have written to me, but I didnt get any letter.
(Ela pode ter escrito para mim, mas eu não recebi carta alguma.)
SHOULD/OUGHT TO/MUST
Agora observe três outros modal auxiliary verbs. Tente identificar o que expressa cada um
deles.
We ali know we must get some sun to maintain good health...
"They should be careful," recommends Dr. Christopher Zachary...
... people ought to "take it slow", increasing the time gradually.
Pelo contexto, é possível concluir que must expressa uma necessidade ou obrigação forte. É
normalmente usado para dar ordens, instruções, de forma autoritária, e traduz-se como "ter de".
Veja outros exemplos:
I must go now. I have an appointment with the doctor.
27
Para expressar necessidade, obrigação forte, ordem, também é possível usar have/has to (ter
de):
We must/have to eat to live.
(Nós devemos/temos de comer para viver.)
I must/have to lose weight. I'm toofat.
(Eu devo/tenho de perder peso. Estou muito gordo.)
Should e ought to também expressam obrigação, mas de uma forma mais suave, e podem ser
traduzidos como "devia", "deveria". São usados para expressar obrigação moral, dar conselhos,
sugestões ou recomendações.
Veja outros exemplos:
I know I should/ought to go to the bank, but I'm só tired...
Why don'tyou follow afriend's advice? You should/ought to stop smoking.
19 - Assinale a ideia expressa pelo verbo em destaque em cada frase.
28
20 - Complete as frases com os verbos auxiliares modais em destaque no quadro.
may
poder
possibility
might
poder
remote possibility
should
dever
advisability, the right thing to do
ought to
dever
advisability, the right thing to do
must
ter de
necessity; strong obligation
must not
não poder
prohibition
a) People ________________________ think that a nice tan or a bronzed body is the sign of good
health, but thafs not true. (must not - may - should)
b) You __________________________ develop skin cancer later in life if you are not careful now.
(must - ought to - may)
c) You __________________________ protect yourself from the Sun's rays. Thafs absolutely
important.
(may-might-must)
29
d) You ___________________________ wear sunscreen when you are out in the sun. Thafs the
right thing to ao.
(should - may - must not)
e) You ___________________________ stay in the sun for a long time without protection.
(might - must - must not)
f) You ____________________________ wear a hat, sunglasses and a long-sleeved shirt when
you go to the beach. (may - ought to - must not)
g) "Fun in the sun" is OK, but you __________________________ forget: "Fry now, pay later".
(must - must not - might
21 - (UFSC) You * smoke here.
a) might to
b) may
c) ought
d) have permission
22 - (Mack-SP) The teacher told the pupils that they *, leave the school.
a) might to
b) should to
c) might
d) may
23 - (Objetivo-SP) Reescreva as frases substituindo os - por can, could, may ou might:
a) The sky is dark. It * rain later.
b) When he was a teenager, he * fly a kite.
24 - (Cesgranrio-RJ) Which is the idea expressed by may in "Caffeine may be regarded as a mildly
addictive drug."?
a) ability
b) advice
c) necessity
d) possibility
25 - (PUC-RJ) "There are two diametrically opposite views as to how man ought to live." In this
sentence, it is possible and correct to replace ought to by
a) should
b) could
c) might
d) would
26 - (UFM6) Rewrite the sentences using may or must.
a) Doctors have the obligation to explain the danger of operations to their patients.
b) Do l have permission to see your patient?
Para expressar necessidade ou obrigação em relação ao passado, em vez de must usa-se
had to, para todas as pessoas.
I had to work late yesterday.
(Eu tive de trabalhar até tarde ontem.)
As formas negativas must not (mustn't, na forma contrata) e do not (don't)/does not
(doesn't) have to têm sentidos claramente diferentes:
You mustn't talk loud in a library.
proibição
(Você não deve/pode falar alto numa biblioteca.)
30
You don't have to rent a car. Ill lendyou mine.
não há necessidade
(Você não tem de/precisa alugar um carro. Eu lhe empresto o meu.)
Must é também usado para expressar uma conclusão lógica, dedução, algo que deve ser
verdade, em face de evidênvias:
"My sister is Miss Brazil. "
"She must be very beautiful. Or you must be a bigliar."
( — Minha irmã é Miss Brasil.
— Ela deve ser muito bonita. Ou você deve ser um grande mentiroso.)
O sentido contrário ao de must, neste caso, é dado por can't:
"She can't be ugly."
( — Ela não pode ser feia.)
27 - Sublinhe os modal auxiliary verbs adequados.
a) Jodie can speak several foreign languages. She * be dever. (shouldn't -ought- must)
b) You know you * smoke in an elevator. (don't have to - must - mustn't)
c) You * repeat the question. Ifs very dear now.
(don't have to - must – mustn’t)
d) If you are going to London in the winter, l think you * buy a coat. And an umbrella too. (may - can - should)
e) l'm sorry, but l really * go now. l * get to the bank before it doses, (must; must -should; should -ought; ought)
f) He says he has a helicopter on his ranch in Mato Grosso. He * be very rich. (can't - must – mustn’t)
g) Sunlight can be dangerous, so those people * be careful. (ought to - should - must)
h) She knows everything about biotechnology. She *, be wrong. (must-can't-mustn't)
i) To survive, we * know the world around us. (must-mustn't-can't)
j) Thafs poison. The kids * play with it. (dont have to - mustrTt- should)
What should l do?
31
O homem parece estar num dilema. Qual?
False friends
Aprenda e fixe o verdadeiro significado dos falsos cognatos em destaque preenchendo
as lacunas em cada frase. Quando precisar, consulte a lista de False friends em ordem alfabética.
a) They wanted to leave the theater, but they couldn’t find the exit.
