anotacia winamdebare wigni warmoadgens saxelmZRvanelos

Сomentários

Transcrição

anotacia winamdebare wigni warmoadgens saxelmZRvanelos
anotacia
winamdebare wigni
warmoadgens saxelmZRvanelos adamianuri resursebis
marTvis Sesaxeb. wignSi ganxilulia adamianuri resursebis marTvis arsi,
mniSvneloba da ZiriTadi funqciebi, xazgasmulia adamianuri resursebis
dagegmvisa da marTvis ZiriTadi principebi, procedurebi, analizisa da
auditis mimarTulebebi; saxelmZRvanelo gankuTvnilia umaRlesi swavlebis
studentebisaTvis.
adamiani da organizacia
adamiani da organizacia
adamianis, pirovnebis gansakuTrebuli rolis miuxedavad, kacobriobis
progresSi, gansakuTrebiT bolo saukunis warmoudgenel da masStabur
miRwevebSi gadamwveti roli ekuTvnis ara calkeul pirovnebebs Tu
individebebs, aramed erTi mizniT gaerTianebul adamianTa jgufebs. TviT
sveticxoveli mxolod arsakiZes ar auSenebia, xeopsis piramidas 100 aTasi
kaci aSenebda. organizaciis farTo da mravalmxrivi gagebisa da
ganxorcielebis gareSe verc aleqsandre makedoneli miaRwevda raimes, verc
napoleoni, verc daviT aRmaSenebeli da verc Tamar mefe. es Teza,
rasakvirvelia, ar exeba iseT geniosebs kulturis sferodan, rogorebic
galaktioni, miqelanjelo, beThoveni da msgavsi moRvaweni iyvnen. Tumca
isinic gansazRvrul organizaciul garemoSi cxovrobdnen da saqmianobdnen.
swored organizaciebia Hharvardisa da kembrijis universitetebi, “simensi”
da “jeneral motorsi”, “pentagoni” da “TeTri saxli, “la skala~,
braziliis fexburTis nakrebi, saqarTvelos parlamenti, saxelmwifo
kancelaria, nebismieri saministro, uwyeba Tu sabavSvo baRi.
organizacia Zveli laTinuri sityvaa da raimes mowesrigebas niSnavs.
aucilebelia erTmaneTisagan ganvasxvaoT organizaciis ori gageba, kerZod:
•
organizacia
aris
erTi
miznisa
da
amocanebis
misaRwevad
gaerTianebul adamianTa an maTi jgufebis erToblioba, romelic saqmianobas
axorcielebs Sromis danawilebisa da kooperirebis, uflebamosilebaTa
gadanawilebisa da marTvis ierarqiuli struqturis mowyobis principebis
safuZvelze;
•
organizacia aris raimes sistematizeba, iseTi moqmedebebisa da
procesebis erToblioba, romlebic uzrunvelyofen mTelis met-naklebad
diferencirebul da avtonomiur nawilebs (komponentebs, elementebs) Soris
urTierTobaTa da urTierTqmedebaTa Sidamowesrigebasa da srulyofas.
am or ganmartebas Soris mniSvnelovan ganxvavebasTan erTad, aranakleb
mniSvnelovani da obieqturi urTierTkavSiri arsebobs. Tu sakiTxs
menejmentis (marTvis) ZiriTadi funqciebisa da principebis gaTvaliswinebiT
mivudgebiT, meore ganmarteba marTvis erT-erT mniSvnelovan funqcias –
organizacias warmoadgens, anu rogor unda vimuSaoT, rogor vakeToT,
rogor unda avawyoT saqme, rom mizans mivaRwioT; rac Seexeba pirvel
ganmartebas _ erTi mizniT gaerTianebul adamianTa erTobas _ aq ukve
marTvis obieqtTan gvaqvs saqme.
organizaciis elementebi
organizaciis misia sabaziso faseulobebi da strategiuli miznebia, anu
imis garkvevaa, Tu ratom Seiqmna organizacia, risken iswafvis, saiT midis
da ras unda miaRwios momavalSi. rogorc wesi, organizaciis strategiuli
miznebi nawevrdeba strategiul amocanebad, konkretul miznebad da
amocanebad, maTi miRwevis programebad da samuSao (operaciul) gegmebad;
3
organizaciis misia, mizani da amocanebi sxadasxva saxisa da specializebis
(Sinaarsis) funqciebad SeiZleba daiyos da dajgufdes, rac organizaciis
struqturis gansazRvris mniSvnelovani wina piroba xdeba.
organizaciis struqtura misi arqiteqtonika, sxvadasxva niSniT gamoyofili
specialzebuli funqciebis Semsrulebeli, magram erTmaneTTan (rogorc
mTelTan), dakavSirebuli koordinirebuli nawilebia.
tradiciulad,
organizaciuli struqtura, upirveles yovlisa, im princips gulisxmobs da
efuZneba, romelic organizaciis SigniT Sromis danawilebas edeba
safuZvlad. organizaciuli struqtura gansazRvravs personalis mier
Sesasrulebel funqciaTa Soris Tanafardobas, urTierTdaqvemdebarebas,
axdens urTierTobaTa koordinirebas, amyarebs garkveul Sidawesrigs; amis
miRweva xdeba Sromis mTliani procesis danawilebiT, specializebuli
struqturuli qvedanayofebis SeqmniT, TanamdebobaTa ierarqiiT da a. S.
arsebobs sxvadasxva saxis organizaciuli struqturebi, romelTagan yvelas
aqvs Tavisi met-naklebi pozitiuri da negatiuri mxareebi. amaTgan
yuradRebas gavamaxvilebT Semdegze.
funqciuri. es organizaciuli struqturis sakmaod farTod gavrcelebuli
formaa. am dros organizaciis struqtura iqmneba qvedanayofebs Soris
uflebamosilebaTa da Sesabamis funqciaTa gadanawilebis safuZvelze, anu
struqturuli
qvedanayofebi
organizaciis
saqmianobis
ZiriTadi
mimarTulebebis (funqciebis) mixedviT iqmneba, magaliTad, personalis,
finansebis,
marketingis,
auditisa
da
kontrolis,
sazogadoebasTan
urTierTobis qvedanayofebi da sxv. funqciuri organizaciuli struqturis
mTavari upiratesobaa Semdegi: specialistTa maRali kompetenturoba,
procesebis Rrma analizi, xaziT menejerTa funqciebis erTi nawilisagan
ganTavisufleba da sxva; rac Seexeba problemebs, isini ukavSirdeba
SedarebiT
viwro
(mindobil
funqciaTa
farglebSi)
specializebas,
organizaciaSi situaciis Secvlisas moqnilobisa da inovaciurobis dabal
dones.
xazobrivi. mas xSirad uwodeben piramidul, biurokratiul organizaciul
struqturasac; esaa ierarqiulad mkacrad organizebuli sturqtura,
romelic pasuxismgeblobis zonebis gamoyofasa da erTmmarTvelobas
efuZneba. rac metia manZili anu Tanamdebobrivi safexuri xelmZRvanelsa da
rigiT
Semsrulebels
Soris,
miT
ufro
maRalia
organizaciis
ierarqiulobis done. xazobrivi struqturis mTavari upiratesobaa Semdegi:
gadawyvetilebaTa miRebis operatiuloba, urTierTobaTa da kontrolis
mkafio sistema, xelmZRvanelTa miTiTebebis Sesrulebisas komunikacia,
gansakuTrebiT qvemodan zemoT, SezRudulia momuSaveTa damoukidebloba,
isini xSirad inertulebi arian, kontrolis sfero (anu daqvemdebarebulTa
raodenoba) SezRudulia da sxva.
adaptaciuri. esaa moqnili organizaciuli struqtura, romelic advilad
adaptirdeba, advilad egueba cvalebad garemosa da situaciebs, inarCunebs
xazobrivi da funqciuri struqturebis efeqtur mxareebs, axdens maT
integrirebas; am dros struqturebi iqmneba programebis, amocanebis,
prioritetebis, proeqtebis mixedviT, ufro efeqtianad xdeba adamianuri
resursebis gamoyeneba, mtkice kavSiri myardeba sxadasxva specialists
Soris da sxva. aris organizaciuli struqturis sxva nairsaxeobebic.
4
personalis menejmenti
“personalis“ cnebis arsi,
personalis marTvis subieqtebi da obietqebi
personalis
menejmenti
aris
urTierTdakavSirebuli
organizebuli
ekonomikuri da socialuri RonisZiebebis sistema organizaciis doneze
normaluri funqcionirebisaTvis, samuSao Zalis potencialis ganviTarebisa
da efeqtianad gamoyenebis pirobebis SeqmnisaTvis.
personalis menejmenti arsebobs uwyveti procesis formiT, romelic
mimarTulia
muSakebis
motivaciis
miznobriv
cvlilebaze
maTgan
maqsimaluri
ukugebis
misaRebad,
maSasadame,
sawarmos
muSaobaSi
warmatebuli Sedegebis misaRwevad. Tanamedrove pirobebSi personalTan
muSaobis ZiriTadi mizania iseTi pirovnebis formireba, romelsac aqvs didi
pasuxismgebloba,
koleqtivizmis
grZnoba,
maRali
kvalifikacia,
ganviTarebuli aqvs sawarmos mepatronis grZnoba.
personalis
menejmenti
organizaciis
specialuri
funqcionaluri
samsaxurebis da Sesabamisi sawarmoo qvedanayofebis sazogadoebrivi
xelmZRvanelebis mravalmxrivi saqminobaa.
personalis menejmentSi funqcionaluri midgomiT igulisxmeba yvela is
amocana da gadawyvetileba, romlebic dakavSirebulia kadrebis sferoSi
muSaobasTan. MmagaliTad, kadrebis SerCeva, maTi gamoyeneba, kvalifikaciis
amaRleba, Sromis anazRaureba, samuSaodan daTxova.
organizaciuli midgoma. es cneba moicavs yvela pirsa da instruments,
romelic pasuxismgebelia kadrebTan muSaobaSi, magaliTad, xelmZRvaneli
pirebi, kadrebis ganyofileba, sawarmoo ganyofileba, profkavSirebi.
organizaciis personali aris im fizikur pirTa erTianoba, romlebic
organizaciasTan, rogorc iuridiul pirTan, imyofebian iseT urTierTobaSi,
romelic regulirdeba daqiravebis xelSekrulebiT. aseT urTierTobaSi
SeiZleba iyvnen ara marto daqiravebuli muSakebi, aramed agreTve fizikuri
pirebi (mesakuTreebi an organizaciis Tanamflobelebi), Tu isini Semosavlis
nawilTan erTad iReben Sesabamis anazRaurebas imisaTvis, rom piradi
SromiT monawileoben organizaciis saqmianobaSi.
yvelaze zogadi saxiT “sawarmos personalis“ cneba moicavs mocemuli
sawarmos (organizaciis) daqiravebuli muSakebis erTobliobas, romlebic
asruleben sruliad gansazRvrul amocanebs: pirebi, romlebic dasaqmebuli
arian individualuri SromiT, agreTve is pirebi, romlebic e.w. saojaxo
meurneobaSi arian dakavebuli, Tumca daregistrirebuli arian iuridiuli
piris saxiT, magram mainc ar iTvlebian daqiravebul momuSave personalad,
imdenad, ramdenadac isini Sromis anazRaurebas iReben im Semosavlidan,
romelic rCeba maT gankargulebaSi savaldebulo gadasaxadebis gastumrebis
Semdeg.
organizaciis personali socialuri sistemis saxiT formirdeba, saxes
icvlis
da viTardeba organizaciis mflobelis miznebis Sesabamisad.
amasTan, miznebi ganisazRvreba mesakuTris interesebiT da igi sawarmos
marTvis strategiisa da politikis SemuSavebis safuZvelia. saqarTveloSi
yvela muSaki dayofilia Semdegi saklasifikacio niSnebis mixedviT:
5
sawarmoo procesSi Sesrulebuli funqciebis mixedviT personali iyofa eqvs
kategoriad:
-muSebi (ZiriTadi da damxmare);
-inJiner-teqnikuri muSakebi;
-mosamsaxureebi;
-mcire mosamsaxure personali;
-mowafeebi;
-dacva;
faqtobrivi
saqmianobis
xasiaTis
mixedviT:
muSakis
ama
Tu
im
kategoriisaTvis mokuTvnebis safuZvelia ara misi ganaTleba, aramed
dakavebuli Tanamdeboba; saqmianobis klasifikacias safuZvlad udevs
profesionaluri da dargobrivi niSnebis Sexameba;
muSebis teqnologiur procesSi monawileobis miRebis mixedviT: produqciis
warmoebis TvalsazrisiT muSebi iyofa or jgufad:
ZiriTadad da
damxmared,
xolo
inJiner-teqnikuri
muSakebi
–xelmZRvanelebad,
specialistebad da teqnikur Semsruleblebad.
muSaobis vadis mixedviT: mudmivi, sezonuri da droebiTi muSakebi.
materialuri warmoebis sferos yvela muSaki iyofa or jgufad:
a)
personali, romelic dasaqmebulia ZiriTad saqmianobaSi (mrewvelobaSi
es muSakebi Seadgenen samrewvelo-sawarmoo personals);
b)
personali, romelic dasaqmebulia araZiriTad saqmianobaSi, anu
danarCeni
personali;
am
kategorias
ganekuTvneba
arasamrewvelo
organizaciebis personali, romelic sawarmos struqturaSi Sedis.
Tanamedrove korporaciis struqtura amgvaria:
-organizaciis TanamSromlebi;
-mmarTvelebi (menejerebi);
-aqcionerebi;
-direqtorTa sabWo, romelsac sruli pasuxismgebloba ekisreba firmis
saqmianobaze, agreTve firmis strategiis gansazRvrisas mmarTvelobiTi
gadawyvetilebebis miRebaze;
-firmis funqcionirebaSi dainteresebuli jgufebi an mxareebi.
SeiZleba gamovyoT mmarTvelobiTi personalis arsebiTi kategoriebi
samamulo organizaciebisaTvis;
-sawarmoTa, dawesebulebebis, organizaciebis xelmZRvanelebi da maTi
moadgileebi;
-sawarmoTa,
dawesebulebebis
da
organizaciebis
struqturuli
qvedanayofebis xelmZRvanelebi, mTavari specialistebi;
-specialistebi, romlebic axorcieleben ekonomikur funqciebs;
-warmoebis sainJinro-teqnikuri uzrunvelyofis specialistebi;
-mosamsaxureTa Tanamdebobebi (dasaqmebis sferoebi: aRricxva, kontroli,
sabuTebis gaformeba, sameurneo momsaxureba).
SromiTi potencialis formireba iwyeba personalis ricxovnobisa da
koleqtivis profesionalur-kvalifikaciuri struqturis dagegmvis etapze.
formirebis warmateba damokidebulia rogorc dagegmvis xarisxze, aseve
organizaciis ganlagebis regionul Taviseburebebze.
6
organizaciis personalis raodenobisa da struqturis marTvis procesi
aRsaniSnavia, rom bolo dromde TviT cneba “koleqtivis marTva” Cvens
mmarTvelobiT praqtikaSi ar arsebobda. marTalia, TiToeuli firmis
marTvis sistemas hqonda kadrebisa da koleqtivis socialuri ganviTarebis
marTvis funqcionaluri qvesistema, magram, kadrebis marTvis TvalsazrisiT,
samuSaos
umetes
nawils
qvedanayofebis
xazobrivi
xelmZRvanelebi
asrulebdnen.
sabazro meurneobaze gadasvlisas TandaTan vcildebiT ierarqiul marTvas,
administraciuli zemoqmedebis mkacr sistemas; amasTan dakavSirebiT
aucilebeli xdeba prioritetebisadmi principulad axali midgomebi.
organizaciis SigniT mTavaria momuSaveebi (muSakebi), xolo mis gareT –
produqciis momxmareblebi.
samewarmeo saqmianobis funqcionirebis prioritetebis Secvla gulisxmobs
pasuxismgeblobis Secvlas ara mxolod sawarmos aqcionerebis, aramed
sazogadoebis winaSec, rac iwvevs warmoebis funqcionirebis principebis
Secvlasac da aisaxeba personalis muSaobazec.
qvemoT moyvanil cxrilSi naTlad Cans is ZiriTadi niSnebi da principebi,
romlebic ganasxvavebs organizaciebis (firmebis) saqmianobas tradiciuli
da Tanamedrove principebidan gamomdinare.
tradiciuli principebi
Tanamedrove principebi
1
2
individualuri
eTika,
qonebrivi socialuri eTikis ganviTareba
ufleba,
damoukidebeli adgilobriv sazogadoebaze
gadawyvetilebebi
dayrdnobiT, koleqtiuri
monawileoba da pasuxismgebloba,
piradi sargebloba da TiToeulis socialur-kulturuli zemoqmedeba
warmateba
–sazogadoebrivi pirad keTildReobaze
keTildReobis gazrdis winapiroba
efeqtianobis
danawilebisa
gziT
amaRleba
Sromis SeTanxmebuli sazogadoebrivi
da specializaciis moqmedebebis aucilebloba
organizacia, rogorc sameurneo
erTeuli
specialobebis procesis zRvris
SegrZneba adamianTa
dakmayofilebis poziciidan
mogebis maqsimizacia, rogorc
erTaderTi mizani
organizacia, rogorc socialurekonomikuri sistema
universaluri Zalisxmeva
xelsayreli da efeqturi
ekonomikuri maCveneblebis
Mmogeba mTavar mizans warmoadgens,
magram izrdeba socialuri miznebis
gacnobiereba, mravalmiznobrivi
dakmayofileba
7
misaRwevad
organizaciis rogorc daxuruli
sistemis organizeba;
reaqcia mxolod bazarsa da
konkurenciul bazarze
mTavrobis saqmianobisadmi midgoma
mTavrobis poziciidan
adamiani cdilobs bunebis
gamoyenebas da masze gabatonebas
ekonomikuri resursebis gamoyenebis
mZlavri kavSiri ekonomikur
zrdasTan
mecnierebisa da teqnikis
ganusazRvreli gamoyeneba,
mecnierebis gamoyenebis Sesaxeb
Tvalsazrisis SemuSaveba,
Caurevlobisa da determinizmis
poziciebidan gamimdinare
Zalisxmeva sargeblianobis,
efeqtianobisa da monawileebis
dakmayofilebis misaRwevad
Oorganizaciis rogorc Ria
sistemis organizeba, romelic
urTierTqmedebs garemosTan.
reaqcia mraval dainteresebul
jgufsa da socialur jgufze
mTavrobis rolis gageba
sazogadoebis miznebTan
SesabamisobaSi
bunebasTan harmoniaSi cxovreba da
masze daqvemdebareba
zrdis sazRvrebis Segneba da
moqmedebebi ekologiuri
mTlianobis SenarCunebisaTvis
mecnierebisa da teqnikis zRvris
SegrZneba, teqnikis gamoyenebaze
kontrolis aucileblobis
aRiareba.
organizaciebisagan sazogadoebrivi
molodinis monacemebi materialuri sazogadoeba moelis
faseulobebisa
da
momsaxurebis organizaciebisagan yuradRebis
gamaxvilebas cxovrebis donis
warmoebisaken
gaumjobesebasTan dakavSirebul
problemebze
Kkorporaciis miRwevebis gazomva
organizaciis Sefaseba mogebisa da
socialuri Sedegebis maCveneblebis
mixedviT
Sidasafirmo marTvis umniSvnelovanes Taviseburebad gadaiqca mTel
personalze erTiani da kompleqsuri zemoqmedeba. amasTan dakavSirebiT
yalibdeba sakadro muSaobis sistema.
calkeuli adamianebis interesebis Sexameba organizaciis interesebTan da
mis
strategiul miznebTan menejmentis metad mniSvnelovan da urTules
amocanad gvesaxeba, romlis warmatebiT gadawyvetaze damokidebulia firmis
funqcionirebis efeqtianoba.
dawesebulebis organizaciul struqturaSi socialur sistemas Seesabameba
zogierTi administraciuli qvedanayofi (jgufi, ganyofileba, departamenti).
mniSvnelovania ara daniSvna da masStabebi, aramed TviT faqti msgavsi
specializebuli jgugis gamoyofis Sesaxeb adamianuri resursebisa da maTi
marTvis Sesaswavlad. ramdenadac organizacia aris socialur-teqnikuri
8
sistema, amdenad SeuZlebelia mxolod erTi elementis muSaobiT mTlianad
organizaciaSi kargi Sedegebis miRweva.
organizaciaSi arsebuli resursebis (rogorc fizikuris, aseve adamianuris)
efeqturi
gamoyeneba
SesaZlebelia
uzrunvelyofil
iqnes
Semdegi
RonisZiebebiT:
-organizaciuli struqturis srulyofiT, maT Soris marTvis doneebisa da
marTvis saSualo donis ricxovnobis SemcirebiT.
-gadawyvetilebebis miRebis procesis decentralizaciiT
SesaZlo dabal
donemde.
-funqciaTa nawilis gadacemiT SuamavlebisaTvis, mimwodeblebisaTvis,
konsultantebisaTvis;
-TiToeul samuSao adgilze Sromis Sinaarsobrivi datvirTvis gazrdiT;
-Sromis procesebis avtomatizaciiT Sromis nayofierebis gazrdiT rogorc
warmoebaSi, aseve arasamewarmeo sferoSi;
-umaRlesi administraciis raodenobisa da organizaciul struqturebSi
dasaqmebuli personalis mniSvnelovani SemcirebiT;
-momzadebisa da gadamzadebis programebis investirebiT, TanamSromlebis
ostatobisa da rotaciis srulyofiT da sxv.
personalis marTvis sistemis ZiriTadi amocanebis ricxvs akuTvneben:
-firmisadmi daxmarebas misi miznebis miRwevaSi;
-firmis kvalifikaciuri da dainteresebuli muSaxeliT uzrunvelyofas;
-personalis ostatobisa da unaris efeqtianad gamoyenebas;
-personalis motivaciuri sistemebis srulyofas;
-yvela kategoriis muSakebis SromiTi dakmayofilebis donis amaRlebas;
-personalis motivaciuri sistemebis srulyofas;
-personalis kvalifikaciis amaRlebisa da profesiuli ganaTlebis sistemis
ganviTarebasa da maRal doneze organizebas;
-keTilsasurveli moraluri klimatis SenarCunebas;
-personalis
Sidasaorganizacio
moZraobis
marTvas
muSakebisa
da
administraciis
ormxrivi
sargeblianobiT,
agreTve
sazogadoebis
sargeblianobis gaTvaliswinebiT;
-karieris dagegmvas samsaxurebrivi winsvliT;
-personalis SemoqmedebiT aqtivobaze gavlenas, firmisadmi inovaciuri
gegmebis realizaciaSi daxmarebas;
-personalis saqmianobis Sefasebis meTodebis srulyofas, mmarTvelobiTi
aparatis da sawarmoo personalis atestacias, personalis marTvis yvela
TanamSromelTan kavSirs;
-cxovrebis maRali donis uzrunvelyofas, rac sasurvels xdis mocemul
firmaSi muSaobas.
personalis marTvis kvlevisas mTavaria naTeli warmodgena gvqondes
“organizaciis
personalis”
kategoriis
sirTuleze.
organizaciis
saqmianobaSi monawileobas iReben gareSe da Siga ZiriTadi monawileebi,
romelTa mTavari interesebi SeiZleba aRweril iqnes Semdegnairad:
kapitalis mesakuTreebi warmoadgenen organizaciis mesakuTreebs, romlebsac
warmodgenili aqvT TavianTi kapitali (magaliTad, sacalo movaWreebi,
aqcionerebi, korporantebi da a.S.) isini dainteresebulni arian, erTi mxriv,
organizaciaSi dabandebuli kapitalis SenarCunebiTa da gazrdiT, meore
mxriv – angariSebidan mimdinare moxsniT (dividendebis ganawilebiT). Oorive
miswarafebis winapirobas organizaciuli mogeba warmoadgens, romelic
9
mocemulia Semosavlebsa da xarjebs Soris sxvaobis saxiT, mesakuTreebi
dainteresebulebi arian maRali SemosavlebiT da dabali xarjebiT. mogebis
gamoyenebaze
arsebobs
gansxvavebuli
Sexedulebebi
(Senaxvisa
an
dividendebad
ganawilebis).
amis
garda,
mesakuTreebs
ufleba
aqvT
monawileoba miiRon ganzraxulebaTa formirebasa da maT ganxorcielebaSi.
isini amas damoukideblad axorcieleben (mesakuTreTa sawarmos saxiT), an
kidev TavianTi uflebis delegirebas daqiravebul menejerebze axdenen.
organizaciis menejerebs, rogorc damoukidebel jgufs mniSvneloba aqvT
mxolod menejerul organizaciaSi. isini principSi dainteresebulni arian
wilobrivi monawileebis interesebis dakmayofilebaSi, romlebic arsebiTad
maT cvlian, Tumca msxvil organizaciebSi arsebobs menejerebis _
daqiravebuli muSebis warmomadgenlebis Tanamdebobebi makontrolebel
sabWoSi. Aam sawarmoo interesebTan erTad menejerebi SeiZleba sakuTar
intersebsac misdevdnen (damoukidebloba, xelisufleba, aRiareba, kariera).
personali
(TanamSromlebi) mudmivad dainteresebulia Tavisi samuSao
adgilis saimedoobiT, SesaZlo maqsimaluri xelfasiTa da socialuri
garantiebiT, muSaobis kargi pirobebiT da TanxmobiT, agreTve TavianTi
organizaciis maRali prestiJiT. xSirad vlindeba agreTve sakuTari
SesaZleblobebisa
da
piradi
profesionaluri
aRiarebis
motivebi.
TanamSromlebis interesebs agreTve profkavSirebi da organizaciaSi
daqiravebuli muSebis warmomadgenelTa organoebi icaven.
kreditorebi
(kapitalis garedan dambandeblebi) kerZo bankebi arian,
romlebic kreditebs iZlevian. isini daintersebuli arian SemoTavazebuli
kapitalis maqsimalurad maRal SefasebaSi (procentebSi), momsaxurebis
droul anazRaurebaSi (kerZod, procentisa da kreditis dafarvaSi) da
gauTvaliswinebeli
SemTxvevisagan
saTanado
garantiebSi.
msxvili
kreditebis gacemisas isini agreTve dainteresebuli arian informaciasa da
firmis menejerebze gavlenaSi.
aucilebeli masalebis mimwodeblebi zrunaven firmasTan xangrZlivi da
xelsayreli kavSirebis dasamyareblad. isini cdiloben miaRwion maqsimalur
Semosavlebs, maT mier ganxorcielebul miwodebaze SeTanxmebis xelsayrel
pirobebs, TavianTi mxridan minimalur danaxarjebs.
klientebs (muSaobis Sedegebis momxmareblebs) surT miiRon maTTvis saWiro
da aucilebeli maRali xarisxis nawarmi dabali fasebiT da xelsayrel
pirobebSi. isini saqonlis farTo asortimentisa da kargi momsaxurebisaken
iswrafvian.
saxelmwifo,
upirveles
yovlisa,
zrunavs
sabazro
meurneobis
funqcionirebaze
organizaciebTan
erTad,
maT
konkurentunarianobaze
saerTaSoriso bazarze, radgan es garemoeba xels uwyobs da ganapirobebs
sazogadoebrivi
produqtis
zrdas,
uzrunvelyofs
keTildReobas,
mosaxleobis momaragebas saqonliTa da samuSao adgilebiT, xels uwyobs
sagareo savaWro urTierTobaTa wonasworobas, magram amasTan organizaciebi
ganixileba agreTve, rogorc saxelmwifo xarjebis dafinansebis wyaro. isic
gaTvaliswinebulia,
rom
saxelmwifo
mudmivad
zrunavs
fasebis
stabilurobasa
(inflaciasTan
brZola)
da
socialur
mSvidobaze
(magaliTad, muSaTa moZraobis ararseboba).
sazogadoeba Sedgeba heterogenuli jgufebisagan (magaliTad, sainformacio
saSualebebi, partiebi, eklesiebi, kavSirebi da gaerTianebebi, samoqalaqo
10
iniciativebi da sxva). maTi interesi organizaciebTan dakavSirebiT
gamoixateba imaSi, rom maT xeli unda Seuwyon jgufur miznebs, an, ukidures
SemTxvevaSi, xeli ar SeuSalon maT. Aamis Sesaxeb drouli informaciis
misaRebad,
maT
unda
icodnen
yvelaferi
korporaciis
realuri
mdgomareobis Sesaxeb. sazogadoebisaTvis gansakuTrebuli mniSvneloba aqvs
janmrTelobisa da ekosferos SenarCunebas, amitom resursebis gamoyeneba,
yvelaferi is, rac zemoqmedebs garemoze, ganixileba kritikulad, rogorc
janmrTelobisaTvis mavne warmoebis produqtebi da saSualebebi.
personalis marTva efuZneba Semdeg amosaval debulebebs:
1)
personalis
dagegmvisa
da
organizaciis
(firmis)
ganviTarebis
strategiis mWidrod dakavSirebis aucileblobas;
2)
personalTan muSaobis danaxarjebis raodenobriv Sefasebas da maT
gavlenas warmoebis ekonomikur maCveneblebze;
3)
kompensaciebis aucilebeli paketis gansazRvras Sromis bazarze
efeqtianad muSaobisaTvis;
personalis xelmZRvaneloba, rogorc marTvis funqcia, mowodebulia
gaaerTianos, moaxdinos koordinireba yvela danarCeni funqciisa. Ees ki
miiRweva
personalTan
muSaobis
principebis
realizaciiT,
maTi
urTierTqmedebiT.
personalTan muSaobis principebi
Pprincipis dasaxelba
a) personalTan muSaobis
principebi
efeqtianoba
principis Sinaarsi
saerTo
gulisxmobs personalis marTvis
sistemis
yvelaze
efeqtian
da
ekonomikur organizacias, marTvis
sistemaze gaweuli danaxarjebis
xvedriTi
wilis
Semcirebas
produqciis
erTeulze
saerTo
xarjebTan mimarTebaSi, warmoebis
efeqtianobis
amaRlebas.
personalis
marTvis
sistemis
srulyofis RonisZiebis gatarebis
Semdeg
Tu
adgili
eqneba
marTvisTvis saWiro
xarjebis
gazrdas,
maSin
isini
unda
daifaros sawarmoTa saqmianobis
efeqtianobiT
Pprincipis Sinaarsi
principis dasaxeleba
b)
personalTan
organizaciis principebi
rotacia
muSaobis
calkeuli
muSakebis
droebiTma
gamosvlam
ar
unda
Sewyvitos
romelime
funqciis
ganxorcielebis procesi. amisTvis
11
saWiroa
personalis
marTvis
TiToeul
muSaks
SeeZlos
Tanamdebobrivad
ufro
maRla
mdgom
muSakTa
funqciebis
imitireba,
dabla
mdgomi
TanamSromlisa da Tavisi Ddonis
erTi-ori
muSakis
funqciis
Sesruleba
mmarTvelobiTi
orientaciis
personalis
marTvis
funqciis
optimaluri Tanamdeboba
orientaciis
gaswrebis
aucileblobas
karnaxobs
ganviTarebis
winswreba
im
funqciebTan SedarebiT, romlebic
mimarTulni
arian
warmoebis
funqcionirebis uzrunvelyofaze.
koncentracia
specializacia
Pparaleluroba
Aadaptireba
(moqniloba)
ganixileba
ori
mimarTulebiT:
rogorc calkeuli qvedanayofebis
muSakebis
Zalisxmevis
koncentracia
an
personalis
marTvis mTeli sistemis Zalisxmeva
ZiriTadi amocanebis gadasawyvetad
an rogorc msgavsi funqciebis
personalis marTvis sistemis erT
qvedanayofSi koncentracia, rac
aRmofxvris dublirebas.
Ppersonalis marTvis sistemaSi
Sromis
danawileba
(gamoiyofa
Sroma
xelmZRvanelebis,
specialistebisa
da
mosamsaxureebis)
xorcieldeba
calkeuli
qvedanayofebis
formirebiT,
romlebic
specializirebuli
iqnebian
erTgvarovani
funqciebis
Sesrulebaze.
gulisxmobs
calkeuli
mmarTvelobiTi gadawyvetilebebis
erTdroul
Sesrulebas,
rac
amaRlebs
personalis marTvis
operatiulobas.
niSnavs
personalis
marTvis
sistemis
misadagebas
marTvis
obieqtis Secvlili miznebisadmi
da misi muSaobis pirobebisadmi
12
memkvidreobiToba
uwyvetoba
principis dasaxeleba
gulisxmobs
saerTo
meTodologiur
safuZvels
personalis
marTvis
sistemis
srulyofis
samuSaoebis
Casatareblad
gansxvavebul
safexurebze
da
sxvadasxva
specialistebis mier.
personalis
marTvis
sistemis
muSakebis
an
qvedanayofebis
saqmianobaSi
Sesvenebebis
gamoricxva,
sabuTebis
dalagebisaTvis
saWiro
drois
Semcireba,
marTvis
teqnikur
saSualebaTa
mocdenis
drois
Semcireba da a. S.
principis Sinaarsi
13
riTmuloba
drois
sxvadasxva
monakveTSi
Tanabari
moculobis
samuSaoTa
Sesruleba da personalis marTvis
funqciebis
ganmeorebis
regulireba
teqnologiuri erTianoba
gasagebi
(xelmisawvdomi)
terminologia, yvela qvedanayofisa
da
xelmZRvanelis
saqmianoba
agebuli
unda
iyos
erTian
konstruqciebze (etapebze, fasebze,
funqciebze),
komfortuloba
mmarTvelobaSi kolegialuroba
personalis marTvis sistema unda
uzrunvelyofdes
maqsimalur
moxerxebulobas
dasabuTebaTa
SemoqmedebiTi
procesebisaTvis,
gamomuSavebisaTvis, adamianis mier
gadawyvetilebebis
miRebisa
da
realizaciisaTvis.
Mmag.
damuSavebis
gansxvavebuloba,
sabuTebis specialuri gaformeba
arsebiTi informaciis gamoyofiT
(gamocalkevebiT); maTi garegnuli
saxe;
zedmeti
muSaobis
(saqmianobis)
gamoricxva
sabuTebis Sevsebis dros da a.S.
profesionali
menejerebi
erTmaneTTan mWidro kontaqtiTa da
kavSir-urTierTobiT
muSaoben,
erTmaneTTan dakavSirebuli arian
TanamSromlobisa
da
kargi
urTierTdamokidebulebis
survilebiT,
riTac
qmnian
mmarTvelobiT Stats.
14
personalis marTvis principebia:
-TiToeuli
muSakisaTvis
Tavis
saqmianobaze
pasuxismgeblobis
dakisreba;
-TiToeulma muSakma unda icodes, Tu piradad vis eqvemdebareba da
visgan iRebs miTiTebebs.
personalis marTvaSi SeiZleba gamovyoT sami urTierdakavSirebuli
midgoma,
romelic
gamomdinareobs
ekonomikuri
da
saorganizacio
Teorebidan.
pirveli midgoma dakavSirebulia adamianuri kapitalis formirebasTan.
meore midgoma gulisxmobs personalis marTvaSi im faqtorebis
gamoyenebas, romlebic axdenen damqiraveblis motivirebas, raTa gare Sromis
bazarze moiZios Sesabamisi profilis mqone optimaluri samuSao Zalebi.
mesame midgoma
dafuZnebulia organizaciisadmi erTgulebis
koncefciaze, romelic iwvevs organizaciis (firmis) qcevis modelis Seqmnas
personalis marTvis struqtura
sakadro
Sromis
jgufuri
marTva,
politikis
anazRaureba da urTierTdamokidebuleba
SemuSaveba
da stimulireba
koleqtivSi
da
ganxorcieleba
profkavSirebTan
damokidebuleba
personalis
Sromis
SerCevisa
da anazRaurebis
ganawilebis
formebi
principebi
daqiravebisa da Sromis
daTxovnis
nayofierebis
pirobebi
amaRlebis
gzebi
swavleba
da Sromis
kvalifikaciis
anazRaurebis
amaRleba
wamaxalisebeli
sistemebi
personalis
saqmianobis
Sefaseba
___________
personalis marTvis
mimarTulebebs, esenia:
marTvis
socialurfsiqologiuri
aspeqtebi
dabal
doneze muSakebis
muSakebis
marTvaSi Sromis
CarTva (mozidva)
motivacia
da
SemoqmedebiTi
iniciativa
samuSao brigadebi da Ffirmis
maTi funqciebi
organizaciuli
Kkultura
urTierdamokidebuleba
koleqtivSi
damokidebuleba
profkavSirebTan
struqtura
15
moicavs
personalis
marTvis
gavlena firmis
saqmianobaze da
mis
organizaciaze
___________
saqmianobis
sxvadasxva
resursebis
dagegmva:
momxmareblis
adamianuri
resursebiT
uzrunvelyofa da amisaTvis aucilebeli danaxarjebis gegmis SemuSaveba;
personalis SerCeva:
yvela Tanamdebobis mixedviT potenciuri
kandidatebis rezervis Seqmna;
kadrebis gadarCeva: kandidatebis Sefaseba samuSao adgilebze da
rezervidan saukeTesoTa SerCeva;
xelfasisa da kompensaciebis gansazRvra: xelfasisa da SeRavaTebis
struqturis SemuSaveba personalis mozidvis, daqiravebisa da SenarCunebis
mizniT;
proforientacia
da
adaptireba:
dasaqmebuli
muSakebis
Seyvana
organizaciasa (firmaasa) da mis qvedanayofebSi, muSakebisaTvis ganmarteba
da swavleba imisa, Tu ras moelis maTgan organizacia (firma) da rogori
Sroma iRebs damsaxurebul Sefasebas;
swavleba: personalis swavlebis programebis SemuSaveba, maT mier
samuSaos efeqtianad Sesrulebisa da samsaxurebrivi winsvlis mizniT;
SromiTi
saqmianobis
Sefaseba:
SromiTi
saqmianobis
Sefasebis
meTodikis SemuSaveba da misi dayvana momuSaveebamde;
dawinaureba, daqveiTeba, gadayvana, daTxovna: muSakebis Tanamdebobrivi
gadaadgilebis meTodikis SemuSaveba meti an naklebi pasuxismgeblobis
SemcvelobiT, muSakebis profesiuli gamocdilebis ganviTareba maTi sxva
Tanamdebobebze gadaadgilebis gziT an sxva ubanze gadayvaniT, agreTve
daqiravebis xelSekrulebis Sewyvetis proceduris ganxorcielebiT;
xelmZRvaneli kadrebis momzadeba, samsaxurebrivi dawinaurebis marTva.
Pprogramebis SemuSaveba, romlebic mimarTulia xelmZRvaneli kadrebis
unaris ganviTarebisa da Sromis efeqtianobis amaRlebisaken;
SromiTi urTierTobebi: koleqtiuri xelSekrulebebis dadebasTan
dakavSirebuli molaparakebebis warmoeba;
dasaqmeba: dasaqmebis Tanabrad uzrunvelyofis programebis SemuSveba.
personalis marTvis programebis SemuSaveba iTvaliswinebs:
-miznobrivi orientaciisa da saerTo miznebis urTierTkavSiris
arsebobas.
-SromiTi resusrebis marTvis sferoSi strategiis erToblivad
SemuSavebas da dasaqmebis stabilizacias xelmZRvanelobis profkavSirebisa
da muSakebis mier.
organizaciuli kultura
organizacia rTuli meqanizmia, romlis sasicocxlo potencialis
safuZvelsac organizaciuli kultura warmoadgens: is, ris gamo adamianebi
gaxdnen organizaciis wevrebi; is, Tu rogor aigeba maT Soris urTierToba;
organizaciis cxovrebisa da saqmianobis myar normebsa da principebs rogor
iziareben isini, ra aris, maTi azriT, kargi da ra _ cudi, da kidev bevri
sxva ram iseTi, romelic faseulobebsa da normebs miekuTvneba.
organizaciuli kulturis matarebelia adamianebi, magram ukve
Camoyalibebuli
organizaciuli
kulturis
mqone
organizaciebSi
organizaciuli kultura TiTqos gancalkevebulia adamianebisagan da xdeba
organizaciis atributi, misi nawili, romelic aqtiur zemoqmedebas axdens
16
organizaciis wevrebze, maTi qcevis modificirebas im normebisa da
faseulobebis Sesabamisad, romlebic mis safuZvels Seadgenen.
imdenad,
ramdenadac
kultura
umniSvelovanes
rols
TamaSobs
organizaciis cxovrebaSi mas gansakuTrebuli yuradReba unda eqceodes
xelmZRvanelobis mxridan.
menejementi ara marto Seesabameba organizaciul kulturas da masze
Zlieraa
damokidebuli,
aramed
mas
SeuZlia
moaxdinos
gavlena
organizaciuli
kulturis
formirebasa
da
ganviTarebaze.
amisaTvis
menejerebs unda SeeZloT organizaciuli kulturis gaanalizeba da
gavlenis moxdena mis formirebasa da sasurveli mimarTulebiT Secvlaze.
Tanamedrove
literaturaSi
sakmaod
mravladaa
organizaciuli
kulturis Sinaarsis cnebis gansazRvra. rogorc mraval sxva organizaciul
mmarTvelobiT disciplinas, aseve organizaciuli kulturis koncefciasac
ar gaaCnia erTaderTi swori da utyuari ganmarteba. TiToeuli avtori
cdilobs es cneba Taviseburad ganmartos. Aamitom amJamad ukve gvaqvs
rogorc Zalian viwro, aseve farTo gansazRvra imisa, Tu ras warmoadgens
organizaciuli kultura.
avtorebis umeteseoba Tanxmdeba imaSi, rom organizaciuli kultura
mniSvnelovani varaudebisa da ganzraxvebis rTuli organizaciaa (romlebic
xSirad formulirebas ar eqvemdebareba da mtkicebis gareSe miiReba jgufis
wevrebis
an
organizaciis
mier).
xSirad
korporaciuli
kultura
ganmartebulia
rogorc
organizaciis
wevrebis
mier
gaTavisebuli
filosofia da marTvis ideologia, varaudebi, ganzraxvebi, moraluri
faseulobani da normebi, romlebic safuZvlad udevs urTierTobebsa da
urTierTqmedebebs rogorc organizaciis SigniT, aseve mis farglebs gareT.
organizaciuli kultura organizaciaSi vlindeba adamianebs Soris
urTierTobebSi. Aamitom sxvadasxva adamianebi an organizaciis sxvadasxva
nawilebi cdiloben, rom organizaciis kultura msgavsi terminiT aRweron.
miuxedavad organizaciuli kulturis sxvadasxva ganmartebebisa da
maTi Sinaarsis aSkara gansxvavebisa, maTSi saerTo momentebic aris. Bbevr
ganmartebaSi avtorebi eyrdnobian sabazro varaudebis nimuSebs, romlebsac
organizaciis wevrebi icaven TavianT qcevebsa da qmedebebSi. es varaudebi
xSirad dakavSirebulia individis mier gare garemos (jgufis, organizaciis,
sazogadoebis,
msoflios)
xedvasTan
da
misi
cvlilebebis
maregulireblebTan (buneba, sivrce, dro, samuSao urTierToba da a. S.).
xSirad Zneldeba am xedvis formulireba organizaciebTan mimarTebaSi.
Rirebulebebi (anu RirebulebiTi orientaciebi), romlebsac SeiZleba
icavdes individi, warmoadgens meore saerTo kategorias, romelic avtorebis
mier CarTulia organizaciuli kulturis ganmartebaSi. Rirebulebebi
orientirs aZlevs individs imis gasarkvevad, Tu rogori qceva SeiZleba
CaiTvalos
misaRebad
an
dauSveblad
(miuReblad).
Aase,
zogierT
organizaciaSi miCneulia, rom klienti yovelTvis marTalia, amitom
dauSvebelia klientis dadanaSauleba organizaciis wevrebis warumatebel
muSaobaSi. sxvagan SesaZlebelia yvelaferi sapirispirod iyos. magram
rogorc erT, ise meore SemTxvevaSi miRebuli faseuloba exmareba individs
imis gagebaSi, Tu rogor unda imoqmedos man konkrentul situaciaSi.
da bolos, organizaciuli kulturis Sinaarsis cnebis mesame saerTo
atributad miCneulia simbolika, romlis meSveobiTac RirebulebiTi
orientaciebi
“gadaecemaT”
organizaciis
wevrebs.
Mmraval
firmas
17
specialuri, yvelasaTvis gankuTvnili dokumenti aqvs, romelSic isini
detalurad aRweren TavianT RirebulebiT orientaciebs.
magram am
ukanasknelis Sinaarsi da mniSvneloba sruliad gadaecema muSakebs
istoriis, legendebisa da miTebis meSveobiT. maT uyvebian Sinaarss,
gadascemen, ganumartaven. Sedegad isini individze ufro did gavlenas
axdenen, vidre is Rirebulebebi, romlebic Cawerilia organizaciis
sareklamo bukletSi.
organizaciuli
kultura
–
esaa
umniSvnelovanesi
varaudebis,
ganzraxvebis nakrebi, miRebuli organizaciis wevrebis mier da asaxuli
organizaciis mier gacxadebul RirebulebebSi, romlebic adamianebs aZleven
maTi qcevisa da moqmedebebis orientirebs. Ees RirebulebiTi orientaciebi
gadaecema individebs sulieri da materialuri Sida organizaciuli
urTierTobebis simboluri saSualebebiT.
mas, vinc cdilobs Rrmad Seicnos organizaciuli kultura, Sexeba
aqvs mis meore, zedapirul donesTan. am doneze Seswavlas eqvemdebareba
Rirebulebebi, romlebsac iziareben organizaciis wevrebi, imis Sesabamisad,
es Rirebulebebi ramdenad aisaxeba simboloebsa da enaSi. Rirebulebebis
miReba Segnebul xasiaTs atarebs da damokidebulia adamianebis survilebze.
Mmkvlevrebi xSirad izRudebian am doniT, radganac Semdeg doneze TiTqmis
dauZleveli sirTuleebi wamoiWreba.
mesame, siRrmisuli done moicavs sabazro varaudebsa da ganzraxvebs,
romlebic Znelad gasarkvevia da maTSi garkveva TviT organizaciis
wevrebsac ki uWirT specialurad am sakiTxebze gonebis daZabvisa da
yuradRebis gamaxvilebis gareSe. es faruli da sarwmunod miRebuli
varudebi da ganzraxulobani warmarTaven adamianebis qcevas da moqmedebas,
exmarebian maT aiTvison da aRiqvan is atributebi, romlebic axasiaTebs
organizaciul kulturas.
imis Sesabamisad, Tu miTiTebuli doneebidan romeli Seiswavleba,
miRebulia organizaciuli kulturebis dayofa subieqturad da obieqturad.
subieqturi organizaciuli kultura iqmneba muSakebis mier varaudebisa da
ganzraxulebaTa nimuSebis gaziarebis, rwmenisa da molodinisagan, agreTve
misi Rirebulebebis organizaciuli garemocvis jgufuri aRqmisagan
(miRebisagan), im normebisa da rgolebis miRebisagan, romlebic pirovnebis
gareT arseboben. amaSi CairTveba simbolikis rigi elementebi, gansakuTrebiT
misi sulieri nawili: organizaciis gmiri, miTebi organizaciisa da misi
lideris istoriaze, organizaciuli tabu, ritualebi, urTierTobaTa enisa
da
lozungebis
miReba-aRqma.
subieqturi
organizaciuli
kultura
praqtikuli kulturis formirebis anu xelmZRvanelobis stilis SemuSavebis,
xelmRvanelebis mier problemaTa gadawyvetis stilis gamomuSavebis,
mTlianad maTi qcevis wesebis Camoyalibebis safuZvelia. Ees qmnis
gansxvavebas msgavs organizaciul kulturaTa Soris, magaliTad, or
kompanias SeuZlia ganacxados klientebis xarisxianad momsaxurebis Sesaxeb.
saboloo Sedegi bevrad iqneba damokidebuli imaze, Tu rogor iqneba
ganxorcielebuli am procesis xelmZRvaneloba.
obieqtur organizaciul kulturas Cveulebriv ukavSireben fizikur
garemocavas, romelic organizaciaSia Seqmnili: TviT Senoba da misi
dizaini, misi ganlagebis adgili, mowyobiloba da aveji, sivrcis feri da
moculoba, moxerxebuloba, misaRebi oTaxebi, manqanebis gasaCereblebi da
18
sxv. es yvelaferi ama Tu im xarisxiT asaxavs im faseulobebs, romlebsac
misdevs mocemuli organizacia.
miuxedavad imisa, rom organizaciuli kulturis orive aspeqti
mniSvnelovania, mainc subieqturi aspeqti adamianebsa da organizaciebs
Soris. rogorc saerTos, ise gansxvavebaTa Ziebis met saSulebas qmnis.
uamravi midgoma arsebobs im gansxvavebuli atributebis gamosayofad,
romlebic ama Tu im kulturis daxasiaTebas da identifikacias axdenen,
rogorc makro, ise mikrodoneze. Kkonkretuli organizaciuli kultura
SegviZlia ganvixiloT aTi maxasiaTeblis safuZvelze:
-muSakis mier sakuTari Tavisa da organizaciaSi Tavisi adgilis
gacnobiereba – erTni kulturas aRiqvamen rogorc muSakis mier Tavisi
Sinagani ganwyobis dafarvas, meoreni mxars uWeren da waaxaliseben maT
garegan gamovlenas; calkeul SemTxvevebSi damoukidebloba da Semoqmedeba
vlindeba TanamSromlobis saxiT, xolo sxva SemTxvevaSi –individualizmis
saxiT;
-urTierTobis komunikaciuri sistema da metyveleba – zepiri, weriTi,
araverbaluri komunikaciis, “satelefono uflebis” da komunikaciis
gaxsnilobis gamoyeneba gansxvavebulia jgufebs Soris, jgufidan jgufamde,
organizaciidan organizaciamde; Jargoni, abreviatura, Jestikulaciebi saxes
icvlis, sxvadasxva
organizaciebis dargobrivi, funqcionaluri da
teritoriuli kuTvnilebis mixedviT;
-garegnuli ieri, tansacmeli da Tavis wardgena samsaxurSi _
uniformaTa da spectansacmlis, saqmiani stilis, kosmetikis , varcxnilobis
gansxvavebuloba da mravalsaxeoba adasturebs mravali mikrokulturis
arsebobas;
-ras da rogor miirTmeven adamianebi, Wamis Cveulebebi da tradiciebi
_ muSakebis kvebis organizacia, maT Soris sawarmoSi kvebisTvis
gankuTvnili adgilebis arseboba an ararseboba; adamianebi daatareben
TavianT sakvebs Tu Sedian kafeebSi dawesebulebebis SigniT an mis gareT;
dotacia kvebaze; kvebis perioduloba da xangrZlivoba; sxvadasxva donis
muSakebi ikvebebian erTad Tu cal-calke da a. S.;
-drois Secnoba, SegrZneba, misdami damokidebuleba da gamoyeneba _
muSakebis sizustis xarisxi da droisadmi damokidebuleba; drois ganrigis
dacva; drois monoqronikuli an poliqronikuli gamoyeneba;
-adamianebs Soris urTierToba da urTierTdamokidebuleba _ asakisa
da sqesis mixedviT, statusisa da xelisuflebis mixedviT, gonierebisa da
inteleqtis, gamocdilebisa da codnis, rangis da protokolis, religiisa
da moqlaqeobis mixedviT da a. S.;
-faseulobebi _ rogorc orientirTa nakrebi imaze, Tu ra aris kargi
da ra aris cudi da normebi
_ rogorc winadadebaTa da molodinTa
nakrebi qcevis gansazRvruli tipis mixedviT –adamianebi ras afaseben
TavianT organizaciul cxovrebaSi (Tavis mdgomareobas, titulebs Tu TviT
samuSaos da a. S) da rogor xdeba am faseulobaTa SenarCuneba;
-rwmena raRacis mimarT da raRacis mimarT damokidebuleba an ganwyoba
raRacis mimarT _ rwmena xelmZRvanelobis, warmatebebis, sakuTari Zalebis,
urTierTdaxmarebis, eTikuri qcevis, samarTlianobis mimarT da a.S.;
kolegebisadmi damokidebuleba, borotebis, Zladobisa da agresiisadmi
damokidebuleba da sxv.; religiis gavlena da morali;
19
-muSakebis ganviTarebis procesi da swavleba _ samuSaos moufiqrebeli
an Segnebuli Sesruleba; orientiri inteleqtze Tu Zalaze; muSakebis
informirebis procedurebi; msjelobebsa da moqmedebebSi logikis primatis
aRiareba an uaryofa; abstraqcia da konceptualizacia azrovnebasa da
swavlaSi; mizezebis ganmartebisadmi midgoma;
-SromiTi eTika da motivireba – samuSaos mimarT damokidebuleba da
pasuxismgebloba samuSaos Sesrulebaze; samuSaos danawileba da SenacvlebaCanacvleba; samuSao adgilis sisufTave; samuSaos xarisxi; Cveulebebi
samuSos mixedviT; samuSaos Sefaseba da waxaliseba; damokidebuleba
“adamiani-manqana”; individualuri an jgufuri muSaoba; samsaxurebrivi
dawinaureba.
organizaciuli kulturis zemoaRniSnuli maxasiaTeblebi erTad
aRebuli asaxaven da Sinaars aZleven organizaciuli kulturis koncefcias.
Oorganizaciis wevrebi, iziareben ra rwmenasa da molodinis grZnobas,
qmnian TavianT fizikur garemocvas, SeimuSaveben urTierTobis enas, avlenen
yvelasaTvis gasageb grZnobebsa da emociebs. Yyovelive es exmareba maT
organizaciuli kulturis gagebasa da interpretirebaSi, anu Tavisi
mniSvneloba mianiWon movlenebsa da moqmedebebs, gaazrebuli gaxadon
TavianTi samuSao garemocva. adamianebisa da jgufebis qceva organizaciis
SigniT mWidrodaa dakavSirebuli normebTan, romlebic gamomdinareobs am
rwmenis, molodinisa da moqmedebebisagan.
organizaciuli
kulturis
Sinaarsi
gavlenas
axdens
qcevis
mimarTulebebze da ganisazRvreba varaudebisa da ganzraxvebis ara martivi
dajamebiT, aramed imiT, Tu rogor arian isini dakavSirebuli erTmaneTTan
da rogor qmnian qcevis gansazRvrul nimuSebs. Aama Tu im kulturis
ganmasxvavebeli da damaxasiaTebeli niSan-Tvisebaa formirebadi sabaziso
varaudebisa da ganzraxvebis garkveuli wesrigi,, rac miuTiTebs imaze, Tu
rogori politika da romeli principebi unda Warbobdes winadadebaTa
sxvadasxva nakrebs Soris konfliqtis wamoWris SemTxvevaSi. Aase, or
organizacias Tanabrad SeuZlia ganacxados muSaobaSi kooperaciisa da Sida
konkurenciis
ganviTarebis
Sesaxeb,
rogorc
erT-erT
mniSvnelovan
Rirebulebaze. Mmagram, amasTan, erT organizaciaSi kooperacia ufro metad
iqneba damokidebuli gadawyvetilebaTa miRebis procesze, xolo Sida
konkurencia – karieris dagegmvaze. Mmeore organizaciaSi aqcenti SeiZleba
gakeTdes Sebrunebuli wesiTa da mimarTulebebiT. Aam ori organizaciis
kulturaTa Sinaarsi sakmaod gansxavavebuli iqneba, miuxedavad imisa, rom
maTi varaudebisa da ganzraxulebaTa nakrebi arsebiTad TiTqos erTnairia.
zemoT
moyvanili
kidev
erTxel
TvalnaTliv
gviCvenebs,
rom
organizaciul kulturaze, rogorc monoliTur fenomenze, laparaki ar
gviwevs. Ees mxolod organizaciis erTi kulturaa. Aamis miuxedavad,
aucilebelia gvaxsovdes, rom erT organizaciaSi SesaZlebelia iyos bevri
“lokaluri” kultura. maSasadame, arsebobs erTi, mTel organizaciaSi
umeteswilad gavrcelebuli da upiratesad miCneuli kultura da misi
nawilebis (donis, qvedanayofis, profesionaluri, regionaluri, erovnuli,
asakobrivi, sqesobrivi da sxva jgufebis) kultura. Yyvela es gansxvavebuli
subkultura SesaZlebelia Tanaarsebobdes erTi saerTo kulturis qveS.
organizaciaSi erTi an ramdenime subkultura Tavisi bunebiT
SesaZlebelia
imyofebodes
imave
ganzomilebaSi,
romelSic
aris
organizaciaSi dominirebuli kultura, an kidev Seqmnas am organizaciaSi
20
erTgvari meore ganzomileba. pirvel organizaciaSi es iqneba Taviseburi
anklavi, romelSic dominirebuli kulturis Rirebulebebisadmi erTguleba,
Tavdadeba vlindeba ufro metad, vidre organizaciis sxva nawilSi.
Cveulebriv, es xdeba organizaciis centraluri aparatis subkulturis an
marTvis
organoebis
sistemaSi.
meore
SemTxvevaSi
organizaciaSi
dominirebuli kulturis ZiriTadi Rirebulebebi am organizaciis romelime
jgufis wevris mier miiReba sxva kulturebTan erTad calke nakrebis saxiT.
sazogadoebis msgavsad, organizaciaSic SeiZleba arsebobdes mesame tipis
subkulturebic, romlebic sakmaod mtkiced uaryofen imas, risi miRwevac
organizacias surs mTlianobaSi. organizaciaSi kontrkulturebi maSin
iqmneba xolme, rodesac individebi da jgufebi iseT pirobebSi imyofebian,
rom SeuZlebelia maTTvis sasurveli an normaluri mdgomareobis
uzrunvelyofa.
garkveuli
azriT,
organizaciuli
kontrkulturebi
warmoadgenen stresis an krizisis periodSi mowodebas daxmarebisaken, anu
rodesac mxardaWeris arsebuli sistema iSleba
da adamianebi cdiloben
organizaciaSi TavianTi cxovrebis kontrolis raime doniT aRdgenas.
zogierTi “kontkulturis” jgufi SesaZlebelia sakmaod gavleniani gaxdes
msxvilmasStabiani transformaciuli procesebis msvlelobaSi, romlebic
dakavSirebulia bunebaSi mimdinare cvlilebebTan, agreTve organizaciis
konstruqciisa da xasiaTis cvlilebebTan. aseTi jgufebis TvalsaCino
magaliTia Tavis droze yovlisSemZle SromiTi koleqtivis sabWoebi,
romlebic amJamad, privatizaciis procesis mimdinareobisas, warmoiqmna
sawarmoTa aqciebis sakontrolo paketis mflobelTa jgufebis da
sabiujeto organizaciebis samewarmeo qvedanayofebis saxiT.
rogorc kargadaa cnobili, garemomcveli sfero mniSvnelovan
gavlenas axdens organizaciaze, rac, bunebrivia, mis kulturazec aisaxeba.
amasTan, rogorc praqtika gviCvenebs, or organizacias, romlebic erT
garemosa da garemocvaSi funqcionireben, SesaZlebelia Zlier gansxvavebuli
kultura hqondeT. Ees imitom xdeba, rom organizaciis wevrebi TavianTi
erToblivi gamocdilebiT sxvadasxvanairad wyveten or umniSvnelovanes
problemas. Ppirveli _ esaa gare adaptacia: ra unda gakeTdes organizaciis
mier da rogor unda gakeTdes. meore _ esaa Siga integracia: rogor wyveten
organizaciis muSakebi TavianT yoveldRiur, organizaciaSi muSaobasa da
cxovrebasTan dakavSirebul problemebs.
gare adaptaciis da gadarCenis procesi
ukavSirdeba organizaciis
mier bazarze Tavisi niSis Ziebasa da povnas da mis morgebas mudmivad
cvalebad garemosTan. Ees aris organizaciis mier Tavisi miznebis miRwevisa
da misi urTierTqmedebis procesi gare samyaros warmomadgenlebTan.
Cveulebriv organizacia viTardeba axali wevrebis mozidvis xarjze,
romlebic sxva kulturis mqone organizaciebidan modian. Oorganizaciis
axal wevrebs, nebsiT Tu uneblieT, organizaciaSi sxva kulturis “virusi”
SeaqvT. Semdgom ki kulturebidan romeli damkvidrdeba da gadarCeba,
bevradaa damokidebuli maT siZliereze, ramdenadac es siZliere gavlenas
axdens ama Tu im qcevis intensivobaze.
organizaciis kulturis siZliere sami parametriT ganisazRvreba:
-kulturis “sisqe”;
-organizaciis wevrebis mier kulturis gaziarebis xarisxi;
-kulturis prioritetebis sicxade (garkveuloba).
21
organizaciis kulturis “sisqe” ganisazRvreba im mniSvnelovani
varaudebis (ganzraxvaTa) raodenobiT, romlebsac TanamSromlebi iziareben.
Kkultura rwmenisa da Rirebulebebis mravali doniT Zlier gavlenas
axdens TanamSromelTa qcevebze.
zogierT kulturaSi aRiarebuli da gaziarebuli sxvadasxva rwmena da
Rirebulebebi mkveTrad ranJirebulia, amasTan, is, rom maT sxvadasxvagvari
Rirebuleba aqvT, sulac ar amcirebs TiToeuli maTganis rols. zogierT
sxva kulturaSi SedarebiTi prioritetebi da aRiarebul Rirebulebebs
Soris kavSirebi mTlianad naTeli ar aris. pirvel SemTxvevaSi miiRweva
didi efeqti adamianebis qcevaze gavlenis TvalsazrisiT, ramdenadac maTSi
iwyebs formirebas rwmena imisa, Tu romeli Rirebuleba unda Warbobdes
interesTa konfliqtis SemTxvevaSi
Sromis motivireba da karieris marTva
1. motivirebis arsi da adamianis ZiriTadi moTxovnilebebi
imisaTvis, rom organizaciam warmatebiT miaRwios Tavis miznebs,
sakmarisi araa organizaciuli, teqnikuri, resursuli sakiTxebis gadawyveta
da kvalificiuri personalis mozidva; yovelive amasTan erTad aucilebelia
Sromis procesis iseTi organizeba, rom yovelma momuSavem Zalisxmeva da
daintereseba
gamoavlinos
dasaxuli
miznebis
misaRwevad.
istoria,
mecnieruli gamokvlevebi, praqtikuli cxovreba da gamocdileba calsaxad
adasturebs, rom adamianma mxolod maSin SeiZleba miaRwios Tavis miznebs
da maqsimalurad gamoavlinos Tavisi unar-SesaZleblobebi, roca is
saTanadodaa motivirebuli, roca mas saamisod realuri stimuli aqvs.
rasakvirvelia, arasworia imis mtkiceba, rom momuSaveTa SromiTi qceva,
disciplina da Sromis Sedegebi mxolod maTi motivirebiT ganisazRvreba,
magram es odnavadac ar amcirebs adamianTa motivirebis
gansakuTrebul
mniSvnelobas.
ratom amjobineben xolme adamianebi erT samuSaos meores? ratom
reagireben isini sxvadasxvagvarad erTsa da imave stimulze? ratomaa, rom
erT SemTxvevaSi Tavdauzogavad, maqsimaluri mobilizebiTa da mondomebiT
muSaoben, sxva SemTxvevebSi ki _ zereled da uinteresod? rasakvirvelia, aq
mTavaria imis garkveva, Tu ra da ratom iwvevs adamianTa motivirebas da ra
unda gakeTdes, rom isini daintersebulni iyvnen, maqsimaluri ZalisxmeviTa
da Sedegianad imuSaon.
tradiciulad da dResac, arcTu cota xelmZRvaneli fiqrobs, rom
adamianTa warmatebuli saqmianobis mTavari da xSirad erTaderTi stimuli
materialuri daintereseba, xelfasia. am faqtoris Zalze didi mniSvnelobis
miuxedavad, gansakuTrebiT dRevandel qarTul sinamdvileSi, iSviaTi rodia
SemTxvevebi, roca adamiani didi monodomebiTa da TavdaviwyebiTac muSaobs,
Tumca mas ar akmayofilebs xelfasis done; aris iseTi samuSoebic,
romlebsac arcerTi adamiani xels ar mohkidebs, rac unda maRali iyos
anazRaureba; ase rom, fuli yovelTvis da yvelafers ar wyvets da adamianis
motivirebac marto mas ar ukavSirdeba.
22
motivireba adamianis im moTxovnilebebTan
dakavSirebuli Sinagani
mdgomareobaa, romlebic stimuls aZleven mis moqmedebebs da dasaxuli
miznebis misaRwevad warmarTaven.
adamianis qcevis motivirebis gamartivebuli modeli
moTxovnilebebi;
motivebi,
moqmedebebi, romlebic moTxovnilebaTa
dakmayofilebiskenaa
mimarTuli;
mizani;
moTxovnilebaTa dakmayofilebis
Sedegi
xazgasmiT unda aRiniSnos, rom motivireba uSualod da ganuyofladaa
dakavSirebuli adamianis moTxovnilebebTan. moTxovnileba aris adamianis
mier aRqmuli ukmarisoba imisa, rac mis gareTaa da rac aucilebelia misi
normaluri cxovrebisaTvis. rodesac iwyeben muSaobas, adamianebi cdiloben
daikmayofilon sxvadasxva moTxovnileba, romelic SeiZleba
xSirad
saTanadod gacnobierebulic ki ar hqondeT. Tanamedrove literaturaSi
arsebobs adamianis moTxovnilebaTa sakmaod bevri, erTmaneTisagn metnaklebad
gansxvavebuli
klasifikacia,
amaTgan
erT-erTi
yvelaze
popularulia maslous mier warmodgenili klasifikacia.
adamianTa moTxovnilebebis ierarqia maslous mixedviT
pirveladi moTxovnilebebi
1. fiziologiuri
2. usafrTxoebis
meoradi moTxovnilebebi
3. aRiareba-pativiscemis
4. socialuri
Y 5. TviTgamoxatvis (TviTrealizebis)
fiziologiuri moTxovnilebebia: sakvebi, wyali, haeri, tansacmeli, bina
da a. S. , anu is moTxovnilebebi, romlebic adamianis, rogorc biologiuri
organizmis arsebobas uzrunvelyofen.
usafrTxoebis moTxovnilebebia: saimedo samuSao adgili, Semosavlis
mudmivi wyaros arseboba, fizikuri da fsiqikuri usafrTxoeba, samedicino
daxmareba, sapensio uzrunvelyofa, mSvidoba, xvalindeli dRis imedi da sxv.
socialuri moTxovnilebebia: socialuri kontaqtebi, kolegebTan
araformaluri urTierTobebi, organizaciis Cveulebriv wevrad gaxdoma,
organizaciuli kulturis gaTaviseba da sxv.
aRiareba-pativiscemis
moTxovnilebebia:
momuSaves
pativs
scemen
xelmZRvanelebi,
kolegebi,
aRiareben
mis
warmatebul
saqmianobas,
mondomebasa da profesionalizms, maRalia misi da misi Tanamdebobis
prestiJi da avtoriteti saqminobis sxvadasxva sferoSi, maRalia misi
statusi (kabineti, aRWurva, momsaxureba da a.S.), mas aqvs Zlaufleba, axdens
sakuTari miRwevebis Sefasebas da sxv.
23
TviTgamoxatvis
moTxovnilebebia:
sakuTari
unar-SesaZleblobebis
srulyofilad
gamovlena
da
realizeba,
SemoqmedebiTi
ganviTareba,
pirovnuli zrda.
rasakvirvelia, moTxovnilebaTa warmodgenili ierarqiidan
pirveli
ori,
e.w.
vitaluri,
anu
sasicocxlo
mniSvnelobis,
pirveladi
moTxovnilebebia; Tu isini araa dakmayofilebuli, Znelia (Tu SeuZlebeli
ara) adamians sxva, ufro maRali, meoradi – aRiareba-pativiscemasTan,
socialur
cxovrebasTan
Tu
TviTgamoxatvasTan
dakavSirebuli
_
moTxovnilebebi gauCndes; Tumca gamonaklisebi yovelTvis da yvelgan xdeba
da dRevandeli saqarTveloc amis saukeTeso magaliTia: vitaluri
(fiziologiuri
da
usafrTxoebis)
moTxovnilebaTa
arasakmarisi
dakmayofilebis pirobebSic ki saqarTvelos sajaro samsaxurSi cotani
rodi arian moxeleebi, romlebic patiosnad, SemoqmedebiTad, didi
mondomebiTa da maRali pasuxismgeblobiT asruleben TavianT funqciebs da
profesiul kmayofilebasac grZnoben.
rogorc ukve aRiniSna, bevr adamians axali samuSaos dawyebisa da
axal organizaciaSi samomavlo saqmianobis motivebi, rogorc wesi,
detalurad, konkretulad da sistemurad Camoyalibebuli ara aqvs. SeiZleba
erTi-ori,
misTvis
mTavari
da
prioritetuli
motivi
hqondes
gacnobierebuli, xolo danarCenebi arsebobdes intuiciur, qvecnobier
doneze, an sruliad ar iyos Camoyalibebuli da saqmianobis Semdgom
etapebze gamoCndes.
am TvalsazrisiT, metad mniSvnelovania organizaciis personalis
marTvis samsaxuris, rogorc meTodur-makoordinirebeli qvedanayofis, ise
gansakuTrebiT xaziT menejerTa roli da funqciebi; am ukanasknelebma da,
sazogadod, nebismierma menejerma unda icodes da cdilobdes ukeT gaigos,
Tu ra konkretuli motivebi, moTxovnilebebi da interesebi amoZravebs maTze
uSualod daqvemdebarebulebs, risken iswrafvian, ras elodebian xval da
zeg isini, ra moswonT da ra ar moswonT maT TavianT saqmianobaSi, ra
Seuwyobs xels maTi muSaobis efeqtianobis mniSvnelovan zrdas da sxv.
socialuri moTxovnilebebi
• SeecadeT TanamSromlebs misceT iseTi samuSao, romelic maT sxvebTan
urTierTobebis saSualebas miscems;
• SeqmeniT erTiani gundis suliskveTeba samuSao adgilebze;
• moawyveT daqvemdebarebulebTan perioduli TaTbirebi;
• Tu
organizacias
realur
zians
ar
ayeneben,
nu
SeecdebiT
araformaluri jgufebis daSlas;
• SeqmeniT saTanado pirobebi organizaciis gareT organizaciis wevrebis
socialuri aqtivobisaTvis.
aRiareba-pativiscemis moTxovnilebebi
• SesTavazeT daqvemdebarebulebs ufro Sinaarsiani samuSao;
• uzrunvelyaviT organizaciis miRweul SedegebTan daqvemdebarebulTa
dadebiTi ukukavSiri;
• saTanadod SeafaseT da waaxaliseT daqvemdebarebulTa mier miRweuli
Sedegebi;
24
• aqtiurad CaabiT daqvemdebarebulebi organizaciis (qvedanayofis
miznebis formulirebisa da gadawyvetilebis miRebis procesSi);
• moaxdineT
daqvemdebarebulebebze
damatebiT
uflebamosilebaTa
delegireba;
• izruneT daqvemdebarebulTa karieraze, Tanamdebobriv winsvlaze,
waxalisebaze.
TviTgamoxatvis (TviTrealizebis) moTxovnilebebi
• uzrunvelyaviT
daqvemdbarebulTa
kvalifikaciis
amaRlebisa
da
SesaZleblobebi, rac maT saSualebas
TavianTi potenciali;
• mieciT daqvemdebarebulebs rTuli da
maTgan srul ukugebas moiTxovs;
• Yyovelmxriv waaxaliseT da xeli
SemoqmedebiTi unarebis ganviTarebas.
swavlebis,
gadamzadebis,
permanentuli
ganviTarebis
miscems srulad gamoiyenon
mniSvnelovani samuSao, rac
SeuwyveT
daqvemdebarebulTa
metad didi mniSvneloba aqvs, rom momuSaveebi siamayes grZnobdnen
organizaciis wevrobiT, organizaciis miznebsa da amocanebs aRiqvamdnen
rogorc sakuTars, naTlad xedavdnen TavianT adgilsa da rols maT
miRwevaSi, erTmaneTs erwymodes saerTo-organizaciuli da pirovnuli
interesebi,
aRiarebuli
da
gaTavisuflebuli
iqnes
organizaciis
strategiuli interesebis primati.
imis gamo, rom xSirad naTlad araa Camoyalibebuli momuSaveTa
motivaciuri struqtura da konkretuli moTxovnilebebi, am Tavis pirvel
danarTSi mocemulia testi, romelic am mxriv daxmarebas gauwevs rogorc
momuSaveebs, ise maT uSualo xelmZRvanelebsa da personalis marTvis
samsaxuris moxeleebs.
Sromis motivirebis ZiriTadi principebi
momuSaveTa SromiTi qcevis gagebisa da stimulirebis dasabuTebuli,
efeqtiani sistemis Sesaqmnelad didi mniSvneloba aqvs im fsiqologiuri
kanonzomierebisa da ZiriTadi principebis codnas, romlebic SromiTi
motivirebis safuZvels warmoadgenen; aseTi principebia:
• SromiTi qcevis polimotivireba;
• motivebis ierarqiuli organizeba;
• samarTlianobis principi;
• mxardaWeris principi.
SromiTi qcevis polimotivireba
adamianis saqmianobaze ara erTi, aramed bevri motivi axdens gavlenas;
amis gageba SeiZleba daexmaros xelmZRvanels, erTi mxriv, kargad moaxdinos
Sromis procesis organizeba, raTa daqvemdebarebulebi didi surviliT,
mondomebiTa da efeqtianad muSaobdnen, xolo meore mxriv – Tavidan
25
aicilos motivebis konfliqti, roca sxvadasxva motivi adamianisagan
gansxvavebul qcevas, moqmedebasa da gadawyvetilebebis miRebas moiTxovs.
MmagaliTad, momuSaves SeiZleba didi survili hqondes xelmZRvanelis yvela
davaleba da miTiTeba ukomentarod Seasrulos, magram misma zogierTma
kolegam SeiZleba aseTi mondomeba gadaWarbebulad, mliqvnelobad CaTvalos
da maTTan urTierToba gaufuWdes, anu adgili aqvs interesTa konfliqts.
adamianis qcevaze moqmed motivebs Soris erTgvari urTierTkavSiri
arsebobs.
Aam
motivebs
Soris
SeiZleba
damyardes
kompensaciuri
urTierTobebi; SedarebiT susti
motivi SeiZleba kompensirebuli an
gawonasworebuli iqnes sxva motivebiT; amis sakmaod gavrcelebuli
magaliTia, roca arcTu saintereso samuSao mimzidveli xdeba maRali
xelfasis gamo da piriqiT: Sromis arcTu maRali anazRaureba SeiZleba
kompensirebul iqnes imiT, rom samuSao sainteresoa, damoukideblobasa da
SemoqmedebiT midgomas moiTxovs. kompensaciuri urTierTobebis bevri
magaliTia saqarTvelos sajaro samsaxurSi, kerZod, profesionali da
patiosani moxeleebis SemTxvevaSi, roca saarsebo minimumze dabali
anazRaureba da socialuri daucveloba met-naklebad kompensirdeba
profesiuli Rirsebis grZnobis, patriotizmisa da qveynisaTvis samsaxuris
prioritetulobis da sxva pozitiuri motivebiT.
motivebis ierarqiuli organizeba
SromiTi motivirebis ierarqiuli organizebisas SromiT motivebsa da
SromiT qcevas Soris iseTi urTierTobebi igulisxmeba, roca SromiT
qcevaze aSkara gavlenas axdens iseTi motivebi, romelTa safuZvelic
adamianisaTvis mniSvnelovani moTxovnilebebia; Sesabamisad, maT ufro
maRali adgili ukaviaT SromiTi motivirebis ierarqiaSi; rasakvirvelia,
individebis mixedviT ama Tu im motivis adgili ierarqiaSi da, Sesabamisad,
maTi gavlena SromiT qcevaze SeiZleba icvlebodes; ase magaliTad, erTi
adamianisaTvis samuSaos mimarT mis damokidebulebas SeiZleba materialuri
motivebi
gansazRvravdes,
meorisTvis
–
Zalauflebisadmi
ltolva,
mesamisTvis – kargi kolegebi da socialuri garemo da a. S.
ama Tu im motivis mniSvneloba da misi adgili ierarqiaSi SeiZleba
situaciis mixedviTac icvlebodes. magaliTad, iSviaTi rodia SemTxvevebi,
roca axal organizaciaSi samuSaos dawyebisas wina planze wamoiwevs iseTi
motivebi, romlebic axal garemoSi orientirebas, adaptirebas, kolegebTan
piradi kontaqtebis damyarebas ukavSirdeba; magram Semdgom, roca momuSave
mTlianad adaptirdeba organizaciaSi, Tavis qvedanayofsa da samuSao
adgilze, LSeiZleba gaizardos iseTi motivebis mniSvneloba, romlebic
Tanamdebobriv da profesiul winsvlas ukavSirdeba.
samarTlianobis principi
SromiTi motivireba samuSao situaciis sxvadasxva aspeqtTan adamianis
urTierTobebs
mikerZoebuls
xdis;
es
garkveulwilad
gamoixateba
momuSaveebsa da organizacias Soris urTierTobaTa samarTlianobis
26
SefasebaSi. Aadamianebi miiswrafvian organizaciasa da sxva adamianebTan
samarTlian urTierTobaTa damyarebisken da cdiloben Secvalon is SromiTi
urTierTobebi, romelTac isini arasamarTlianad miiCneven; adamianebs surT,
rom maTsa da organizacias Soris samarTliani urTierTobebi damyardes; am
wonasworobis nebismieri darRveva, rogorc erTi, ise meore mxaris
sasargeblod, warmoSobs daZabulobasa da Sesabamis moqmedebebs.
aq aucilebelia aRiniSnos, rom samarTlianobis gageba subieqturia. es
aris momuSavis azri, SegrZneba Tu warmodgena imasTan dakavSirebiT, Tu
ramdenad samarTlianad afaseben mis SromiT wvlils. is, rac momuSavem
Tavisi SromiTi wvlilis arasamarTlian Sefasebad SeiZleba CaTvalos, misma
xelmZRvanelma SeiZleba savsebiT samarTlianad miiCnios; magaliTad,
momuSave SeiZleba ukmayofilo iyos da usamarTlobad miiCnevdes Tavisi
Sromis anazRaurebis (xelfasis) raodenobas, maSin, roca misi xelmZRvaneli
SeiZleba piriqiT fiqrobdes, rom momuSave am donis anazRaurebasac ar
imsaxurebs.
iswrafvis
ra
organizaciasTan
samarTliani
urTierTobebis
dasamyareblad, momuSavem SeiZleba sxvadasxva tipis Sedarebebi gaakeTos,
kerZod:
• sakuTar Tavs adarebs organizaciis sxva momuSaveebs;
• sakuTar Tavs adarebs sxva organizaciis momuSaveebs;
• axdens
sistemur-struqturul
Sedarebebs;
ase
magaliTad,
Tu
organizacia acxadebs, rom is axorcielebs xelfasze danamatebs
welTa namsaxurobisaTvis, magram mxedvelobaSi ar iRebs saarsebo
minimumisa da inflaciis zrdas, maSin arsebuli da mosalodneli
xelfasis doneebs Soris gansxvavebam momuSaveSi ukmayofilebisa da
usamarTlobis grZnoba SeiZleba gamoiwvios;
• aanalizebs organizaciaSi damkvidrebul praqtikas; magaliTad, Tu
Tanamdebobrivi dawinaurebisas organizaciaSi xelfass, rogorc wesi,
uzrdian xolme, maSin analogiur SemTxvevaSi Tu momuSaves xelfasi
gauzardes, samarTlianobad aRiqvams, xolo Tu ara –samarTlianobis
principis darRvevad;
• iTvaliswinebs sakuTar gamocdilebas; magaliTad, Tu momuSave,
tradiciulad, xelfasze sakmaod mniSvnelovan danamatebs iRebda,
bunebrivia, is elodeba ase iqneba momavalSic;
• aanalizebs da afasebs, Tu ras warmoadgens igi, ra mniSvneloba aqvs
mas organizaciisaTvis, Tavisi codna-gamocdilebiT ra konkretuli
wvlili Seaqvs mis saqmianobaSi.
bunebrivia, samarTlianobis principis dacva bevrad ioldeba, roca
organizaciaSi gamoiyeneba momuSaveTa da maT mier samuSaos Sesrulebis
Sefasebis obieqturi meTodebi da mTeli es procesebi gamWvirvaled
xorciledeba.
mxardaWeris principi
ama Tu im situaciiT an movleniT gamowveul adamianis qcevas Tu
moqmedebas, rogorc wesi, Tavisi Sedegebi mohyveba xolme. Tu es Sedegebi
misTvis pozitiuria, msgavs situaciebSi adamiani cdilobs analogiurad
moiqces; xolo Tu Sedegebi negatiuria, arasasurvelia, maSin adamiani
27
cdilobs, rom sxvagvarad moiqces da Tavidan aicilos uaryofiTi Sedegebi;
magaliTad, momuSave cdilobs droulad da xarisxianad Seasrulos uSualo
xelmZRvanelis davalebebi, radgan winaaRmdeg SemTxvevaSi isjeba xolme –
Rebulobs sayvedurs, ar aZleven premias da a.S. maSasadame, mxardaWera
SeiZleba iyos pozitiuri an negatiuri.
pozitiuri mxardaWera aris stimuli, romelic zrdis sasurveli
qcevis albaTobas; magaliTad, skolaSi maRali SefasebebisaTvis mowafe
iRebs pozitiur mxardaWeras mSoblebisagan sxvadasxva formiT (Seqeba,
mofereba, sasurveli nivTis yidva da sxv.); SromiTi urTierTobebis dros
momuSavisaTvis mniSvnelovani pozitiuri mxardaWera SeiZleba gamoyenebul
iqnes
miRwevebis
uzrunvelsayofad
da
saqmianobis
efeqturobis
gasazrdelad. Aaqve unda gaviTvaliswinoT, rom is mxardaWera, romelic
erTi momuSavisTvis mniSvnelovani faseulobaa, meorisTvis SeiZleba
arafers warmoadgendes; ase magaliTad, momuSaveTa erTi nawilisaTvis
SeiZleba mTavari iyos samuSaos mniSvneloba da prestiJi, xolo meore
nawilisTvis xelfasi iyos ganmsazRvreli.
negatiurma mxardaWeram SeiZleba ara mxolod daamuxruWos adamianis
arasasurveli moqmedebebi da qcevebi, aramed stimuli misces warmatebis
misaRwev moqmedebebs.
aRniSnulidan cxadia, rom didi mniSvneloba aqvs xelmZRvanelis mier
mxardaWeris swori strategiis arCevas, raTa miaRwios daqvemdebarebulTa
motivirebis maRal donesa da maTi Sromis Sesabamis Sedegebs. samwuxarod,
bevri xelmZRvaneli daqvemdebarebulTa motivirebis problemas martivad da
primitiulad uyurebs, kerZod, fiqroben amgvarad: “mieci maRali xelfasi da
adamiani kargad imuSavebs”; aseTi zerele midgomisas, roca xelmZRvanelma
saTanadod ar icis, Tu rogor imoqmedos motivirebaze da Sesabamisad –
adamianebze, is SeiZleba bevr sirTules waawydes, kerZod:
• momuSavis motivireba da aqtivoba SeiZleba Semcirdes, Tu misi
Sedegebi saTanadod ar dafasdeba;
• momuSaves SeiZleba hqondes dabali motivireba, Tu mas ukve aqvs am
organizaciaSi misi TanamdebobisaTvis maqsimaluri anazRaureba da
misi Sromis nayofierebisa da xarisxis Semdgomi amaRleba aRar
aisaxeba xelfasis gazrdaze;
• Aaris SemTxvevebi, roca momuSave Tavisi SromiTi wvlilis Sesabamis
anazRaurebas iRebs, magram es mis motivirebaze gavlenas ar axdens,
es naklebad izidavs, radgan mas aTjer da asjer ufro meti sxva
Semosavali aqvs;
• Tu, momuSavis azriT, misi waxaliseba araa sakmarisi, aseTi
waxaliseba ver SeZlebs momuSavis efeqtiani qcevis stimulirebas;
• Tu momuSaveebi waxalisebas ar miiCneven samarTlianad, maSin
samuSaoTi maTi kmayofileba mcirdeba. ramac SeiZleba SromiTi
maCveneblebis gauaresebac gamoiwvios;
• daqvemdebarebulTa waxalisebisas xelmZRvanelebi yovelTvis ar
iReben mxedvelobaSi maT individualur Taviseburebebs, magaliTad,
asaks, mis mier organizaciaSi miRweul statuss, pirovnul Tvisebebs,
Sromis mTavar, prioritetul motivebs da a. S.