Eles
queriam
sair
do
teatro,
mas
não
a______________________________
b) The new nuclear p/a/tf will be on operation presently.
A
nova
____________________________nuclear
_______________________
conseguiam
estará
em
encontrar
atividade
Postreading activity
Precautions to Avoid Excess Skin Dantage
Avoid the midday sun (10:00 am - 3:00 pm).
Cover up. Light, long-sleeved shirts and long pants can help shield you against the Sun’s
ultraviolet rays. Umbrellas may be needed to deflect strong, direct sunlight or reflected light off the
beach or water. Use sunscreens. A Sun Protection Factor (SPF) of 15 or higher offers protection.
Avoid tanning salons (increased risk for melanoma).
Condusion: The best cure for skin cancer remains early detection, prompt treatment, and
follow-up preventive care measures. Recognize warning signs of a disease through regular skin
self-examination. Even more important, however, is to protect yourself from the Sun’s rays by
avoiding the peak hours of ultraviolet radiation, and by wearing sunscreen and protective clothing,
you can keep skin cancer from happening to you.
Bernard Gordon, MD and Ernest H. Rosenbaum, MD, Skin Cancers and Sun Exposure, 11 Dec. 2007. Updated Aug. 2, 2008.
Available at: <http://www.cancersupportivecare.com/Survivor/skin.html>.June, 25th, 2009.
32
Getting the message
Observe o título do artigo. Encontre no texto as seguintes informações:
a) Em que horário os raios do Sol devem ser evitados:
b) Duas peças de vestuário que ajudam na proteção contra os raios do Sol:
c) Que tipo de protetor solar deve-se usar?
d) Para efetiva cura do câncer de pele é necessário:
e) Cite algumas ações fundamentais para evitar o câncer de pele:
Reading practice
(Fuvest) Texto para as questões 1 a 3.
It's taken 30 yearsfor Harold
Cohen to teach his student how to paint, but he's not struggling with a slow learner. Cohen’s
student, AARON, is a computer program. Cohen has "taught" AARON guidelines on composition
and color. In the past, AARON has used those rules to paint large art works for major museums
such as Londons Tate Modem and the San Francisco Museum of Modem Art. Now a company
aims to bring AARON to computer monitors across the land as software ($19.95; available from
www.KurzweilCyberart.com) for Windows PCs. After you download the program, AARON draws
original pictures on your desktop, then fills them in with brushstrokes of color. You can also e-mail
AARON's creations tofriends - AARON will redraw its art work on their computers. And unlike
temperamental humans, AARON never needs "inspiration" leave it on as a screen saver and the
program churns out drawing after drawing. But, says Cohen, AARON will never draw the same
picture twice.
Newsweek, May 28a, 2001.
1 - Accoramg to tne passage. AARON is a computer program that:
a) can help slow learners.
b) has taught students how to paint.
c) can paint and draw.
d) has been available for 30 years.
e) has been bought by some museums.
33
2 - We learn from the passage that Kurzweil Cyberart.com:
a)
b)
c)
d)
e)
aims to market original pictures.
has designed AARON, the computer program.
commercializes paintings done by AARON.
has sold PCs ali over the world.
is commercializing AARON as software.
3 - According to the passage, AARON does NOT:
a) function as a screen saver.
b) repeat the same drawing.
c) redraw a picture on a second computer.
d) send pictures by e-mail.
e) draw new pictures, one after the other.
Extra reading practice
(Fuvest) Texto para as questões 1 a 5.
IF PUBLIC speaking gives you the willies, the chances are you ‘ll be just as scared of virtual
people, experts have discovered. But in the long run these "avatars" will help you overcome
yourfears.
Mel Slater at University College London, and his colleague David-Paul Pertaub have
developed a VR environment to help people overcome their phobias. In their virtual seminar room,
people have to give a presentation to eight computer-generated people who can appear by turns
fascinated, bored stiffor just annoyingly neutral.
While it's not the first time VR has been used to treat phobias, such as fear of spiders or flying,
no one knew if the technique could also help people to overcome their social phobias.
To find out, Pertaub watched how people behave in seminars and programmed the virtual
people to do the same things: crossing their arms, frowning, yawning and putting their feet on the
table. "Our negative audience is very negative," says Slater.
Then Slater and Pertaub compareci the performances of 43 volunleers who gave a talk either
to an attentive audience or to an unenthusiastic one. Surprisingly, the subjects responded as if the
avatars were real.
New Scientist, July 21th, 2001. Available at: <www.newscientist.com>.
1 - According to the passage, experts have discovered that:
a) people willing to talk to a virtual audience will hardly annoy a real ene.
b) if public speaking gives us the willies, we will overcome our fears just by talking to an attentive
virtual audience.
c) a virtual audience may be as frightening as a real one for people who fear public speaking.
d) a virtual audience is likely to be more frightening than a real one for people afraid of speaking in
public.
e) if public speaking gives people the willies, a virtual audience is likely to make them less scared
than a real one.
2 - Which of these statements is true according to the passage?
a) The virtual-reality technique hás proved to be more effective íor social rather than other
phobics.
b) The virtual-reality environment was developed to help people get rid ot their fears.
c) People who have fear of spiders or flying will, in the long run, become social phobics.
d) The virtual-reality environment appears to be ineffective for treating some types of phobias.
e) So far the virtual-reality technique hás been used only to help social phobics.
34
3 - According to the passage, the passage?
a) while addressing the virtual audience, the volunteers behaved as if it was real.
b) the eight computer-generated people reacted negatively to the 43 volunteers' talks.
c) the virtual people seemed to find the subjects of the volunteers' talks extremely boring.
d) Slater and Pertaub were fascinated by the presentations, whereas the virtual audience showed
no enthusiasm at ali.
e) the way the subjects reacíed when addressing the computer-generated people was no surprise
to Slater and Pertaub.