28
adamianebTan urTierTobis xelovneba
personalis marTva warmoudgenelia adamianebTan urTierTobis gareSe;
yoveli organizacia, upirvelesad, esaa formaluri da araformaluri
urTierTobebi
marTvis
ierarqiuli
safexurebis
sxvadasxva
donis
menejerebs, xelmZRvanelebsa da daqvemdebarebulebs, erTsa da imave, agreTve,
sxvadasxva struqturul qvedanayofSi momuSaveTa Soris. Sromis procesSi
adamianebs Soris urTierTobebTan dakavSirebiT albaT xSirad yvelas
gaugonia: “im kacTan ver Sexval, Tu Sexval, ar mogismens”, sxvaze ityvian:
“kargad migiRebs, magram saqmes ver gaakeTeb, arafers ar dagiTmobso”, an
“Zalian
ganaTlebuli
da
kulturuli
kacia
da
rac
SeiZleba
argumentirebulad unda elaparako”, “yovelTvis yuradRebiT gismens da Tu
daarwmune, aucileblad dageTanxmeba”, “ver gaigeb, ra ainteresebs, ras
aqcevs yuradRebas” da a. S. yvelaferi es adamianebs Soris urTierTobebis
sferoa da masze mniSvnelovnadaa damokidebuli konkretuli miznebisa da
amocanebis Sesruleba, organizaciaSi socialur-fsiqologiuri klimati,
TviT organizaciis imiji da misi saqmianobis efeqtianoba.
marTvis procesSi kontaqtebis organizaciuli formebi
marTvis
procesSi
kontaqtebis
organizaciuli
formebidan,
upirvelesad, unda aRiniSnos: krebebi, TaTbirebi, saqmiani Sexvedrebi,
satelefono saubrebi, daqvemdebarebulTa samuSao adgilebis Semovla;
moaqalaqeTa (kolegebis, daqvemdebarebulTa, momsvlelTa) miReba.
krebebisa da TaTbirebis Catareba
mizani da amocanebi.
saxelmwifo, gansakuTrebiT maRali rangis moxeleTa da, saerTod,
nebismieri
organizaciis
xelmZRvanelTa
(SedarebiT
naklebad
_
TanamSromelTa) samuSao drois mniSvnelovani nawili eTmoba TaTbirebsa da
Sexvedrebs. xelmZRvanelma yoveldRe unda moamzados, organizeba gaukeTos
an daeswros sxvadasxva TaTbirs. es SeiZleba iyos Sexvedrebi misi
qvedanayofis
personalTan,
imave
organizaciis
sxva
sferos
TanamSromlebTan, xelisuflebis sami Stos sxvadasxva uwyebis moxeleebTan,
calkeul pirebTan an jgufebTan, romlebic kerZo seqtors, samoqalaqo
sazogadoebis sxvadasxva organizacias warmoadgenen da a. S. am TaTbirebs
praqtikulad sxvadasxva mizani aqvT xolme; es SeiZleba iyos informaciis
miiReba, gadacema an gacvla, Sesrulebuli samuSaos Sefaseba, saqmianobis
xelaxali dagegmva, axali miznebis dasaxva, sakiTxebis SeTanxmeba da sxv.
es mravlaricxovani Sexvedrebi saboloo miznad isaxavs saerTo
interesebis
mqone
jgufis
wevrebis
gansazRvruli
qmedebebisa
da
mosazrebebis Secvlas an SeTanxmebas, vinaidan saerTo interesebis gareSe
Sexvedras azri ar eqneboda. ar unda dagvaviwydes, rom TaTbirze arian
momwvevi da mowveuli pirebi. TiToeul maTgans SeiZleba hqondes sakuTari
sawyisi amocanebi, romlebic mTlianad an nawilobriv SesabamisobaSia
TaTbiris mowvevis saerTo amocanebTan. Aam miznebis misaRwevad, damswreni
29
Sexvedrebis ganmavlobaSi inaxaven an erTmaneTs uziareben informacias,
msjeloben an ar msjeloben sxvaTa mier miwodebul informaciaze;
Sexvedris monawileTa Soris gansxvavebuli tipis urTierTobebi myardeba.
Sexvedris bolos zogjer obieqturi Sefaseba eZleva gansxvavebul azrebs,
xolo zogjer formdeba SeTanxmebebi.
yovel TaTbirze arsebobs mravali saSualeba, romelic exmareba
momwvevs amocanis ganxorcielebaSi; maT Soris erT-erTi ZiriTadia
gacemuli da miRebuli informacia. Mmis raodenobaze, xarisxze, Sinaarsze,
kavSirze, formasa da konteqstze mniSvnelovnadaa damokidebuli Sexvedris
sawyisi miznis miRweva.
laparakia ara mxolod gacemuli da miRebuli informaciis Sinaarsze,
aramed situaciasa da urTierTqmedebebze, romlebic am informaciidan
gamomdinareobs. Zalze mniSvnelovania, Tu rogor viTardeba damswreTa
Soris es urTierTqmedebebi, raTa dadgenil droSi Sesruldes is sawyisi
amocanebi, romlebmac ganapiroba sxvadasxva pirovnebis yofna garkveul
drosa da garkveul adgilas.
Aaucilebelia gvaxsovdes, rom Sexvedra erToblivi aqtia; imTaviTve
arsebobs piri, visac aqvs specifikuri mizani (sakuTari an uwyebrivi) da misi
SesrulebisaTvis sWirdeba sxvebi, anu gareSe pirTa monawileoba nebismieri
formiT. TaTbiris momwvevs aqvs sakuTari mosazrebebi miznebis, Temis an
detalebis dasadgenad. mas ufleba aqvs SearCios monawileebi da siidan
amoiRos
zogierTi
maTgani,
miiwvios
isini
gansazRvrul
adgilas,
gansazRvrul dros da gansazRvruli vadiT. mas SeuZlia winaswar gaacnos
an ar gaacnos monawileebs Sexvedris realuri miznebis detalebi an is,
rasac momwvevi elis sxvebis daswrebis Sedegad. Mmiwveulebi eswrebian
Sexvedras, maT gacnobierebuli aqvT, rom monawileobas miiReben an
ubralod daeswrebian urTierTqmedebis am process, radgan Sexvedris
aucileblobas swored es urTierTqmedeba gansazRvravs.
saWiroa, rom Sexvedraze dasaswrebad SerCeuli pirebi iziarebdnen da
eTanxmebodnen Sexvedris adgils, dros da Sexvedris xasiaTs, miT umetes,
roca mowveulebi TaTbiris momwvevis uSualo daqvemdebarebaSi ar arian. es
sami maxasiaTebeli sami damatebiTi elementia, romelzedac mniSvnelovnadaa
damokideebuli TaTbiris momwvevisa da monawileebis miznebis miRwevis
SesaZlebloba.
rogorc vxedavT, Sexvedrebs SeiZleba hqondes gansxvavebuli amocanebi
da sxvadasxva donis sirTuleebi miznis miRwevisas. swored amitom
aucilebelia Sexvedrebis dagegmva da marTva, raTa ukeT iqnes miRweuli
organizaciis, koleqtiuri Tu pirovnuli miznebi, xolo TaTbirebsa da
Sexvedrebze, rac SeiZleba, naklebi dro daixarjos.
TaTbirebisa da Sexvedrebis organizebis zogadi principebi
koleqtiuri
Sroma da adamianebTan TanamSromloba xelmZRvanelTa
yoveldRiuri saqmianobis erT-erTi umTavresi damaxasiaTebeli niSania.
marTvis
sakiTxebis
koleqtiurad
gadasawyvetad
iqmneba
saTaTbiro
organoebi:
samTavrobo
komisiebi,
kolegia,
xelmZRvanelTa
TaTbiri,
teqnikur-ekonomikuri sabWoebi, komisiebi, specialistTa da eqspertTa
samuSao jgufebi da sxv.
30
TaTbirebi marTvis erT-erTi efeqtiani da yvelaze gavrcelebuli
organizaciuli meTodia. isini saSualebas gvaZlevs srulyofilad da
umokles droSi movaxdinoT dainteresebul
muSakTa didi jgufis
erTdrouli informireba, gavecnoT maT azrsa da winadadebebs, gavanawiloT
davaleba, vimsjeloT umniSvnelovanes problemebze da, rac mTavaria,
miviRoT urTierTSeTanxmebuli
gadawyvetileba, movaxdinoT davalebebis
koordinireba da TanamSromlobis organizeba.
TaTbirebi mxolod im SemTxvevaSi unda Catardes, roca isini marTlac
aucilebelia sakiTxebis koleqtiurad gadasawyvetad da roca vgrZnobT, rom
uSualo
urTierToba
arsebiTad
Seamsubuqebs,
daaCqarebs,
gaaiafebs
samuSaos, aamaRlebs miRebul gadawyvetilebaTa xarisxs da TaTbirs
SeuZlia umniSvnelovanes sakiTxebze erTian azramde migviyvanos.
drois danaxarjebis struqturis analizi mowmobs, rom maRali rangis
xelmZRvanelTa samuSao drois didi nawili, daaxloebiT naxevari, krebebze,
TaTbirebze, momsvlelTa miRebasa da saubarze ixarjeba. Aamdenad, Zalze
mniSvnelovania, Tu rogor tardeba es TaTbirebi da Sexvedrebi da ra
Sedegebs vaRwevT.
TaTbirebisa da Sexvedrebis Catarebisas aucilebelia daculi iqnes
sxvadasxva moTxovna, kerZod:
• saTaTbiro
organos
unda
hqondes
Tavisi
samuSao
gegma
,
regularulad, sasurvelia erTsa da imave dros ikribebodes, xolo
misi Semadgenloba met-naklebad stabiluri unda iyos;
• Gganxilvis Sedegebze sagrZnob gavlenas axdens ara mxolod TaTbiris
monawileTa
kompetencia,
aramed
maTi
raodenobac.
praqtika
adasturebs, rom roca TaTbirSi
20 kacze meti monawileobs,
sakiTxebis ganxilva rTuldeba;
• Gganxilvis saboloo Sedegze arsebiT gavlenas axdens isic, Tu
rogoraa TaTbiri momzadebuli. misi monawileebi gansaxilvel
masalebs daaxloebiT erTi kviriT adre unda iRebdnen, raTa
saTanadod moemzadon; vinc kargad moemzadeba, is arwmunebs sxvebs
Tavisi argumentebiT da Tavisas SedarebiT advilad aRwevs. zogadi
frazebiT, erTi da imaves gameorebiTa Tu gauTavebeli TxovniT
veravis davarwmunebT, Zala aqvs mxolod mtkice argumentebs, cifrebs,
magaliTebs, analizs, ekonomikur gaangariSebas, teqnikur monacemebs
da a. S.;
• TaTbirisaTvis momzadebuli masalebi gadatvirTuli ar unda iyos
specifikuri terminebiT da frazebiT, gasagebad unda iyos dawerili,
raTa saqmis arsSi isinic droulad da kargad gaerkvnen, romlebic
SedarebiT naklebad icnoben maT. amasTan, es masalebi unda iyos
obieqturi, hqondes zusti “misamarTi”, Seicavdes Sesadarebel
monacemebs (sxva analogiur organizaciebis monacemebs qveynis SigniT
da gareT, wina wlebis dinamikas), ar unda iyos didi moculobis;
• Ddidi mniSvneloba aqvs TaTbiris organizebasa da gaZRolas. TaTbiris
xelmZRvanelma TaTbiris momzadebaze ufro meti dro unda daxarjos,
vidre TviT TaTbirze. sakiTxebi winaswar safuZvlianad unda iyos
momzadebuli, dainteresebul mxareebTan SeTanxmebuli, Tavi unda
avaridoT
improvizebas
TaTbiris
msvlelobisas.
TaTbiris
xelmZRvanelma unda SeZlos sakiTxTa ganxilvis swori taqtikisa da
31
teqnologiis arCeva, sxvadasxva azris mqoneTa Soris wamoWrili
konfliqtebis gadaWra da a. S.;
• TaTbiris xelmZRvanelma ganxilul sakiTxTa yoveli punqtis mixedviT,
romlebic samuSao davalebas exeba, unda gansazRvros pasuxismgebeli
piri da Sesrulebis vada;
• did TaTbirebze, krebebze, konferenciebze sagangebod momzadebul
rezolucias, dadgenilebas an gadawyvetilebas iReben. Cveulebrivi
TaTbiris Semdeg, roca es saWiroa, oqms adgenen, sadac aRniSnulia
TaTbiris Catarebis dro, adgili, monawileTa Semadgenloba, dRis
wesrigi, calkeul sakiTxebze miRebuli gadawyvetilebebi, ama Tu im
piris gansakuTrebuli azri, roca is ar eTanxmeba miRebul
gadawyvetilebas. Ooqmi unda iyos lakoniuri, zusti, naTeli. is unda
gaegzavnos TaTbiris monawileebs da yvela sxva dainteresebul pirs.
• xelmZRvanelisaTvis didi mniSvneloba aqvs mis mier piradad
mopovebul informacias. aseTi uSualo informaciis wyaroebs
miekuTvneba momsvlelTa miReba, saubari TanamSromlebTan, samuSao
adgilebis Semovla, samsaxurebrivi mivlinebebi.
momsvlelTa miRebaze bevri xelmZRvaneli samuSao biujetis 15-20
procents da metsac xarjavs, amitom miRebis saqme kargad unda iyos
organizebuli; kerZod, umjobesia, gamoiyos miRebis dReebi da saaTebi,
momsvlelebs winaswarve unda vacnoboT, Tu vin da rodis miiRebs maT,
Zalze xSirad TiTqmis yvelas pirvel xelmZRvanelTan misvla surs, maSin
roca bevri sakiTxi uSualod misma daqvemdebarebulebma unda gadawyviton;
am mxriv didi mniSvneloba aqvs xelmZRvanelis kompetenciasa da
organizebulobas.
magaliTad,
CexoslovakaiaSi
Catarebuli
erT-erTi
gamokvlevis mixedviT kargad momzadebulma mdivnebma miRebaze mosulTa 23
procents TviTonve miawodes maTTvis saWiro informacia, sxva muSakebTan
gaagzavnes aseve 23 procenti, xolo uSualod xelmZRvanelma mosulTa
mxolod 54 procenti miiRo.
xelmZRvanelebma didi yuradReba unda dauTmon TanamSromlebTan
uSualo, pirad kontaqts; isini periodulad unda xvdebodnen maT, midiodnen
ganyofilebeSi, samuSao adgilze, piradad unda darwmundnen, Tu rogor
sruldeba davalebebi, ganixilon rogorc momuSaveTa winadadebebi SromiT
saqmianobasTan dakavSirebiT, ise gancxadebebi, saCivrebi da a.S.
operaciuli amocanebi da TaTbirebis tipologia
saxelmwifo
dawesebulebebSi
Casatarebeli
sxvadasxva
tipis
TaTbirebis organizebisa da marTvis procesebis gasaadvileblad saWiroa
arsebobdes maTi klasifikaciis kriteriumebi.
rekomendebulia ori tipologiis gamoyeneba:
• operaciul (funqciur) amocanebze damyarebuli tipologia;
• monawileTa tipze damyarebuli tipologia.
operaciul amocanebze damyarebuli saorientacio tipologia ase
SeiZleba warmovidginoT:
yvela TaTbirs, Temis, monawileebis, droisa da adgilis garda, aqvs
operaciuli tipis specifikuri mizani. qvemoT mocemulia operaciuli
32
miznebis tipologia, romlebic SeiZleba gamoyenebul iqnes TaTbirebis
miznebis dasadgenad:
• gareSe pirTa informireba;
• gareSe pirTagan informaciis miReba;
• erTi da imave sakiTxze an Temaze arsebuli informaciis Sedareba;
• Tvalsazrisis an/da pirovnuli poziciis garkveva;
• Ppoziciebis urTierTgacvla;
• winaswari poziciis Secvla, romelic erT an ramdenime damswres aqvs
TemasTan dakavSirebiT;
• momavali moqmedebebis gansazRvra;
• Ppoziciebis SeTanxmeba;
• Ggadawyvetilebebis erToblivad miReba;
• operaciuli qmedebebis koordinireba.
am tipologiis ganxilviT cxadi xdeba, rom arsebobs miznebis
mravalferovneba. xSirad TaTbirs aqvs erTi an meti operaciuli xasiaTis
amocana, romlebic unda iyos obieqturad warmodgenili momwvevis mier.
amasTan, aucilebelia aRiniSnos, rom Sexvedraze ara mxolod momwvevma unda
wamoayenos erTi an meti operaciuli amocana, aramed mxedvelobaSi unda
iqnes miRebuli, rom TiToeul damswres SeiZleba hqondes sakuTari miznebi
da amocanebi ZiriTadi miznis misaRwevad.
treningebis sistemis organizeba da marTva
treningebis mizani, amocanebi, maTi adgili da roli personalis
marTvis sistemaSi
Tavdapirvelad TviT cneba “treiningis” Sesaxeb. saxelmZRvanelos
avtorebi sTxoven mkiTxvels am sayovelTaod gavrcelebuli terminis
xmareba araviTar SemTxvevaSi qarTuli enis upativcemulod ar CaTvalon. aq,
Cveni azriT, mTavari isaa rom es inglisuri sityva Zalze tevadia da
erTdroulad aRzrdas, swavlebas, momzadeba-gadamzadebas, kvalifikaciis
amaRlebasa da wvrTnas niSnavs;
xazgasmiT unda aRiniSnos, rom miuxedavad dReisaTvis mimdinare
arnaxuli samecniero da teqnologiuri progresisa, ramac met-naklebad
mTeli msoflio moicva da globalizaciis erT-erT mniSvnelovan xelSemwob
faqtorad iqca, adamiani iyo, aris da yovelTvis iqneba am progresis
wamomwyebi, ganmaxorcielebeli da ganmaviTarebeli mTavari da Seucvleli
faqtori;
metic,
Tanamderove
teqnologiur,
sawarmoo,
politikur,
socialur, menejerul da sxva nebismier procesebSi adamianis faqtoris, mis
moqmedebaTa saimedoobis roli ganuzomlad gaizarda.
mxolod erTi
martivi magaliTi: xeliT Sromis dros, magaliTad, roca adamiani CaquCiT
aWedebs lursmans, adamianis Secdomis Sedegi yvelaze meti moRunuli
lursmani an gaWeWyil-Calurjebuli TiTi SeiZleba iyos; warmoidgineT (da
amis araerTi samwuxaro faqtia cnobili), ra SeiZleba gamoiwvios adamianis
Secdomam, roca is atomur reaqtors, xalxiT savse TviTmfrinavs an gems,
kosmosur xomalds, damRupveli radiaciisa Tu virusebis gavrcelebis
SemzRudvel procesebs marTavs da a. S.
33
moxeleTa treningis sistema sxvadasxva konceptualur midgomasa da
princips unda efuZnebodes; maTgan xazi unda gaesvas Semdegs:
• moxeleTa treningis sistemis yovelma rgolma da am sistemaSi
momuSave yovelma pirma samoqmedo kredod unda gaixados sistemis
upirvelesi miznis miRweva _ maRali profesiuli donis, pirovnuli da
saqmiani Tvisebebis, Tanamedrove mentalitetisa da qcevis wesebis mqone
patiosani moxeleebis aRzrda;
• moxeleTa treningis sistemis yvela rgoli erTiani sistemis organul
nawils unda warmoadgendes; sistemis erTianobas unda mivaRwioT
miznebis, strategiis, moxeleTa treningis meTodologiisa da mTeli am
procesis marTvis erTianobiT da, rasakvirvelia, Sesabamis funqciaTa
gamxorcieleblis oficializebiTa da institucionalizebiT;
• moxeleTa treningis mTeli sistemis da misi calkeuli rgolis
funqcionireba unda xdebodes programuli dagegmvisa da marTvis
modeliT;
• mTeli es sistema unda funqcionirebdes sajarod da unda iyos
gamWvirvale;
• naTlad unda iyos gamokveTili sistemis Semadgeneli yoveli rgolis
funqciebi, miznebi da konkretuli amocanebi; ufleba-movaleobebi,
pasuxismgeblobebi;
• unda moxdes saerTod moxeleTa treningis, maT Soris zogadi (saerTo)
da specialuri treningebis formebis, ZiriTadi sferoebisa da maTi
ganmaxorcielebeli
ZiriTadi
saswavlo
dawesebulebebis
identificireba;
• mizanSewonilia operatiulad Casatarebeli specialuri
treningebis
organizebisas
(risi
saWiroebac
TviT
sajaro
dawesebulebaTa
specifikidan
gamomdinare
sakmaod
xSiria
da
permanentulad
warmoiqmneba)
ZiriTadi
aqcenti
TviT
am
dawesebulebaTa
Sidainteleqtualur potencialze gakeTdes;
• moxeleTa treningi ar SeiZleba akeTebdes kampaniur xasiaTs; yoveli
konkretuli
moxelis
SemTxvevaSi
treningis
aucilebloba
dasabuTebuli unda iyos, radgan muSaobis arasaTanado Sedegebi
yovelTvis dabali kvalifikaciis brali rodia;
• moxeleTa treningis, rogorc mTeli sistemis, ise misi calkeuli
rgolis muSaobis efeqtianoba konkretuli kriteriumebis mixedviT
unda Sefasdes; aq didia saxelmwifo dawesebulebebis
da maTi
qvedanayofebis roli, romlebmac unda Seafason, Tu konkretulad ra
misca treningma maT nebismier moxeles
da konkretulad rogor
gamoixata es maTi Sromis SedegebSi;
• moxeleTa treningis meTodologiuri srulyofisa da materialurteqnikuri uzrunvelyofisaTvis mniSvnelovania organizaciebisa da
dasavleTis qveynebis teqnikuri daxmareba; amasTan, aucilebelia
teqnikuri daxmareba am sferoSi saerTo strategiasa da midgomebs
Seesabamebodes da aucileblad moxdes am samuSaoTa koordinireba, miT
umetes, roca saqme sxvadasxva saerTaSoriso organizaciis proeqts
exeba;
34
• aucilebeli da Zalze mniSvnelovania treningiTa da misi konkretuli
SedegebiT moxeleTa saTanado motivirebis mofiqrebuli sistemis
Seqmnac;
• aucilebelia yoveli dawesebulebis biujetSi saTanadod aisaxos
treningebis organizebisa da Catarebis xarjebi.
treningis saWiroebaTa gansazRvris meToduri midgomebi
aqsiomaa, rom yoveli organizaciis mier Tavisi miznebisa da
amocanebis
ganxorcielebaSi,
adamianuri
resursebis
ganviTarebasTan
dakavSirebul sxva faqotrebTan erTad, gadamwyvet rols am miznebisa da
amocanebis Semsrulebeli adamianebi, maTi kvlaifikacia, profesionalizmi,
gamocdileba TamaSobs. imis miuxedavad, rom dasavleTSi (da ara marto
dasavleTis qveynebSi) adamianis faqtors Zalze did yuradRebas aqceven,
iqaur literaturaSi mainc SexvdebiT aseT azrs: “bevri menejeri ki ambobs,
rom adamianebi maTi yvelaze mniSvnelovani resursia, magram es sfero mainc
ufro naklebad aqvT xolme ganviTarebuli, vidre, magaliTad, finansebis,
warmoebis, materialuri resursebis menejmenti”. qarTul sinamdvileSi, am
mxriv, jer mxolod pirveli nabijebi idgmeba, isic ekonomikis ganviTarebis,
adamianTa dasaqmebis, motivirebis, anazRaurebis, cxovrebis donis Zalze
cud fonze.
aRniSnulis miuxedavad, kidev erTxel xazgasmiT unda iTqvas Semdegi:
adamianuri resursebis Tanamedrove civilizebul moTxovnaTa Sesabamisad
ganviTareba,
momuSaveTa,
upirvelesad
ki
saxelmwifo
moxeleTa
profesionalizmi, gamocdileba, pasuxismgebloba, motivireba da, saerTod,
saxelmwifo samsaxurisa da personalis marTvis maRali done saqarTvelos
socialur-ekonomikur da politikur ganviTarebaSi mniSvnelovani progresis
miRwevis erT-erTi prioriteti, upirvelesi winapirobaa.
treningebis
nebismieri
sistemis
efeqtiani
funqcionirebisaTvis
aucilebeli
procedurebidan
erT-erTi
mniSvnelovani
treiningis
saWiroebaTa gansazRvraa.
moxeleTa treningis periodul aucileoblobas sakmaod bevri
obieqturi faqtori ganapirobebs, romelTagan aRsaniSnavia:
• konkretul sferoSi (mag. safinanso-sabiujeto, sagadasaxado, sabaJo,
komunikaciebis, ganaTlebis da sxv.) Teoriul-meTodologiuri codnisa
da
praqtikuli
midgomebis
perioduli
srulyofa-ganviTarebis
aucilebloba;
• Tanamedrove dawinaureba;
• axali sakanonmdeblo-normatiuli bazis Seqmna, misi srulyofaganviTareba;
• mocemuli
Tanamdebobebis
Sesabamisi
funqciebis
gafarToeba,
profesiuli kvalifikaciis axali moTxovnebis Camoyalibeba;
• samuSaoze axalmiRebulTa adaptirebis aucilebloba;
• samuSaos moTxovnebTan moxelis profesiuli kvalifikaciis donis
Seusabamoba (mag., uSualo menejeris, saatestacio komisiis SefasebiT);
• momuSaveTa Sromis efeqtianobis regularuli Sefaseba, maT Soris,
atestirebis gziT, roca irkveva, rom Sromis realuri Sedegebi araa
damakmayofilebeli da bevri gamouyenebeli rezervia;
35
• Aadamianuri resursebis ganviTarebis aucilebloba – organizaciis
mokle- da grZelvadiani miznebisa da konkretuli amocanebis
gadawyveta personalis profesiuli kvalifikaciis donis arsebiT
srulyofa-ganviTarebas moiTxovs;
• organizaciis
efeqtiani
saqmianobis
xelSemSleli
problemebis
aRmofxvris aucilebloba, raSic adamianis faqtori mniSvnelovan
rols TamaSobs;
• Sromis
organizebis,
personalis
marTvis
axali,
Tanamedrove
procedurebis danergvis aucilebloba da sxv.
samuSaoze axalmiRebuli
personalisTvis treningis saWiroebaTa
gansazRvra SedarebiT advilad xdeba. erTi mxriv, cnobili, Camoyalibebuli
da SeTanxmebulia (unda iyos) yoveli samuSaos aRwera, anu ra konkretuli
funqciebis Sesrulebas gulisxmobs esa Tu is Tanamdeboba, xolo, meore
mxriv, Tu ra profesiuli kvalifikaciis moTxovnebs uyenebs es samuSao mis
Semsrulebels; momuSavis samuSaoze misaReb konkursSi unda gairkves, Tu
ramdenad Seesabameba momuSavis profesiuli kvalificiis done da Sesabamisi
unar-SesaZleblobebi Sesasrulebeli samuSaos moTxovnebs; swored maT
Soris gansxvavebaa is sfero, romelSic saWiroa axalmiRebuli momuSavis
treiningi-momzadeba, gadamzadeba Tu kvalifikaciis amaRleba
treningebis sistemis organizeba
nebismier saxelmwifo (da ara mxolod saxelmwifo) uwyebaSi
treningebis efeqtiani sistemis organizebisa da marTvisaTvis, dRevandeli
realuri viTarebidan gamomdinare, aucilebelia Seiqmnas:
• meTodologiuri baza da Sesabamisi strategia;
• organizaciuli baza;
• aucilebeli resursebis baza;
• treningebis sistemis marTvis efeqtiani meqanizmi;
• Sesabamisi normatiuli baza.
maSasadame, zemoaRniSnuli treningebis sistemis Seqmna, upirveles
yovlisa, saTanado strategiisa da Sesabamisi meTodologiuri bazis, anu
meTodologiuri winamZRvrebis, safuZvlebis SemuSavebas gulisxmobs.
treningebis sistemis Seqmnisa da funqcionirebis strategia, upirveles
yovlisa, treningebis sistemis ZiriTadi miznebisa da amocanebis miRwevis
procesis saTanado kvalifikaciis, gamocdilebis, ganaTlebis, mentalitetis,
qcevis wesebis, pasuxismgeblobis grZnobisa da sxva aucilebel moTxovnaTa
Sesabamisi adamianuri resursebiT uzrunvelyofa da adamianuri kapitalis
permanentuli srulyofa-ganviTarebaa.
treningebis strategia maSin iqneba swori da efeqtiani, Tu is,
upirvelesad,
konkretul uwyebaSi treningebis sistemis Seqmnisa da
funqcionirebis swor meTodologiur principebsa da midgomebs daefuZneba.
maTgan aRsaniSnavia Semdegi:
•
Aaucilebelia SemuSavdes mocemul uwyebasa da mis struqturul
qvedanayofebSi
moxeleTa
treningis
saWiroebis
(aucileblobis)
36
gansazRvris meTodika da konkretulad ganisazRvros, Tu vis, ratom, ra
formiT, ra sakiTxebSi da a. S. sWirdeba treningi;
•
gansakuTrebuli yuradReba unda mieqces treningebis sferoebsa da
Tematikas, risi safuZvelic dawesebulebis struqturuli qvedanayofebis
mier
moxeleTa
treningis
saWiroebis
Sesaxeb
personalis
marTvis
samsaxurisTvis,
an
saswavlo
centrisTvis
mowodebuli
konkretuli
informacia unda iyos. arsebuli realuri viTarebidan gamomdinare,
treningebi or ZiriTad sferos unda Seexos: saerTo (zogad) da specialur
sakiTxebs; Sesabamisad unda moxdes treningebis Tematikis SeTanxmeba da
specifikacia. magaliTad, saerTo, zogadi treningi SeiZleba Seexos iseT
sferoebs,
rogoricaa:
saerTo
menejmenti,
personalis
menejmenti,
saxelmwifos marTvisa da sajaro samsaxuris sakanonmdeblo-normatiuli
baza, adamianebTan urTierTobis xelovneba, administrirebis procedurebis
racionalizeba, ucxo enebisa da kompiuterTan muSaobis Seswavla da sxv.
•
saWiroa realuri amocanebidan, viTarebidan da SesaZleblobebidan
gamomdinare ganisazRvros moxeleTa treningis prioritetuli formebi,
magaliTad, gansazRvrul periodSi romel formebze gakeTdeba aqcenti:
centralizebulze, decentralizebulze, Sereulze, rangirebul treningze
moxeleTa rangirebis gaTvaliswinebiT da a. S.
•
saTanado yuradReba unda mieqces samuSaodan mowyvetiT da uSualod
samuSao adgilze swavlebis konkretul meTodebs, rogoricaa: leqciebi,
seminarebi, specialuri kursebi, saqmiani TamaSebi, gunduri muSaoba,
distanciuri swavleba, TviTganviTareba (individualuri swavleba) da sxva.
•
treningebis organizebulad da efeqtianad Casatareblad aucilebelia
yoveli konkretuli treningisTvis Sedges saswavlo programa da SeTanxmdes
organizaciis xelmZRvanelobasTan; aq gaTvaliswinebuli unda iyos rogorc
treningis uSualod Camtareblis (“treneris”), ise konkretuli sferos
uSualo
xelmZRvanelis,
sakonkurso-saatestacio
komisiisa
da
treninggasavlel moxeleTa azri;
•
aucilebelia realuri viTarebidan da treningis Taviseburebebidan
gamomdinare SemuSavdes treningis Sedegebis efeqtianobis Sefasebis
meTodika; aq saWiroa gaTvaliswinebul iqnes iseTi midgomebi, rogoricaa:
treningis
efeqtianobis
uSualo
menejeris
mier
Sefaseba,
Sromis
konkretuli Sedegebis Sedareba treningis gavlamde da mis Semdeg,
pasuxismgeblobis
done,
Tanamdebobrivi
dawinaureba,
sakonkursosaatestacio
komisiis
Sefaseba,
profesiul-kvalifikaciuri
winsvlis
vizualuri Sefaseba (muSaobs kompiuterTan, flobs enas da a. S.),
saatestacio komisiis Sefaseba da sxv.;
•
rasakvirvelia, treningis yoveli ciklisaTvis unda ganisazRvros misi
xangrZlivoba – ramdeni saaTi, kvira an Tve dasWirdeba treningis
srulyofil realizebas; amasTan, unda gadawydes da mogvardes mTeli rigi
organizaciuli sakiTxebi, romlebic dawvrilebiT qvemoTaa ganxiluli.
•
treningebis sistemis organizaciuli uzrunvelyofa
meTodologiuri sakiTxebis gadawyvetis Semdeg aucilebelia TandaTan
identificirebul
da
gadawyvetil
iqnes
treningebis
Catarebis
organizaciuli sakiTxebi, romlebic treningebis sistemis efeqtiani
funqcionirebis erT-erTi mniSvnelovani winapirobaa. Aam sakiTxebidan
aRsaniSnavia Semdegi:
37
•
treningebis
organizaciuli
uzrunvelyofis
makoordinirebel
funqciebs dawesebulebis marTvis samsaxuri da saswavlo centri unda
axorcielebdnen;
•
saswavlo centrma unda moamzados, organizaciis xelmZRvanelobasTan
SeaTanxmos da departamentebisa da sxva damoukidebeli struqturuli
qvedanayofebis
xelmZRvanelebs
daurigos
treningebis
dagegmvis,
organizebisa da marTvis kiTxvari. maT personalis marTvis samsaxurs
saTanado formiT unda warudginon Sesabamisi informacia TavianT
personificirebul moxeleTa trenigis konkretul saWiroebaTa Sesaxeb; am
informaciis safuZvelze unda Sedges, resursebiT da organizaciulad
uzrunvelyofil iqnes da SeTanxmdes organizaciaSi moxeleTa treningebis
programa da operaciuli gegma
•
treningebis sistemis organizaciuli uzrunvelyofis etapze saTanado
yuradReba unda mieqces treningebis damkveTTa identificirebasac, anu
visgan modis iniciativa, vin da ramdenad safuZvlianad gansazRvravs, Tu vis
raSi da ra formiT sWirdeba treningi; aseTi damkveTebi SeiZleba iyvnen:
organizaciis
xelmZRvaneloba,
moxelis
uSualo
xelmZRvaneli,
am
ukanasknelis ufrosi (magaliTad, departamentis ufrosi), saerTaSoriso
organizaciebis proeqtebis ganmaxorcieleblebi da individualuri moxele;
•
calke aqcenti unda gakeTdes TviTganviTareba-TviTganaTlebaze, roca
moxele pirovnulad, xelmZRvanelobasTan formaluri SeTanxmebis gareSe,
sakuTari
surviliTa
da
resursebiT
imaRlebs
kvalifikacias.
TviTganviTarebis
forma,
gansakuTrebiT
axalgazrda
moxeleebSi
(upirvelesad
kompiuteris,
enebis,
aseve,
specialuri
disciplinebis
Seswavla),
Cveni
azriT,
sakmaod
farTod
gavrcelda,
maT
Soris
sazRvargareT treningisa da swavlebis formiTac; am procesebs ara mxolod
unda mivesalmoT, aramed nebismierma dawesebulebam saTanadod unda
aRricxos, sistematizeba da analizi moaxdinos da garkveuli formebiT
xelic Seuwyos am process, Tundac konkursebisa da atestirebis dros,
anazRaurebuli an uxelfaso Svebulebebis micemiT da a. S.
•
calke gansjis, mxardaWerisa da gadawyvetilebebis miRebis sagnad
unda iqces saerTaSoriso organizaciebisa da sazRvargareTis qveynebis
mxardaWeriT dasavleTis qveynebSi moxeleTa treningis SesaZleblobaTa
analizi, treningebis efeqtiani programebis SemuSaveba, am procesebis
koordinireba da saTanado rekomendaciebis momzadeba;
•
realuri
viTarebidan
gamomdinare,
mizanSewonilad
migvaCnia
dawesebulebis xelmZRvanelobam aqcenti gaakeTos, upirvelesad, treningebis
ZiriTad instituciur rgolebze, moaxdinos maTi identificireba, meTodurpraqtikul-organizaciul sakiTxebze da TanamSromlobis Sesaxeb SeTanxmeba;
aseT rgolebad unda miviCnioT:
1.
upirvelesad da umTavresad uSualod dawesebuleba, misi saswavlo
centri (Tu aqvs) da dawesebulebis Sidapotenciali rogorc wesi,
specialuri da operatiuli treningebis sferoSi. Cveni azriT, es sakiTxi
sagangebo Seswavlasa da operatiul moqmedebas moiTxovs;
2.
saqarTvelos wamyvani umaRlesi saswavleblebi da saswavlo centrebi
maTi unar-SesaZleblobebis, swavlebis Tanamedrove meTodebisa da
gamocdilebis zedmiwevniT gacnobis Semdeg-ZiriTadad, saerTo, zogadi
treningebis sferoSi. A
38
adamianuri resursebis marTvis strategia da politika A
adamianuri resursebis marTva rogorc strategiuli funqcia
nebismieri organizaciis personalis marTvisas yvelas da gansakuTrebiT
xelmZRavnelebs aucileblad unda axsovdeT, rom es ara mxolod da ara
imdenad
teqnologiebi,
procedurebi,
dokumentebi
da
reglamentia,
ramdenadac xelovneba. adamianebis marTva, miT umetes, roca isini moxeleebi
arian, SeuZlebelia ganxorcildes standartuli meTodebiT, receptebiT,
rom esa Tu is saqme “mxolod ase unda gakeTdes”; Sesabamisad, ar SeiZleba
arsebobdes “standartuli adamiani”, swored amitom adamianTa marTva
xelovnebaa, romelic ara mxolod maT funqciur valdebulebebsa da
uflebamosilebebs, aramed maT grZnobebs, ganwyobas, sulierebas da sxva
pirovnul maxasiaTeblebsac ukavSirdeba. Ees Taviseburebebi aucilebelia
saTanadod iqnes gaTvaliswinebuli personalis marTvis strategiisa da
politikis SemuSavebisa da realizebisas nebismier organizaciaSi.
strategia berZnuli sityvaa da pirdapiri mniSvnelobiT jaris gaZRolas
niSnavs; Tanamedrove gagebiT esaa marTebul principebsa da swor,
Sorsmimaval prognozebze dafuZnebuli marTvis xelovnebis dagegmva; es
aris organizaciis misiisa da miznebis ganxorcielebis Sorsgamiznuli
koncefcia. rac Seexeba politikas, esec berZnuli warmoSobis sityvaa da
saxelmwifo marTvis xelovnebas niSnavda; es aris saqmianobis miznebisa da
maTi miRwevis saSualebebis, formebisa da Sinaarsis gansazRvra; sxvagvarad,
rom vTqvaT, esaa im principebis erToblioba, romlebic unda dacul iqnes
marTvis nebismier sferoSi, Cvens SemTxvevaSi-personalis marTvis nebismieri
proceduris ganxorcielebisas.