4 - Which of these statements is true according to the passage?
a) Pertaub discovered that virtual-reality could be used to treat extreme fears by watching how
people behave in seminars.
b) Slater and Pertaub were amazed to see the response of the attentive audience to the
volunteers' talks.
c) Despite their fears, the 43 subjects had a surprising performance when exposed to the virtual
audience.
d) Pertaub programmed the computer-generated people to behave the way people do in seminars.
e) Pertaub watched people's behaviour in seminars to help social phobics to adopt the same
behaviour.
5 - ".... in the long run" (line 4) means
a)
b)
c)
d)
e)
afterwards
before long
lately
from now on
in the end
Read more about it
•
Cuidados com a pele - Available at: <www.plenaformasaude.com.br>. June 26th, 2009.
•
Sociedade Brasileira de Dermatologia - Available at: <www.sbd.org.br>. June 26th, 2009.
•
Skin Cancers and Sun Exposure - Available at: <http://www.cancersupportivecare.com/Survivor/skin.html>.June 26th 2009.
•
Heat
stroke,
skin
câncer
chief
concems
in
summer,
by April Chan,
USATODAY.com
Available
<http://www.usatoday.com/weather/resources/safety/2005-02-21-health-heat_x.htm>. July 14th, 2010.
•
New Sunscreens, by Christine Gorman, 1998. Available at: <www.time.com/time/magazine/
article/0,9171,988634,00.html>. June 26th, 2009.
•
www.skincancer.org, 2009.
•
Problemas da pele, Denise Steiner, Contexto, 1997.
at:
35
Why are tnostpeople right-handed?
No one knows for sure, but people once thought that it was an advantage for ancient
warriors to be right-handed. A right-handed warrior could hold his spear in his right hand and his
shield in his left so he could protect his heart.
Scientists now know that being right-handed or left-handed is decided in the brain. But
they still can't solve the mystery ofwhy nine out of ten people are right-handers.
Are you right- eyed or left-eyed?
One easy way to find out is to imagine looking through a keyhole. Which eye would you
use? And here's another simple test you can try. Point at something across the room. Without
moving your finger, dose one eye, open it, and then dose the other one. The open eye that lines up
your finger and the object is yourfavorite eye!
Put your best foot forward
If youre right-handed, you’re probably right-footed too. And if you’re left-handed, you
probably prefer your left foot. Here's a quick test to find out your preference. Which foot do you use
to kick a ball?
LEFT OR RIGHT?
Are you right-eared or left-eared?
Right-handers and left-handers even hear music dijferently! In tests, people who are
lefties can remember better the first note in a series of musical notes. And left-handers also hear
music better if the high notes are coming from the left and the low ones from the right, the way
orchestras are set up. To hear an orchestra’s music as well as lefties do, right-handers would have
to suspend themselves upside down from the ceiling!
Hand in hand, and side by side, left-handers and right-handers show there are many
ways to get a handle on things!
Adapted from Lefties + Righties, by Jay Ingram, in Owl, the Discovery Magazine for Kids, Jan./Feb. 1998, Quebec, Canada.
General comprehension
What’s it all about?
1 - De que trata o texto?
2 - Ser destro ou canhoto é apenas uma questão de preferência?
3 - Que órgão do nosso corpo decide essa questão?
4 - Destro ou canhoto: de que lado você está?
36
Word study
Word áreas
Encontre no texto oito palavras que nomeiam partes do corpo humano, três relacionadas com
guerra e duas relacionadas com peças de vestuário.
Verbs and nouns
Forme frases em inglês que correspondam às dadas em português. Os verbos estão à esquerda e
os substantivos à direita.
pick • lookthrough • hold
close •draw • solve • kick • hear • line up
take off
a)
b)
c)
d)
e)
f)
g)
h)
i)
j)
the mystery • a profile • two objects one eye
• a pencil • a spear
music • your shoes • a ball • the keyhole
chutar uma
ouvir música
fechar um olho
segurar uma lança
tirar os (seus) sapatos
pegar um lápis
desenhar um perfil
resolver o mistério
olhar através do buraco da fechadura
alinhar dois objetos
37
Adjectives – opposites
Encontre no texto os adjetivos opostos aos destacados abaixo.
a) modern warriors
b) another complex test
c) high notes
d) one difficult way
e) your worst advantage
f) the closed eye
g) the left side
h) a long test
Words in context
Choose the best word to complete each sentence.
5 - What did you see when you looked * the keyhole?
a) across
b) by
c) through
d) so
6 - No one knows if there is life on Mars. It is * a mystery.
a) still
b) even
c) already
d) many
7 - * people are right-handed. Only 10% are left-handed.
a) All
b) Some
c) Most
d) Few
8 - You can use the context to * the meaning of many words.
a) face
b) set up
c) line up
d) find out
9 - She's very intelligent. She soon got a * on the situation. She understood it perfectly.
a) handle
c) side
b) ceiling
d) warrior
10 - The poor fool pretended to be reading, but he was holding the book * .
a) as well as
b) upside down
c) forward
d) better
38
A word with two meanings
Observe os dois sentidos da palavra em destaque.
Close one eye, open it, and then dose the other one.
Primeiramente, one aparece no sentido mais comum, que é "um" (numeral); depois
como pronome, para evitar a repetição da palavra eye.
One é flexionado em número (vai para o plural) quando substitui um substantivo que
está no plural. Veja o exemplo retirado do texto:
... left-handers also hear music better ifthe high notes are comingfrom the left and the low ones
from the right...
Nesse caso, ones está substituindo qual palavra?
Detailed comprehension
Left versus right
De acordo com o texto, qual é o lado hábil ou ágil da maioria das pessoas, qual o lado do coração
e qual o lado privilegiado para ouvir música de orquestra?