N
nebismieri organizaciis saqmianoba, Tu is ar ukavSirdeba xangrZliv
perspeqtivaze gaTvlil miznebsa da konkretuli strategiis realizebas,
qaosuri, SemTxveviTi xasiaTisaa da Sesabamisad –naklebwarmatebuli.
sazogadod, strategiuli dagegmvis procesi Semdeg ZiriTad etapebs moicavs.
strategiuli dagegmvis procesi
1. organizaciis misiis gansazRvra
2. organizaciis miznebis gansazRvra
3. Sida da gare faqtorebis analizi da Sefaseba
4. strategiis Sefaseba
5. strategiis realizeba
6. strategiis arCeva
7. strategiuli alternativebis analizi
rogorc vxedavT, organizaciis strategiis gansazRvra uSualod am
organizaciis
misiidan
da
miznebidan
gamomdinareobs.
Sesabamisad,
personalis marTvis strategiac organizaciis misiisa da miznebis miRwevis
adamianuri resursebiT uzrunvelyofas ukavSirdeba; es mTeli organizaciis
strategiis yvelaze mniSvnelovani da prioritetuli komponentia, radgan
adamianuri kapitalis, adamianuri faqtoris gareSe organizaciis verc erTi
mizani da amocana ver gadawydeba; Sesabamisad, adamianuri resursebis marTva
nebismieri organizaciis strategiuli funqciaa
39
organizaciis misiisa da strategiis adgili adamianuri resursebis
marTvaSi
organizaciis misia arsebiTad igivea, rac cxovrebis azri adaamianisaTvis;
esaa organizaciis kredo, koncentrirebulad gamoxatuli azri misi
arsobisa. Oorganizaciis marTebulad formulirebuli misia marTvis sul
cota sami amocanis gadawyvetis saSualebas iZleva, kerZod:
• misia
aiZulebs
organizaciis
xelmZRvanelobas
sistematurad
aanalizos saqmianobis statusi da Zlieri mxareebi da organizaciis
efeqtian funqcionirebaze izrunos;
• organizaciis momuSaveTa mier gaziarebuli da gaTavisebuli misia
xels uwyobs maT Tanamoazreobas, integrirebas da nayofieri, intensiuri
muSaobisaTvis motivirebas
• naTlad Camoyalibebuli da konkretuli saqmianobiT dadasturebuli
misia xels uwyobs organizaciis kargi imijis Seqmnas
adamianuri resursebis marTvasTan, rogorc strategiul funqciasTan
dakavSirebiT,
aucilebelia
or
mniSvnelovan
momentze
iqnes
gamaxvilebuli yuradReba
• adamianuri resursebis marTvis strategia maqsimalurad unda iyos
orientirebuli momavalze, radgan icvleba da viTardeba organizaciis
misia,
misi
struqtura,
politikuri,
ekonomikuri,
teqnologiuri,
socialuri, organizaciuli garemo, icvlebian da viTardebian TviT
adamianebic;
• adamianuri resursebis marTva, rogorc strategiuli funqcia, ufro
metad problemebis warmoSobis profilaqtikaze, winaswar regirebasa da
problemebis Tavidan acilebaze unda iyos orientirebuli, vidre ukve
warmoSobil problemebze
adamianuri resursebis strategiuli marTva
adamianuri resursebis marTvis strategia esaa koncefcia, ZiriTadi gza, Tu
rogor unda iqnes miRweuli personalis marTvis ZiriTadi miznebi da
amocanebi, rasakvirvelia, TviT organizaciis misiis, misi ganviTarebis
strategiis, organizaciuli da sakadro potencialisa da sakadro
politikis gaTvaliswinebiT.
saerTod, strategia unda ganvixiloT rogorc marTviT da organizaciul
gadawyvetilebaTa
sistema,
romelic
mimarTulia
dawesebulebis
(organizaciis) misiis, miznebisa da amocanebis realizebis, ganviTarebis an
gardaqmnisaken. nebismieri strategia unda iyos Sinaganad mTliani,
sistemuri,
organizaciis
Taviseburebebsa
da
garemosTan
Tavsebadi,
yvelanairi resursebiT dabalansebuli, realisturi, mokle, saSualo da
grZelvadiani urTierTSeTanxmebuli miznebiT ganmtkicebuli.
SeiZleba gamoiyos strategiis sami mTavari elementi:
1. miznebis sistema, romelSic Sedis organizciis misia, saerTo
organizaciuli da specifikuri miznebi;
2. prioritetebi,
anu
resursebis
(adamianuri
resursebis)
ganawilebisa da gamoyenebis ZiriTadi principebi
40
3. marTviTi moqmedebebis wesebi
adamianuri resursebis marTvis strategia uSualod gamomdinareobs
organizaciis misiidan, misi miznebidan da strategiidan, radgan swored
adamianuri kapitalia organizaciis miznebisa da amocanebis miRwevis
upirvelesi berketi. TviT personalis strategiuli marTva, rogorc wesi,
marTvis am sistemis yvela komponentsa da mimarTulebas, yvela mniSvnelovan
proceduras SeiZleba moicavdes. ase magaliTad, organizaciis strategiuli
miznebisa da amocanebis misaRwevad adamianuri resursebis strategiulma
marTvam SeiZleba moicvas Semdegi konkretuli mimarTulebebi:
• personalis mozidvisa da SerCevis procedurebis modernizeba;
• personalis gaaxalgazrdaveba sapensio asaks gadacilebulTa
xarjze;
• moxeleTa rezervis Seqmnisa da marTvis efeqtiani sistemis
SemuSaveba
• personalis motivirebisa da Sromis anazRaurebis Tanamedrove
sistemis Seqmna
• personalis
raodenobis
Semcireba
Sromis
Tanamedrove
kulturisa
da
drois
menejmentis
principebis
praqtikuli
realizebis Sedegad;
• organizaciis axali strategiidan da miznebidan gamomdinare,
personalis didi nawilis gadamzadeba da kvalifikaciis amaRleba,
treningebis axali, Tanamedrove sistemis Seqmna; axali profesiebis
moxeleTa mozidva;
• organizaciis xaziT menejerTa mier personalis marTvis dabali
donis gamo am sferoSi maTi sagangebo treningi;
adamianuri
resursebis
marTvis
strategiis
Sesabamisad
da
misgan
gamomdinare, unda SemuSavdes strategiis realizebis strategiuli da
miznobrivi programebi da maTgan gamomdinare operaciuli gegmebi. maTSi
dakonkretebuli
unda
iyos
strategiis
praqtikuli
realizebis
mimarTulebebi,
RonisZiebebi,
moqmedebebi,
maTi
Sesrulebis
vadebi,
pasuxismgeblebi da saWiro finansuri, adamianuri Tu organizaciulteqnikuri resursebi.
Ppersonalis ekonomika
dasavleTSi sakmaod gavrcelebulia, e.w. adamianuri kapitalis Teoria. Aam
Teoriis mixedviT, momuSaveTa codna da kvalifikacia miCneulia TviT maT
kuTvnilebad, romelsac moaqvs Semosavali; am codnisa da Cvevebis miRebaze
droisa da xarjebis danaxarjebi miCneulia investiciebad. amJamad adamianur
kapitalSi dabandebaTa aRricxvis ori saxis modeli arsebobs; aqtivebis
41
modelebi, roca xdeba adamianur kapitalSi danaxarjebis aRricxva da
sargeblianobis modeli, roca xdeba aseTi danaxarjebis efeqtianobis
Sefaseba. da sakvirvelia, es orive modeli erTmaneTs unda avsebdes.
A
adamianur
kapitalze
organizaciis
mier
gaweuli
xarjebidan
upirvelesad unda gamoiyos :
• personalis mozidvis, SerCevisa da konkursebis Catarebis
xarjebi (am procedurebis nawils sakmaod xSirad da bevr
organizaciaSi mowveuli eqspertebi atareben);
• axalmiRebulTa adaptirebaze da rogorc axalmiRebulTa, ise
ZiriTadi personalis treningebze gaweuli xarjebi;
• xelfasi da maTze (xelfasis fondze) sxvadasxva saxis
danaricxebi;
• premiebi, sxvadasxva saxis waxalisebebi;
• socialuri daxmarebebi
• momuSaveTa atestirebaze gaweuli xarjebi;
• Sromis keTilsasurveli garemo pirobebisa da fsiqologiuri
klimatis Seqmnis xarjebi;
• Sromis keTilsasurveli garemo pirobebisa da fsiqologiuri
klimatis Seqmnis xarjebi;
• samuSao adgilis dagegmarebis, Seqmnisa da aRWurvis xarjebi;
• samuSao Zalis moZraobisa da denadobiT gamowveuli xarjebi
(danakargebi) da sxva.
A
adamianuri resursebis ganviTarebaSi dabandebuli kapitali erTerTi
Zvirad Rirebuli investiciaa, magram, rogorc msoflios mowinave qveynebis
gamocdileba adasturebs, es, amavdroulad, yvelaze efeqtiani, momgebiani
investiciebia.
rasakvirvelia,
adamianuri
resursebis
ganviTrebaSi
dabandebuli kapitalis efeqtianoba SedarebiT advilad da konkretulad
SeiZleba Sefasdes saqmianobis iseT sferoebSi (upirvelesad warmoebaSi,
aseve momsaxurebis sferoSi), sadac Sromis efeqtianoba misi uSualo
SedegebiT da konkretuli raodenobrivi da xarisxobrivi parametrebiT
ganisazRvreba; magaliTad treningamde momuSave dReSi uSvebda 200 nawarms,
romelTagan uxarisxo iyo 6 cali, xolo treningebis Semdeg uSvebs 250-s,
romelTagan uxarisxo 5-ia; e. i. Sromis nayofiereba 25 prcentiT gazrdila,
xolo wundebuli nawarmis wili 3 procentidan 2 procentamde Semcirda;
Sromis efeqtianoba sxvanairadac SeiZleba Sefasdes – magaliTad, erTi
nawarmis damzadebaze treningamde momuSave 20 wuTs xarjavda, treningis
Semdeg -15 wuTs.
rasakvirvelia, bevrad rTuli da umravles SemTxvevaSi aseTi
konkretuli cifrobrivi maCveneblebiT ver Sefasdeba moxeleTa SromiTi
saqmianoba da maTze gaweuli kapitalur dabandebaTa efeqtianoba. mTlianad,
organizaciis masStabiT, am SemTxvevaSi, upirvelesad, misma xelmZRavnelebma,
aseve personalis menejerebma da Sesabamisma samsaxurma yuradReba unda
miaqcion da saTanadod Seafason Semdegi parametrebi da tendenciebi:
• organizaciis
mier
arCeuli
strategiisa
da
politikis
marTebuloba da maTi realizebis, dasaxuli miznebisa da
amocanebis miRwevis efeqtianobis gazrda;
• gadawyvetilebaTa miRebisa da Sesrulebis procesis gaumjobeseba;
• marTvisa da administrirebis procedurebis gamartiveba;
42
• Sidauwyebriv da uwyebaTaSoris urTierTobaTa racionalizeba;
• Ddokumentbrunvis
racionalizeba,
droisa
da
saxsrebis
mniSvnelovani ekonomia;
• uflebamosilebaTa da pasuxismgeblobebis gamijvna, delegireba,
menejerebi
(moxeleebi)
aRar
asruleben
daqvemdebarebulTa
funqciebs;
• muSaobis moculobis gafarToeba da xarisxis gaumjobeseba;
• momuSaveTa denadobis maCvenebelTa dinamika da maTi struqturuli
analizi;
• momuSaveTa denadobis maCvenebelTa dinamika da maTi sruqturuli
analizi;
• momuSaveTa motivirebisa da stimulirebis analizi da tendenciebi;
• drois menejmentis srulyofa , ufro efeqtiani da nayofieri
saqmianobis
profesiaTa
da
funqciaTa
Sefasebis
Sedegad
dasaqmebulTa ricxvis Semcireba;
• Sromis eTikuri normebis dacva da organizaciuli kulturis
ganviTareba;
• konfliqturi situaciebis analizi d misi dinamika;
• axali ideebis da inovaciebis ganviTreba (mateba, Semcireba)
organizaciis miznebis ukeT misaRwevad;
uSualod individebze, konkretul moxeleebze organizaciis danaxarjebis
efeqtianobis
Sefaseba,
upirvelesad
da
umTavresad
maTma
uSualo
menejerebma unda moaxdinon, magaliTad: atestirebis Tu treningebis ciklis
gavlis
Semdeg
rogoria
moxelis
profesiul-kvalifikaciuri
donis
Sesabamisoba
Tanamdebobriv
moTxovnebTan,
ra
daskvnebis
gakeTebis
saSualebas gvaZlevs moxelis mier Sesrulebuli samuSaos Sefaseba, rogor
gamosworda atestirebisas dafiqsirebuli moxelis susti adgilebi,
ramdenad
amaRlda
misi
pasuxismgebloba,
analitikuri
azrovneba,
iniciativianoba, SemoqmedebiTi midgoma da sxva.
roca adamianur kapitalsa da adamianuri resursebis ganviTrebazea saubari,
mTeli principulobiT unda iTqvas – am sferoSi kapitaldabandebaTa Tu
investiciebis
SezRudva,
adamianis
faqtoris
ignorireba,
moxeleTa
arasaTanado motivireba, maTi saarsebo minimumze dabali xelfasi da
socialuri daucveloba bumerangiviT ubrundeba da angrevs saxelmwifos,
mis demokratiul ganviTrebas, sazogadebriv rwmenasa da faseulobebs,
axdens xelisuflebis diskretirebas, korufciis, kalnurobis, kanonis
uzenaesobis ugulebelyofis mniSvnelovani mizezi da stimulatori xdeba.
Aadamianis strategiuli da SemoqmedebiTi azrovnebis ganmsazRvreli testi
strategiis arCeva garkveulwilad yovelTvis riskTanaa dakavSirebuli;
qvemoT motanili testi saSulebas gvaZlevs SevafasoT, Tu ramdenad
Segvwevs unari SevimuSavoT yovelmxriv kargad mofiqrebuli strategia.
aucilebelia obieqturad, gulwrfelad gavceT pasuxi qvemoT motanil
kiTxvebs da daviweroT Sesabamisi balebi, kerZod: pasuxze “ki” -1 bali,
xolo pasuxze “ara” – 2 bali.
43
kiTxvebi
1. roca sapasuxismgeblo gadawyvetilebas iRebT mxolod sakuTar
Tavs eyrdnobiT Tu ara?
2. xSirad emTxveva Tu ara Tqveni pozicia Tqveni xelmZRvanelis
mosazrebas?
3. migaCniaT Tu ara Tqven, rom ar arsebobs gamouvali mdgomareoba,
situacia?
4. rogor fiqrobT, yovelTvis marTali xarT?
5. swrafad iTvisebT Tu ara axali saxis samuSaoebs?
6. adamianTa Sefasebisas ZiriTadad Tqvens sakuTar azrs eyrdnobiT
Tu ara?
7. bevrs fiqrobT Tu ara sanam mniSvnelovan gadawyvetilebas
miiRebT?
8. miiswrafviT Tu ara bolomde miiyvanoT dawyebuli saqme?
9. migaCniaT Tu ara, rom rac SeiZleba naklebad iaqtiuroT, raTa
usiamovnebebi Tavidan aiciloT?
10. Zvirfasi nivTebis SeZenisas ekiTxebiT Tu ara rCevebs sxvebs?
11. iswrafviT Tu ara mogebisken, gamarjvebisken, roca raimes
TamaSobT?
12. fiqrobT Tu ara momavalze?
13. cdilobT Tu ara rTuli problemis gadawyvetisas SeafasoT
yvela SesaZlo alternativa?
14. xSirad
gamoTqvamT
Tu
ara
sajarod
saerTo
azrisagan
gansxvavebul, sawinaaRmdego azrs?
15. specialurad emzadebiT Tu ara gamosvlebisaTvis?
16. darwmunebuli xarT, rom dRemde mniSvnelovani Secdoma ar
dagiSviaT?
17. xSirad ocnebobT raime ganuxorcielebelze?
18. Tu fiqrobT xolme, ramdenad damajerebelia kamaTis dros
Tqveni argumentebi?
19. SegiZliaT Tu ara daTmoT Tqveni principebi, Tu amas saqmis
interesebi moiTxovs?
20. gaqvT Tu ara kargi urTierTobebi xelmZRvanelobasTan?
21. marTebulia xolme Tu ara Tqveni Tavdapirveli azrebi?
22. xdeba Tu ara, rom araoficialur garemoSi Tqven SeiZleba Tavi
gamoiCinoT eqstravaganturi qceviT?
23. xom ar xdeba xolme, rom Tqveni arsebiTad marTebuli qceva
garegnulad aralogikuri da gaugebari aRmoCndes Tqveni garSemo
myofTaTvis?
24. migaCniaT Tu ara, rom Tqven ukve moaswariT cxovrebaSi raime
mniSvnelovanis gakeTba?
25. Znelia Tu ara Tqveni darwmuneba, raTa azri SeicvaloT?
26. miiswrafviT
Tu
ara
principuli
gadawyvetilebebis
wvrilmanebamde gaazrebisaken?
27. mzad xarT Tu ara saqmis interesebidan gamomdinare gariskoT
xolme, roca warmatebis Sansebi mcirea?
28. cxovrobT Tu ara mxolod dRevandeli dRiT?
29. bevrs andobT, uziarebT xolme Tqvens saqmeebs Tu ara?
44
30. dgamT Tu ara gadamwyvet nabijebs, roca ar xarT darwmunebuli
koleqtivis mxardaWeraSi?
31. migakuTvneben Tu ara garSemo myofni “perpeqtiulTa” kategorias?
32. axal situaciebSi upiratesobas qcevis tradiciuli wesebis
dacvas xom ar aniWebT?
33. xSirad agvianebT?
34. iRebT Tu ara axloblebisgan rCevebs mniSvnelovani piradi
sakiTxebis gadawyvetisas?
35. SegiZliaT Tu ara situaciis sakmaod zusti prognozireba 1-2
wliT adre?
36. xom ar gqoniaT SemTxvevebi, rom arCevani gagekeTebinaT?
37. SeiZleba Tqven Tavisuflad gendon adamianebi?
38. misdevT Tu ara Tqven TviTanalizs?
39. axdenT Tu ara Tqveni saqmianobis perspeqtiul dagegmvas?
40. xarT Tu ara TavdazRveuli?
41. xarT Tu ara ukompromiso?
42. SegiZliaT Tu ara imegobroT imasTan, vinc Tqvens xasiaTs ar
Seesabameba?
43. yovelTvis asrulebT Tu ara Tqvens danapirebs?
44. SegiZliaT Tu ara isaubroT iseT rameebze, risic araferi
gagegebaT?
45. yvelaferSi da yovelTvis eTanxmebiT Tu ara xelmRvanelobas?
Sefaseba
• saerTo Sedegis gasarkvevad, aucilebelia ganisazRvros im pasuxTa
procenti pasuxTa saerTo raodenobidan, romlebic
1 baliT
Sefasdnen. Ees gviCvenebs, riskisadmi Tqvens saerTo midrekilebas;
• SeiZleba Sefasebul iqnes agreTve:
1. Tqveni xasiaTis simtkiis done, razec miuTiTebs qvemoT moyvanili
kiTxvebidan 1 baliT Sefasebuli kiTxvebis wili (%) – 1, 2, 7, 9, 10, 27,
30, 34, 40 kiTxvebi;
2. upasuxismgeblobis done, razec miuTiTebs qvemoT mocemuli
kiTxvebidan 1 baliT Sefasebuli kiTxvebis wili (%)-1, 2, 7, 9, 10, 27, 30,
34, 40 kiTxvebi
3. strategiuli saqmianobisa da azrovnebisaken midrekileba, razec
CamoTvlili kiTxvebidan 1 baliT Sefasebuli kiTxvebis wili (%)
miuTiTebs -11, 12, 13, 16, 23, 24, 28, 35, 39 kiTxvebi;
4. gadawyvetilebaTa miRebisas intuiciis grZnoba, razec qvemoT
mocemuli kiTxvebidan 1 baliT Sefasebuli kiTxvebis wili (%)
miuTiTebs – 6, 10, 15, 16, 18, 21, 23, 26, 38 kiTxvebi;
5. SemoqmedebiTi saqmianobisa da originalur gaawyvetilebaTa miRebis
unarebi, razec qvemoT CamoTvlili kiTxvebidan 1 baliT Sefasebuli
kiTxvebis wili (%) miuTiTebs -1, 3, 17, 20, 22, 23, 30, 32, 45 kiTxvebi.
testis Sedegebis analizi sxva konkretuli mimarTulebebis mixedviTac
SeiZleba moxdes; amasTan gasaTvaliswinebelia, rom idealuri adamianebi ar
arseboben da xuTi zemoT gamoyofili Tvisebis sawinaaRmdegod Tvisebebi,
45
kerZod: sifrTxile, pasuxismgebloba, racionaluroba, konservatiuloba da
taqtikuri
gadawyvetilebebisaken
midrekileba
cud
Tvisebebs
ar
warmoadgenen. zemoT aRniSnul TvisebaTa Sefasebisas maTi 35-36 procentiani
gamovlena normalurad SeiZleba CaiTvalos.
testi “marTvis efeqtianoba”
1. cdilobT Tu ara Tvens saqmianobaSi gamoiyenoT Tqveni profesiuli
sferos uaxlesi miRwevebi?
2. miiswrafviT Tu ara sxvebTan TanamSromlobisken?
3. mokled,
gasagebad
da
zrdilobianad
elaparakebiT
Tu
ara
daqvemdebarebulebs?
4. xsniT xolme Tu ara mizezebs , romlebmac ama Tu im gadawyvetilebis
miReba gaiZules?
5. gendobian Tu ara Tqveni daqvemdebarebulebi?
6. uxmobT Tu ara davalebis yvela Semsrulebels miznebis, vadebis,
meTodebis, pasuxismgeblobisa da sxva sakiTxTa ganxilvisas?
7. axalisebT Tu ara daqvemdebarebulebs iniciativas gamoCenisTvis, axali
winadadebebisa da SeniSvnebis warmodgenisTvis da a. S.
8. gaxsovT Tu ara yvela im adamianis saxeli, romlebTanac xSiri
kontaqtebi gaqvT?
9. aZlevT Tu ara dasaxuli miznebis misaRwev moqmedebaTa Tavisuflebas
Semsrulebels da a. S.
10. mxolod maSin exmarebiT daqvemdebarebulebs, roca isini amas gTxoven?
11. yoveli kargad Sesrulebuli samuSaosaTvis gamoxatavT Tu ara
madlierebis grZnobas daqvemdebarebulTa mimarT?
12. akontrolebT Tu ara davalebaTa Sesrulebis mimdinareobas?
13. cdilobT Tu ara ipovoT adamianebSi ukeTesi Tvisebebi?
14. iciT Tu ara rogor SeiZleba ufro efeqtianad gamoiyenoT yoveli
daqvemdebarebulis SesaZleblobebi?
15. iciT Tu ara Tqveni daqvemdebarebulebis interesi da midrekilebebi?
16. SegiZliaT Tu ara iyoT yuradRebiani msmeneli?
17. uxdiT Tu ara TanamSromels madlobas misi kolegebis TandaswrebiT?
18. eubnebiT Tu ara Tqvens daqvemdebarebulebs kritikul SeniSvnebs?
19. aRniSnavT Tu ara Tqveni samsaxuris karg muSaobas, roca Tqvens
xelmZRvanels angariSs an moxsenebiT baraTs udgenT?
20. endobiT Tu ara Tqvens daqvemdebarebulebs?
21. cdilobT Tu ara miawodoT Tvqens TanamSromlebs mTeli informacia,
romelsac administraciuli da marTviTi arxebiT iRebT?
22. uxsniT Tu ara Tqvens TanamSromlebs, Tu organizaciis miznebsa da
amocanebTan dakavSirebiT ra mniSvneloba aqvs maTi Sromis Sedegebs?
23. itovebT Tu ara TqvenTvis da utovebT Tu ara daqvemdebarebulebs dros
samuSaoTa dasagegmad?
46
24. gaqvT Tu ara Tundac sul cota erTi wliT adre dagegmili Tqveni
TviTganviTarebis gegma?
25. arsebobs Tu ara dRevandel moTxovnaTa Sesabamisi personalis
treningebis gegma?
26. regularulad kiTxulobT Tu ara specialur literaturas?
27. gaqvT Tu ara sakmaod seriozuli biblioTeka Tqveni specialobis
sferoSi?
28. zrunavT Tu ara Tqvens janmrTelobasa da Sromis unarianobaze?
29. giyvarT Tu ara rTuli, magram saintereso samuSaoebis Sesruleba?
30. efeqtiania Tu ara Tqveni saubrebi Tqvens daqvemdebarebulebTan maTi
muSaobis srulyofis sakiTxebze?
31. iciT Tu ara momuSavis ra Tvisebebs unda mieqces gansakuTrebuli
yuradReba mis samuSaoze miRebisas?
32. giWiravT Tu ara distancia daqvemdebarebulebTan?
33. mzad xarT Tu ara yovelTvis ganixloT Tqvens daqvemdebarebulTa
problemebi, SekiTxvebi da saCivrebi?
34. pativiscemiTa
da
yuradRebiT
epyrobiT
Tu
ara
Tqvens
daqvemdebarebulebs?
35. darwmunebuli xarT Tqvens TavSi?
36. kargad iciT Tveni Zlieri da susti mxareebi?
37. mmarTvelobiTi gadawyvetilebaTa miRebisas xSirad iyenebT Tu ara
originalur SemoqmedebiT midgomebs?
38. regularulad imaRlebT Tu ara Tqvens kvalifikacias seminarebze,
specialur kursebze da a. S.?
39. xarT Tu ara sakmarisad moqnili Tqvens qcevaSi, adamianebTan
urTierTobaSi?
40. mzad xarT Tu ara SecvaloT xelmZRvanelobis Tqveni stili, raTa is
ufro efeqtiani gaxdes?
Sefaseba
daiTvaleT ramdenia “ki” da “ara” pasuxebi da SeafaseT Tqveni Tavi:
• 40 “ki” umaRlesi, idealuri marTviTi potencialis maCvenebelia, radgan
yvela, ormocive kiTxva warmatebuli marTvis kriteriumia. rogorc yvela
ideali, esec praqtikulad miuRwevadia (Tu Tqven ar “ieSmakeT” da
keTilsindisierad upasuxeT yvela kiTxvas); mniSvnelovania romel kiTxvebze
upasuxeT “ara” –es Tqveni susti adgilebia;
• roca “ki” pasuxTa jami 33-s aWarbebs, es kargi marTviTi potencialis
maCvenebelia.
47
drois marTvis principebi
drois marTvisa da racionaluri gamoyenebis arsi da mniSvneloba
drois
marTva
rogorc
calke
pirovnebis,
ise
organizaciisaTvis
warmatebuli saqmianobisa da dasaxuli miznebis miRwevis erTerTi yvelaze
mTavari iaraRia; yovelTvis unda gvaxsovdes, rom dro gansakuTrebuli
fenomenia- dro Seuqcevadia, mas ver davagrovebT, ver SevinaxavT, ver
gavamravlebT, ver SevaCerebT, ver gadavcemT; dro mxolod midis, mas ukan
verasodes davabrunebT; swored amitom unda dros gansakuTrebuli
yuradReba da faqizi damokidebuleba, yovelmxriv miTiTebuli dagegmva da
marTva.
Zalze martivi magaliTi – davuSvaT, moxele Tavisi samuSao drois mxolod
10 procents iyenebs aracionalurad da, faqtobrivad kargavs mas, rac
realur sinamdvilesTan SedarebiT sakmaod karg mdgomareobadac ki
SeiZleba CaiTvalos da ara mxolod qarTul sinamdvileSi; magram samuSao
drois es dakarguli 10 procenti kviraSi 4 saaTia, weliwadSi (11 TveSi, anu
daaxloebiT 48 kviraSi) ki -192 saaTi, anu 24 sruli samuSao dRe ; SeiZleba
sakmao albaTobiT davuSvaT, rom erTi moxele Tu samuSao drois 10
procents kargavs, es weliwadSi erT Tves uaxlovdeba, xolo saqarTvelos
sajaro samsaxurSi dasaqmebuli 46 aTasamde momuSavisTvis es danakargi
katastroful cifrs – 1. 1 milion kacs aRwevs, rac daaxloebiT igivea, rom
TiTqmis 5 aTasi moxele mTeli wlis ganmavlobaSi arafers akeTebs. Aaq,
rogorc ityvian, komentari zedmetia da naTelia samuSao drois
racionaluri, efeqtiani gamoyenebis gansakuTrebuli mniSvneloba.
imisaTvis,
rom
kargad
gaverkveT
drois
marTvis
mniSvnelobisa da misi racionalizebis sakiTxebSi, sasurvelia ganvixiloT
cnobili mecnieris , stefan qoveis SemoTavazebuli drois marTvis matrica
drois marTvis matrica
mniSvnelovania
saswrafo moqmedebebi
Aarasaswrafo moqmedebebi
• krizisuli moqmedebebi
• problemebi, romlebic gvwnexaven
• saqmeebi,
romelTa
Sesrulebasac
vada gasdis
48
• raRacis
Tavidan
acileba,
gafrTxileba, winaswari zomebis miReba
• adamianebTan urTierTobebis ageba
• axali
amocanebis,
unarSesaZleblobebis amocnoba
• dagegmva, SemoqmedebiTi muSaoba
aramniSvnelovania
A
moqmedebebi
moqmedebebi
• viRaceebma Segawyvetines, darekes
• zogierTi werili, zogierTi angariSi
• zogierTi Sexvedra
• zogierTi problema , romelic gvwnexavs,
“gvaxrCobs”
• zogierTi
popularuli,
yoveldRiuri
moqmedeba (angariSebi)
• yoveldRiuri
monotonuri
samuSao
• zogierTi werili
• zogierTi satelefono zari
• drois
gamflangveli
moqmedebebi
• zogierTi sasiamovno moqmedeba
rogorc vxedavT, Cven dros vmarTavT oTxidan erTerTi gziT: vasrulebT an
saswrafo da mniSvnelovan, an arasaswrafo da mniSvnelovan, an saswrafo da
aramniSvnelovan , anda arasaswrafo da aramniSvnelovan samuSaoebs
saswrafo moqmedebebi iseTebia, romlebic saswrafo reagirebas moiTxoven,
e.i. axlave; isini moqmedeben Cvenze, mag: adamianTa umravlesobas ar SeuZlia
ar aiRos telefonis yurmili; saswrafo, gadaudebeli saqmeebi Cveulebriv,
xilulia, Cven winaa, xSirad sasiamovno da advilia maTi Sesruleba, magram
aseve xSirad isini aramniSvnelovanni arian; mniSvnelovani ki is saqmeebia,
romlebic Sromis Sedegebs, Cvens misias, faseulobebs da priotitetul
miznebs ukavSirdeba.
pirvel kvadratSi orivea – saswrafo da mniSvnelovani saqmeebic; am
kvadratis moqmedebebs xSirad krizisuls an problemurs vuwodebT;
metnaklebad yvelani varT xolme pirvel kvadratSi –erT problemas rom
gadavwyvetT, meore warmoiSveba da ase “avardna-CavardnaSi” varT; zogs es
yoveldRiuri problemebi dabla scemen, maTi Svebaa mimarTon meoTxe
kvadratis arasaswrafo aqtivobebs; drois did nawils (daaxloebiT 90
procenti) isini pirvel kvadratSi atareben, danarCens-meoTxeSi da TiTqmis
ar uTmoben yuradRebas meore da mesame kvadratebs; aseTi xalxi krizisuli
cxovrebiT cxovrobs – stresebiT, iwvis, mudmivad krizisul da problemur
viTarebaSia.
Aarian sxva momuSaveebi, romlebic did dros xarjaven mesame kvadratis
saswrafo, magram aramniSvnelovan aqtivobebze da Tan hgoniaT, rom pirvel
49
kvadratSi arian da saswrafosTan erTad mniSvnelovan saqmeebsac akeTeben;
realoba
ki
isaa,
rom
am
saqmeebis
swrafad
gadawyveta
sxvaTa
prioritetebiTa da karnaxiTaa ganpirobebuli; amis Sedegebia: yuradRebis
moklevadiani
fokusireba,
krizisuli
situaciebi,
miznebisa
da
amocanebisTvis
naklebi
mniSvnelobis
miniWeba,
sakuTari
Tavis
ukontroloba, zedapiruli da aramyari urTierTobebi.
isini, romlebic ZiriTad dros mesame da meoTxe kvadratebis moqmedebebze
xarjaven, upasuxismgeblod cxovroben, aramniSvnelovan da arasaswrafo
saqmeebiT arian dakavebulni; amis Sedegebia: sruli upasuxismgebloba,
sxvebze damokidebuleba, davalebis Seusrulebloba da a. S.
efeqtianad, sworad momuSaveni cdiloben mesame da meoTxe kvadratebs gareT
darCnen, radgan saswrafoa Tu ara, es saqmeebi araa mniSvnelovani; isini,
agreTve, amcireben pirvel kvadratSi yofnis dros, raTa meti dro daxarjon
meore kvadratSi.
swored meore kvadratia sakuTari Tavis efeqtiani marTvis guli; es exeba
saqmeebs, romlebic araa saswrafo, magram mniSvnelovania; aseTebia:
urTierTobebis damyareba, davalebebis gansazRvra, perspeqtiuli dagegmva,
Semowmeba, momzadeba; es is saqmeebia, romlebic viciT, rom aucileblad
unda gavakeToT, magram iSviaTad vakeTebT, radgan ar arian saswrafoni.
Eefeqtianad moqmedi momuSaveni problemebze ar arian orientirebulebi,
isini orientirebulni arian SesaZleblobebze, maTgan gamodian da Tavidan
icileben problemebs; isini profilaqtikurad, problemebis Tavidan
acilebis midgomiT fiqroben da moqmedeben; ase rom, unda vimuSaoT meore
kvadratSi, radgan pirveli da mesame kvadratebi
“Cvenze muSaoben”,
gvwnexaven; unda daveTanxmoT meore kvadratis prioritetebs da viswavloT
vTqvaT “ara” sxva saqmianobebeze, zogjer da nawilobriv – saswrafo
saqmeebzec ki da maSinac, roca sxvebi da garemoebebi Cveni drois xelyofas
cdiloben. E
xelmRvanelTa muSaobis efeqtianobis erTerTi mTavari maCvenebelia dasaxul
amocanaTa gadawyvetisas droSi winswreba. Aaranormaluria, roca guSindel
saqmes dRes vakeTebT, normaluria, roca dRes dRevandeli saqme keTdeba,
gansakuTrebiT kargia, roca dRes saxvalio saqmes vakeTebT da win
viyurebiT. samwuxarod, Zalze bevr organizaciaSi marTvis maRal safexurze
mdgari xelmZRvaneli bevr dros xarjavs operatiuli problemebis
gadawyvetaze. is, rac karga xniT adre unda gagvekeTebina, imis gamo, rom ar
gavakeTeT, operatiuli gadasawyveti gaxda; dRes ki, roca did dros
vandomebT am operatiul amocanaTa gadawyvetas da ar vfiqrobT
perspeqtiul problemebze, dro rom mova, isinic operatiulad gadasawyveti
xdeba. Aase ikvreba Sromis cudi organizaciis gamo naklovanebaTa wre,
TandaTan Cvevad iqceva muSaobis mankieri stili.
xelmRvanelma, rasakvirvelia, unda icodes daqvemdebarebul safexurebze
yvela uwesrigobaTa Sesaxeb, magram misi Careva aucilebelia mxolod maSin,
roca darRvevebi da naklovanebebi sistemad iqceva da qvemdgom rgolebs ar
ZaluZT maTi aRmofxvra. aseT SemTxvevaSic ki zemdgomma rgolma ar unda
Sewyvitos perspeqtiul mimarTulebebze muSaoba.
Sromis pirobebis srulyofa
50
samuSao
drois
racionaluri
gamoyenebisa
da,
saerTod,
muSaobis
efeqtianobis amaRlebis mniSvnelovani pirobaa organizaciasa da mis
struqturul qvedanayofebSi Sromis normaluri pirobebisa da Sromisa da
dasvenebis racionaluri ganwesis damkvidreba.
Sroma normalur, keTilsasurvel pirobebSi unda mimdinareobdes, xolo
samuSao adgilebis organizeba (dagegmareba, aRWurva) maqsimalurad unda
iTvalisiwnebdes mecnierebisa da praqtikis Tanamedrove miRwevebs. Sromis
normaluri pirobebi da samuSao adgilebis racionaluri organizeba
arsebiTad uwyobs xels daRlilobis Semcirebas, drois dazogvas,
koncentrirebul da intensiur muSaobas, Sromisunarianobis amaRlebas,
sabolood, Sromis efeqtianobis zrdas.
samuSao adgilebis organizebisa da Sromis pirobebis srulyofis ZiriTadi
amocanebia muSaobis procesSi aucilebeli komfortis Seqmna, samuSao
avejisa da samuSao adgilebis racionaluri gabaritebis, konstruqciisa da
formis yvela saWiro sagniT uzrunvelyofa, xelebiT misaRwevi optimaluri
zonis dacva, samuSao adgilebis dagegmarebisa da maTi parametrebis
gansazRvrisas
momuSaveTa
anTropometruli
da
fsiqofiziologiuri
Taviseburebis gaTvaliswineba, samuSao zonaSi ganlagebuli sagnebis kargi
xedva, advili miRwevadoba, Sromis pirobebis ganmsazRvrel faqtorTa
optimalur doneze SenarCuneba da sxva.
Sromis efeqtianobasa da drois racionalur gamoyenebaze mniSvnelovan
gavlenas axdens Sromis optimaluri garemo pirobebis
(sanitarulhigienuri da socialur-fsiqologiuri pirobebis) uzrunvelyofa.
Uupiratesad gonebrivi SromiTi dakavebuli momuSaveebi mTeli informaciis
80-90 procents mxedvelobis saSualebiT iReben; amitom gansakuTrebuli
mniSvneloba aqvs maTi samuSao adgilis racionalur ganaTebas. ganaTebis
done, upirvelesad, TviT Sesasrulebeli samuSaos xasiaTzea damokidebuli ;
rac zustia mxedvelobis TvalsazrisiT samuSao, ganaTebis miT maRali
donea saWiro. sazogadod miRebulia, rom samuSao zedapiris ganaTebis done
(saerTo ganaTeba) luminescenciuri naTurebis gamoyenebisas 300 luqsze
naklebi ar unda iyos, xolo varvarebis naTurebis gamoyenebisas – 150
luqsze naklebi. zusti samuSaoebis Sesrulebisas saerTo ganaTebasTan
erTad, roca sinaTlis wyaro mTel oTaxs anaTebs, adgilobrivi (samuSao
adgilis) ganaTebac unda gamoviyenoT.
momuSaveTa Sromisunarianobis maRal doneze SesanarCuneblad didi
mniSvneloba aqvs haeris normaluri temperaturisa da SefardebiTi
tenianobis uzrunvelyofas; maTi reglamentireba specialuri sanitaruli
normebiT xdeba. gonebrivi Sromisas, roca met-naklebad seriozul fizikur
daZabulobas
adgili ara aqvs, haeris normalur temperaturad 18-20
gradusi iTvleba, xolo tenianobad – ara umetes 60 procentisa. zafxulis
TveebSi, roca SenobaSic ki temperatura 30 graduss aWarbebs, didi
mniSvneloba aqvs saventiliacio da haeris kondicirebis danadgarebis
gamoyenebas.
samuSao drois racionaluri gamoyeneba da Sromis efeqtianoba metad
mniSvnelovnadaa damokidebuli adamianis Sromisisunarianobaze. Aadamianis
muSaobisunarianoba, marTalia, individualuri TaviseburebebiT xasiaTdeba,
magram arsebobs yvelasaTvis saerTo kanonzomierebebi, romlebic nebismier
adamians axasiaTebs da mravali saxis fsiqologiuri, Sromis Sedegobrivi
Tu sxva maCveneblebiT dasturdeba
51
unda gamoiyos samuSao dRis ganmavlobaSi adamianis Sromisunarianobis
damaxasiaTebeli sami periodi, kerZod:
1. muSaobis tempSi Sesvlis periodi, romelic samuSaos dawyebis pirveli
etapia da daaxloebiT 30-60 wuTs grZeldeba; am dros adamiani da misi
fsiqofiziologiuri, SromiTi potencia TandaTanobiT Sedis muSaobis
tempSi, radgan xangrZlivi Sesvenebis gamo samuSaos SesrulebasTan
dakavSirebuli pirobiT-refleqsuri kavSirebis warmoSobas gansazRvruli
dro sWirdeba. muSaobis tempSi Sesvlis periodSi TandaTan umjobesdeba
adamianis rogorc fiziologiuri (fizikuri), ise fsiqikuri (mag. yuradRebis
koncentrireba, azrovnebis siswrafe, gareSe gamaRizianeblebze reagireba)
da SromiTi maCveneblebi
2. amis Semdeg iwyeba maRali da myari Sromisunarianobis periodi, roca
adamianis fsiqofiziologiuri da SromiTi maCveneblebi TavianT saukeTeso
dones aRweven; es periodi daaxloebiT 1.5-2 saaTs grZeldeba;
3. dabali Sromisunarianobis periodi, romelic muSaobis dawyebidan
daaxloebiT sami saaTis Semdeg iwyebs gamovlenas, gansakuTrebiT TvalSi
sacemi ki samuSao dRis bolos saaTebSi xdeba da daRlilobis procesis
dawyebiTaa
ganpirobebuli;
am
dros
TandaTan
uaresdeba
adamianis
organizmis
qmedunarianobisa
Tu
mis
saqmianobis
damaxasiaTebeli
maCveneblebi.