Em cada dez pessoas, em média, quantas são canhotas?
True or false?
Answer T (true) or F (false) according to the text.
a) Right-handers are a vast majority. ( )
b) A right-handed warrior could hold his heart in his left hand. ( )
c) Being right-handed or left-handed is a result of brain organization. ( )
d) You can find about your dominant eye by looking through a keyhole. ( )
e) In general, one of your eyes dominates over the other. ( )
f) If you are a lefty, you probably use your right foot to kickaball. ( )
g) If you're right-eared, you can hear music better if the high notes come from the left. ( )
h) Right-handers and left-handers are a good example that things can be done equally well in more
than one way. ( )
Jack and Billy
11 - Jack and Billy are working hard at school.
Jack is a right-hander, but Billy is not. Can you
identify the boys?______________________ has
dark hair and he is wearing a blue sweater. He is
right-handed.
__________________ is blond and he is wearing
a red sweater. He is left-handed.
39
12 - Inspector Clink is looking at us through a magnifying glass. Is he
right-eyed or left-eyed?
_______________________________________________________
13 - Miss Parker is a math teacher. She is writing on the
blackboard. Is she right-handed or left-handed?
_____________________________________________
Structure
A Special Use of the Auxiliary Verb Do
Observe o verbo em destaque na frase abaixo:
To hear an orchestra's music as well as lefties do. . .
O verbo auxiliar to do (e suas formas do/does/ did) é usado para evitar a repetição de
um verbo ou de toda uma oração mencionada anteriormente.
Na frase citada, do está substituindo que verbo?
_______________________________________________________________________________
Veja mais um exemplo:
Do you believe in friendship? If you do (if you believe in friendship), hold my hand.
Modal Auxiliary Verbs
Observe os verbos em destaque. Tente identificar a ideia que cada um deles expressa.
In tests, people who are lefties can remember better...
Capacidade ou permissão?
_______________________________________________________________________________
... you certainly prefer usingyour right hand. You must be right-handed.
Necessidade, obrigação ou conclusão lógica?
_______________________________________________________________________________
A right-handed warrior could hold his spear...
Capacidade no presente ou no passado?
_______________________________________________________________________________
Which eye would you use?
Futuro ou condicional (hipótese)?
_______________________________________________________________________________
40
Todas as palavras destacadas são modal auxiliary verbs. Esses verbos são usados para
expressar diversas ideias:
• can: para expressar capacidade;
• must: para expressar necessidade ou obrigação; mas no exemplo acima significa "dever" e
expressa uma conclusão lógica, uma dedução a que se chega com base em fatos explicitados
anteriormente;
• could: é a forma de passado de can e expressa, portanto, capacidade no passado;
• would: é a forma de passado de will e é usado em orações condicionais, com sentido hipotético;
não tem tradução própria; forma o condicional ou o futuro do pretérito do verbo que acompanha.
14 - Traduza a pergunta "What would you use?"
15 - Fill in the blanks with can, could, must or would.
a) How many languages _______________ Pele speak, besides Portuguesa and English?
b) Pele ____________ play soccer very well when he was younger.
c) If l had a lot of time, l ______________ learn to speak Italian.
d) No one answers the phone. They ________________be out.
e) The world _______________ be better if there were more justice and equality.
f) If l asked you a favor, ___________________ you doit?
g) l opened the book but l ____________________ not understand a single word of it. It was in
Japanese.
h) Leonardo da Vinci ____________________ paint with one hand and write with the other, at the
same time!
• CAN/COULD
Além de indicar capacidade, could pode expressar condição:
Mary could help you ifshe wanted to. (Mary poderia ajudá-lo se ela quisesse.)
Can e could são também usados em perguntas, para fazer pedidos (could é mais polido do
que can):
Can/Could you give us some information, please?
(Você pode/poderia nos dar algumas informações, por favor?)
Can e could podem ainda ser usados em perguntas, para pedir permissão. Na resposta, para
dar permissão, usa-se can. Para negar permissão, usa-se cannot ou can't.
Can/Could I borrow your pen?
(Posso/Poderia pegar emprestada sua caneta?)
Yes, of course you can.
(Sim, é claro que pode.)
No, I'm sorry but you can't.
41
(Não, sinto muito, mas não pode.)
Could é usado para expressar capacidade geral no passado, equivalendo em português a
“podia”, “sabia” :
Ayrton Senna could drive incredibly fast.
(Ayrton Senna podia/era capaz de/conseguia dirigir incrivelmente rápido.)
Mas, quando nos referimos a determinada ocasião no passado, na qual a ação equivale a
"pode, foi capaz de, conseguiu (naquela ocasião)", não se usa could. Em seu lugar, usa-se was
able to, managed to ou succeeded in.
Compare:
Mozart was a genius. He could write a symphony when he was 8.
capacidade geral
(Mozart era um gênio. Ele podia/era capaz de compor uma sinfonia quando tinha 8 anos de
idade.)
Once he managed to write a symphony in two days.
capacidade posta em prática numa
ocasião
(Certa vez ele conseguiu compor uma sinfonia em dois dias.)
Resolva estas questões de exames vestibulares:
16 - (Faap-SP) Coloque no futuro:
We can see only what we animate.
17 - (UFSC) He read the message twice but he * not understand it.
a) must
b) may
c) can
d) could
18 - (Fuvest-SP) Reescreva completando com o modal auxiliary verb adequado:
When John was young he ___________________climb any tree in the forest.
19 - (Vunesp) Could l *earlier tomorrow?
a) to leave
b) leave
c) leaves
d) leaving
• WILL/SHALL/WOULD
Will e shall são usados nas expressões de tempo futuro.
I will/shall come to the party tomorrow. (Eu virei à festa amanhã.)