Uunda aRiniSnos, rom samuSao dRis meore naxevarSi (Sesvenebis Semdeg)
adamianis Sromisunarianobis dinamika imave kanonzomierebebiT xasiaTdeba,
riTac dRis pirvel naxevarSi, oRond im gansxvavebiT, rom dRis meore
naxevarSi miRweuli Sromisunarianobis maqsimaluri done CamorCeba dRis
pirveli naxevris analogiur maCvenebels, xolo samuSao dRis bolos es
maCveneblebi yvelaze uaresia, maT Soris, dRis pirveli naxevris bolos, anu
Sesvenebis wina periodis maCveneblebTan SedarebiT.
testi : samuSo drois gamoyenebis Sesaxeb
upasuxeT qvemoT CamoTvlil kiTxvebs; dadebiTi pasuxi (“k”) SeafaseT 2
baliT, pasuxi “zogjer” – 1 baliT, xolo uaryofiTi pasuxi (“ara”) -0
baliT.
1. winaswar gegmavT Tu ara momavali kviris saqmeebs?
2. sakmarisia Tu ara Tqvendami daqvemdebarebulTa raodenoba dasaxul
amocanaTa gadasawyvetad?
3. winaswar gegmavT Tu ara daqvemdebarebulTa Soris samuSaos
ganawilebas?
4. ritmulad muSaoben Tu ara Tqveni daqvemdebarebulebi?
5. sakmarisad kompetenturni da momzadebulebi arian Tu ara Tqveni
daqvemdebarebulebi?
6. momzadebulia
Tu
ara
Tqveni
TanaSemwe
rTul
problemaTa
gadasawyvetad?
7. cdilobT Tu ara, rac SeiZleba SeamciroT Tqven mier Catarebuli
TaTbirebis raodenoba?
8. gyavT Tu ara TanaSemwe, romelsac SeuZlia saWiro dros SegcvaloT?
52
9. sakmarisad gaqvT Tu ara efeqtiani muSoabis teqnikuri TaTbirebis
raodenoba?
10. ixmarT Tu ara Tqvens mdivans saqmiani Sexvedrebis dasaniSnad?
11. TviT Tqveni mdivani niSnavs Tu ara Tqvens saqmian Sexvedrebs?
12. icis Tu ara mdivanma vin SeiZleba pirdapir da uSualod
dagakavSiroT Tqven?
13. winaswar amzadebT Tu ara davalebebs mdivnisTvis, raTa man droulad
Seasrulos isini?
14. sargeblobT Tu ara diqtofoniT?
15. sakmaod naTel amocanebs usaxavT Tu ara daqvemdebarebulebs?
16. SeuZliaT Tu ara daqvemdebarebulebs konsultirebis aucileblobisas
umtkivneulod, advilad dagikavSirdnen Tqven?
17. punqtualuri xarT Tu ara samsaxurebriv saqmeebSi?
18. iwyebT Tu ara Tvens samuSao dRes gadaudebeli saqmeebis keTebiT?
19. axerxebT Tu ara SeisvenoT xolme muSaobis procesSi, erTgvarad
modundeT, ganitvirToT?
20. yovelTvis axerxebT Tu ara operatiulad miiRoT gadawyvetileba?
21. ebrZviT Tu ara daqvemdebarebulTa usaqmurobis faqtebs?
22. obieqturad afasebT Tu ara daqvemdebarebulTa muSaobis efeqtianobas?
23. iciT Tu ara ra kriteriumebiT afaseben daqvemdebarebulebi Tqveni
saqmianobis efeqtinobas?
24. afasebT Tu ara ramdenad iyenebT Tqvens samuSao dros?
25. axdenT Tu ara Tqveni samuSao drois perspeqtiul dagegmvas?
Sefaseba:
45 balze met – SesaniSnavi Sedegia, Tven Zalze kargad marTavT dros;
26-45 bali – Tqven damakmayofileblad iyenebT Tqvens SesaZleblobebs;
26 balze naklebi – Tqven ki ar marTavT dros, aramed dro gmarTavT Tqven
da aucilebelia SecvaloT muSaobis stili.
TanamSromelTa uflebebi da disciplina
A
am TavSi Cven ganvixilavT TanamSromelTa uflebebs, samuSao adgilis
Taviseburebebsa da TanamSromelTa disciplinas. xelmZRvanelebi aRniSnaven,
rom es Temebi mniSvnelovan gavlenas axdens rogorc TanamSromlebis, ise
zedamxedvelebis saqmianobaze. robert j. dini, dasaqmebis iuristi, acxadebs,
rom TanamSromelTa uflebebi da samuSao adgilis Taviseburebani “isev
darCeba SromiTi samarTlis aqtualur Temebad ocdameerTe saukuneSi”.
xelmZRvanelebi amCneven, rom ufleba disciplinisa da TanamSromelTa
samsaxuridan daTxovnis Sesaxeb, romelic xelmZRvanelobis tradiciul
valdebulebas warmoadgens, ufro rTuli gansaxorcielebeli xdeba,
radganac TanamSromelTa uflebebs ufro da ufro meti yuradReba eqceva.
53
ufro metic, TanamSromelTa disciplinireba metad rTuli da usiamovno
amocanaa menejerTa da zedamxedvelTa umetesobisTvis; bevri maTgani
acxadebs, rom TanamSromlis winaaRmdeg dasjis qmedebis ganxorcieleba
yvelaze stresuli valdebulebaa, rasac isini asruleben. TanamSromelTa
uflebebisa da disciplinis balansireba ar aris advili, magram es aris
kargi menejmentis sayovelTao moTxovna da mniSvnelovani aspeqti.
radganac TanamSromelTa uflebebis sakiTxebis zrdam gamoiwvia
TanamSromelTa mier Setanil sarCelTa ricxvis zrda, Cven am TavSi aseve
ganvixilavT alternatiuli davebis mogvarebas, rogorc saSualebas
organizaciuli samarTlis dasaxmareblad. radganac disciplinaruli
qmedebebi gamowveulia problemebiT da SesaZloa gauqmdes samTavrobo
uwyebebis an sasamarTloebis mier, xelmZRvanelobam unda SeimuSaos
dadebiTi RonisZieba aseTi qmedebis saWiroebis Tavidan asacileblad. roca
SeuZlebelia disciplinaruli RonisZiebis Tavidan acileba, es qmedeba unda
ganxorcieldes kargad SemuSavebuli adamianuri resursebis politikisa da
praqtikis
Sesabamisad.
radganac
eTika
organizaciuli
samarTlis
mniSvnelovan elements warmoadgens, es Tavi Seicavs TanamSromelTa
urTierTobebSi organizaciuli eTikis ganxilvasac.
organizaciuli disciplinis ganxilvis dros individualuri da
organizaciuli miznebis misaRwevad rCevis micemas specialuri yuradReba
eqceva. Cven aseve ganvixilavT rCeva-darigebis micemis miznebsa da xerxebs am
Tavis danarTSi.
TanamSromelTa uflebebi da Taviseburebani
M
mravali antidiskriminaciuli kanoni, xelfasi da saaTobrivi statusi,
usafrTxoeba
da
jandacvis
kanonmdeblobiTi
aqti
uzrunvelyofs
TanamSromelTa
ZiriTad
uflebebs
da
muSaobis
gaumjobesebas.
TanamSromelTa uflebebis Sesaxeb dava exeba iseT sakiTxebs, rogoricaa
TanamSromelTa uflebebi usamarTlo disciplinaruli qmedebis winaaRmdeg,
genetikuri
analizis
Catarebis
Sesaxeb,
maTi
piradi
saqmeebis
xelmisawvdomobis Sesaxeb, damsaqmeblis dakvirvebebisa da zedamxedvelobis,
damsaqmeblis mier dasjis Tavidan acilebis Sesaxeb.
TanamSromelTa uflebebisadmi yuradRebis miqceva socialur, SromiT
da biznesinteresTa evoluciis bunebrivi Sedegia. TanamSromelTa uflebebi
SeiZleba ganimartos, rogorc samarTliani mopyrobis garantia, rasac
TanamSromlebi moelian TavianTi SromiTi statusis dacvis dros. Ees
molodini gadaiqceva uflebebad, roca isini mieniWeba TanamSromlebs
sasamarTloebis, kanonmdeblobis an damsaqmeblis mier. TanamSromelTa
uflebebSi
xSirad
igulisxmeba
damsaqmeblis
mier
dasaqmebulis
konfidencialuri uflebis xelyofa. magaliTad, muSakebma SeiZleba
CaTvalon, rom maT aqvT gasaidumloebis saTanado molidini maT pirad
satelefono saubrebTan dakavSirebiT, romlebic ganxorcielda samsaxuris
telefonidan, samsaxurSi sxva damsaqmeblebTan elfostiT miwerili
werilebTan dakavSirebiT, an xelmZRvanelobis mier maTi piradi sakuTrebis
SemTxveviTi gamokvlevebis Tavidan asacileblad. Tumca Tu damsaqmebeli
eubneba TanamSromels, rom maT ar aqvT gasaidumloebis ufleba samsaxurSi,
albaT asea. erT-erTi uflebamosili komentatori ambobs, rom “roca
damsaqmeblebi garkveviT acxadeben, rom gasaidumloebis molodini ar
arsebobs, Znelia daamtkico, rom gonier adamians SeiZleba hqondes aseTi
54
molodini”. amasTanave, gansxvaveba damsaqmeblis gasaidumloebis kanonier
uflebasa da gasaidumloebis moralur an pirad uflebas Soris yovelTvis
ar aris garkveuli. gaurkvevlobas iwvevs konfidencialurobis dacvis
sayovelTao
da
mudmivi
organoebis,
kanonebis
an
sasamarTlos
gadawyvetilebebis simcire. ar arsebobs zogadi federaluri an saxelmwifo
kanonebi, romlebic icaven yvela TanamSromlis konfidencialurobas
samsaxurSi.
TanamSromelTa uflebebi da damsaqmeblis valdebulebebi
B
TanamSromlis balansirebuli uflebebis Tanaxmad damsaqmeblis
movaleobaa uzrunvelyos usafrTxo samuSao garemo TanamSromlebisTvis,
maSin roca momxmareblebs uzrunvelyofs usafrTxo, xarisxiani saqonliTa
da momsaxurebiT.Nnarkotikebis momxmarebelma TanamSromelma SeiZleba
gamoiyenos misi konfidencialuri ufleba da uari Tqvas testis Catarebaze.
Mmagram aseTma TanamSromelma, narkotikis miRebis gamo, SeiZleba nakliani
produqti daamzados, da damsaqmebeli SeiZleba gaxdes pasuxismgebeli am
produqtiT miyenebuli zianisTvis. Ddamsaqmeblebma didi yuradReba unda
gamoiCinon TanamSromelTa daqiravebis, treningisa da daniSvnis dros.
TanamSromelTa uflebebi da damsaqmeblis valdebulebebi SeiZleba
erTmaneTs ewinaaRmdegebodes. damsaqmebelTa mier TanamSromelTa uflebebis
daucvelobam SeiZleba gamoiwvios saCivrebi, organizaciis reputaciis
Selaxva da TanamSromlis moralis Seryeva.Mmagram
TanamSromelTa
usafrTxoebisa da keTildReobis, momxmarebelTa interesebis daucvelobam
SeiZleba
gamoiwvios
dava
orive
mxridan.
TanamSromelTa
sarCeli
uyuradRebo daqiravebis Sesaxeb damsaqmebelTa seriozuli zrunvis sagani
gaxda.
uyuradRebo daqiraveba
kanonSi gulgriloba gansazRvrulia, rogorc didi uyuradRebobis
gamoCena, roca es zians ayenebs sxva adamians. Ggulgrili daqiraveba aris
samarTlebrivi dogma, romelic damsaqmebels akisrebs pasuxismgeblobas misi
TanamSromlebis moqmedebebze maTi muSaobis periodSi. damsaqmeblebisTvis
arsebobs zogadi valdebuleba gamoiCinon goniereba da yuradReba, raTa
TanamSromlebma ganzrax ar miayenon ziani sxva TanamSromlebs muSaobis
periodSi.
samwuxarod, roca erTi TanamSromeli Caidens sastik moqmedebas sxva
TanamSromlis mimarT an TanamSromeli ganzrax Seuracxyofs sxva
TanamSromels elfostis saSualebiT samsaxurSi, damsaqmebels SeiZleba
wauyenon sarCeli TanamSromlis uyuradRebod daqiravebis gamo. radganac
mravali adamiani Tvlis uyuradRebo daqiravebis sasamarTlo procesebs,
rogorc “daWera 22-s” damsaqmeblebisTvis (rogor SeuZliaT damsaqmeblebs
winaswar gansazRvron TanamSromelTa momavali moqmedeba), es aiZulebs
damsaqmeblebs
damatebiTi
yuradReba
gamoiCinon
samuSao
Zalis
dakompleqtebasa da menejmentSi. Aam Tavis momdevno nawilSi ganvixilavT
uflebebs, romlebsac TanamSromlebi moelian damsaqmeblebisgan.
samuSao adgilis dacvis uflebebi
55
bunebrivia, rom TanamSromlebi TavianT samuSaos miiCneven kuTvnil
uflebad – uflebad, romelic umizezod
ar unda gauqmdes. samsaxuris
Sovnis SesaZleblobis gareSe Cveni piradi keTildReoba metad SezRuduli
iqneba. aseTma msjelobam migviyvana im azramde, rom aucilebelia arsebobdes
oTxi kanonieri moTxovna samuSaos usafrTxoebis Sesaxeb: Tavisufali
dasaqmebis principi, kontraqtis cneba, konstruqciuli ganTavisufleba da
sawarmos daxurvis Setyobineba.
kargad unda gavacnobieroT, rom
Tumca TanamSromlebs SeiZleba
hqondeT mizezi, rom samuSao miiCnion
dadgenil uflebad, ar arsebobs
samarTlebrivi dacva, romelic uzrunvelyofs TanamSromels mudmivi an
xangrZlivi samsaxuriT. Aamerikis SeerTebuli Statebis konstitucia ar
iZleva garantias, rom samsaxuri Sedodes TanamSromelTa specialur
sakuTrebaTa uflebebSi. Aamas garda, samsaxuris cneba, rogorc sakuTrebis
ufleba, avaldebulebs xelmZRvanelobas imoqmedos samarTlianad da
Tanasworad yvela TanamSromelTan. TanamSromlebs namdvilad aqvT ufleba
hqondeT jansaRi dasaqmebis molidini da survili moeqcnen maT, rogorc
Rirseul pirovnebebs.
Tavisufali dasaqmeba
D
dasaqmebis urTierTobebi tradiciulad mohyva Tavisufali dasaqmebis
saerTo kanonis moZRvrebas. Tavisufali dasaqmebis principi iTvaliswinebs,
rom TanamSromels aqvs ufleba gawyvitosDSromiTi kavSiri ukeTesi
samsaxuris perspeqtivis SemTxvevaSi an sxva piradi mizezebiT.Aaseve
damsaqmebelsac SeuZlia nebismier dros SewyvitosDSromiTi kavSiri
Setyobinebis gareSe raime mizezis gamo, an umizezod, an Tundac
arasaTanado mizeziT. Aamgvarad, amboben, rom TanamSromlebis muSaoba
damokidebulia damsaqmeblis “survilze”.
Tavisufali dasaqmebis kavSiri iqmneba, roca TanamSromeli Tanxmdeba
imuSaos damsaqmeblisTvis ganusazRvreli vadiT. radganac dasaqmeba
ganusazRvreli
xangrZlivobisaa,
praqtikulad
is
SeiZleba
Sewydes
nebismieri mxaris surviliT. Ees Tavisufleba gulisxmobs xelmZRvanelobis
uflebas
calmxrivad gansazRvros samuSao pirobebi
da miiRos piradi
gadawyvetilebebi. 1908 wels aSS-Si uzenaesi sasamarTlo xelmZRvanelobda
Tavisufali dasaqmebis moZRvrebiT, da es principi isev rCeba ZiriTad wesad,
romelic marTavs kerZo seqtoris dasaqmebis urTierTobebs.
saxelmwifo seqtoris
TanamSromlebs aqvT dasaqmebis uflebebis
damatebiTi konstituciuri dacva konstituciaSi Setanili mexuTe da
meToTxmete cvlilebebis Tanaxmad. mexuTe cvlileba exeba federalur
saxelmwifo mosamsaxureebs, xolo meToTxmete cvlileba – TanamSromlebs,
romlebic
muSaoben
saxelmwifosTvis,
qveynisTvis
an
adgilobrivi
mmarTvelobebisTvis. Oorive cvlileba moqmedebs, rom SezRudos meTodebi
da mizezebi, romlebic SeiZleba gamoyenebul iqnes TanamSromlis dasjis an
ganTavisuflebisTvis saxelmwifo seqtorSi. mexuTe cvlilebis pirobebi
(iseve rogorc meToTxmete cvlileba), romlebic krZalavs cxovrebis,
Tavisuflebisa da sakuTrebis xelyofas Sesabamisi samarTlebrivi procesis
gareSe, uzrunvelyofs mTavar konstituciur dacvas saxelmwifo seqtorSi
momuSave moxeleebisTvis. maSin, roca es garantiebi exeba saxelmwifo
seqtorSi momuSave TanamSromlebs, am cvlilebebis SromiTi uflebebi
gavlenas axdens kerZo seqtoris sasamarTlo gadawyvetilebebze.
56
Asamsaxuridan usamarTlod ganTavisufleba
A
amerikaSi samuSao Zalis statistika, romelic damokidebulia
arbitraJis mier ganTavisuflebaze Tavisufali dasaqmebis moZRvrebis
Tanaxmad, meryeobs 55 milionidan 65 milion TanamSromlamde. yovel wels
daaxloebiT 2 milion muSaks aTavisufleben. TanamSromelTa usamarTlo
ganTavisufleba meryeobs 50.000-dan 200.000-mde weliwadSi. Aam bolo wlebis
manZilze am TanamSromelTa mniSvnelovanma ricxvma uCivla maT yofil
damsaqmeblebs “araswori an usamarTlo ganTavisuflebisTvis”.
usamarTlod
ganTavisuflebis
sarCelis
mniSvneloba
imaSi
mdgomareobs, rom isini, Tavisufali dasaqmebis cnebidan gamomdinare,
kiTxvis
niSnis
qveS
ayeneben
damsaqmeblis
uflebas,
calmxrivad
gaaTavisuflos TanamSromlebi. Mmravali saxelmwifo sasamarTlo axla
aRiarebs Semdeg sam mniSvnelovan gamonakliss Tavisufali dasaqmebis
moZRvrebisTvis:
1. sajaro politikis darRveva. Ees gamonaklisi xdeba im SemTxvevebSi,
roca
TanamSromeli
ganTavisuflebulia
danaSaulis
Cadenis
uaryofisTvis; samTavrobo xelisuflebisTvis kriminaluri saqmianobis
Sesaxeb SetyobinebisTvis; an SromiTi uflebebis gamoyenebisTvis.
(sajaro politikis darRvevis magaliTebisTvis ix. sqema 13.1).
2. KSemoTavazebuli
kontraqti.
Ees
gamonaklisi
xdeba,
roca
TanamSromlebs aTavisufleben samuSaos dacvis Sesaxeb ufrosis
dapirebis
(gamoxatuli
an
nagulisxmevi)
miuxedavad,
an
ganTavisuflebis dadgenili pirobebis sawinaaRmdegod. damsaqmeblis
zepiri an werilobiTi gancxadebebi SeiZleba Seicavdes kontraqtul
valdebulebas,
Tu
isini
dakavSirebulia
TanamSromlebTan
da
TanamSromlebi endobian maT, rogorc samuSao pirobebs.
3. SemoTavazebuli SeTanxmeba (xelSekruleba). Ees gamonaklisi xdeba,
roca
naklebad
sando
da
samarTliania
damsaqmeblis
mier
SemoTavazebuli garigeba. zianis miyenebiT
gamarTlebis gareSeE
damsaqmebeli arRvevs SeTanxmebas. ganTavisuflebuli TanamSromlebi
ganicdian stress an difamacias.
amJamad konfliqti da gaurkvevloba damsaqmebelTa tradiciul
uflebebsa (sakuTari survilisamebr Sewyvitos SromiTi kavSiri) da
TanamSromelTa uflebas (daicvas Tavi usamarTlod ganTavisuflebisgan)
Soris jer kidev ar aris mogvarebuli. sakuTari Tavis dasacavad
usamarTlod ganTavisuflebisa da didi jarimisgan, romelic zogjer 1
milion dolars aRemateba, adamianuri resursebis specialistebi
gvTavazoben Semdeg winadadebebs, romlebic mocemulia sqemaze 13.2.
dabezReba
Ddamsaqmeblebma unda gamoiCinon yuradReba, rom ar dasajon an
gaanTavisuflon is TanamSromlebi, romlebic samTavrobo uwyebebs
atyobineben saerTo darRvevebis Sesaxeb. AdabezReba ara mxolod
TanamSromlis
daculi
uflebaa,
aramed
es
SemTxvevebi
iwvevs
damsaqmebelTa gaRizianebas, rom araferi vTqvaT im didi jarimebis
Sesaxeb,
risi
gadaxdac
uwevT
damsaqmeblebs
damnaSaved
cnobis
57
SemTxvevaSi. erT-erTi dabezRebis SemTxvevis dros farmacevtuli
produqtebis kompania federalurma prokurorebma daajarimes 875 milioni
dolariT TaRliTobisTvis – farulad SeuTanxmda eqimebs, rom
moetyuebinaT mTavroba.
samsaxuridan
politikas
ganTavisuflebis SemTxvevebi, romlebic arRvevs sajaro
damsaqmebels ar SeuZlia TanamSromeli gaaTavisuflos:
• Ddamsaqmeblis saxeliT
sasamarTloSi yalbi Cvenebis micemaze
uaris Tqmis SemTxvevaSi;
• gamoZiebaSi samTavrobo uwyebasTan TanamSromlobisTvis an
Cvenebis micemisaTvis;
• qcevis profesiulii kodeqsis darRvevaze uaris TqmisTvis;
• okupaciuri
usafrTxoebisa
da
jandacvis
administraciis
darRvevebis gamJRavnebisTvis;
• im politikuri kandidatisTvis mxardaWeraze uaris TqmisTvis,
romelsac mxars uWers damsaqmebeli;
• “dabezRebisTvis”,
an
damsaqmeblis
ukanoni
moqmedebis
gamJRavnebisTvis;
• Tu TanamSromelma momxmarebels Setyobina, rom damsaqmebelma
mohpara momxmarebels qoneba;
• sasamarTloSi gamocxadebisTvis.
rCevebi
usamarTlod
asacileblad
samuSaos
Sewyvetaze
sasamarTloebis
Tavidan
• gaaTavisufleT TanamSromeli mxolod im SemTxvevaSi, Tu arsebobs
safuZvliani
mizezi.
Ddamsaqmebelma
naTlad
unda
daasabuTos
TanamSromlis ganTavisuflebis advilad gasagebi mizezebi. mizezebi
unda dasaxeldes obieqturad, ramdenadac SesaZlebelia, da isini unda
gamomdinareobdes kompaniis wesebidan, politikidan da praqtikidan;
• CamoayalibeT da daicaviT Sewyvetis wesebi da pirobebi. SeamowmeT,
rom yvela ganTavisufleba pasuxobdes dadgenil pirobebs. Ppirobebi
SeiZleba
gamomdinareobdes
TanamSromlis
saxelmZRvanelodan,
zedamxedvelobis
saxelmZRvanelodan, an Tundac Sigaganawesidan.
ganTavisuflebamde TanamSromels mieciT sayveduri an gafrTxileba
samuSaos arasaTanadod Sesrulebis gamo,
miTiTeba muSaobis
gaumjobesebis SesaZleblobis Sesaxeb da a.S.
• daasabuTeT muSaobis yvelanairi problema. dasabuTebuli problemebis
simcire TanamSromlis pirad saqmeSi SeiZleba gamoyenebul iqnes
rogorc safuZvliani ganTavisuflebis garemoebiTi mtkicebuleba, Tu
TanamSromeli “uceb” gaaTavisufles.
• MiyaviT mtkice TanamSromlebTan msgavs situaciebSi. dokumentebiT
daamtkiceT Yyvelanairi disciplinaruli qmedebis mizezebi, maSinac ki,
Tu
isini
ar
iwvevs
ganTavisuflebas.
ganTavisuflebulma
TanamSromlebma SeiZleba pretenzia gamoTqvan, rom gamonaklisi
SemTxvevebi diskriminaciulia. Ddetaluri dokumentacia daexmareba
58
damsaqmeblebs ganmarton, Tu ratom ar amarTlebs es “gamonaklisebi”
ganTavisuflebas.
SemoTavazebuli kontraqti
M
amerikis SeerTebul StatebSi dadgenilia, rom TanamSromelTa 70%
muSaobs samuSao kontraqtis gareSe. Amis miuxedavad, garkveuli pirobebis
Tanaxmad, am TanamSromlebs SeiZleba mieniWoT xelSekrulebiTi SromiTi
uflebebi. Ees SeiZleba moxdes, roca damsaqmeblis piroba TanamSromels
sTavazobs samuSaos dacvis garkveul formas. am SeTavazebuli kontraqtis
uflebebi SeiZleba emyarebodes zepir an werilobiT gancxadebebs samuSaos
dawyebamde an dasaqmebis Semdeg. xSirad es dapirebebi Sedis TanamSromlis
saxelmZRvaneloSi, adamianuri resursebis instruqciebSi, an dasaqmebis
gancxadebebSi an isini keTdeba gasaubrebis dros. roca samuSaos dacvis es
zusti Tu arazusti dapirebebi keTdeba, sasamarTloebma praqtikulad
aukrZales damsaqmebels TanmSromlis ganTavisufleba kontraqtis pirobebis
sruli Sesrulebis gareSe. magaliTad, “tousant blu qrossim” da “blu
Sild of miCiganim” miiCnia TanamSromlis saxelmZRvanelo, rogorc
calmxrivad moqmedi kontraqti. qvemoT mocemulia magaliTebi, Tu rogor
SeiZleba SemoTavazebuli kontraqti gaxdes oficialuri, savaldebulo:
• uTxariT TanamSromlebs, rom maTi samuSao daculi iqneba iqamde, sanam
isini
saTanadod
Seasruleben
da
loialuri
iqnebian
organizaciisadmi.
• TanamSromelTa saxelmZRvaneloSi aRniSneT, rom TanamSromlebi ar
ganTavisufldebian dacvis an gasaCivrebis uflebis gareSe.
• TanamSromeli daarwmuneT, rom datovos sxva organizacia ufro
maRali xelfasis dapirebiT, Semdeg ki uaryaviT es dapirebebi mas
Semdeg, rac daiqiravebT adamians.
sabednierod, damsaqmeblebs SeuZliaT Seamciron maTi problemebi
kontraqtis sarCelebis mimarT mizanSewonili menejeruli praqtikebiT,
treningiT da adamianuri resursebis politikiT. adamianuri resursebis
eqspertebi gvirCeven, rom gamoviyenoT Semdegi RonisZiebebi:
1. supervaizerebisa da menejerebis treningi, rom ar SesTavazon
kontraqti axal TanamSromlebTan gasaubrebis dros;
2. dasaqmebis SemoTavazebebs Soris gancxadeba, rom TanamSromels
SeuZlia survilisamebr Sewyvitos muSaoba Sesabamisi SetyobinebiT da
TanamSromeli SeiZleba ganTavisuflebuli iqnes
damsaqmeblis mier
nebismier dros samarTliani mizezis gamo. Aes gancxadeba unda iyos
Sesabamisi, naTeli da advilad gasagebi;
3. Tavisufali dasaqmebis gancxadebebi dasaqmebis yvela dokumentSi,
magaliTad, TanamSromlis saxelmZRvaneloebi, samuSaos gancxadebebi,
da dasaqmebis werilebi;
4. werilobiTi mtkicebulebis arseboba, rom TanamSromlebma waikiTxes
da gaiges Tavisufali dasaqmebis uaryofa.
konstruqciuli ganTavisufleba
U
ufro
da
ufro
Cveulebrivi
movlena
xdeba
TanamSromlebis
samsaxuridan wasvla gancxadebuli diskriminaciuli moqmedebebis gamo da
59
amis Semdeg acxadeben, rom maTi SromiTi uflebebi dairRva konstruqciuli,
usamarTlo ganTavisuflebiT. isini “iZulebulni” iyvnen daetovebinaT
damsaqmeblis mier
ganzrax Seqmnili autaneli samuSao pirobebis gamo.
Ddamsaqmebelma
imoqmeda
TanamSromlis
samuSao
pirobebze
ise
mizanSeuwonlad da usamarTlod, rom TanamSromels sxva gza aRar hqonda,
rom ar daetovebina samsaxuri. konstruqciuli ganTavisuflebis erT-erT
SemTxvevaSi (kompania “iang and sauzvesTern saivings and loun asosieSein”)
sasamarTlom aRniSna:
saerTo wesia, rom Tu damsaqmebeli ganzrax uqmnis TanamSromels
autanel samuSao pirobebs, raTa TanamSromeli iZulebuli gaxdes datovos
samsaxuri, maSin damsaqmebeli asrulebs konstruqciul ganTavisuflebas da
pasuxs agebs nebismieri arakanonieri qmedebisTvis, TiTqos man formalurad
gaaTavisufla gabrazebuli TanamSromeli.
sasamarTloebi
konstruqciuli
ganTavisuflebis
moZRvrebis
CamoyalibebiT cdiloben damsaqmeblebs Tavidan aacilon raime qmedebis
faruli Sesruleba; amaT damsaqmeblebs saSualeba eZlevaT
daufaravad
Seasrulon is, rasac kanoniT krZalaven. magaliTad, arawesier damsaqmeblebs
SeiZleba surdeT Tavidan aicilon arasasurveli TanamSromlebi Segnebuli
ZaldatanebiT, arasasurveli, saSineli samuSao pirobebis SeqmniT, ise rom
TanamSromlebs urCevniaT samsaxuridan wasvla, vidre saSineli pirobebis
atana.Aam moqmedebis Tanaxmad, damsaqmebeli SeiZleba Seecados Seamciros
Tavisi pasuximgebloba, xolo TanamSromelma moiTxovos konpensacia
mravali dacviTi SromiTi statusis saSualebiT.
amJamad
aSS-s
raionuli
sasamarTloebi
ar
gansazRvraven,
TanamSromlebma rogor unda daamtkicon konstruqciuli ganTavisuflebis
pretenzia. raionuli sasamarTloebis umetesoba mxars uWers Rirseuli
pirovnebis standarts. Aam standartis Tanaxmad, mosarCelem ubralod unda
aCvenos, rom samuSao pirobebi autaneli iyo “Rirseuli pirovnebisTvis”, da
TanamSromels sxva arCevani aRar hqonda, Tu ara samsaxuridan wasvla.
raionuli
sasamarTloebis
umciresoba
iRebs
Rirsebuli
pirovnebis
standarts, magram mosarCeleebma damatebiT
unda
daamtkicon,
rom
damsaqmebelma ganizraxa maTi samsaxuridan wasvla. am midgomas uwodeben
damsaqmeblis ganzraxvis standarts. damsaqmeblis ganzraxvis testi metad
subieqturia da amasTanave ufro Zneli TanamSromlis substanciisTvis. unda
iTqvas, rom konstruqciuli ganTavisuflebis moZRvreba ar uzrunvelyofs
momsaxure personals dasaqmebis raime axali uflebebiT. konstruqciuli
ganTavisuflebis sarCeliT TanamSromeli mxolod icavs kanonebiTa da
sasamarTlos wesiT adre miniWebul SromiT usafrTxoebas.
HRM 1
Tavisufali dasaqmebis gancxadebebis magaliTebi
SromiTi saxelmZRvaneloebi xSirad Seicavs Ria gancxadebebs, rom
TanamSromlebi saqmdebian Tavisufali vadiT, es niSnavs rom ar arsebobs
xangrZlivobis garantia. aseve zedamxedvelebsa da menejerebs, garda
gansazRvruli pirebisa (igulisxmeba adamianuri resursebis direqtori an
kompaniis prezidenti), aqvT uflebamosileba dapirdnen samuSaos – maT
Soris xelfass, Tanamdebobas da a.S. yvela saxelmZRvanelo unda Seicavdes
Tavisi
uflebebis
uaryofas,
rac
pirdapir
uzrunvelyofs,
rom
60
saxelmZRvaneloSi Sesuli yvela saxis SromiTi politika da sargebeli
damokidebulia mTlian an nawilbriv cvlilebasa da damsaqmeblis
eqskluziur survilze.
warmovadgenT Tavisufali gancxadebebis or magaliTs:
me vaRiareb, rom Tu damiqiraves, viqnebi Tavisufali TanamSromeli. me
vacnobiereb, rom SeiZleba moxdes Cemi
ganTavisufleba an dasja raime
mizezis an Setyobinebis gareSe damsaqmeblis neba-surviliT. me vici, rom
prezidentis garda kompaniis sxva warmomadgenels ara aqvs ufleba
Secvalos samuSao pirobebi da aseTi cvlileba SeiZleba moxdes mxolod
werilobiT SromiT xelSekrulebaSi.
me mesmis, rom Cems muSaobas ar marTavs werilobiTi an zepiri
kontraqti da ganixileba, rogorc Tavisufali SeTanxmeba. es niSnavs, rom me
Tavisufali var, iseve rogorc kompania, nebismier dros SevwyvitoT SromiTi
kavSiri raime mizeziT, Tu adgili ara aqvs federaluri an saxelmwifo
kanonis darRvevas. me mesmis, rom Cemi muSaoba ar aris gansazRvruli vadiT
da gulisxmobs Tavisufal SeTanxmebas. es niSnavs, rom me nebismier dros
SemiZlia Sevwyvito muSaoba raime mizeziT, iseve rogorc kompanias, Tu
adgili ara aqvs federaluri an saxelmwifo kanonis darRvevas.
gafrTxileba: radganac Tavisufal dasaqmebas marTavs saxelmwifo
kanonebi, raTa damsaqmebelma SeinarCunos Tavisi Tavisufali statusi, man
unda daicvas samarTlis wesebi. es Seicavs Tavisufali dasaqmebis
werilobiT gancxadebebs.
Ddasjadi (represiuli, samagieros gadaxdis) ganTavisufleba
moqalaqeobrivi uflebebis aqtis VII nawili, diskriminaciis epoqis
SromiTi aqti, qmedobauunaro amerikelebis aqti, da sxva SromiTi kanonebi
ukrZalaven damsaqmeblebs TanamSromlebisTvis samagieros gadaxdas, roca
isini iyeneben TavianT uflebebs am statusis Tanaxmad (ix. meore Tavi).
samwuxarod, sasamarTloSi ufro meti sarCeli Semodis, radganac
mosamarTleebi
da
marTlmsajulebi
xvdebian,
rom
damsaqmeblebi
uzrunvelyofen arasasurvel samuSao pirobebs TanamSromlebisTvis maSinac
ki, roca diskriminaciis sarCelebi aris daumsaxurebeli. TanamSromlebma
SeiZleba daijeron, rom samagieros mizRveva xdeba, roca menejerebi maT
dabalxelfasian samuSaos aZleven, uars acxadeben xelfasis momatebaze an
dawinaurebaze, aZleven ararealur davalebebs, an xdebian mtrulad
ganwyobilni maT mimarT an kontaqtSi ar Sedian maTTan mas Semdeg, rac
gamoxataven
diskriminaciiT
ukmayofilebas
an
iReben
saWiro
gadawyvetilebas.
amis Tavidan asacileblad, uiliam kandeli, SromiTi dacvis
warmomadgeneli,
mouwodebs
damsaqmeblebs
ganaxorcielon
calkeuli
antirepresiuli
politika
da
treningebi
Cautaros
menejerebs
da
zedamxedvelebs misaRebi da miuRebeli meTodebis Sesaxeb, raTa maT
moagvaron TanamSromelTa ukmayofilebisa da pretenziebis gamomwvevi
problemebi. antirepresiuli politikis mTavar komponents warmoadgens
TanamSromlebTan pativiscemiT da Rirseulad moqceva. qvemoT mocemulia
sxva winadadebebi, Tu rogor SevamciroT samagieros gadaxdis mizniT
ganxorcielebuli ganTavisuflebebi:
61
¾ nu Caiden muSaobis sawinaaRmdego moqmedebas TanamSromlebTan, roca
isini
warmoadgenen
diskriminaciis
braldebebs.
moeqeciT
TanamSromlebs ise, TiTqos araferi momxdara;
¾ iyaviT mtkice da obieqturi TanamSromlebTan urTierTobaSi.
SeafaseT TanamSromlebi maTi muSaobis mixedviT da ara piradi
TvisebebiT;
¾ Nnu gamoxatavT arakeTilganwyobas TanamSromelTa mimarT, roca isini
ayeneben diskriminaciis braldebebs. moeqeciT yovel TanamSromels
ise, rogorc gindaT, rom mogeqcnen Tqven – samarTlianad.
Setyobineba kompaniis daxurvis Sesaxeb
milionobiT samuSao adgili daikarga SeerTebul StatebSi didi
firmebis daxurvis Sedegad. sawarmos daxurva tragikul gavlenas axdens
TanamSromelTa cxovrebaze da maT kavSirebze. dadgenilia, rom sawarmos
daxurvis
Sedegad
dakarguli
yoveli
100
samuSao
adgilisTvis
adgilobrivi sazogadoeba kargavs 200-300 samuSao adgils.
federalurma mTavrobam, zogierTma saxelmwifom, da adgilobrivma
iurisdiqciam miiRo kanonmdebloba, romelic zRudavs damsaqmebelTa
calmxriv uflebas daxuros an sxvagan gadaitanos maTi aRWurvilobebi. 1989
wels kongresma miiRo “muSakTa gadamzadebisa da Setyobinebi aqti”,
romelic moiTxovs 100-ze metTanamSromliani organizaciebisgan
acnobos
samoci dRiT adre TanamSromlebs daxurvis an warmoebis SeCerebis Sesaxeb,
rac gavlenas axdens ormocdaaT an ufro met srul ganakveTze momuSave
personalze.
Setyobineba
unda
gaegzavnos
koleqtiuri
morigebis
warmomadgenlebs, TanamSromlebs, Sesabamis saxelmwifo gadaadgilebul
uwyebas da umaRles arCeul adgilobriv Tanamdebobis pirs. TanamSromlebs
individualurad unda ecnoboT werilobiTi formiT. dasaSvebia ramdenime
ganTavisufleba, maT Soris “gauTvaliswinebel garemoebebis gamo”. kanonis
Seusabamobis SemTxvevaSi damsaqmebels SeiZleba daekisros pasuxismgebloba,
rom damatebiT gadauxados daxmareba, winaswari gadawyvetilebis procenti,
da rwmunebulis safasuri. “muSakTa gadamzadebisa da Setyobinebis aqti” ar
ukrZalavs damsaqmeblebs samsaxuris daxurvas, warmoebis SeCerebas, an
dakargvas; kanoni ubralod cdilobs Seamciros is siZneleebi, rac samuSaos
dakargvas mohyveba.
konfidencialuri (piradi) uflebebi
konfidencialur uflebad SeiZleba CaiTvalos piradi Tavisuflebis
sakiTxi, romelic ar aris garantirebuli mTavrobis an biznesis Carevisgan
pirad saqmeebSi. konfinedciis ufleba – kanoniTa da samarTlebrivi
komentarebiT aRiarebuli ufleba – gulisxmobs “piradi avtonomiis” zogad
princips. is farTod adasturebs, rom pirovnebis ufleba unda darCes
konfidencialuri.
sainteresoa, erT-erTma gamokvlevam aCvena, rom amerikelTa 89
procentze
meti
ukmayofiloa
Tavisi
konfidencialobis
darRveviT.
damsaqmebelis problemebma piradi uflebebis mimarT mwvave debatebi
gamoiwvia imaze,
Tu adre xelSeuxebeli ZiriTadi uflebebi ramdenad
SeiZleba Semcirdes samsaxuris mier. mediis saSualebiT TanamSromlebi
axla acnobiereben, rom samsaxurSi piradi uflebebi ufro metad
SezRudulia, vidre saxlSi. erT-erTi samsaxuris Tanaxmad “TanamSromlis
62
piraduloba aRiarebulia, rogorc erT-erTi yvelaze mniSvnelovani im
samsaxureobriv
sakiTxTagan,
romlebic
kompaniebis
winaSe
dgas
dResdReisobiT”.
damsaqmeblebi icaven TavianT uflebas Caerion TanamSromlis pirad
saqmeSi da aRniSnaven, rom maT kanonieri interesi aqvT TanamSromelTa
zogierTi piradi saqmis mimarT, kerZod, am saqmeebma (narkonitis gamoyeneba,
kriminaluri saqmianoba, an TanamSromlis sakuTreba) uSualod
sad
SeiZleba gavlena moaxdinos TanamSromlis produqtiulobaze, samuSao
adgilis usafrTxoebaze da/an moralze. sasamarTlo SemTxvevebi samuSao
adgilis konfidencialurobasTan dakavSirebiT praqtikulad cdilobs
moawesrigos
(damsaqmeblis
zedamxedvelobis
saWiroebis
winaaRmdeg)
TanamSromlis kanonieri konfidenciis molodinsa da organizaciis efeqturi
muSaobis kontrols Soris kavSiri. naSromis am nawilSi Cven SevexebiT
samuSao adgilis konfidencialurobis mniSvnelovan sakiTxebs narkotikebis
moxmarebasTan,
gamokvlevebTan,
zedamxedvelobasTan,
pirad
saqmeebSi
CarevasTan,
werilebis
konfidencialurobasTan,
samsaxuris
gareT
TanamSromlis moqmedebasTan da genetikur analizTan dakavSirebiT.
Nnarkotikebis moxmareba da narkologiuri analizi
gasaTvaliswinebelia Semdegi faqtebi: Nnarkotikebis momxmarebeli
TanamSromlebi sxva TanamSromlebTan SedarebiT
• eqvsjer ufro metad gamoTqvamen kompensaciis pretenziebs;
• Teqvsmetjer metad sargebloben samedicino daxmarebebiT;
• samjer ufro xSirad acdenen samsaxurs;
• orjer met Secdomebs uSveben;
• xvdebian im TanamSromelTa 65 %-Si., romlebsac ubeduri SemTxvevebi
emarTebaT samsaxurSi.
D
dadgenilia, rom TanamSromlebis mier narkotikis moxmareba aSS-s
damsaqmeblebs 75 milioni dolari ujdebaT yovel wels usafrTxoebis
riskebis, qurdobis, Semcirebuli produqtiulobis, ubeduri SemTxvevebisa
da xarjebis gamo. amasTanave am sadavo periodSi Tu damsaqmebeli ver
uzrunvelyofs usafrTxo da narkotikiT Tavisufal samuSao adgils, aman
SeiZleba
gamoiwvios
pasuxismgeblobis
saCivrebi
imis
gamo,
rom
momxmareblebi ukmayofilo darCnen
TanamSromlis uyuradRebobiT an
naklovani produqtiT. sul
ufro meti kompaniebi ebrZvian problemas
narkotikebisgan Tavisufali samuSao adgilis politikiT, TanamSromlis
ganaTlebiT,
narkologiuri
testiT,
TanamSromelTa
dasaxmarebeli
programebiT.
Nnarkologiuri
Semowmebis
Catareba
TanamSromlebSi
yvelaze
gavrcelebulia
“specifiur
Tanamdebobebze”
saxelmwifo
seqtorSi,
organizaciebSi, romlebic TanamSromloben federalur mTavrobasTan, da
saxelmwifo da kerZo transportirebis dawesebulebebSi. specifikuri
Tanamdebobis ganmarteba Camoyalibda sasamarTloebis mier, da gulisxmobs
TanamSromlebs, romelTac ukaviaT iseTi Tanamdebobebi, romlebic moiTxovs
erovnuli saidumloebis dacvas, aseve imaTac, romlebic muSaoben iseT
Tanamdebobaze, sadac mkacrad ikrZaleba saSiSi narkotikebi: policielebi,
63
mexanZreebi, da transportis usafrTxoebis Tanamdebobebze momuSave
TanamSromlebi. am TanamSromlebs SeiZleba mosTxovon narkologiuri
testis wardgena narkotikis moxmarebis “individualuri eWvis” ararsebobis
SemTxevaSic ki.Ffederaluri saaviacio sammarTvelos (FAA) safreni ekipaJis
wevrebisTvis, gamcileblebisTvis, sahaero moZraobis makontroleblebisTvis,
damxmare personalisTvis, TviTmfrinavis dispetCerebisTvis da saaviacio
usafrTxoebisTvis ganxorcielda
narkologiuri analizis programa
kompania “blueStein v skinerSi”.
Aam SemTxvevebSi sasamarTloebi acxadeben, rom TanamSromlis interesi
_ SeinarCunos narkotikebisgan Tavisufali samuSao adgili _ gadawonis
nebismier
pirad
interess,
rac
SeiZleba
TanamSromels
hqondes.
narkotikebisgan Tavisufali samuSao adgilis 1988 wlis aqti federalur
doneze moiTxovs, rom organizaciebma 25.000 dolaris an meti Rirebulebis
samTavrobo
kontraqtebiT
gamoaqveynon
da
miawodon
TanamSromlebs
politikis oficialuri gancxadeba, romelic krZalavs narkotikebis
moxmarebas samsaxurSi, SeimuSaos gacnobis programebi da acnobos
federalur uwyebas
im TanamSromlebis Sesaxeb, romlebmac Caidines
narkotikebTan dakavSirebuli kriminaluri darRveva.
Ddamsaqmeblebma unda daicvan kanonis debulebebi narkotikebTan
dakavSirebiT. ADA pirdapir aTavisuflebs nebismier TanamSromelsa da
samuSaos msurvels, vinc “amJamad CarTulia narkotikebis arakanonier
moxmarebaSi”.
Nnarkotikebis momxmareblebi ar iTvlebian “qmedobauunaro
pirovnebebad”. Tumca kanonis debulebebi exeba gankurnebul narkomanebsac.
Kkanoni acxadebs, rom
Uuunaro adamianad ar CaiTvleba is piri, romelmac
(1)
warmatebiT daasrula reabilitaciis programa an sxvamxriv
warmatebiT
gaiara
reabilitacia
da
aRar
aris
CarTuli
narkotikebis moxmarebaSi;
(2)
an romelic monawileobas iRebs reabilitaciis programaSi da aRar
aris CarTuli narkotikebis moxmarebaSi.
ADA aseve icavs TanamSromlebs, romlebic kanonierad moipoveben
kanonier narkotikebs. magaliTad, TanamSromeli, romelic kanonierad iRebs
tkivilgamayuCebel medikaments da Semdeg eCveva am wamals, akmayofilebs
ADA –s ganmartebas qmedobauunaro piris Sesaxeb.
Mmenejerebma da zedamxedvelebma unda gaacnobieron, rom kanoni
narkologiuri
testis
Sesaxeb
kerZo
seqtorSi
gansxvavebulia
da
regulirdeba calkeuli saxelmwifoebis mier. saxelmwifoebi SezRuduli
narkologiuri testis Sesaxeb kanonebiT zogadad krZalaven narkotikebze
testis Catarebas, garda gansakuTrebuli SemTxvevebisa. Nnarkologiuri
analizis mxardamWeri saxelmwifoebi zogadad uSveben testis Catarebas, im
pirobiT, rom zusti testis procedurebi iqneba daculi. saxelmwifo an
adgilobrivi kanonebi Tu ar zRudaven an krZalaven narkologiur
Semowmebas, kerZo damsaqmeblebs aqvT ufleba mosTxovon TanamSromels
waradginos Sardis da sisxlis analizi, Tu arsebobs Sesabamisi eWvi an
mizezi. savaraudo mizezi SeiZleba moicavdes dakvirvebis, usafrTxoebis,
moqmedebis an saqmianobis problemebs;: gadaWarbebul gacdenebs an
sizarmaces; an gazrdil siZneleebs samsaxurSi TanamSromlebTan da
zedamxedvelebTan
urTierTobaSi.
Ddamsaqmeblebi,
romelTac
surT
64
ganaxorcielon uflebamosileba an narkologiuri Semowmebis programebi,
SeiZleba saxelmwifo sasamarTlos ufro mkacri winaaRmdegobebis winaSe
dadgnen. organizaciebs Cveulebriv ar SeuZliaT
yvela TanamSromlis
narkologiuri Semowmebis Catareba; Semowmeba unda iyos fokusirebuli erT
individze
(narkotikebis
Sesaxeb
kanonebze
uaxlesi
monacemebis
mopovebisTvis saukeTeso gzaa Tqvens qveyanaSi mimarToT adgilobriv
biblioTekas an moiTxovoT informacia Sesabamisi saxelmwifo uwyebisgan).
13.3 sqemaze mocemulia narkologiuri SemowmebisTvis cnobili mizezebi.
Sardis analizi narkologiuri Semowmebis yvelaze Cveulebrivi
formaa, Tumca damsaqmeblebi aseve iyeneben sisxlis analizs da Tmis
analizs. Nnarkologiur Semowmebaze zogierTi yvelaze mwvave kritika exeba
am Semowmebis meTodebis sandoobas, raTa daadginon, rom pirovneba
impyofeba narkotikis zemoqmedebis qveS. saSiSi nivTierebebi SardSi rCeba
garkveuli periodiT: kokaini _ daaxloebiT samocdaTormeti saaTiT,
marixuana – sami kviris ganmavlobaSi
an metxans. Tmis analizi iZleva
pasuxs narkotikebis warsuli moxmarebis Sesaxeb. radganac Tma izrdeba
daaxloebiT naxevari inCiT TveSi, Sesabamisad mokle nawils SeuZlia
mogvces
narkotikebis
moxmarebis
xangrZlivi
monacemebi.
Tumca,
TanamSromlis warsulSi narkotikebis moxmarebam SeiZleba gavlena ar
moaxdinos amJamindel samuSaos Sesrulebaze. Aaseve Sardis analizi
problematuri xdeba, roca testis aparati ar aris Semowmebuli an
saTanadod ar aris gawmendili, aRebuli sinjebi isvreba da warmoiSoba
jaWvuri dacvis problemebi. (jaWvuri dacvis dokumentacia gulisxmobs
yoveli Sardis sinjis (nimuSis) erTobliobas misi SexebiTa da SenaxviT
Segrovebis adgilidan saboloo daniSnulebis adgilamde). am siZneleebma
SeiZleba
gamoiwvios
dadebiTi
testis
araswori
pasuxi,
rodesac
konkretuli narkotiki arasworad gamovlindeba sinjSi.
narkologiuri Semowmebis mizezebi
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
dasaqmebamde: yvela ganmcxadeblis an axali TanamSromlis Semowmeba;
usafrTxoebis damcavi gansakuTrebuli Tanamdebobebi: safrTxis
Tavidan acileba TanamSromlebisgan, romelTa arasworma moqmedebebma
SeiZleba daarRvios usafrTxoeba;
usafrTxoebis damcavi gansakuTrebuli Tanamdebobebi: TanamSromlebis
Semowmeba, romlebic marTaven gansakuTrebulad konfidencialur
masalebs ab inaxaven didi raodenobiT Rirebul masalebs, rac
krZalavs narkotikebs an cecxlsasroli iaraRis tarebas;
safuZvliani eWvi: daasabuTeT eWvi da moZebneT savaraudo mizezi imis
dasamtkiceblad, rom TanamSromlebi CarTulni arian narkotikebis
moxmarebaSi;
ubeduri SemTxvevis Semdeg: SemTxvevis Semdeg dauyovnebliv SeamowmeT,
ram gamoiwvia seriozuli ziani an qonebis dazianeba;
Tanamdebobaze dabruneba: narkotikebis ararsebobis damtkicebis
Semdeg TanamSromeli ubrundeba samuSaos reabilitaciis Sedegad;
zedamxedveloba:
SeamowmeT,
TanamSromelma
gaikeTa
Tu
ara
Tavdapirveli narkologiuri testi;
SemTxveviTi:
narkotikebis
moxmarebisgan
Tavis
Sekaveba
gamoucxadebeli narkologiuri Semowmebis saSualebiT.
65
narkologiuri
Semowmebis
saSualebiT
SegiZliaT
SeafasoT
TanamSromlis Sesabamisoba samsaxurTan. egreT wodebuli movaleobisTvis
Sesaferisobis an saqmianobaze dafuZnebuli Semowmeba gansazRvravs, aris Tu
ara
TanamSromeli
sakmarisad
momzadebuli
muSaobisTvis.
erT-erTi
“gauaresebis” testi TanamSromlisgan moiTxovs misdios kursors video
TamaSis dros (rogorc modelireba). sxva Semowmebis teqnika afasebs
TanamSromlis Tvalis moZraobebs. testis Sedegebis Sedareba TanamSromlis
Sesaxeb adre Segrovil monacemebTan emsgavseba gonivrul tests savaraudo
mizezis garkvevisaTvis. am testis erT-erTi upiratesoba is aris, rom is
fokusirebulia samsaxurebriv saqmianobaze da ara arasamsaxurebrivi
movaleobis Sesrulebisas gamoxatul qcevaze. is aseve gamoavlens iseT
TanamSromlebs,
romlebic
Seamcires
im
problemebis
gamo,
rom
narkologiurma
Semowmebam
ver
gamoavlina:
gadaRla,
stresi
da
alkoholizmi.
saerTo
jamSi,
narkologiuri
Semowmebis
dros
damsaqmeblebi
frTxilad unda iyvnen, rom tyuilad ar daabralon narkotikebis gamoyeneba
TanamSromels an aplikants. aq sakiTxi exeba narkologiuri Semowmebis
Sedegebis gamovlenas an vinmes narkologiuri problemis “prognozirebas”.
ciliswamebis
sarCeli
Cveulebriv
gulisxmobs
fulad
zarals.
narkologiuri Semowmebis pasuxebi miawodeT mxolod maT, vinc unda icodes
amis Sesaxeb, magaliTad, zedamxedvelebs an adamianuri resursebis
personals, da ara sxva TanamSromlebs an aradainteresebul menejerebs.
boingi, 3M, gaerTianebuli aviaxazebi da motorola iyeneben damoukidebeli
samedicino ganxilvis TanamSromels, (MRO) raTa uzrunvelyon maTi
narkologiuri
testebis
programebis
erTianoba.
MRO –s
zogierT
saxelmwifoSi sTxoven federaluri mTavrobis mier dadgenil testebs.
TanamSromlebis gamokvlevebi da zedamxedveloba
•
Ppawawina eleqtronuli videoTvalis damontaJeba kedlebSi da Werze
danaSaulSi eWvmitanil TanamSromelTa dakvirvebisTvis;
•
Dduponti iyenebs Sori manZilis kamerebs, raTa akontrolos misi
gadmotvirTvis platforma;
•
Mmervinis
departamentis
sawyobebi
uSvebs
TanamSromelTaTvis
gamWvirvale celofnis parkebs piradi nivTebis satareblad; CanTebs
amowmeben samsaxurSi Sesvlis da gamosvlis dros;
•
2001 wels amerikuli menejmentis asociaciis mier Catarebulma kvlevam
aCvena, rom aSS-is kompaniebis 77 %
awarmoebs zedamxedvelobas
TanamSromelTa moqmedebis gasakontroleblad.
E
es da sxva kompaniebi ratom akontroleben da akvirdebian TavianT
TanamSromelTa saqmianobas? pasuxi aris TanamSromelTa qurdoba. aSS-s
savaWro palatam Seafasa, rom TanamSromelTa qurdoba (saqonlis, maragis an
aRWurvilobis moparva; informaciis gayidva, gaflangva; “drois moparva”;
kompiuteruli danaSauli da a.S.) aSS-is bizness yovelwliurad ujdeba 40
miliardi dolari. Kkvlevebi aCvenebs, rom muSakTa 33 % qurdavs TavianT
damsaqmeblebs.
66
TanamSromelTa
danaSaulebasTan
brZolaSi
dasaxmareblad
sasamarTloebma
dauSves
calkeuli
oTaxebis,
magidebis,
Cemodnebis,
iaraRebis, yuTebis da zogadad samuSao adgilebis Cxreka, sadac adekvaturi
gamarTleba arsebobs da TanamSromlebma miiRes Sesabamisi Setyobineba
winaswar. TanamSromlebs ara aqvT swori warmodgena gasaidumloebis
molodinze iseT adgilebSi, sadac moqmedebs samuSao wesebi, romlebic
uzrunvelyofs Semowmebebs. isini unda daemorCilon damsaqmeblis mier
Catarebul
Cxrekas;
SeiZleba
isini
Sesabamisad
daisajon
daumorCileblobisTvis
an
Cxrekis
moTxovnaze
uaris
TqmisTvis.
mniSvnelovania Semdegi: Tu adgili ara aqvs sagangebo an sxva specialur
garemoebebs,
maSin
TanamSromelTa
piradi
nivTebis
an
kompaniis
aRWurvilobis SemTxveviT Cxrekas Tavi unda avaridoT. SemTxveviTi Cxreka
gamoiwvevs TanamSromelTa ganrisxebas da pretenziebs, rom irRveva maTi
piradi uflebebi (Tanmxlebi xarjebiT produqtiulobaSi).
Mmenejerebi
unda
iyvnen
koreqtulebi
TanamSromelTa
Cxrekis
Catarebisas. arasaTanado Cxrekebs SeiZleba mohyves TanamSromlTa saCivrebi,
damsaqmeblis dadanaSaulebiT, rom man daarRvia maTi piradi uflebebi,
cili daswama da miayena emociuri stresi. damsaqmeblebs urCeven, rom
SeimuSaon adamianuri resursebis politika, romelic
Semdeg principebze
iqneba dafuZnebuli:
1. Cxrekis politika unda iyos sajaro da unda dasaxeldes Cxrekis
savaraudo mizezi;
2. Cxrekis politika unda iyos gonivruli da obieqturi;
3. sadac SesaZlebelia, Cxreka unda Catardes calke, izolirebulad;
4. Ddamsaqmebeli unda Seecados daiTanxmos TanamSromeli Cxrekaze;
5. Cxreka unda Catardes eTikis normebis dacviT, raTa Tavidan aviciloT
emociuri stresi;
6. Cxrekaze uaris Tqmis SemTxvevaSi unda ganisazRvros jarima.
zedamxedvelobis,
dakvirvebis
gziT
TanamSromelTa
moqmedebis
kontroli damsaqmeblebisTvis Cveulebrivi saqmea.
samuSao adgilis
dakvirvebas umetes SemTxvevaSi unda hqondes kanonieri, saqmiani mizani,
Zalian mcire federaluri samarTlebrivi kontroli icavs TanamSromlebs
TvalTvalisgan. Tumca saxelmwifo kanonebi adgenen sakuTar normebs, Tu
ramdenad tolerantulebi unda iyvnen TanmSromlebi.
Eufrosebis mier eleqtronuli dakvirvebis, TvalTvalis erT-erTi
yvelaze miRebuli saSualebaa satelefono zedamxedveloba qurdobis
Tavidan asacileblad an imisaTvis, rom darwmundnen momxmarebelTa
moTxovnebi sruldeba Tu ara saTanadod. xelmZRvanelobas aqvs ufleba
gaakontrolos TanamSromlebi, im pirobiT, rom isini amas akeTeben maTi
saqmianobisTvis da TanamSromlebs unda acnobon, rom maTi satelefono
zarebi
kontroldeba.
Tumca
federaluri
kanoni,
eleqtronuli
komunikaciebis gasaidumloebis aqti (ECPA) adgens ramdenime ZiriTad
SezRudvas am uflebasTan dakavSirebiT. ECPA xelmZRvanelobas uzRudavs
zepiri an eleqtronuli komunikaciebis mosmenas. Kkanonis Tanaxmad, Tu
TanamSromeli iRebs pirad zars, damsaqmebelma unda dakidos yurmili
maSinve, rogorc ki mixvdeba, rom es zari piradulia. rogorc aRniSnavs
erT-erTi xelmZRvaneloba, “ufrosma SeiZleba gaakontrolos piradi zari,
Tu TanamSromelma icis, rom konkretuli zari ismineba – da igi eTanxmeba
67
amas. TanamSromlebs SeuZliaT uCivlon pirad cxovrebaSi CarevisTvis,
magram
sasamarTloebi
amas
akeTeben
zaralis
asanazRaureblad,
TanamSromelma unda daasabuTos, rom konfidencialurobis saTanado
molodinebi gadawonis (aWarbebs) organizaciis zedamxedvelobis mizezs.
Ppirad saqmeebSi Careva
TanamSromlis pirad saqmeSi Senaxul infomacias SeiZleba didi
mniSvneloba hqondes (dadebiTi an uaryofiTi) karieris ganviTarebisaTvis.
piradi saqmeSi, romelic inaxeba adamianuri resursebis departamentSi,
SeiZleba iyos Semdegi dokumentebi: saqmianobis Sefasebebi, xelfasis
cnobebi, gamoZiebis oqmebi, sakredito Cekebi, kriminaluri oqmebi, testis
Sefasebebi, da monacemebi ojaxis Sesaxeb. unarSezRuduli amerikelebis aqti
(ganxilulia meore TavSi) moiTxovs, rom TanamSromlis samedicino istoria
inaxebodes sxva piradi informaciisgan gancalkevebiT. Secdomebma, pirad
saqmeebSi raimes gamotovebam an arauflebamosili piris mier am saqmeebis
xelSi Cagdebam SeiZleba gamoiwvios samsaxurebrivi an piradi problemebi.
Kkanonmdebloba federalur doneze (ix. cxrili 13.4) da kanonebi
msoflioSi,
daaxloebiT
saxelmwifoebis
50
%-Si
nebas
aZleven
TanamSromlebs Seamowmon TavianTi piradi saqmeebi. ramdenad xelmisawvdomia
es
maTTvis,
es
ukve
saxelmwifozea
damokidebuli.
magaliTad,
xelmZRvanelobam SeiZleba aukrZalos TanamSromlebs im informaciis naxva,
romelmac
SeiZleba
daarRvios
sxvebis
konfidencialuroba.
amgvari
dokumentebia daxasiaTebebi da kriminaluri gamoZiebis oqmebi. saxelmwifo
kanonma SeiZleba SeuzRudos TanamSromels uflebebi im dokumentebis
aslebze, romlebsac man moawera xeli. aseTebia saqmianobis Sefasebebi an
samuSaos aplikaciebi. saxelmwifoebi, romlebic TanamSromlebs aniWeben
uflebas naxon TavianTi piradi saqmeebi, zogadad uzrunvelyofen:
• Uuflebas icodes, arsebobs Tu ara misi piradi saqme;
• Uuflebas Seamowmos Tavisi piradi saqme;
• Uuflebas Seasworos araswori monacemebi saqmeSi.
kanonebi konfidencalurobis uflebis Sesaxeb
kanoni
eleqtronuli komunikaciebis
konfidencialurobis aqti (1986)
moqmedeba
rZalavs farul mosmenas, Caweras an
eleqtronuli da zepiri kavSirebis
gamJRavnebas nebismieri eleqtronuli,
meqanikuri an sxva saSualebiT. Ffaruli
mosmena SeiZleba ganxorcieldes, roca
ufrosi akontrolebs satelefono zars,
damsaqmebels aZlevs kontrolis nebas
68
kanonieri saqmianobis miznebisTvis.
konfidencialurobis aqti (1974) mimarTavs federalur uwyebebsa da
organizaciebs da awvdis saqonelsa da
servisebs federalur mTavrobas; calkeul
pirebs aZlevs uflebas Seamowmon cnobebi
samsaxuris gadawyvetilebebTan dakavSirebiT;
nebas aZlevs TanamSromlebs gadaxedon
TavianT pirad saqmeebs sizustisaTvis. D
damsaqmebleblebi, romlebic ganzrax arRveven
aqts, eqvemdebarebian samoqalaqo sarCels.
saojaxo ganaTlebis uflebebi
da konfidenciis aqti – buklis cvlileba (1974)
ukrZalavs saganmanaTleblo instituciebs
miawodon studentebs informacia winaswari
Tanxmobis gareSe. studentebs aqvT ufleba
Seamowmon TavianTi saswavlo Canawerebi.
samarTliani sandoobis
angariSis aqti (1970)
nebas aZlevs samuSaos msurvelebsa da
TanamSromlebs icodnen, maT saxelze
inaxeba Tu ara sando saqmeebi da rogoria
maTi Sinaarsi. TanamSromlebs aqvT ufleba
icodnen xelmZRvanelobis mier Sedgenili
sagamoZiebo momxmareblis angariSis
arsebobisa da Sinaarsis Sesaxeb.
F
faqtobrivad Tu saxelmwifo kanoni nebas aZlevs TanamSromlebs
Seamowmon TavianTi saqmeebi, administracias SeuZlia moiTxovos, rom
nebismieri piri adamianuri resursebidan an supervaizeri daeswros imis
dasamowmeblad, rom aranairi informacia ar aris Secvlili an damatebuli.
specialuri kanonmdeblobis ararsebobis SemTxvevaSic ki damsaqmebelTa
umetesoba TanamSromlebs aZlevs maTi piradi saqmeebis xelmisawvdomobis
SesaZleblobas. profesionalebi gvirCeven, rom organizaciebma unda
SeimuSaon politika TanamSromelTa saqmeebis Sesaxeb, romelic Seicavs 13.5
sqemaSi mocemul punqtebs, rogorc minimums.
damsaqmeblebma damatebiT unda izrunon, rom daicvan TanamSromelTa
piradi
uflebebi,
roca
piradi
monacemebi
inaxeba
eleqtronulad.
usafrTxoebis dacva uzenaesia. Unda dagindes, daculia Tu ara kompiuteris
parolebi;
mowesrigebulia Tu ara monacemTa sistemaSi SeRweva; A Tavis
adgilzea dacvis sistema Tu ara; ician Tu ara
TanamSromlebma
konfinecialurobis valdebulebebi; Aarsebobs Tu ara Sida auditis
procedurebi Seyvanil monacemTa
sizustis uzrunvelsayofad; Ees icavs
TanamSromelTa konfidecialuri informaciis nakads, rom is xelSi ar
Cauvardes arakompetentur pirebs.
Eeleqtronuli fosta, interneti da xmovani fostis konfidencialuroba
69
E
eleqtronuli fostis, internetisa da xmovani fostis gamoyenebis
mravali
saSualeba
arsebobs;
isini
uzrunvelyofen
Setyobinebebis
momentalur gagzavnas, exmarebian samuSao jgufs, gvTavazoben globaluri
informaciis mopovebas, xels uwyoben drois efeqturad gamoyenebas da
fleqsiur muSaobas. samwuxarod,
teqnologia TanamSromlebs amave dros
saSualebas aZlevs imoqmedon arakeTilsindisierad, arasaTanadod da
kompetenciis gareSe, rac xelmZRvanelobas uqmnian eTikur, samarTlebriv da
produqtiulobis problemebs. teqnologiis arakanonieri gamoyeneba Sedegad
iwvevs imas, rom damsaqmeblebi akontroleben TanamSromelTa moqmedebebs,
igeben mniSvnelovan konfidencialur sakiTxebs rogorc TanamSromlebis,
aseve menejerebis Sesaxeb.
Aadamianuri
resursebis
menejmentis
mier
Catarebul
kvlevaSi
gamokiTxulTa 74 procentma ganacxada, rom isini akontroleben TavianTi
TanamSromlebis
internetis
moxmarebasa
da
eleqtronuli
fostis
Setyobinebebs.
piradi saqmeebi: politikis miTiTebebi
• uzrunvelyaviT Sesabamisoba moqmed saxelmwifo kanonebTan;
• zustad gansazRvreT, ra informacia unda inaxebodes TanamSromelTa
saqmeSi;
• SeimuSaveT piradi informaciis sxvadasxva kategoriebi samarTlebriv
moTxovnebsa da organizaciis principebze dayrdnobiT;
• gansazRvreT sad, rodis, rogor da ra pirobebSi
SeuZliaT
TanamSromlebs gadaxedon TavianT saqmeebs an gadaiRon maTi aslebi;
• gansazRvreT kompaniis romel TanamSromlebs SeuZliaT piradi
saqmeebis naxva;
• akrZaleT iseTi informaciis Segroveba, romelic SeiZleba CaiTvalos
diskriminaciad an gaxdes konfidencialurobis darRvevis safuZveli;
• SeamowmeT samuSao oqmebi regularulad, raTa amoiRoT araswori,
moZvelebuli an arazusti informacia.
K
konfidencialurobis gamokvlevam aCvena, rom aSS-is 14 milioni
mosasaxure mudmivi kontrolis qveS imyofeba. ratom akontroleben
ufrosebi TanamSromlebs? Mmizezi mravalnairia: TanamSromleTa
saziano
an saSiSi saqcielis Tavidan asacileblad, kompaniis drois efeqturad
gamoyenebis
uzrunvelsayofad,
TanamSromleTa
Woraobis
Tavidan
asacileblad, TanamSromelTa usafrTxoebis uzrunvelsayofad internetSi
pornografiuli vebgverdebis naxvisa da serfingis aRmosafxvrelad, rom
TanamSromlebi ar iyvnen dakavebulebi piradi saqmeebiT samuSao drois
periodSi. TanamSromelTa kontroli aseve xorcieldeba imisaTvis, rom
piradi informacia ar gaxdes xelmisawvdomi cnobismoyvareTaTvis an
“xakerebisTvis”, visac SeuZlia es infomacia borotad gamoiyenos.
xelmZRvanelobas sruli Tavisufleba aqvs akontrolos sakuTari
aRWurviloba. sasamarTlo wesebi, romlebic marTavs eleqtronul fostasa
da internetTan dakavSirebul sakiTxebs, xelmZRvanelobas zogadad aniWebs
uflebas gaakontrolos saqmesTan dakavSirebuli miznebisaTvis Seqmnili,
70
miRebuli an gagzavnili masalebi. TanamSromlebma, romlebic anadgureben
TavianT Setyobinebebsa da werilebs, SeiZleba arasworad ivaraudon, rom
isini waiSala. Tumca TanamSromlebma SeiZleba CaTvalon, rom maTi piradi
uflebebi vrceldeba el.fostaze, internetze an xmovan fostaze. Uufro
metic, isini SeiZleba daisajon kidec an gaaTavisuflon samsaxuridan
elfostis
an
internetis
arasaTanado
gamoyenebisTvis.
adamianuri
resursebis
eqspertebi
da
samarTlebrivi
organoebi
mxars
uWeren
xelmZRvanelobas SeimuSaos zusti politika da principebi, romlebic
TanamSromlebs gaacnobs, Tu rogor unda gamoiyenon elfosta, interneti an
xmovani fosta, amave dros acnobebs, rodis da ra pirobebSi moxdeba maTi
gakontroleba. (ix. sqema 13.6.), TanamSromlebma unda moaweron xeli formas
(iseve, rogorc SromiTi politikis sxva dokumentebs) imis dasturad, rom
maT waikiTxes da eTanxmebian mas.
TanamSromelTa saqcieli samsaxuris gareT
ganixileT Semdegi SemTxveva. orSabaTs diliT “eibisi” korporaciis
mepatrone kiTxulobs gazeTSi, rom kompaniis TanamSromeli eWvmitanilia
qurdobasa da adgilobrivi maRaziis mepatronis TavdasxmaSi. TanamSromeli
gaaTavisufles sasamarTlo procesis dros. TanamSromlis zedamxedvelTan
darekilma satelefono zarma gamoavlina, rom TanamSromeli kvlav
ganagrZobs muSaobas. rogor unda moiqces mepatrone?
elfosta, interneti, xmovani fosta; politikis principebi
elfostis, internetis, xmovani fostis politika cdilobs Seamciros
TanamSromlis konfidencialurobis molodini imis fonze, rom damsaqmebels
aqvs mizezebi TanamSromleTa saqcielis legitimurad gakontrolebisaTvis.
elfostis, internetis, xmovani fostis sayovelTao politika moicavs Semdeg
sakiTxebs:
• uzrunvelyaviT Sesabamisoba sakuTar federalur da saxelmwifo
kanonmdeblobasTan;
• gansazRvreT pirobebi, rodesac SeiZleba sistemis gamoyeneba piradi
saqmisTvis.
• gansazRvreT is konfidecialuri informacia, romelic ar unda
gaigzavnos qselSi.
• daadgineT pirobebi, rodis unda ganxorcieldes monitoringi, vis mier,
ra sixSiriT da rogor unda SeatyobinoT TanamSromlebs;
• daadgineT, rom elfostisa da xmovani fostis informacia gaegzavnos
mxolod im momxmarebels, visac sWirdeba es samuSao miznebisTvis;
• Mmkacrad akrZaleT elfostis an xmovani fostis gamoyeneba sxvebis
Sesawuxeblad an anonimuri Setyobinebebis gagzavna;
• auxseniT TanamSromlebs, rom maT ara aqvT konfidencialurobis
ufleba nebismier masalasTan dakavSirebiT, romelic gaigzavna an
miRebul iqna elfostiT an xmovani fostiT;
•
gansazRvreT,
politikis
darRvevis
SemTxvevaSi
romeli
TanamSromlebi eqvemdebarebian dasjis sxvadasxva formas, maT Soris _
ganTavisuflebas.
71
samarTlebrivi samsaxurebi zogadad miiCneven, rom TanamSromelTa
saqcieli samsaxuris gareT ar eqvemdebareba dasjas ufrosis mier. Kkanonis
Tanaxmad, cudi saqcielis Cadena samsaxuris Semdeg, zogierT SemTxvevaSi,
SeiZleba
ar
iyos
kanonieri
safuZveli
TanamSromlis
dasjisTvis.
Oorganizaciebma, romelTac surT TanamSromelTa dasja samsaxuris gareT
Cadenili moqmedebisTvis, unda daadginon zusti kavSiri Cadenil cud
saqcielsa da im uaryofiT gavlenas Soris, romelic man moaxdina sxva
TanamSromlebze an organizaciaze. Ees SeiZleba dadgindes, magaliTad, im
SemTxvevebSi, roca samsaxuris gareT kriminaluri moqmedeba (rogoricaa
bavSvis gaupatiureba) warmoSobs gamanadgurebel Sedegs, axdens uaryofiT
gavlenas samsaxurze. Mmeore magaliTi SeiZleba iyos, roca TanamSromlis
sajaro samsaxuri (rogoricaa policiis an saxanZro departamentis
personali) warmoSobs warmosaxviT problemas organizaciisTvis. Tumca,
zogadad rac ar unda mcire danaSauli Caidinos TanamSromelma samsaxuris
gareT, mainc eqvemdebareba dasjas ufrosis mier.
samsaxurebrivi
romanebi
gansakuTrebul
problemas
uqmnis
organizaciebs. xelmZRvanelobas eqmneba problema, Tu TanamSromlis,
zedamxedvelis an sxva Tanamdebobis piris romani gadadis cud formebSi,
rasac
mivyavarT
samsaxurSi
seqsualuri
Zaladobis
faqtebamde
an
braldebebamde.
samsaxurebrivi romanebi agreTve favoritizmis braldebebs iwveven im
TanamSromlis winaaRmdeg, romelic CarTulia zedamxedvelisa da masze
dabali
Tanamdebobis
mqone
TanamSromlis
romanSi.
samsaxurebrivma
romanebma
SeiZleba
warmoSvan
moraluri
problemebic,
roca
sxva
TanamSromlebi grZnoben, rom usamarTlod eqcevian; aseTi situaciebi iwveven
eWvianobas, gaRizianebas da cud grZnobebs. zedamxedvelis romanebs
SeiZleba organizaciisaTvis mZime Sedegebi mohyves
Ggenetikuri analizi
G
genetikuri kvlevebis winsvla axla ukve SesaZleblobas gvaZlevs
ganvsazRvroT adamianis daavadebebaTa genetika. genetikuri monacemebi
SesaZleblobas iZleva individualuri prevenciuli strategiisTvis, agreTve
adreuli
gamovlenisa
da
mkurnalobisTvis.
samwuxarod,
genetikuri
testisgan
miRebuli
monacemebi
aseve
SeiZleba
gamoyenebuli
iqnes
damsaqmeblebis mier, raTa diferenciacia moaxdinos an Seuracxyofa
miayenos
im pirovnebebs, romlebmac samuSaosTvis mimarTes an im
pirovnebebs, romlebic ukve muSaoben. magaliTad, genetikur analizs
SeuZlia gamoavlinos iseT daavadebaTa riski, rogoricaa kibo, gulis
daavadeba an diabeti.
radganac TanamSromlis daavadebebi da avadmyofoba warmoSobs
samsaxuris xarjebs, damsaqmebelma SeiZleba Tavidan aicilos iseTi pirebis
daqiraveba an SenarCuneba, romlebic, maTi varaudiT, SesaZloa gaxdnen avad.
amiT Tavidan icileben damatebiTi kadrebis Seqmnas, trenings da samedicino
xarjebs. gasakviri ar aris, rom roca xelmZRvaneloba iyenebs genetikur
testebs, rogorc TanamSromlisTvis samuSaoze uaris Tqmis saSualebas,
analizebi warmoSobs mniSvnelovan moralur da eTikur problemebs, rom
aRaraferi vTqvaT konfidencialobis sakiTxebze. Tumca, ufrosebma unda
daimaxsovron, rom ar arsebobs mecnieruli mtkicebuleba moulodnel
72
genetikur faqtorebsa da adamianis SesaZleblobas Soris kavSiris,
urTierTdamokidebulebis Sesaxeb.
ramdenime federaluri an saxelmwifo kanoni an sasamarTlos
gadawyvetilebebi marTavs damsaqmeblis mier genetikuri informaciis
gamoyenebas. Tumca Ggenetikuri testi arRvevs moqalaqeobrivi uflebebis
aqtis VII Tavis da qmedobauunaro amerikelebis aqtis antidiskriminaciis
mandatebs.
2000 wels EEOC –m uCivla “berlingTon norsen santa fe”
korporacias
TanamSromlebze
genetikuri
testebis
saidumlod
CatarebisTvis, romlebmac Seitanes karpalis (mtevnis) tunelis sindromis
Taobaze TanamSromlis kompensaciis sarCeli. berlingTon norseni dapirda
EEOC –s, rom aRar Caatarebda genetikur testebs da samagieros ar
gadauxdida im TanamSromlebs, vinc uari ganacxades testis Catarebaze.
SesaZloa momavali kanonebi – federaluri an saxelmwifo – akrZalavs
genetikur diskriminacias samsaxursa da janmrTelobis dazRvevaSi.
Ddisciplinaruli strategiebi da principebi
menejerTa uflebebi,
dasajon da gaaTavisuflon TanamSromlebi,
metad SezRudulia. Mmenejerebma yvela doneze kargad unda gaacnobieron
dasjis meTodika. TanamSromlis winaaRmdeg gatarebuli disciplinaruli
moqmedeba unda iyos ganpirobebuli samarTliani mizezebiT, da unda
arsebobdes efeqturi politika da meTodebi misi gamoyenebis marTvisTvis.
aseTi strategiebi da procedurebi exmareba maT, vinc pasuxismgebelia
disciplinaruli
moqmedebis
ganxorcielebaze
da
uzrunvelyofs
TanamSromlebisadmi samarTlian da konstruqciul mopyrobas. Aaseve
mniSvnelovania, rom es miTiTebebi exmareba disciplinaruli moqmedebis
prevencias.
disciplinaruli strategiebi da meTodebi unda vrceldebodes mraval
mniSvnelovan sferoze. 13.7. sqemaze warmodgenilia koreqciuli modeli,
romelic gviCvenebs sferoebs, romlebSic unda damkvidrdes debulebebi.