Will you...?, Shall I...? e Shall we...? expressam pedidos, sugestões, convites, oferecimentos,
como já vimos.
Would you...? expressa um pedido com mais polidez.
Will/Would you come here, please? (Você quer/poderia vir aqui, por favor?)
Shall I help you with your bags? (Você quer que eu o ajude com a bagagem?) Shall we go to
the movies tonight? (Vamos ao cinema hoje à noite?)
Would é muito comum em perguntas com like, quando se quer oferecer algo:
42
Would you like a piece ofcake?
(Você gostaria de um pedaço de bolo?)
Would é usado no discurso indireto, com frases no futuro. Nesses casos, substitui will:
John: "I will go to the party." (John: "Eu irei à festa.")
John said that he would go to the party. (John disse que iria à festa.)
Would é também usado em frases condicionais hipotéticas, indicando o que aconteceria se
certa condição fosse real, se existisse de fato.
We would go to the party if we had a car. (Nós iríamos à festa se tivéssemos um carro.)
Would tem ainda outro uso, de sentido bem diferente, indicando uma ação ou estado habitual,
no passado. Esse uso, próprio do estilo narrativo, corresponde ao pretérito imperfeito, em
português.
My grandmother used to tell us stories every evening. She would tell us to sit down around her.
She would open an old book and she would tell us to be quiet.
(Minha avó costumava nos contar histórias todas as noites. Ela nos mandava sentar à sua volta.
Ela abria um velho livro e nos mandava ficar quietos.)
Sublinhe os modal auxiliary verbs entre parênteses que substituem os *.
a) l * go to the beach tomorrow. (will-would-wouidn’t)
b) * you like a cup of coffee? (Will - Shall - Would)
c) Charlie said that he * lend me his car. (will - would - shall)
d) Where *, we go? What do you suggest? (will – shall - would) Where * you like to go? (will - shall
- would)
e) We used to go to the park on Sundays. We * go there every Sunday morning. (will - shall would)
False friends
Aprenda e fixe o verdadeiro significado dos falsos cognatos em destaque preenchendo as lacunas
em cada frase. Quando precisar, consulte a lista de False friends em ordem alfabética.
a) They had been looking for the exit, and eventually found it.
43
Eles
estavam
procurando
____________________
a encontraram.
a
___________________________________
b) When she realizedher telephone call had been cut off, she abusedVne operator.
Quando ela _________________________ que a sua chamada tinha sido
ela_____________________________ a _______________________________.
e
cortada,
Postreading activities
Getting the message
Observe o título, a ilustração e o texto da matéria reproduzida da BBC Newsround e responda
às seguintes perguntas:
20 - Que porcentagem da população é canhota?
21 - Em que fase da vida os canhotos começam a usar mais a mão esquerda do que a direita?
22 - Em quantas e quais áreas o cérebro se divide?
44
23 - No caso dos canhotos, que lado do cérebro tem predomínio?
24 - Quais as áreas de conhecimento e atividades controladas pelo lado esquerdo do cérebro?
25 - Que grupo é melhor nessas áreas, o dos canhotos ou o dos destros?
26 - Quais as áreas de conhecimento e atividades controladas pelo lado direito do cérebro?
27 - Que grupo é melhor nessas áreas, o dos canhotos ou dos destros?
45
Talk it over
Discuta com seus colegas o assunto do texto.
Pesquise quantos destros ou canhotos há na sua
sala. E você, é destro ou canhoto? É como 90% das
pessoas, ou faz parte da minoria dos lefties, os
"diferentes" obrigados a adaptar-se a um mundo
onde tudo é projetado para os destros? Estamos
falando de pequenas coisas, como botões,
interruptores, tesouras, ferramentas, etc. E também
de preconceito, intolerância, de velhas superstições,
da conotação de palavras como sinistro ("à
esquerda", em latim) e zurdo ("canhoto", em
espanhol), que também significam "maldoso". E, no
entanto, a extensa lista de canhotos famosos prova
que, destros ou canhotos... tudo bem, it's all right (ou
será all left?)!
Can you add to the list?
Can you identify the famous lefties in the pictures?
Reading practice
1 - (Unicamp-SP) O texto a seguir apareceu na revista Men's Health, no número de julho/agosto
de 2003.
Don't drink and ride
Alcohol can increase your risk ofbeing hurt in a car accident, even if you arer’t behind the
wheel. A new University of Michigan study reports that men who've been drinkingare 50 percent
more likely to experience a serious injury during a car accident than sober passengers. Even
worse, those injuries tend to be up to 30 percent more severe than in accidents in which alcohol
isn't involved. And the increased risk isn't just from poor judgment. Researchers believe alcohol
may temporarily weaken cell membranes, making them more likely to rupture during a crash.
a) Que alerta é feito no texto?
46
b) Segundo a pesquisa descrita no artigo, pessoas alcoolizadas tornam-se mais vulneráveis em
acidentes
Extra reading practic
(Unicamp-SP) Uma ONG (organização não governamental) norte-americana publicou o anúncio
abaixo no The New York Times, meses antes de os Estados Unidos declararem guerra ao Iraque
em março de 2003. Leia o texto para responder às questões 1 a 5.
Last month, a MIT neuroscientist posted an open Internet letter to her
academic colleagues, opposing the Bush Administrations rush to war in
Iraq.
Today, completely by word of mouth, 13,000 other professors have
added their names in a spontaneous outpouring of dissent.
Today it's a petition.
Tomorrow it could be a body count.
Who are they? They come from every academic discipline and from all fifty states. Some are
Nobel Prize winners and members ofthe National Academy of Sciences. Others may teach at your
local community college. *
What unites them is the belief that war must be a last resort. Attacking Iraq will fuel antiAmerican sentiment worldwide, increasing the chance of future terror attacks on our country. And
even the CIA says an invasion will raise, not lower, the risk that Saddam Hussein will use weapons
of mass destruction.
Millions of intelligent, patriotic Americans question the wisdom of the Bush Administration’s
bellicose policies. This widespread public opposition is perhaps our best chance to prevent an
unwise and unnecessary war.
Otherwise, the number above could soon represent a body count, rather than signatures on
apetition.
To read or sign the petition, www.NoIraqAttack.org For free email updates on Iraq, <www.IraqPolicy.com>. No Iraq Attack, Box 53, Woods Hole, MA 02543.
* More than 15,000 students and staffhave also signed the peiíiíon.
1 - Qual é o nome da ONG responsável pelo anúncio e o que ela está propondo ao leitor?
2 - O número que aparece na ilustração do anúncio (13026) pode ter duas leituras distintas. Que
leituras são essas?
3 - De acordo com o texto, quem já aderiu ao que está sendo proposto no anúncio e que crença
essas pessoas têm em comum?
4 - Por que o anúncio menciona uma cientista do Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT)?
5 - Segundo o texto, quais seriam as consequências de um então possível ataque ao Iraque?
47
Read more about it
<www.left-is-right.com>. July 8 th, 2010.
Mundo "direito" rejeita os canhotos — Available at: <www.jornalcontexto.com.br/canhotos.htm>. July 8 th, 2010.
Ser canhoto ainda não tem explicação, Renata Costa — Available at:
th
<www.universiabrasil.net/pesquisa_bibliotecas/materia.jsp?id=2009>. July 8 , 2010.
AUTHENTIC TEXTS
Leia o poema e responda às questões.
Ations
If we meet and I say "Hi",
That's a salutation.
If you ask me how Ifeel,
That’s consideration.
If we stop and talk a while,
That’s a conversation.
If we understand each other,
That's communication.
If we argue scream and fight,
That's reconciliation.
If we help each other home,
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That’s cooperation.
And ali these ations added up
Make civilization.
(and if l say this is a wonderful poem, Is that exaggeration?)
1 - Em Ations, Shel Silverstein faz rimas com base em um sufixo bastante comum. Procure no
poema substantivos formados com esse sufixo:
communicate
consider
cooperate
converse
altercate
reconciliate
civilize
salute
exaggerate
2 - Classifique as ações em GN (good news) ou BN (bad news), de acordo com o texto.
3 - O que se alcança quando todas as ations são somadas?
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Totaling up more than a billion people is just the beginning. There are steel production
(up 25%), makeup sales (up 19%) and the number of “large domestic animais" that suffered from a
shortage of drinking water last year (29.36 million). From rice harvests to sports medals, China’s
new census quantifies all the ways a poor country is getting rich. The U.S. leads the economic
race, but China is sprinting to catch up.
By Jackson Dyman Time, March 19,2007, p. 11.
Com base nas informações dadas no texto e no gráfico, escreva V ou F.
a) A população da China é mais de quatro vezes superior à dos EUA.
b) O Produto Interno Bruto dos EUA é quase cinco vezes superior ao da China.
c) Nos EUA há mais assinantes de TV a cabo do que na China.
d) Mais norte-americanos visitam a China do que os chineses visitam os EUA.
e) O número de médicos na China é maior do que nos EUA.
f) O número de médicos por habitante na China é maior do que nos EUA.
g) A balança comercial da China tem saldo negativo, enquanto a dos EUA tem saldo positivo.
h) O número de automóveis particulares nos EUA é muito superior ao da China.
i) O número de mortes em acidentes de trânsito é maior nos EUA do que na China.
j) A arrecadação de impostos nos EUA corresponde ao dobro da arrecadação de impostos na
China.
k) Há mais usuários de telefones celulares nos EUA do que na China.
I) O percentual de norte-americanos que viajam de avião é quase quatro vezes maior que o dos
chineses.
m) O número de norte-americanos que viajam de avião é quase
quatro vezes maior que o de chineses.
n) De acordo com o texto, a economia norte-americana ainda
está na liderança, mas a economia chinesa está prestes a
alcançá-la.
Choose the best alternativo to complete the sentences below.
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1 - If you cut 68 million tons of carbon dioxide:
a)
b)
c)
d)
e)
you save an amazing group of penguins.
you greatly help protect the environment.
you get an amazing reduction in power and productivity.
you reduce productivity and harm International business.
you save the advance power of the penguins.
2 - This ad was sponsored by ABB, na international company that specializes in advanced power
and automation technologies.
These technologies aim at:
a)
b)
c)
d)
reducing the number of penguins that live in the Antarctic.
improving the performance of environmental groups in the Antarctic.
increasing the environmental and social impact on endangered species.
enabling industry to improve its performance while reducing environmental impact.
SIMPLE PAST
O tempo verbal Simple Past corresponde ao Passado Simples em português. Nós o utilizamos
para expressar hábitos passados ou para expressar ações que se iniciaram no passado e também
foram finalizadas no passado, podendo ter o tempo determinado. Neste caso costumamos
acompanhar o verbo com advérbios ou expressões de frequência que dão maior especificidade à
ideia da frase, como yesterday (ontem), last ... (na última...), ago (atrás), in.... (em...), e etc.
I worked all day yesterday. (Eu trabalhei ontem o dia todo.)