Mmodeli aseve gviCvenebs logikur Tanamimdevrobas, romlis mixedviTac
unda ganxorcieldes koreqciuli etapebi saWiro gadawyvetilebebis
misaRebad.
adamianuri
resursebis
departamentis
mTavar
pasuxismgeblobas
warmoadgens
SeimuSaos
disciplinaruli
strategiebi,
meTodebi
da
xelmZRvanelobisgan miiRos misi dadastureba. adamianuri resursebis
departamenti
aseve
pasuxismgebelia
uzrunvelyos,
rom
koreqciuli
politikis, iseve rogorc TanamSromlebis winaaRmdeg ganxorcielebuli
disciplinaruli RonisZiebis Sesabamisoba SromiT xelSekrulebasTan
(arsebobis SemTxvevaSi) da moqmed kanonebTan. Tumca, disciplinaruli
problemebis
gamosworebaze
an
mis
Tavidan
acilebaze
pirveladi
pasuxismgebloba ekisreba TanamSromlis supervaizers. Eam pirovnebas
yvelaze kargad SeuZlia daakvirdes aradamakmayofilebel saqciels an
samuSaos Sesrulebas da ganixilos es sakiTxi TanamSromelTan. Gganxilva
xSirad
saWiroa
problemebis
gamosasworeblad
da
amis
Sedegad
disciplinaruli RonisZieba aRar xdeba saWiro. miuxedavad amisa, roca
disciplinaruli RonisZieba aucilebelia, zedamxedveli unda Seecados
problemis mogvarebas. Pproblemis gamomwvevi mizezebi iseve mniSvnelovania,
rogorc Tavad problema da nebismieri mcdeloba misi ganmeorebis Tavidan
73
asacileblad
maT
safuZvlian
Seswavlas
moiTxovs.
xSirad
zedamxedvelebisTvis
Znelia
obieqturi
damokidebuleba
SeinarCunon
TanamSromelTa darRvevebis mimarT. Mmagram Tu zedamxedvelebs SeuZliaT
problemis mogvarebis gamoyeneba, isini mivlen diagnozamde, romelic ufro
axlosaa simarTlesTan, vidre im SemTxvevaSi, Tu isini iuristis Carevas
gamoiyenebdnen
disciplinaruli modeli
organizaciis disciplinaruli politika, strategiebi
- dasjis
gansazRvra – organizaciis wesebis darRveva – TanamSromlis darRvevis
gamokvleva – koreqciuli saubari – progresuri koreqcia – Sesabamisi
procesi – sasamarTlos saqme – ganTavisufleba
Uumoqmedobis Sedegebi
sqema 13.8 menejerebis mier gansazRvrul Cveulebriv disciplinarul
problemebs gviCvenebs. Ddisciplinaruli RonisZiebis Seusrulebloba am
sferoebSi mxolod problemis gamZafrebas emsaxureba, rac faqtobrivad
unda mogvardes. Uumoqmedoba gulisxmobs, rom TanamSromlis moqmedeba
damakmayofilebelia.
Tu
disciplinaruli
RonisZieba
faqtobrivad
Sesrulda, Seferxeba ufro gaaZnelebs moqmedebis gamarTlebas gasaCivrebis
SemTxvevaSi. aseTi gasaCivrebis dacvis dros, xelmZRvanelobas SeekiTxebian,
Tu ratom aCerebdnen saxelfaso uwyisSi iseT TanamSromels, romelic ar
asrulebda movaleobebs an iqceoda aradamakmayofileblad. Aan ufro mZime
SekiTxva SeiZleba iyos: “ratom iRebda es TanamSromeli damakmayofilebel
samuSao Sefasebebs (an SesaZloa premiebsac ki)?”
praqtikaSi aseT winaaRmdegobebs SeuZliaT daexmaron TanamSromlebs
warmatebiT
uaryon
menejeris
koreqciuli
moqmedebebi.
samwuxarod,
zogierTi
zedamxedveli
cdilobs
gaamarTlos
Tavisi
koreqciuli
moqmedebebi mxolod mas Semdeg, rac man gadawyvita gaaTavisuflos
konkretuli
TanamSromeli.
qvemoT
mocemulia
supervaizerebis
mier
dasaxelebuli zogadi mizezebi, Tu ratom ver wauyenes disciplinaruli
jarima:
1. zedamxedvelma ver daamtkica adreuli moqmedebebi, ase rom ar
arsebobs Canaweri Sesabamisi koreqciuli moqmedebis gansazRvrisTvis;
2. supervaizerebs sjerodaT, rom isini miiRebdnen mcire mxardaWeras an
saerTod ar miiRebdnen mxardaWeras ufrosi xelmZRvanelebisgan
disciplinaruli RonisZiebisTvis;
3. zedamxedveli ar iyo darwmunebuli faqtebSi, romlebic moiTxovda
disciplinarul RonisZiebas;
4. radganac
zedamxedvelma
warsulSi
ver
dasaja
Kkonkretuli
darRvevisTvis TanamSromeli, zedamxedvelma
axlac
uari
Tqva
disciplinarul moqmedebaze, raTa gamoCeniliyo mtkice pirovnebad;
5. zedamxedvels surda gamoCeniliyo, rogorc kargi pirovneba.
zogadi disciplinaruli problemebi
daswrebis problemebi
74
¾
¾
¾
¾
arasapatio gacdena;
mudmivi gacdenebi;
arasapatio/gadaWarbebuli dagvianebebi;
nebarTvis gareSe wasvla.
arakeTilsindisiereba da masTan dakavSirebuli problemebi
¾ qurdoba;
¾ samuSao gancxadebis gayalbeba;
¾ organizaciis qonebisadmi ganzrax zianis miyeneba;
¾ sxva TanamSromlisTvis drois dakargvineba;
¾ samuSao Canawerebis gayalbeba.
samuSaos SesrulebasTan dakavSirebuli problemebi
¾ dakisrebuli movaleobebis Seusrulebloba;
¾ arastandartuli produqtebisa da servisebis warmoeba;
¾ dadgenili produqciis moTxovnebis Seusrulebloba.
samsaxurSi moqcevis problemebi
¾ intoqsikacia samsaxurSi;
¾ daumorCilebloba;
¾ xmauris gamowveva;
¾ sigaretis moweva akrZalul adgilebSi;
¾ Cxubi;
¾ azartuli TamaSebi;
¾ usafrTxoebis danadgarebis arasworad gamoyeneba;
¾ dazianebis Sesaxeb ar Setyobineba;
¾ uyuradReboba;
¾ samsaxurSi Zili;
¾ bilwi sityvebis gamoyeneba an muqariT saubari zedamxedvelebTan;
¾ narkotikebisa da alkoholis miReba;
¾ cecxlsasroli an sxva iaraRis floba;
¾ seqsualuri Zaladoba.
organizaciis wesebis SemuSaveba
organizaciis wesebis SemoReba warmoadgens efeqturi disciplinaruli
sistemis Camoyalibebas. Ees wesebi marTavs TanamSromelTa qcevis tips. iseT
organizaciebs, rogoricaa “gerber produqti”, “val-marti”, “stiilqazi” da
“piTni bousi”, aqvT dawerili principebi, romlebic ganmartavs, Tu rogori
saqcieli moeTxovebaT TanamSromlebs. vinaidan TanamSromelTa moqmedebis
standartebi dadgenilia organizaciis wesebiTa da debulebebiT, Semdegi
miTiTebebi dagexmarebaT am sferoSi problemebis SemcirebaSi:
1. wesebi farTod unda iyos gavrcelebuli da yvela TanamSromeli
unda gaecnos mas. Aar unda gvegonos, rom TanamSromlebma ician
yvela wesi;
2. wesebs periodulad unda gadavxedoT, SesaZloa yovel wels,
gansakuTrebiT im wesebs, romlebic mniSvnelovania saqmianobis
warmatebisTvis;
75
3. wesebis mizezebi yovelTvis unda ganvumartoT TanamSromlebs;
organizaciis wesebs ufro metad aRiareben, roca TanamSromlebs
kargad esmiT maTi mniSvneloba;
4. wesebi yovelTvis unda iyos warmodgenili werilobiTi formiT.
gaurkvevloba unda aviciloT Tavidan, radganac aman SeiZleba
gamoiwvios wesebis gansxvavebuli interpretaciebi sxvadasxva
zedamxedvelis mier;
5. normebi unda iyos gonivruli da iTvaliswinebdes organizaciis
usafrTxo da efeqtur moqmedebas. normebi ar unda SemuSavdes
piradi survilebis mixedviT;
6. Tu xelmZRvaneloba sustia wesis dacvaSi, maSin xelaxla unda
gamocxaddes es wesi (misi daRvevis Sedegebis mixedviT), sanam
disciplinaruli RonisZieba gatardeba;
7. TanamSromlebma xeli unda moaweron dokuments imis dasamowmeblad,
rom maT waikiTxes da gaecnen organizaciis wesebs.
TanamSromelTa winaaRmdeg gatarebuli disciplinaruli RonisZieba ar
unda CaiTvalos sasjelad. Ddisciplinaruli RonisZiebis gatarebisas
SeiZleba gamoviyenoT sasjeli, rogorc sasurveli Sedegis miRebis
saSualeba, Tumca dasja ar unda iyos disciplinaruli RonisZiebis mizani.
disciplinis, wesrigis mizani unda iyos SemdgomSi TanamSromelTa
saqcielis gamosworeba. wesrigis damyareba sxva gziT, rogoricaa dasja an
TanamSromlebis mxileba, mxolod problemebs Seuqmnis xelmZRvanelobas.
roca zedamxedvelebi aradamakmayofilebeli saqcielis mizezebs eZeben,
maT unda gaiTvaliswinon, rom SeiZleba TanamSromlebma ar icodnen
muSaobis garkveuli normebi.
Nnebismieri disciplinaruli RonisZiebis
dawyebamde aucilebelia zedamxedvelebma gaarkvion miscen Tu ara
TanamSromlebs saWiro orientacia wesebsa da pirobebSi gasarkvevad.
sinamdvileSi, organizaciis wesebisa da pirobebis saTanado kavSiri imdenad
mniSvnelovania, rom SromiTi mosamarTleebi asaxeleben komunikaciis wesebis
ugulebelyofas, rogorc mTavar
mizezs disciplinaruli RonisZiebis
SecvlisTvis.
“cxeli Rumelis” damokidebuleba wesebis dacvaSi
Mmiuxedavad disciplinaruli RonisZiebis mizezisa, is mainc unda
gatardes maqsimalurad swrafad .mas Semdeg, rac moxdeba darRveva da
Catardeba sruli gamokvleva. Aadamianuri resursebis specialistebi xSirad
iyeneben “cxeli Rumelis” wess, raTa axsnan dasjis swori gamoyeneba. cxeli
Rumeli gvaZlevs gafrTxilebas, rom ar unda SevexoT mas. is, vinc ar
iTvaliswinebs am gafrTxilebas da exeba mas, darwmunebulia, rom daiwveba.
Ddasja aris wesis darRvevis dauyovnebeli da pirdapiri Sedegi, rom
aRarasodes Seexo cxel Rumels. Aamis msgavsad, samuSao wesi unda
vrceldebodes yvela TanamSromelze da mtkiced, miukerZoeblad da
obieqturad unda iqnes daculi. TanamSromlebma unda icodnen wesis
darRvevis mosalodneli Sedegebi, ase rom mas aqvs prevenciuli
mniSvneloba.
76
sasjelis gansazRvra
am teqstis avtorebis mier Catarebuli menejmentis seminarebSi, roca
menejerebs ekiTxebian ganmarton sityva “disciplina”, maTi pasuxia, rom
disciplina niSnavs dasjas. Mmiuxedavad imisa, rom
pasuxi sworia, is
warmoadgens mxolod misi sami mniSvnelobidan erT-erTs. Cveulebriv sityvas
“disciplina” aqvs Semdegi mniSvnelobebi:
1. Ddasja;
2. wesrigi organizaciaSi;
3. treningi, romelic ayalibebs da aZlierebs sasurvel moqmedebas an
asworebs arasasurvel moqmedebas da aviTarebs TviTkontrols.
zogierTi menejerisTvis es sityva asocirdeba ZaldatanebasTan. isini
termins ukavSireben im TanamSromelTa dasjas, romlebic arRveven wesebs an
normebs. sxva menejerebi
disciplinas Tvlian, rogorc saqmeTa zogad
mdgomareobas – mowesrigebul garemoebas, sadac TanamSromlebi moqmedeben
miRebuli saqcielis standartebis Sesabamisad. Aamgvarad gansazRvruli es
sityva SeiZleba CaiTvalos dadebiTad, roca TanamSromlebi survilisamebr
iyeneben TviTkontrols da icaven organizaciis wesebs.
Mmesame ganmarteba gulisxmobs xelmZRvanelobis iaraRs, romelic
TanamSromelTa arasasurveli saqcielis gamosasworeblad gamoiyeneba
disciplinas mimarTaven rogorc konstruqciul saSualebas, romliTac
uzrunvelyofen TanamSromlebis saqmianobis Sesabamisobas aRiarebul
standartebTan. Mmravali organizacia, rogoricaa “godiar aerosfeisi” da
arizonas saxelmwifo universiteti, gansazRvaravs am termins Tavisi
politikis saxelmZRvaneloebSi, rogorc trenings, romelic “asworebs,
ayalibebs an srulyofs codnas, urTierTobebs, damokidebulebebs, qcevas, an
marTvas maT”. disciplina ganixileba, rogorc saSualeba TanamSromelTa
susti muSaobis gamosasworeblad, da ara rogorc ubralod dasja
darRvevisTvis. rogorc es organizaciebi aRniSnaven, disciplina unda
CaiTvalos, rogorc TanamSromelTa treningis meTodi maTi samsaxurebrivi
urTierTobebis an muSaobis procesis gasaumjobeseblad. Aaseve sainteresoa
aRvniSnoT, rom sityva “disciplina” warmoSobilia sityva “disciple”-isagan,
rac niSnavs “mxardamWers” an “moswavles”. mkvlevarTa Zalian mcire nawilis
azriT, amis gavlenaa is, rom kargi disciplina dafuZnebulia karg
zedamxedvelobiT xelmZRvanelobaze.
D
disciplinaruli problemis Semowmeba
iSviaTia iseTi menejeri, romelic intuiciurad grZnobs, Tu rogor
unda gamoikvlios TanamSromlis araswori moqmedeba. Zalian xSirad
gamokvlevebi
tardeba
SemTxveviTi
gziT;
uares
SemTxvevaSi,
isini
uTvalTvaleben, akvirdebian erT an met Semowmebis obieqts. TanamSromleze
77
dakvirvebebis Catarebis dros mniSvnelovania viyoT obieqturebi da Tavi
avaridoT varaudebs da cilis wamebas, rac xSirad Tan sdevs aseT
SemTxvevebs. sqema 13.9 warmogvidgens Svid kiTxvas, rom
ganvixiloT
gamoZiebis dros TanamSromlis darRveva. TiToeul kiTxvaze pasuxis gacema
sando informaciis miwodebis SemTxvevaSi, uzrunvelyofs srul da
samarTlian Semowmebas, piradi ciliswamebis gareSe.
TanamSromlis araswori moqmedebis dokumentebiT damtkiceba
“es metad rTulia”. “me dros arc ki vkargav amaSi”. “me ufro
mniSvnelovani saqmeebi maqvs gasakeTebeli”, _ amgvar sababebs xSirad iyeneben
menejerebi, romlebmac ver daamtkices dokumentebiT TanamSromlis araswori
moqmedebis SemTxvevebi. araadekvaturi dokumentaciis yvelaze mniSvnelovani
mizezia is, rom menejerebs warmodgena ara aqvT, ras unda moicavdes kargi
dokumentacia. samwuxarod, radganac menejerebs ar SeuZliaT TanamSromlis
araswori moqmedebis zustad dafiqsireba, aman SeiZleba gamoiwvios Semdgomi
disciplinaruli RonisZiebis gauqmeba.
zusti da srulyofili samuSao
Canawerebis mopoveba efeqturi disciplinaruli sistemis mniSvnelovan
nawils warmoadgens. srulyofili dokumentaciisTvis is unda moicavdes
Semdeg rva punqts:
1. SemTxvevis (SemTxvevebis) TariRi, dro da adgili;
2. TanamSromlis uaryofiTi moqmedeba an saqcieli – problema;
3. Aam moqmedebis an saqcielis Sedegebi TanamSromlis mier samuSaos
Sesrulebaze da/an TanamSromlis samuSao jgufis saqmianobaze;
4. winaswari ganxilvebi TanamSromelTan problemis Sesaxeb;
5. Ggasatarebeli
disciplinaruli
RonisZieba
da
mosalodneli
specialuri gaumjobeseba;
6. Sedegebi, Tu gaumjobeseba ar iqna miRebuli da Sesabamisi TariRi;
7. TanamSromlis reaqcia zedamxedvelis mcdelobaze Secvalos misi
saqcieli;
8. SemTxvevis mowmeTa saxelebi (Tu SesaZlebelia).
D
dokumentaciis momzadebis dros mniSvnelovania menejerma Caiweros,
daafiqsiros SemTxveva darRvevis moxdenisTanave, roca jer kidev kargad
axsovs faqti da uzrunvelyos, rom Canaweri iyos zusti da srulyofili.
Ddokumentacia ar unda iyos vrceli, magram is unda Seicavdes zemoT
naxseneb rva sakiTxs. daimaxsovreT: menejeris mier gakeTebuli Canawerebi
TanamSromlis araswori moqmedebis Sesaxeb warmoadgens saqmis dokumentebs,
da isini unda iyos misaRebi, rogorc mtkicebuleba arbitraJis dakiTxvebSi,
administraciul procesebze da sasamarTloebSi. rogorc erT-erTma
menejerma seminarze aRniSna disciplinis Sesaxeb, “roca gamosasworebel
RonisZiebas vatarebT TanamSromlis winaaRmdeg, srulyofili da obieqturi
disciplinaruli Canaweris mopovebas imdenad didi roli eniWeba, rom misi
mniSvnelobis Sefaseba ubralod SeuZlebelia”.
disciplinaruli Semowmebebis, gamokvlevebis ganxilva
1. ras warmoadgens darRveva gansakuTrebul pirobebSi?
78
• darwmunebulia Tu ara xelmZRvaneloba, rom kargad acnobierebs
TanamSromlis mimarT wayenebul sasjels;
• TanamSromeli namdvilad gaaTavisufles daumorCileblobisTvis,
Tu ubralod uari Tqva xelmZRvanelobis moTxovnaze;
2. icoda Tu ara TanamSromelma, rom igi arasworad iqceoda
• romeli wesi an debuleba dairRva;
• saidan unda scodnoda TanamSromels am wesis arsebobis Sesaxeb;
• gafrTxilebuli iyo Tu ara TanamSromeli mosalodneli Sedegis
Sesaxeb;
3. damnaSavea Tu ara TanamSromeli
• faqtebis ra wyaroebi arsebobs;
• Aarsebobs Tu ara danaSaulis pirdapiri mtkicebuleba Tu mxolod
arapirdapiri mtkicebuleba arsebobs;
• daelaparaka Tu ara vinme TanamSromels da gaigo Tu ara misi
pozicia SemTxvevasTan dakavSirebiT;
4.Aarsebobs Tu ara Semamsubuqebeli garemoebebi
• sxvadasxva zedamxedvelebma urTierTsawinaaRmdego brZanebebi misces
Tu ara;
• hqonda Tu ara vinmes am TanamSromlis “gagdebis” raime mizezi;
• Hhqonda Tu ara adgili raime provokacias menejeris an sxva
TanamSromlis mxridan TanamSromlis mimarT;
5.
•
•
•
wess yvela Tanabrad icavda Tu ara;
Ymtkiced icavda yvela menejeri am wess Tu ara
Aaqamde ra sasjels iRebda damrRvevi piri;
Aam darRvevaSi sxva TanamSromlebic iyvnen CarTulni Tu ara;
6. dakavSirebulia Tu ara darRveva samuSaosTan
• arsebobs Tu ara mtkicebuleba, rom darRvevam ziani miayena
organizacias;
• xelmZRvaneloba
moralur
daskvnebs
akeTebs
Tu
saqmianobis
daskvnebs;
7. rogoria TanamSromlis muSaobis warsuli monacemebi
• ramdeni welia, rac TanamSromeli organizaciaSi muSaobs;
• ramdeni weli an Tvea, rac TanamSromels ukavia amJamindeli
Tanamdeboba;
• rogoria TanamSromlis piradi saqme saerTod, gansakuTrebiT misi
disciplinaruli monacemebi.
sagamoZiebo saubari
disciplinaruli RonisZiebis gatarebamde unda moxdes gasaubreba,
raTa gavigoT, TanamSromlebi garkveulni arian Tu ara srulad am
darRvevaSi. Ees gasaubreba saWiroa, radganac SeiZleba zedamxedvelis
79
varaudebi TanamSromlis saqcielis Sesaxeb ar aRmoCndes zusti. Ees
gasaubreba gaarkvevs, am darRvevam rogor imoqmeda saqmianobasa da samuSaos
qceviT standartebze. is ar unda Caerios pirad saqmeSi da ar unda Seexos
iseT sakiTxebs, romlebic ar aris dakavSirebuli samsaxurTan. rac yvelaze
mniSvnelovania, TanamSromels unda mieces sruli SesaZlebloba Tavis mxriv
axsnas sakiTxi, ise rom gamovlindes is naklovanebebi, romlebzedac
pasuxismgebelia organizacia.
Kkompania “NLRB v Weingarten”–is SemTxvevaSi, uzenaesi sasamarTlo
daexmara SromiTi urTierTobebis erovnul sabWos, romelic icavs
TanamSromlis uflebas organizaciaSi sagamoZiebo gasaubrebis dros.
sasamarTlom gadawyvita, rom profkavSiris warmomadgenlis daswreba kargi
iqneboda TanamSromlebsa da xelmZRvanelobas Soris uflebamosilebis
dabalansebisTvis, vinaidan kavSiris warmomadgenels SeeZlo daxmareboda
TanamSromels, romelic iyo “metismetad SeSinebuli an zustad ver yveboda
incidents, an ver asaxelebda Semamsubuqebel faqtorebs”. “veingarTenis”
SemTxvevaSi sasamarTlom miiRo Semdegi gadawyvetileba: TanamSromels
mizezi hqonda daeSva, rom sagamoZiebo dakiTxvas SeiZleba mohyoloda iseTi
RonisZieba, rac riskis qveS daayenebda misi samuSaos dacvas. Amis gamo mas
mieca warmomadgenlis yolis ufleba.
mniSvnelovania aseve aRvniSnoT, rom TanamSromlis warmomadgenlis
yolis ufleba organizaciaSi ar vrceldeba xelmZRvanelobasTan mimdinare
yvela gasaubrebaze. A“veingarTenis” SemTxveva warmogvidgens kargad
gansazRvrul SezRudvebs TanamSromlis warmomadgenlis yolis uflebebze.
am uflebebis SemzRudveli wesebi Semdegia:
1. warmomadgenlis yolis uflebebi vrceldeba mxolod sagamoZiebo
dakiTxvebze, da ara samuSao pirobebis rigiT ganxilvebze;
2. Uuflebebi warmoiSoba mxolod incidentebis SemTxvevaSi, roca
TanamSromeli saWiroebs warmomadgenlis yolas da TanamSromels
sjera, rom dakiTxvas SeiZleba mohyves dasja;
3. xelmZRvaneloba
ar
aris
valdebuli
molaparakeba
awarmoos
TanamSromlis warmomadgenelTan.
Tu TanamSromlebi da administracia am wesebs asruleben, menejerebs
ar
sWirdebaT
sagamoZiebo
dakiTxvebis
warmoeba.
“veingarTenis”
gadawyvetileba TanamSromels ar aZlevs sagamoZiebo dakiTxvis garantias;
is mxolod aniWebs warmomadgenlis yolis uflebas saWiroebis SemTxvevaSi.
Kkanoni TanamSromlebs ar aZlevs nebas gaauqmon sagamoZiebo gasaubreba,
Tu saWiro gaxda warmomadgenlis yola, da maSin xelmZRvaneloba
gaagrZelebs gamoZiebas sxva saTanado saSualebebiT. menejerebs urCeven, rom
konsultacia aiRon samarTlebriv sferoSi raime RonisZiebis gatarebamde.
Ddisciplinaruli RonisZiebis mimarTulebebi, damokidebulebebi
Tu mTlianad gamoZiebam aCvena, rom TanamSromelma daarRvia
organizaciis wesi, maSin unda gatardes disciplinaruli RonisZieba.
disciplinaruli RonisZiebis ori mimarTuleba arsebobs: progresuli dasja
da pozitiuri dasja.
Pprogresuli dasja
80
saerTod dasjas progresuli Tvisebebi aqvs. ganmartebis mixedviT,
“progresuli disciplina” gulisxmobs gamosasworebeli RonisZiebebis
gamoyenebas mzardi xarisxebiT. progresuli disciplina gankuTvnilia, rom
gamoasworos TanamSromlis araswori moqmedeba bunebrivad. teqnika miznad
isaxavs
problemis
mogvarebas
adreul
etapze,
mxolod
sakmarisi
gamosasworebeli
RonisZiebis
gamoyenebiT,
raTa
aRmovfxvraT
da
~vumkurnaloT~ am darRvevebs. Tumca disciplinaruli moqmedebis Sedegi da
simkacre damokidebulia darRvevis tipze da Semamsubuqebel garemoebebze.
radganac yoveli situacia Taviseburad gansakuTrebulia, mravali faqtori
unda iqnes miRebuli mxedvelobaSi disciplinaruli moqmedebis xarisxis
gansazRvris dros. zogierTi faqtori mocemulia 13.9 sqemaze.
tipuri progresuli dasjis meTodi moicavs oTx safexurs. zepir
gafrTxilebas (an rCevas), rom aradamakmayofilebeli saqcieli an moqmedeba
SemdgomSi ar iqneba dausjelad datovebuli, mas SeiZleba mohyves
werilobiTi gafrTxileba, suspensia gadasaxadis gareSe da ganTavisufleba.
“Banner Health System” –is mier gamoyenebuli progresiuli dasja naCvenebia
HRM 2-Si. ganTavisuflebis “mTavari dasja” gamoiyeneba rogorc saboloo
damokidebuleba.
organizaciebi
Cveulebriv
iyeneben
disciplinaruli
moqmedebebis sust formebs SedarebiT martivi SromiTi problemebisTvis.
menejerebma unda daimaxsovron, rom sami mniSvnelovani ram xdeba
progresuli disciplinis saTanadod gamoyenebis dros:
1. TanamSromlebma yovelTvis ician, ra moeliT darRvevis SemTxvevaSi;
2. TanamSromlebma ician, ra gaumjobesebaa maTgan mosalodneli;
3. TanamSromlebi acnobiereben, ra moxdeba im SemTxvevaSi, Tu
gaumjobeseba ar iqneba miRweuli.
P
pozitiuri dasja
miuxedavad imisa, rom progresuli disciplina yvelaze popularuli
damokidebulebaa TanamSromelTa saqcielis gamosasworeblad, am bolo
dros zogierTma menejerma kiTxvis niSnis qveS daayena misi logika. maT
aRniSnes, rom mas aqvs garkveuli naklovanebebi, maT Soris misi
SemaSinebeli da sawinaaRmdego xasiaTi, romelic xels uSlis sasurveli
miznis miRwevas. am mizezebis gamo, organizaciebi, rogoricaa “tampa
eleqtrik
kompani”,
ouSen
sprei”,
texasis
gonebrivi
Seferxebebis
ganyofileba, “penzoili” da “bei earia refid tranziti” iyeneben
egreTwodebul “dadebiT” damokidebulebas, anu aradasjad disciplinas.
pozitiuri disciplina dafuZnebulia principze, rom TanamSromlebma unda
ikisron valdebuleba TavianT pirad qcevaze, agreTve samuSaos Sesrulebaze.
pozitiuri disciplina moiTxovs TanamSromlobiT garemos, sadac
TanamSromlebi da maTi zedamxedvelebi CarTulni arian erTobliv
ganxilvasa da problemaTa gadawyvetaSi, raTa moagvaron TanamSromelTa
upasuxismgeblobis incidentebi. Ees damokidebuleba koncentrirebulia
araswori moqmedebis adreul gamosworebaze, da TanamSromelma unda aiRos
sruli pasuxismgebloba problemis mogvarebaze. yvela gadawyvetileba da
damtkiceba erToblivad miiRweva. Aadamianuri resursebis menejerebi xSirad
pozitiur dasjas aRweren, rogorc “aradasjad disciplinas, romelic
muqarebsa da sasjels cvlis mxardaWeriT”.
maSin roca pozitiuri dasja emsgavseba progresul dasjas, misi
mniSvneloba mdgomareobs imaSi, rom amgvari dasjisas TanamSromels
81
sayvedurs ki ar ucxadeben, aramed Seaxseneben ama Tu im wess da amas
iyeneben, rogorc saSualebas saqmianobis gaumjobesebisaTvis. warmoadgens
TanamSromels Seaxsenos, rogorc saSualeba saqmianobis gasaumjobeseblad,
vidre sayveduri gamoucxados.Ees teqnika xorcieldeba sam safexurad.
Ppirvel etaps warmoadgens Sexvedra TanamSromelsa da zedamxedvels Soris.
Sexvedris mizania
ganxilvis saSualebiT, TanamSromelTan zepiri
SeTanxmebiT, moZebnon problemidan gamosavali, raTa gaaumjobeson misi
muSaoba.
zedamxedveli
Tavs
ikavebs
sayvedurebisgan
an
Semdgomi
disciplinaruli RonisZiebiT damuqrebisgan. zedamxedvelebs SeuZliaT
Caiweron es Sexvedra, magram es werilobiTi Canaweri ar Seinaxeba
TanamSromlis pirad saqmeSi, Tu msgavsi saqcieli ar ganmeorda.
Tu pirvel nabijs ar mohyva gaumjobeseba, supervaizeri atarebs meore
TaTbirs TanamSromelTan, raTa gaarkvios pirvel TaTbirze miRebulma
SeTanxmebam ratom ar gaamarTla. Aam etapze werilobiTi Sexseneba eZleva
TanamSromels. am dokumentSi mocemulia problemis axali an ganmeorebiTi
mogvareba, imis damowmebiT, rom gaumjobeseba warmoadgens TanamSromlis
valdebulebasa da muSaobis gagrZelebis pirobas.
Tu ori TaTbiri ar gamoiRebs sasurvel Sedegebs, mesame nabiji unda
ganxorcieldes – TanamSromels unda miscen erTdRiani anazRaurebadi
Svebuleba, raTa miiRos gadawyvetileba. Eam anazRaurebadi Svebulebis
mizania, rom TanamSromelma gadawyvitos, unda Tu ara muSaobis gagrZeleba
organizaciaSi. Oorganizacia uxdis safasurs am SvebulebisTvis, imis
gamosaxatavad, rom surs TanamSromlis SenarCuna. es anazRaureba amave dros
aRmofxvris uaryofiT Sedegebs, romlebic dakavSirebulia TanamSromlis
erTi dRis gacdenasTan. TanamSromlebi, romelTac Svebuleba eZlevaT
gadawyvetilebis misaRebad, iZulebulni arian meore dRes dabrundnen
gadawyvetilebiT: aiRon sruli pasuxismgebloba muSaobis gasaumjobeseblad
an datovon organizacia. Tu valdebulebas ar aiRebs Tavis Tavze,
TanamSromeli ganTavisufldeba im mizeziT, rom igi organizacias
upasuxismgeblod ekideba.
Bbaneris jandacvis sistemis koreqciuli moqmedebis procesi
roca saWiro xdeba koreqciuli moqmedeba, menejerebma problemis
gamosasworeblad unda ganaxorcielon yvelaze dabali donis moqmedeba,
maSinac ki, Tu es moiTxovs adre gamoyenebuli RonisZiebis ganmeorebas.
Bbaners
sjera,
rom
progresuli
koreqciuli
moqmedebis
procesi
TanamSromlisa da baneris interess warmoadgens. progresuli koreqciuli
moqmedeba ar aris gansazRvruli dasjisTvis, aramed imisaTvis, rom
TanamSromlebma, gamoxaton gaumjobesebis saWiroeba. yvela faqti, maT Soris
muSaobis xangrZlivoba, saqmianoba da daswreba gaTvaliswinebuli iqneba.
TanamSromlisTvis araoficialuri rCeva SeiZleba sakmarisi aRmoCndes
saqmianobis an daswrebis problemebis gamosasworeblad da unda iqnes
gamoyenebuli koreqciuli moqmedebis ganxorcielebamde. Ees saSualebas
iZleva TanamSromelTan erTad ganvixiloT problema, xelmisawvdomi
resursebi da problemis mogvarebis gzebi.
• Ppirveli safexuri: zepiri gafrTxileba.
TanamSromelTan erTad
ganixileT
problema,
aRniSneT,
ra
aris
saWiro
problemis
gamosasworeblad. garkveviT uTxariT TanamSromels, rom es aris zepiri
gafrTxileba, da werilobiTi gafrTxileba miecema, Tu saqmianobas an
82
daswrebas
ar
gaaumjobesebs.
es
moqmedeba
zedamxedvelma
unda
daasabuTos da Seinaxos saqmeSi momavali daxasiaTebisTvis. aseTi
gafrTxilebis Canaweri ar inaxeba TanamSromlis oficialur pirad
saqmeSi.
• Mmeore safexuri: werilobiTi gafrTxileba: Tu zepiri gafrTxilebis
gamocxadebis Semdeg ar aRiniSna sakmarisi gaumjobeseba saqmianobasa da
daswrebaSi, maSin amas werilobiTi gafrTxileba mohyveba. Pproblema da
Sesabamisi faqtebi unda iqnes aRwerili koreqciuli moqmedebis formaSi.
TanamSromels unda uTxran, rom Tu saqmianoba an daswreba ar
gaumjobesdeba,
ganxorcieldeba
Semdgomi
koreqciuli
RonisZieba
saboloo werilobiTi gafrTxilebis formaSi an suspensiaSi. Aam
gafrTxilebis Canaweri Senaxuli unda iyos TanamSromlis pirad saqmeSi.
• Mmesame safexuri: saboloo werilobiTi gafrTxileba da suspensia: Tu
ar
aRiniSneba
damakmayofilebeli
gaumjobeseba
werilobiTi
gafrTxilebis Semdeg, zedamxedvelma unda gaagrZelos procesi saboloo
werilobiTi gafrTxilebiT an samsaxuridan droebiTi daTxovniT.
droebiTi daTxovna SeiZleba moxdes erTi an sami dRiT progresuli
moqmedebis procesSi anazRaurebis gareSe. TanamSromlebs unda urCion,
rom suspensia bolo safexuria ganTavisuflebamde da es dro unda
gamoiyenos, rom gadawyvitos, SeuZlia Tu ara Tavisi saqmianobis an
daswrebis problemis gamosworeba. TanamSromels unda auxsnan, rom
saboloo werilobiTi gafrTxileba bolo safexuria ganTavisuflebamde.
suspensiebi da saboloo werilobiTi gafrTxilebebi unda damtkicdes
Sesabamisi informaciiT da wina koreqciuli moqmedebis safexurebis
TariRebi unda dafiqsirdes koreqciuli moqmedebis formaSi.
• meoTxe
safexuri:
ganTavisufleba.
ganTavisuflebis
saboloo
gadawyvetilebis miRebamde supervaizerma TanamSromelTan erTad unda
ganixilos sakiTxi/SemTxveva, ramac gamoiwvia misi ganTavisuflebis
gadawyvetileba.
Tu
TanamSromeli
iZleva
informacias,
romelic
saWiroebs gamokvlevas, zedamxedvelma unda gamoyos garkveuli dro amis
Sesasruleblad. Tu ar arsebobs axali informacia, maSin adamianuri
resursebis
departamentTan
unda
ganxorcieldes
konsultacia
TanamSromlis ganTavisuflebamde. ganTavisuflebis Setyobinebis forma
unda Seivsos TanamSromlis ganTavisuflebis dros. gancxadeba unda
adasturebdes
zepiri,
werilobiTi
da
saboloo
werilobiTi
gafrTxilebisa da droebiTi daTxovnis dadgenilebis TariRebs. iq aseve
unda iyos aRniSnuli is konkretuli SemTxvevebi, romlebmac ganapiroba
es gadawyvetileba da sxva nebismieri moqmedeba, romelic gatarda an is
pirobebi,
romlebic
SesTavazes
TanamSromels
problemis
gamosasworeblad.
Ddauyovnebeli moqmedeba
xandaxan darRveva iseTi seriozulia, rom saWiroa dauyovnebeli
koreqciuli
RonisZiebis
gatareba
ganTavisuflebamde
an
TviT
ganTavisufleba. Tu saWiro gaxda TanamSromlis samsaxuridan gaSveba,
83
dauyovnebliv SeaCereT misi muSaoba gamosakvlevad, rac ar unda gagrZeldes
ramdenime dReze met xans. Aar arsebobs “samuSao adgilzeve” TanamSromlis
ganTavisuflebis
mizezi.
gamoZiebam
SeiZleba
gamoavlinos,
rom
disciplinaruli
moqmedeba
ar
iyo
Sesaferisi.
aseT
SemTxvevebSi
TanamSromels
aunazRaurdeba
Tanamdebobidan
droebiTi
gadayenebis
periodis (dReebis) safasuri.
pozitiuri disciplinis procesi
pirveli TaTbiri
(zepiri Sexseneba)
• ganixileT saqmianobis standartebi
an TanamSromlis qceviTi molodini;
• moipoveT TanamSromlis valdebuleba
daakmayofilos standartebi
(miTiTeba zedamxedvelis saqmeSi).
meore TaTbiri
(werilobiTi Sexseneba)
• gansazRvreT, ratom unda mogvardes problema;
• warudgineT TanamSromels problemis werilobiTi gadawyvetileba;
•
moipoveT TanamSromlis valdebuleba
daakmayofilos standartebi
(miTiTeba TanamSromlis saqmeSi).
aRiareba da ganmtkiceba
gadawyvetilebis misaRebi Svebuleba/gadawyvetilebis dRe
• mieciT erTi anazRaurebadi Svebulebis dRe;
• moipoveT TanamSromlis valdebuleba
daakmayofilos standartebi an datovos samsaxuri
(miTiTeba TanamSromlis saqmeSi).
ganTavisufleba
TanamSromlebis ganTavisufleba
roca TanamSromlebi ver icaven organizaciis wesebsa da normebs,
saboloo disciplinarul RonisZiebas umetes SemTxvevebSi warmoadgens
ganTavisufleba. radganac ganTavisuflebas aseTi seriozuli Sedegebi
mohyveba
TanamSromlisTvis (da SesaZloa organizaciisTvisac), is unda
ganxorcieldes mxolod SemTxvevis kargad gaazrebuli da auCqarebeli
84
ganxilvis Semdeg. Tu TanamSromeli gamoagdes, mas SeuZlia Seitanos sarCeli
arasamarTlianad ganTavisuflebis Sesaxeb, rom samsaxuridan daTxovna moxda
arasamarTlianad an arasakmarisi mizeziT, rac gulisxmobs imas, rom
xelmZRvaneloba arasamarTlianad eqceoda.
Tu TanamSromlis ganTavisufleba gamowveuli iyo saTanado mizeziT,
ras niSnavs TanamSromlisadmi samarTliani mopyroba?Eam
kiTxvaze pasuxis
gacema advili ar aris, magram standartebi namdvilad arsebobs, romlebic
aregulireben samarTlian ganTavisuflebas SromiTi samarTlis sferoSi
SemuSavebuli wesebis farglebSi. es wesebi Seicavs mTel rig principebs,
romlebsac
iyeneben
mosamarTleebi
ganTavisuflebasTan
dakavSirebul
saqmeebSi, raTa gansazRvron, hqonda Tu ara xelmZRvanelobas safuZvliani
mizezi TanamSromlis ganTavisuflebisTvis. Ees principebi
Cveulebriv
Camoyalibebulia kiTxvebis formiT, romelic mocemulia 13.11 sqemaze.
magaliTad,
TanamSromlis
ganTavisuflebamde
menejerma
winaswar
gaafrTxila Tu ara SesaZlo disciplinaruli RonisZiebis Sesaxeb? nebismieri
Svidi kiTxvis pasuxis gaucemloba niSnavs, rom is ar iyo safuZvliani da
administraciis gadawyvetileba ganTavisuflebis Sesaxeb iyo TviTneburi,
dausabuTebeli, axirebuli an diskriminaciuli. am principebis mniSvneloba
aris is, rom maT mimarTaven aramarto arbitrebi ganTavisuflebis
SemTxvevebSi, aramed mosamarTleebic arasamarTlianad ganTavisuflebis
Sesaxeb sarCelebis ganxilvisas, da EEOC diskriminaciuli darRvevebis
SemTxvevaSi, rogoricaa seqsualuri Zaladoba. mniSvnelovania, rom menejerebi
yvela doneze acnobierebdnen am safuZvlian
principebs da maT swor
gamoyenebas.
ganTavisuflebis
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
safuZvliani
principebi
organizaciam winaswar gaafrTxila Tu ara TanamSromeli misi moqmedebis
SesaZlo disciplinarul Sedegebze;
menejmentis
moTxovnebi
TanamSromlis
mimarT
mizanSewonili
iyo
organizaciis
saqmianobis
mowesrigebul,
efeqtur
da
usafrTxo
muSaobasTan dakavSirebiT Tu ara;
xelmZRvaneloba TanamSromlis ganTavisuflebamde saTanadod Seecada Tu
ara daedasturebina, rom TanamSromlis muSaoba aradamakmayofilebeli
iyo;
samarTlianad da obieqturad Catarda organizaciis gamoZieba Tu ara;
gamoavlina Tu ara gamoZiebam danaSaulis sakmarisi mtkicebuleba;
eqceoda Tu ara xelmZRvaneloba TanamSromels
iseTive wesebiT,
brZanebebiTa da sasjeliT, rogoriTac sxva TanamSromlebs msgavs
situaciebSi;
Seesabameboda Tu ara ganTavisufleba TanamSromlis araswor saqciels
(igulisxmeba
damtkicebuli
darRvevis
seriozuloba,
TanamSromlis
muSaobis Canaweri da raime Semamsubuqebeli garemoebebi).