ESTRUTURA DAS SENTENÇAS AFIRMATIVAS PARA VERBOS REGULARES
O verbo é regular quando para conjugá-lo não há alteração em seu radical. Logo, para colocar
esse verbo no Simple Past basta deixar o verbo no infinitivo, sem a partícula to, e acrescentar a
terminação -ed. Essa é a forma para todas as pessoas. Observe:
Casos especiais
1º caso especial: verbos terminados em Y. Eles têm 2 possibilidades:
O 2º caso é o dos verbos terminados em -E, neles nós simplesmente acrescentamos o -D:
love – loved
O 3º caso especial é o dos verbos terminados em consoante+vogal+consoante, cuja sílaba tônica é a
última, dobra a consoante antes de acrescentar o -ed:
Occur: occurred
Nos demais casos, acrescenta-se simplesmente -ed:
Work: worked
ESTRUTURA DAS SENTENÇAS AFIRMATIVAS PARA VERBOS IRREGULARES
O verbo é irregular quando, ao ser conjugado, por exemplo, ele muda toda a sua estrutura. Nesse
caso, para ele ficar no passado, temos que consultar uma lista de verbos para, depois, através do
uso, ir memorizando. Alguns verbos irregulares com os respectivos passados:
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INFINITIVO
TO AWAKE
PASSADO
AWOKE
TO BUY
BOUGHT
TO FORGET
FORGOT
TO LAY
TO SEE
LAID
SAW
TO RING
RANG
TO UNDERSTAND
UNDERSTOOD
Exemplos:
I forgot my keys. (Eu esqueci as chaves.)
I saw you yesterday at the bus station. (Eu te vi ontem no ponto de ônibus.)
ESTRUTURA DAS SENTENÇAS NEGATIVAS DOS VERBOS REGULARES E IRREGULARES
Para escrever uma sentença negativa no Simple Past utiliza-se o verbo auxiliar did + not – mais
utilizado na escrita, pois é formal – ou sua forma contracta didn’t – mais utilizada na fala, pois é
informal – antes da forma básica do verbo sem o to, exemplo:
1-I did not buy the piano yesterday. (Eu não toquei piano ontem.)
2-My parents didn’t travel to Porto Seguro last year. (Meus pais não viajaram para Porto Seguro no
ano passado.)
Ao colocar a sentença na negativa, é interessante observar que como o verbo auxiliar na negativa, o
didn’t, já está no passado (pois é o passado de do), o verbo principal não tem a terminação –ed.
ESTRUTURA DAS
IRREGULARES
SENTENÇAS
INTERROGATIVAS
DOS
VERBOS
REGULARES
E
Na forma interrogativa do Simple Past utiliza-se o verbo auxiliar did antes do sujeito na frase. Note
que o verbo principal fica na sua forma básica sem o to e sem -ed, pois o verbo auxiliar já se encontra
no passado. Observe o exemplo:
1-Did you run yesterday? (Você correu ontem?)
2-Did Mariah watch Harry Potter last week? (A Mariah assistiu Harry Potter semana passada?)
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RESUMO DO SIMPLE PAST
Reading practice
1 - Choose the best alternative:
“It was in this stream that Harriet Westbrook, first wife of the English poet P. B. Shelley, __________
herself in 1818. However, if you cross the bridge today, you __________ the warning in the next
picture.”
a) would drown; would see
b) drowned; would see
c) drowned; saw
d) drowned; will see
e) will drown; will see
2 - Write the following sentences in the Indirect Speech:
a) “I’ll be back tomorrow”, the doctor said.
The doctor said that ___________________________________.
b) “She doesn’t want to stay here”, Miles said.
Miles said that _______________________________________.
c) “The plane has not arrived yet”, the clerk informed.
The clerk informed that ________________________________.
d) “The tornado may reach the coast tonight”, they announced.
They announced that __________________________________.
3 - What is the correct answer?
“Jason, are you going to travel tomorrow morning?”, Debbie asked.
a) Debbie asked Jason he was going to travel the next morning.
53
b) Debbie asked Jason if he was going to travel the next morning.
c) Debbie asked Jason was he going to travel the next morning.
d) Debbie asked Jason if he is going to travel the next morning.
4 - Complete the list. Use the words from the box.
Now choose the alternative in which all the verbs are irregular.
a) cut, see, hurt, shine, land
b) leave, live, speak, run, sit
c) forget, clean, go, do, drive
d) drink, win, swim, lend, lose
5 - Fill in the blanks with do, don’t, does, doesn’t, did, didn’t:
Do you know any lefty? If you __________, you know their life isn’t easy. Right-handed people have
all kinds of products available to them, but lefties __________. If they __________, they would be
able to buy anything. Maybe you think this fact doesn’t affect them, but it __________, believe me.
PRESENT PERFECT
O Present Perfect é um tempo verbal utilizado para falar sobre eventos que ocorreram em um
tempo indefinido do passado que podem perdurar até hoje ou já terem sido concluídos. Em português
não temos um tempo correspondente a esse. Entretanto, se o tempo em que a ação ocorreu for
sugerido ou mencionado, deve-se usar o Simple Past. Observação: a tradução das duas formas
verbais podem ser as mesmas. Observe:
I have lived there a long time. (Eu vivo lá por muito tempo=> tempo indeterminado: Present Perfect)
I lived there for 2 years. (Eu vivi lá por 2 anos => tempo determinado: Simple Past)
ESTRUTURA VERBAL DA SENTENÇA AFIRMATIVA
Para formar a estrutura do Present Perfect, utilizamos o verbo auxiliar have/has, MAS se o verbo
for regular, o verbo principal estará no particípio passado, ou seja, a mesma forma do verbo no
54
Passado Simples, acrescentando –ed; se o verbo for irregular, o verbo principal deve estar no
particípio passado, não seguindo assim nenhuma regra, devendo ser consultado ou memorizado.
Verbo regular (terminação –ed)
I have lived in Paris for a long time. (Eu morei em Paris por muito tempo.)
She has cleaned the house. (Ela limpou a casa.)
Verbo irregular
The cat has broken the window. (O gato quebrou a janela.)
They have gone out. (Eles saíram.)
ESTRUTURA VERBAL DA SENTENÇA NEGATIVA
Na estrutura negativa, basta acrescentar a palavra que transforma a sentença em negativa: o
vocábulo NOT.
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I have not lived in New York. (Eu não morei em New York.)
Jack has not travelled to Salvador. (Jack não viajou para Salvador.)
ESTRUTURA VERBAL DA SENTENÇA INTERROGATIVA
Na estrutura interrogativa, basta mudar a ordem das palavras. Observe:
Has the cat jumped the window? (O gato pulou da janela?)
Have your students done the homework? (Os seus alunos fizeram a tarefa de casa?)
Reading practice
1 - Choose the best answer:
After you __________ in Economics, you can think about taking an MBA.
a) had graduated
b) have graduated
c) was graduated
d) will be graduating
2 - Choose the best answer:
Joseph __________ a brand new car. It’s awesome!
56
a) has bought
b) have bought
c) bought
d) gas brought
3 - hoose the correct alternative:
Jane: Has the school bus arrived __________?
Nora: Yes, and the kids have __________ gone to school.
Jane: Have they __________ missed a class?
Nora: No, __________!
a) never; yet; ever; already
b) yet; already; ever; never
c) already; never; ever; yet
d) yet; never; ever; already
4 - Choose the best answer:
Somebody _________ my bag! It was on my desk! I __________ it one minute ago!
a) has stolen; has seen
b) stole; have seen
c) have stolen; have seen
d) has stole; saw
5 - Rewrite the sentences if necessary:
a) Do you think Alan´s always knew the truth about them?
_________________________________________________________________________________
b) This is the first time I went to Greece.
_________________________________________________________________________________
c) I reckon Bill was held up in traffic.
_________________________________________________________________________________
PAST PERFECT
Usamos o Past Perfect, ou passado perfeito, quando queremos
falar sobre alguma ação do passado que ocorreu antes de outra ação
no passado.
Quando usamos o passado perfeito em Inglês?
Usamos o passado perfeito quando queremos falar sobre algo
que ocorreu antes de algum outro acontecimento no passado. Nesse caso usamos o passado perfeito
como na estrutura a seguir:
Past perfect tense = (Subject + had + past participle)
Tempo passado perfeito = (Sujeito + verbo have no passado (tido/tinha) + particípio do passado)
Veja os exemplos:
Ava left the house at 6:30 last night.
Ava saiu de casa às 6:30 da noite passada.
Jack rang Ava's doorbell at 7:00 yesterday.
Jack tocou a campanhia da casa de Ava às 7:00 de ontem.
57
Nós usamos o passado simples nessas duas ações que ocorreram no passado, agora veja o
que podemos fazer combinando as duas frases:
Jack rang Ava's doorbell at 7:00 yesterday but Ava had already left the house.
Jack tocou a campanhia da casa de Ava às 7:00 ontem, mas Ava já tinha saído de casa.
Nesse caso usamos o Passado perfeito - tinha saído - porque queremos dizer que uma ação
aconteceu antes de outra ação no passado, e esta ação é: Jack tocou a campainha.
Veja os exemplos seguintes do passado perfeito:
When I opened the closed I realized I had forgotten my scarf there inside.
Quando eu abri o armário percebi que tinha esquecido meu cachecol lá dentro.
She had taken the exam last week.
Ela fizera o teste semana passada.
A thief had stolen his glasses.
O ladrão roubara os óculos dele.
Loren had cooked lunch when he got home.
Loren cozinhara o almoço quando chegou em casa.
Affirmative form
The show had already started when we got to the theatre.
O espetáculo começara quando nós chegamos ao teatro.
Structure
Subject + had + past participle + object
Negative form
He had not taken the proof yesterday.
Ele não fizera a prova ontem.
Structure
Subject + had + not + past participle + object
Interrogative form
Had you finished your work last year?
Você terminara seu trabalho ano passado?
Structure
Had + subject + past participle + object
More examples
He had slept.
Ele dormira.
Had it rained heavily last month?
Chovera fortemente mês passado?
Had the film started before we reached cinema?
O filme começara antes de chegarmos ao cinema?
She had not woken.
58
Ela não acordara.
He had not finished my work.
Ele não acabara seu trabalho.
Reading practice
1 - Choose the correct alternative:
a) My boss left the room before I ´d finished speaking.
b) I’ve hoped to phone you but I was too busy.
c) She was blamed for that before she has has the chance to back up her own ideas.
d) When my father arrived, they did start before him.
e) None of the above
2 - 07 February, 2007 - Published 15:38 GMT
Gorbachev enters software piracy
Microsoft's local representatives in Russia accuse Mr Ponosov of knowingly using pirated software
that cost the company of $10,000 in losses. Microsoft boss Bill Gates said last week that his company
had made profits of a billion dollars a month in the second half of last year, that's about $33m a day.
Mr Gorbachev's letter, published on his charitable foundation's website, appealed to Mr Gates to show
mercy to the schoolteacher and warned that Mr Ponosov could be locked up in one of Siberia's
notorious prison camps if found guilty. Mr Ponosov says he's innocent and that the software had been
installed on the computers before he got them.
http://www.bbc.co.uk/worldservice/learningenglish/newsenglish/witn/2007/02/070207_gorbachev.shtml
Read the text above and explain the use of the past perfect in the sentence in bold.
3 - Make these two sentences into one by using the Past Perfect:
Laura bought her first car in 1992.
Laura graduated in 1997.
4 - Simple Past or Past Perfect?
When the historian got to the ancient city he _____________ that he _____________ a big historic
treasure.
a) knew; had found.
b) had known; found.
d) had knew; had found.
d) knew; found.
e) known; founded.
5 - Choose the correct alternative.
When the journalists arrived at the airport, the rock band ___________________.
a) had leaved
b) had left
c) had lived
d) have left
e) has lived
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