TanamSromlisTvis Setyobineba
85
ganTavisuflebis mizezebi unda ganvixiloT TanamSromelTan erTad.
yvelanairad
unda
vecadoT
SevamsubuqoT
ganTavisflebis
Sedegad
warmoSobili travma. TanamSromels unda ecnobos keTilsindisierad,
taqtianad am moqmedebis zusti mizezebi. aseTi gulwrfeloba daexmareba mas
gaigos problema da ganewyos konstruqciulad mis mimarT.
SeiZleba, menejers surdes,
momavali ganTavisuflebis sakiTxi
ganixilos Sexvedraze Tavis kolegebTan erTad. Ees praqtika uzrunvelyofs,
rom menejerisTvis cnobili yvela mniSvnelovani konfidencialuri sakiTxi
daculi iyos. roca menejerebi fiqroben, rom Sexvedris Catareba aris
ganTavisuflebis sakiTxis ganxilvis erTaderTi swori gza, Semdegi
principebi dagexmarebaT ganxilvis ufro efeqturad warmarTvaSi:
1. midiT adgilze pirveli, ori-sami wuTiT adre, da logikurad
CamoayalibeT ganTavisuflebis yvela mizezi;
2. iyaviT pirdapiri da mtkice, Tumca taqtiani, da darCiT mtkice Tqvens
gadawyvetilebaSi;
3. ganxilva unda moxdes calke, unda iyos saqmiani da, amasTan,
lakoniuri;
4. ar aurioT kargi da cudi erTmaneTSi. problemis Serbileba
TanamSromlisTvis gaurkvevel Setyobinebas ganapirobebs;
5. Tavi SeikaveT braldebebisgan TanamSromlis winaaRmdeg da nu CarTavT
diskusiaSi pirad grZnobebs;
6. nu
daasaxelebT
raime
pirovnul
gansxvavebebs
Tqvensa
da
TanamSromels Soris;
7. miawodeT nebismieri informacia raime anazRaurebis gamoyofasa da
daxmarebasTan dakavSirebiT;
8. auxseniT, rogor unda marTos muSaoba momaval damsaqmeblebTan.
ganTavisuflebis gansaxilveli Sexvedrebi unda Catardes neitralur
adgilas, rogoricaa sakonferencio oTaxi, rom TanamSromelma ar igrZnos
misadmi
usamarTlod
moqceva.
ganTavisuflebis
ganxilvis
dros
xelmZRvanelobam arasodes ar unda moaxdinos TanamSromelze provokacia,
TanamSromels ar unda misces saSualeba mtrulad ganewyos administraciis
mimarT. Tu agitaciis an Setevis raime niSnebi gamovlindeba, Sexvedra
dauyovnebliv unda Sewydes da ecnobos dacvas an adamianuri resursebis
departaments. erT-erTi samsaxuri aRniSnavs:
“samuSao
adgilis
fataluri
darRvevis
umetesi
SemTxvevebi
xdeba
TanamSromlis ganTavisuflebis an sxvagvarad dasjis Semdeg. Uudavoa, rom
Tu pirovnebas ukve aqvs Zaladobis Cadenisadmi fsiqologiuri midrekileba,
disciplinaruli Sexvedra SeiZleba sakmaod daZabuli iyos. ufro metic,
damsaqmebelma unda uzrunvelyos, rom Sexvedra Catardes aseTi Sedegis
SesaZleblobis minimalizaciiT.
sabolood,
TanamSromelTa
ganTavisufleba
ar
unda
iyos
Seuracxmyofeli. menejerebma ar unda gamoxaton, rom ganTavisuflebuli
TanamSromlebi arakeTilsindisierni an arasando pirovnebebi iyvnen.Uufro
metic, menejerebma arasodes ar unda ganixilon ganTavisufleba, cudad ar
unda moixsenion ganTavisuflebuli TanamSromlebi sxva TanamSromlebTan,
momxmareblebTan an sxva pirebTan. Mmenejerebi am sakiTxSi metad
sityvaZunwebi unda iyvnen. ganTavisuflebuli TanamSromlebi ufro da ufro
86
metad uCivian sasamarTloSi imis dasamtkiceblad, maTi ganTavisufleba
ganpirobebuli iyo Tu ara saqmianobasTan dakavSirebuli mizezebiT.
Sesabamisi samarTlebrivi procedura
xelmZRvanelobas tradiciulad aqvs ufleba mimarTos TanamSromlebs
da gaataros koreqciuli RonisZieba saWiroebis SemTxvevaSi. Tumca isini
amtkiceben, rom TanamSromlebma daarRvies organizaciis wesebi, mraval
adamians mainc sjera, rom TanamSromlebi ar unda daisajon Sesabamisi
samarTlebrivi
proceduris
dacvis
gareSe.
Aadamianuri
resursebis
menejerebi Cveulebriv gansazRvraven “Sesabamis samarTlebriv proceduras”,
rogorc TanamSromlis uflebas mousminon mas - TanamSromlis uflebas
daafiqsiros
Tavisi
pozicia
SemTxvevasTan,
organizaciis
wesebis
dadasturebul darRvevasTan dakavSirebiT. Sesabamisi procesi emsaxureba
imas, rom xdeba TanamSromlis araswori moqmedebis sruli da saTanado
gamoZieba. Cveulebriv Sesabamisi samarTlebrivi procedura miewodebaT
TanamSromlebs damsaqmeblis saapelacio procedurebis saSualebiT. Tumca
aqtiuri ufrosebi damatebiT iyeneben Semdeg principebs an uflebebs
Sesabamisi procesis TavianTi interpretaciiT:
1. ufleba
icode
samsaxuris
molodinebi
da
am
molodinebis
Seusruleblobis Sedegebi;
2. ufleba wesebis darRvevisTvis xelmZRvanelobis mosalodneli mkacri
moqmedebis Sesaxeb;
3. ufleba samarTliani dasjis Sesaxeb, romelic dafuZnebulia faqtebze,
ufleba am faqtebis kiTxvis niSnis qveS dayenebis Sesaxeb, da dacvis
ufleba;
4. ufleba disciplinaruli moqmedebis gasaCivrebis Taobaze;
5. ufleba progresuli dasjis Sesaxeb.
alternatiuli davebis mogvarebis meTodebi
faqtobrivad yvela SromiT xelSekrulebaSi saCivris (davebis)
pirobebi gansazRvrulia. NaraprofkavSirულ organizaciebSi alternatiuli
davebis mogvarebis (ADR) principebi axlaxans SemuSavda. damsaqmeblis
interesს warmoSobs survili, daakmayofilos TanamSromelTa molodini, rom
maT samarTlianad moepyron samsaxurSi, amgvari ;mopyrobis garantias
damsaqmeblebi
aZleven
diskriminaciis
pretenziebis
an
arasworad
ganTavisuflebis Sesaxeb saCivrebis minimalizaciis imediT. ADR principebma
mowoneba daimsaxures aSS-is uzenaesi sasamarTlosga “Gilmer v Interstate/Jonson
Lane Corp.” Kkompaniis SemTxvevis ganxilvisas. sasamarTlom daicva kerZo
xelSekruleba, romelic moiTxovda asakobrivi diskriminaciis pretenziebis
arbitraJs. arbitraJis uflebamosilebis gamoyenebam SromiTi davebis
mosagvareblad miiRo damatebiTi mxardaWera 2001 wlis martSi, roca aSS-is
uzenaesma
sasamarTlom
ganacxada,
rom
damsaqmeblebs
SeuZliaT
TanamSromlebs mosTxovon samsaxurTan dakavSirebuli davebi warudginon
arbitrs. Ees mTavari gadawyvetileba xelmZRvanelobas saSualebas aZlevs
arbitraJis programebi daadginos, rogorc TanamSromlisTvis erTaderTi
saSualeba SromiTi pretenziebis mosagvareblad, sasamarTlo moqmedebis
87
Secvla _ rogorc arCevani. 1991 wlis samoqalaqo uflebaTa aqtis 118-e
nawilic mxars uWers ADR principebs, maT Soris arbitraJis gamoyenebas.
zogierTi
organizacia
icavs
am
principebs,
rogorc
TanamSromlebisTvis zeviT mimarTuli komunikaciis saSualebas da rogorc
samuSao Zalis xasiaTis Sefasebis saSualebas. sxvebi ki am sistemebs
miiCneven mcire problemebis mogvarebis saSualebad manam, sanam isini mTavar
sakiTxebad gadaiqceva, amgvarad, isini xels uwyoben TanamSromlis moralis
gaumjobesebasa da produqtiulobis gazrdas.
gasaCivrebis procedurebi, romlebic am TavSi ganixileba etapobrivi
ganxilvis sistemas warmoadgens. kolegebTan ganxilvis sistemas, momsmeni
moxelis gamoyenebas, Ria politikas, saxalxo damcveliT sargeblobas,
Suamavlobasa da arbitraJs.
Eetapobrivi ganxilvis sistema
Eetapobrivi ganxilvis sistema, romelic Seqmnilia menejmentis maRali
doniT TanamSromelTa saCivrebis gansaxilvelad,
dafuZnebulia winaswar
Camoyalibebul mTel rig etapebze (Cveulebriv _ oTxze). Ees meTodebi
profkavSiris saCivrebis sistemis safuZvelze SemuSavda, romelsac me-14
TavSi ganvixilavT. magaliTad, am meTodebis mixedviT, TanamSromlis
saCivari unda gaformdes, rogorc werilobiTi gancxadeba. menejerebma
sruli reagireba unda moaxdinon ama Tu im ukmayofilebaze gansazRvrul
periodSi, SesaZloa, sami an xuTi samuSao dRis ganmavlobaSi.
TanamSromelma
zogjer
Tavi
unda
aaridos
Tavis
uSualo
zedamxedvelTan Sexvedras, Tu TanamSromeli moelis represiebs am
pirovnebisgan.
gasaCivrebis
sistemebisgan
gansxvavebiT,
profkavSiris
organizaciebSi gasaCivrebis procedurebze neitraluri mesame mxare
(arbitri) ar gamodis, rogorc bolo instanciis mosamarTle. etapobrivi
ganxilvis umetes sistemebSi prezidenti, ufrosi aRmasrulebeli moxele,
viceprezidenti, an adamianuri resursebis ufrosi moqmedebs, rogorc
saboloo uflebamosilebis mqone piri, da am pirovnebis gadawyvetileba ar
eqvemdebareba gasaCivrebas. zogierTi organizacia TanamSromlebs exmareba
maTi saCivrebis (saqmeebis) momzadebaSi. magaliTad, TanamSromels, romelsac
surs, miiRos rCeva an konsultacia, SeuZlia misi miReba kompetenturi
pirisgan adamianuri resursebis departamentSi manam, sanam am sakiTxs
ganixilavs xelmZRvanelobasTan.
samwuxarod, ganxilvis sistemebma SeiZleba ver miiRon sasurveli
Sedegebi. TanamSromlebma SeiZleba daijeron, rom xelmZRvaneloba agvianebs
reagirebas saCivrebze da rom administraciis reagireba xSirad ar agvarebs
problemas. ufro metic, TanamSromlebma SeiZleba miiCnion, rom miuxedavad
represiebis amkrZalavi strategiisa, zedamxedvelebi mainc mimarTaven maT,
rogorc TavianT uflebebs, rogorc es aRniSnulia ganxilvis sistemebSi. Eam
problemebs ar mivyavarT im daskvnamde, rom yvela ganxilvis sistema
uSedegoa da araefeqturi, magram xelmZRvanelobam gamafrTxilebeli zomebi
unda miiRos, rom sistemebma gaamarTlos da mogvces sasurveli Sedegebi.
88
konvenciuli etapobrivi ganxilvis saapelacio principi
TanamSromeli – zedamxedveli – departamentis
resursebis departamenti – ufrosi xelmZRvaneloba
ufrosi
–
adamianuri
PTanasworuflebiani ganxilvis sistemebi
P
Tanasworuflebiani ganxilvis sistema, e. w. saCivarTa komiteti Sedgeba
TanamSromelTa warmomadgenlebisa da xelmZRvanelobis mier daniSnuli
pirebisagan, romlebic Tanabari raodenobiTaa warmodgenili. TanamSromlebi
warmomadgenlebs Cveulebriv faruli kenWisyriT
gansazRvruli vadiT
irCeven,
xelmZRvanelobis
warmomadgenlebic
iniSnebian
monacvleobis
safuZvelze. Tanasworuflebiani ganxilvis sistema moqmedebs, rogorc
marTlmsajuleba,
radganac
misi
wevrebi
mtkicebulebas
afaseben,
argumentebs ganixilaven da ganxilvis Semdeg damoukideblad xmas saboloo
gadawyvetilebas aZleven.
Oorganizaciebi, rogoricaa “Turner Brothers Trucking”, “Northrop-Grumman”,
“Polaroid”, “Citicorp”, PTanasworuflebiani
ganxilvis
sistemis
erT-erT
prioritetad
miiCneven
samarTlianobis
grZnobas,
rasac
is
iwvevs
TanamSromlebSi.
Tanasworuflebiani
ganxilvis
sistema
SeiZleba
gamoviyenoT, rogorc erTaderTi meTodi TanamSromelTa ukmayofilebis
aRmosafxvrelad, an SeiZleba gamoyenebul iqnes etapobrivi ganxilvis
sistemasTan erTad. magaliTad, Tu TanamSromeli ar aris kmayofili
xelmZRvanelobis moqmedebiT pirvel da meore etapze (etapobrivi ganxilvis
sistemis
gamoyenebisas),
mas
SeuZlia
warudginos
saCivari
Tanasworuflebiani
ganxilvis
komitets
saboloo
gadawyvetilebis
misaRebad.
“Ria karis” politika
“Ria karis” politika Zveli saSualebaa TanamSromlis ukmayofilebis
aRmosafxvrelad. Ffaqtobrivad, menejerTa umetesoba, miuxedavad imisa, maTma
organizaciam formalurad miiRo Tu ara “Ria karis” politika, aRiarebs,
iyenebs
mas.
tradiciuli
“Ria
karis”
politika
gansazRvravs
xelmZRvanelobis sxvadasxva doneebs uSualo zedamxedvelis zemoT, visac
SeiZleba gabrazebuli TanamSromeli daukavSirdes; doneebi SeiZleba
gavrceldes maRal Tanamdebobebze, rogoricaa viceprezidenti, prezidenti,
an ufrosi aRmasrulebeli. Bbunebrivia, adamiani, romelic moqmedebs,
rogorc “bolo instanciis sasamarTlo”, aris adamianuri resursebis
direqtori an kadrebis ufrosi moxele.
problemebi
“Ria karis” politikiT
kargad gvardeba. aris
sirTuleebic: menejerebs ar surT patiosnad mousminon TanamSromelTa
saCivrebs da piriqiT: TanamSromlebs ar surT mimarTon menejerebs TavianTi
ukmayofilebebiT. erTxel TanamSromelma uTxra am teqstis avtors: “Cems
menejers aqvs “Ria karis” politika, magram kari Riaa mxolod erTi inCiT”.
marTlac es TanamSromeli xvdeba, rom mas Zalian mcire Sansi aqvs raime
gaawyos Tavis menejerTan. am sistemas Tan axlavs sxva problemebic. “Ria
karis” politika ver uzrunvelyofs mtkice gadawyvetilebis miRebas,
vinaidan is, rac samarTliania erTi menjerisTvis, SeiZleba miuRebeli
aRmoCndes meorisTvis. maRali donis menejerebi mxars uWeren supervaizerebs
89
imis
gamo,
rom
uflebamosilebis
Sesustebis
eSiniaT.
rogorc
samarTlianobis sistema, “Ria karis” politikac naklebi ndobiT sargeblobs
TanamSromlebSi. Tumca “Ria karis” politika xSirad warmatebulia, mas
mxars uWers yvela donis xelmZRvaneloba. am sistemiT menejeri cdilobs
SeinarCunos samarTlianisa da obieqturis reputacia.
saxalxo damcvelis sistema
“Rockwell”, “Jonson&Jonson”, “Herman Miller”, “Morley Builders”, “Volvo”
is
kompaniebia, romlebic saxalxo damcvelis eqspertizas iyenebe. saxalxo
damcveli aris konkretuli pirovneba, romlisganac TanamSromlebi rCevebs
moelian TavianTi problemebis mosagvareblad. saxalxo damcveli usmens
TanamSromlebis ukmayofilebas da cdilobs moagvaros is TanamSromelsa da
zedamxedvels Soris SuamavlobiT. Ees pirovneba TanamSromlobs orive
mxaresTan SeTanxmebis misaRwevad da problemis gadasawyvetad xSirad
kritikuli damokidebulebis gamoyeneba uwevs. radganac saxalxo damcvels
ara aqvs uflebamosileba sabolood gadawyvitos problema, kompromisebi
ufro metadaa SesaZlebeli, Tanac yvela piri kmayofili unda darCes
SedegiT.
warmatebuli
muSaobisTvis
saxalxo
damcvels
unda
SeeZlos
konfidencialur garemoSi muSaoba, riTac safrTxe ar eqmneba im menejerebis
an TanaSemweebis usafrTxoebas, vinc CarTulni arian saCivarSi. saxalxo
damcvels ara aqvs ufleba uaryos TanamSromlis zedamxedvelis mier
miRebuli gadawyvetileba, man unda gaasaCivros gadawyvetileba, Tu mas
sjera, rom TanamSromels usamarTlod moeqcnen. TanamSromlebisTvis
samarTlianobis miRwevaSi daxmarebis garda saxalxo damcvelebs SeuZliaT
TviTon Seamowmon xelmZRvaneloba.
Suamdgomloba
arbitraJTan erTad Suamavloba ufro da ufro popularuli xdeba
TanamSromelTa problemebis mosagvareblad. Suamdgomloba iyenebs sammxriv
neitralitets (egreTwodebuli mediatori), raTa daexmaros muSakebsa da
xelmZRvanelobas
orive
mxarisTvis
misaRebi
SeTanxmebis
miRwevaSi.
Suamdgomloba gulisxmobs kompromisze wasvlas, SeTanxmebas. mediatori
Caatarebs Sexvedras TanamSromelTan da xelmZRvanelobasTan, moismens
TiToeuli mxaris pozicias, Seagrovebs faqtebs, da Semdeg ganxilvis,
winadadebebisa
da
gadamwyveti
argumentebis
saSualebiT
miaRwevs
SeTanxmebas, romelic daakmayofilebs orive mxaris moTxovnebs. Mmediatori
Tavidan moqmedebs, rogorc faqtebis
Semgrovebeli da mxareTa Soris
kavSiris damamyarebeli. arbitrisgan gansxvavebiT, mediatorebs ara aqvT
ufleba an uflebamosileba aiZulon romelime mxare SeTanxmebasTan
dakavSirebiT. maT unda gamoiyenon TavianTi komunikaciis unari da
darwmunebis ufleba, raTa mxareebs maTi problemebis mogvarebaSi daexmaron.
Suamdgomloba
fleqsiuri
procesia,
romelmac
SeiZleba
daakmayofilos mxareTa moTxovnebi. agreTve is gamoiyeneba TanamSromelTa
mTeli rigi problemebis gadasawyvetad, maT Soris diskriminaciis
pretenziebis
an
tradiciuli
SromiTi
davebis
mosagvareblad.
TanamSromlebs moswonT es procesi misi araoficialurobis gamo. erT-erTi
xelmZRvanelobis Tanaxmad, “Suamdgomloba SeiZleba ganimartos, rogorc
90
miukerZoebeli mesame mxaris kerZo ganxilva”. Suamdgomlobis saSualebiT
Secvlili gadawyvetilebebi ukve misaRebia orive mxaris mier, amrigad, is
exmareba mxareebs sasurveli SromiTi urTierTobis damyarebaSi.
arbitraJi
kerZo damsaqmeblebma SeiZleba moiTxovon, rom TanamSromlebma
warudginon TavianTi SromiTi davebi mogvarebisTvis arbitraJs (arbitraJi
dawvrilebiT ganxilulia me-14 TavSi). arbitraJs mimarTaven ZiriTadad
diskriminaciis sarCelebis mosagvareblad asakis, sqesis, seqsualuri
Zaladobis da rasis sferoebSi. sxva SromiTi sakiTxebi, rogoricaa
promouSenebi, kompensacia, dasja an kompaniis strategiis gamoyeneba,
SeiZleba arbitraJs gadaeces, Tu es dasaSvebia damsaqmeblis arbitraJis
programiT. xelmZRvaneloba asaxelebs arbitraJis gamoyenebis upiratesobebs:
danazogebs davebis xarjebSi, drois dakargvis Tavidan acilebasa da
arasasurvel sajaroobas.
arbitraJis SeTanxmebebi awesrigeben, rom TanamSromlebma gaasaCivron
Tavisi diskriminaciis pretenziebi, xelmZRvanelobasY ar SeuZlia aukrZalos
TanamSromlebs diskriminaciis braldebebis wamoyeneba EEOC-s saSualebiT
da gamoiyenos sxva kanonmdeblobiTi uflebebi samTavrobo uwyebebTan. EEOCSi, “Waffle House Inc.” Kkompaniis SemTxvevaSi, aSS-is uzenaesma sasamarTlom
mxari
dauWira
im
Tvalsazriss,
rom
TanamSromlebs
SeuZliaT
diskriminaciis sarCelebis wayeneba EEOC-s saSualebiT da mas xels aweren
TanamSromlebi. arbitraJma SeiZleba TanamSromlebs xeli SeuSalos, rom ar
uCivlon administracias sasamarTloSi, magram maT ufleba ara aqvT
TanamSromlebs aukrZalon diskriminaciis braldebebis wayeneba EEOC-s
saSualebiT.
Mmenejeruli eTika TanamSromelTan urTierTobebSi
am wignSi Cven yuradRebas vamaxvilebT adamianuri resursebis
menejmentis samarTlebriv moTxovnebze. kanonebi, uwyebis gadawyvetilebebi
da sasamarTlos dadgenilebebi gavlenas axdens SromiTi procesis yvela
aspeqtze: dakompleqtebaze, SerCevaze, saqmianobis Sefasebaze, usafrTxoebasa
da janmrTelobaze, SromiT urTierTobebsa da Semowmebaze. Mmenejerebma
samTavrobo normebi unda daicvan, raTa xeli Seuwyon davebisagan
Tavisufali garemos Seqmnas.
Tumca, imis garda, rac kanoniTaa moTxovnili, gasaTvaliswinebelia
agreTve organizaciis eTikis sakiTxi da menejerebis eTikuri qcevis
problemebi. eTika SeiZleba ganisazRvros, rogorc miRebuli qcevisa da
moraluri
gansjis
standartebis
erToblioba.
eTika
uzrunvelyofs
kulturuli, organizaciuli da socialuri principebis dacvas, rac
exmareba pirovnebas saTanado da arasaTanado qcevas Soris arCevanis
gakeTebaSi (gadawyvetalebis miRebaSi). Uufro metic, eTika, adaminauri
resursebis
samarTlebrivi
aspeqtebis
msgavsad,
vrceldeba
SromiTi
urTierTobebis yvela aspeqtze. magaliTad, menejerebma SeiZleba mxari
dauWiron
organizaciis
amocanas
daiqiraos
maRali
klasis
warmomadgenlebi, magram es TanamSromlebi rogor gakontroldebian da
rogor moeqcevian maT - es ukve menejeruli eTikis sakiTxia.
91
kanonebTan da TanamSromelTa qcevasTan urTierToba menejeris
saqmianobis or sruliad gansxvavebul aspeqts warmoadgens. eTikuri
problemebi yovelTvis arsebobs TanamSromlebSi. sainteresoa, am bolo
drois gamokvlevam – “eTikuri sakiTxebi TanamSromlisa da ufrosis
urTierTobebSi”, romelic daafinansa finansuri samsaxuris profesionalTa
sazogadoebam _ aCvena, rom damsaqmebelTa 97%-ma da TanamSromelTa 84%-ma
ganacxada, rom TanamSromlebisaTvis micemuli yalbi dapirebebi eTikis
yvelaze seriozuri
darRvevaa ufrosebis mxridan. muSaobis periodSi
narkotikebis an alkoholis moxmareba da el.fostis borotad gamoyeneba
sxva TanamSromlis mimarT dasaxelda samsaxurebrivi eTikis darRvevis
yvelaze
xSir
SemTxvevebad.
Cven
gvjera,
rom
menejeruli
eTika
TanamSromelTa urTierTobebSi moiTxovs patiosnebas TanamSromelsa da
menejers Soris yvelanair saqmeSi, agreTve ormxriv pativiscemas samuSao
valdebulebebis Sesrulebis dros.
Mmraval organizacias aqvs Tavisi eTikis kodeqsi, romelic awesrigebs
TanamSromlebsa da sazogadoebas Soris urTierTobebs. Ees kodeqsi
yuradRebas amaxvilebs eTikur Rirebulebebze da organizaciebsa da
calkeul menejerebs safuZvels uqmnis Seafason TavianTi gegmebi da
moqmedebebi. adamianuri resursebis departamentebs didi roli ekisrebaT
organizaciis
Rirebulebebsa
da
standartebs
Soris
kavSiris
uzrunvelyofaSi, eTikis kodeqsTan Sesabamisobis SemowmebaSi, agreTve
organizaciaSi standartebis ganmtkicebaSi. amJamad organizaciebs aqvT
eTikis
komitetebi
da
hyavT
eTikis
damcveli
pirebi,
raTa
TanamSromlebisTvis uzrunvelyon treningi eTikaSi. am treningis ZiriTadi
mizania TanamSromlebma Tavidan aacilon araeTikuri
qceva da saziano
moqmedebebi; moipovon strategiuli upiratesoba, , sxva TanamSromlebs
moeqcnen samarTlianad da obieqturad da aRiqvan isini organizaciis
Rirseul wevrebad.
Mmokle mimoxilva
Aamocana 1.
TanamSromlebs SeuZliaT gamoTqvan pretenzia, rom maT aqvT
kanonieri ufleba moiTxovon samsaxurSi maTdami samarTliani da obieqturi
damokidebuleba. TanamSromelTa uflebebis sakiTxebi sxva problemebTan
erTad gulisxmobs narkologiur Semowmebas an TanamSromlis piradi
saubrebis kontrols. amasTan, xelmZRvaneloba valdebulia uzrunvelyos
usafrTxoeba
da
daicvas
TanamSromlis
samuSao
adgili
saziano
SemTxvevebisgan. roca TanamSromelTa uflebebTan erTad ar igulisxmeba
xelmZRvanelobis
Sesabamisi
valdebulebebi,
SeiZleba
warmoiSvas
winaaRmdegoba.
Aamocana 2. TanamSromelsac da ufrossac aqvs garkveuli uflebebi da
molodini SromiT urTierTobebSi. Tavisufali dasaqmebis moZRvreba exeba
TanamSromlisa da ufrosis uflebebs Sewyviton SromiTi urTierToba, maSin
roca nagulisxmevi kontraqtis cneba warmoadgens gamonakliss Tavisufali
dasaqmebis dogmaSi. am cnebis Tanaxmad, ufrosis zepirma an werilobiTma
gancxadebebma SeiZleba Camoayalibos kontraqtuli valdebuleba, ramac
92
SeiZleba
xeli
SeuSalos
TanamSromlis
avtomatur
ganTavisuflebas.
konstruqciuli ganTavisufleba xdeba, roca TanamSromeli Tavisi nebiT
wyvets muSaobas, magram Semdeg amtkicebs, rom igi iZulebuli gaxda wasuliyo
samsaxuridan
autaneli
samuSao
pirobebis
gamo,
romelic
Seuqmna
damsaqmebelma. TanamSromlebs SeuZliaT pretenzia ganacxadon, rom maT
samagieros uxdian, roca ufrosebi sjian maT TavianTi uflebebis
gamoyenebisTvis kanonis Tanaxmad an zianis miyenebisTvis sasamarTlo
kompensaciebis miRebisas.
amocana 3. TanamSromlebi moelian garkveul konfidencialurobis uflebebs
maT pirad saqmeebSi arasaTanado Carevisgan Tavis dasacavad. Ees uflebebi
iseT
sakiTxebsac
moicavs,
rogoricaa
narkotikebis
gamoyeneba
da
narkologiuri Semowmeba; gamokvlevebi da zedamxedveloba; arasamsaxurebrivi
piradi uflebebi; elfostis, internetisa da xmovani fostis gasaidumloeba
Dda genetikuri analizi.
amocana 4. adamianuri resursebis departamentma sxva menejerebTan erTad
unda SeimuSaos disciplinaruli strategia da politika. es xels Seuwyobs
politikis aRiarebasa da mis gamoyenebas. dasjis saWiroebis Sesamcireblad
organizaciis normebi da principebi farTod unda iyos cnobili, unda
gaformdes werilobiT da ganemartos TanamSromlebs. wesebi unda exebodes
organizaciis usafrTxo da efeqtur muSaobas. roca menejerebi akontroleben
wesebis moqmedebas, maT unda gamoiyenon isini, sanam dasjian TanamSromels.
amocana 5. termins “disciplina” sami mniSvneloba aqvs: dasja, wesrigi da
treningi TanamSromelTa qcevis Sesaxeb. roca viyenebT mas TanamSromelTan
mimarTebaSi, disciplina unda emsaxurebodes TanamSromlis arasasurveli
qcevis gamosworebas, da TanamSromels unda gauCinos TviTkontrolis
survili. Ddisciplinis mesame mniSvneloba SeiZleba miRweul iqnes mxolod
maSin, roca menejerebi TanamSromlis araswori saqcielis srul da
miukerZoebel gamoZiebas atareben.
TanamSromlis araswori saqcielis
gamoZieba darRvevis Sesabamisi dokumentebiT damtkicebiT iwyeba. roca
menejerebi
TanamSromlis problemebs ikvleven, maT zustad unda hqondeT
Seswavlili darRveva: icoda Tu ara TanamSromelma darRveuli wesis Sesaxeb,
arsebobs Tu ara Semamsubuqebeli garemoebebi, ramac SeiZleba gaamarTlos
TanamSromlis saqcieli. roca TanamSromeli unda daisajos, wesi unda
gadaixedos, amasTan ganxilul unda iqnes TanamSromlis ganvlili muSaobis
monacemebi.
amocana 6. disciplinisadmi ori midgoma arsebobs: progresuli disciplina
da pozitiuri disciplina. progresuli disciplina moicavs etapebis jgufebs,
rac damyarebulia koreqciuli moqmedebis xarisxis gazrdaze. gamoyenebuli
koreqciuli
moqmedeba
unda
Seesabamebodes
TanamSromlis
darRvevis
kategorias, tips. Sexsenebebze dafuZnebuli pozitiuri disciplina aris
TanamSromlobiTi disciplinis mimarTuleba, romlis drosac TanamSromlebi
iReben pasuxismgeblobas qcevis gaumjobesebisTvis. mizani imaSi mdgomareobs,
rom aRmoifxvras TanamSromlis aradamakmayofilebeli saqmianoba, sanam
ukmayofiloba seriozul problemad gadaiqceva.
amocana 7.
alternatiuli davis gadawyvetis principebis saSualebiT
TanamSromlebi Sesabamisi procesis uflebebs iyeneben. ADRs-s yvelaze zogadi
formebia etapobrivi ganxilvis sistema, Tanabari ganxilvis sistema, saxalxo
damcvelis sistema, Suamdgomloba da arbitraJi.
93
amocana
8.
adamianuri
resursebis
menejmentSi
eTika
vrceldeba
TanamSromelTa marTvis samarTlebriv moTxovnebze. menejerebi eTikur
normebs icaven, roca TanamSromlebs eqcevian obieqturad da samarTlianad.
Sesabamisad, TanamSromlis piradi da samsaxurebrivi uflebebi daculia.
ZiriTadi terminebi
alternatiuli davis gadawyveta (ADR)
konstruqciuli ganTavisufleba
disciplina
Sesabamisi procesi
TanamSromlis uflebebi
Tavisufali dasaqmebis principi
eTika
“cxeli Rumelis” wesi
Suamdgomloba
mediatori
gulgriloba
saxalxo damcveli
“Ria karis” politika
Tanaswori ganxilvis sistema
pozitiuri anu aradasjadi disciplina
progresuli disciplina
etapobrivi ganxilvis sistema
gansaxilveli sakiTxebi
1. gansazRvreT sami sfero, sadac TanamSromlis uflebebi da ufrosis
movaleobebi ewinaaRmdegeba erTmaneTs. rogor SeiZleba warmoiSvas es
konfliqti?
2. gansazRvreT Tavisufali dasaqmebis principebi. ra aris sasamarTlos
sami ZiriTadi gamonaklisi am dogmidan?
3. ra
kanonmdeblobiTi
da
sasamarTlo
SezRudvebi
arsebobs
damsaqmeblis narkologiur SemowmebasTan dakavSirebiT kerZo da
saxelmwifo seqtorSi?
4. Tu Tqven mogTxoves disciplinis Sesaxeb politikis SemuSaveba, ra
sakiTxebs gaaerTianebT am politikaSi?
5. ra
unda
iyos
sagamoZiebo
gasaubrebis
mizani
da
rogor
damokidebulebas unda mivmarToT misi Catarebis dros?
6. ganixileT,
Tu
ratom
aris
mniSvnelovani
dokumentacia
disciplinaruli procesisTvis. ra Sedis swor dokumentaciaSi?
7. aRwereT progresuli da pozitiuri disciplina da aRniSneT
gansxvaveba am or mimarTulebas Soris;
8. rogor fiqrobT, ras unda moicavdes efeqturi alternatiuli davis
mogvarebis sistema? ra Sedegebs eliT aseTi sistemisgan? Tu Tqven
gTxoves daareguliroT ganTavisuflebis SemTxveva, ra faqtebs
ganixilavT gadawyvetilebis misaRebad: mxars dauWerT Tu uaryofT
damsaqmeblis moqmedebas?
94
9. marto an gundSi muSaobis dros gansazRvreT eTikuri problemebi,
romlebic warmoiSoba muSaobis procesSi da exeba Semdeg sakiTxebs:
sxvadsxva sferoSi adamianuri resursebis SerCevas, saqmianobis
Sefasebas,
usafrTxoebasa
da
jandacvas,
pirad
uflebebs
da
kompensacias.
TanamSromelTa uflebebis gansazRvra
A
adamianuri resursebis mudmivad cvalebad sferoSi savaldebuloa,
rom orive mxare – adamianuri resursebis menejerebic da supervaizerebic _
kargad erkveodnen cvlilebebSi, rac gavlenas axdens organizaciaze da
TanamSromelTa marTvis procesze. radganac TanamSromlebi moiTxoven ufro
met
samuSaos
da
SromiT
uflebebs
narkologiur
SemowmebasTan,
zedamxedvelobasTan,
usamarTlo
daTxovnasTan,
samsaxuris
gareT
moqmedebasTan da genetikur analizTan dakavSirebiT, xelmZRvanelobam unda
icodes axali kanonebi, sasamarTlo dadgenilebebi da sxva organizaciebis
strategia, rac gavlenas axdens TiToeul sferoze. Ees codna daexmareba
menejerebs reagireba moaxdinon TanamSromelTa problemebze aqtiurad da
dadebiTad. TanamSromlebis uflebebis daucvelobam SeiZleba migviyvanos
sasamarTlo procesebamde, rasac mohyveba TanamSromelTa ndobis Sesusteba
da moraluri mdgomareobis daqveiTeba.
daniSnuleba
individualurad an gundSi muSaobis dros TanamSromelTa uflebebis
gasacnobad
TiToeuli
TemisTvis
gansazRvreT
da
ganixileT
TanamSromlebisa da xelmZRvanelobis piradi problemebi. am daniSnulebis
Sesrulebis dros Tqven SeiZleba gsurdeT gadaxedoT adamianTa resursebis
Jurnalebis statiebs, rogoricaa “SromiTi kanonis Jurnali”, “HR Jurnali”,
“samuSao Zala”, an “TanamSromelTa urTierTobebis samarTlis Jurnali”.
upasuxeT ToToeuli Temis Semdeg sakiTxebs:
• Tavisufali dasaqmeba da araswori ganTavisuflebis saCivrebi;
• narkotikebis gamoyeneba da narkologiuri Semowmeba;
• gamokvlevebi da monitoringi;
• TanamSromlis qceva samsaxuris gareT;
• genetikuri analizi;
• elfosta, interneti;
1. romeli sakiTxi gainteresebT?
2. ratom
aris
es
sakiTxi
aqtualuri
TanamSromlebisa
da
menejerebisTvis?
3. ra uflebebs moiTxoven TanamSromlebi?
4. romeli kanonebi an sasamarTlo saqmeebi axdens gavlenas am uflebaze?
5. zogadad rogor pasuxobs xelmZRvaneloba TanamSromlis am uflebas?
Kkonkretuli SemTxvevis ganxilva 1
ganTavisufleba samsaxuris gareT garkveuli moqmedebis gamo
95
winamdebare SemTxveva gviCvenebs TanamSromlis pirad pretenzias da
xelmZRvanelobis uflebas kompaniis reputaciis SesanarCuneblad.
2002 wlis 6 maiss, orSabaTs, ganTavisuflebamde jon hilardi
muSaobda gayidvebis ufros warmomadgenlad kompaniaSi “saukeTeso saswavlo
masalebi” (Advanced Educational Materials) (AEM), iyo maRalxarisxiani saswavlo
wignebisa
da
umcrosda
ufrosklasebisaTvis
saswavlo
nivTebis
mimwodebeli. Mmisi Tormetwliani muSaobis periodSi jonis aRiarebdnen,
rogorc
gamorCeul
TanamSromels
mWidro
samuSao
urTierTobebiT
skolebTan, romlebTanac TanamSromlobda. Mmisi gayidvebis monacemebi
saukeTeso iyo. jonis ganTavisufleba ganapiroba, rogorc AEM-m ganacxada,
TanamSromlebis moqmedebis kodeqsis seriozulma darRvevam.
2002 wlis 4 maiss, SabaTs, jonisa da misi menejeris, jin elisonis,
SemTxveviTi Sexvedris dros, menejerma SeamCnia, rom joni gamovida
zrdasrulTa videokasetebis maRaziidan da raRac eWira xelSi. rogorc
menejeri aRwers, pornografiuli Jurnalebi da pornofilmis kaseta iyo.
Semdeg orSabaTs jinma ganixila es SemTxveva AEM-is adamianuri resursebis
warmomadgenelTan da gayidvebis viceprezidentTan. Yyvela
daeTanxma, rom
jonis qceva kompaniis TanamSromelTa qcevis kodeqsis seriozul darRvevas
warmoadgenda, rac SemdegSi mdgomareobs: “TanamSromlis samsaxuris gareT
qceva aranairad ar unda aisaxos cudad kompaniaze, mis TanamSromlebze, an
saswavlo masalebis gayidvebze.” AEM tradiciulad aiZulebda gayidvebis
warmoadgenlebs maRali moraluri standartebis dacvas, radgan kompania
masalebs awvdida sajaro skolis administratorebsa da pedagogebs.
Mmisi ganTavisuflebis Sexvedraze jonim mkacrad uaryo, gaaprotesta
Tavisi gagdeba. igi amtkicebda, rom rac man gaakeTa samsaxurisgan Tavisufal
dros, es kompaniis saqme ar iyo da misi moqmedeba cudad ar aisaxa AEM-ze an
misi produqtebis gayidvebze. garda amisa, man ganacxada: “Sesyidvebi
xorcieldeboda, rogorc anegdotebi dauqorwinebelTa wveulebaze.”
wyaro: es SemTxveva warmoadgens realuri ganTavisuflebis
samsaxuris gareT Cadenili cudi qcevisTvis. yvela saxeli fiqtiuria.
faqts
kiTxvebi:
1. mocemuli
SemTxvevis
faqtebis
gaTvaliswinebiT
unda
gaeTavisuflebinaT joni Tu ara? pasuxi axseniT.
2. AEM-is gayidvebis warmomadgenlebs moeTxovebaT Tu ara piradi
qcevis ufro maRali standartebis dacva, vidre sxva tipis
organizaciebis gayidvebis warmomadgenlebs? pasuxi axseniT.
3. xelmZRvanelobas unda ganexila Tu ara jonis ganvlili muSaobis
monacemebi ganTavisuflebis Sesaxeb gadawyvetilebis miRebamde?
pasuxi axseniT.
Kkonkretuli SemTxvevis ganxilva 2
“Tqven ver gamagdebT! Mme gavikeTe analizi”
“Cven ar gvqonda sxva arCevani”, _ auxsna supervaizerma, tim valtonma.
“jerim icoda Cveni narkotikuli politikis Sesaxeb da man TviTon airCia,
96
rom daerRvia is”. N”narkotikebis Sesaxeb politika yvela TanamSromlisTvis
cnobili iyo”, _ ganacxada valtonma. “narkotikebis moxmarebaSi eWvmitanilma
TanamSromlebma unda waradginon narkologiuri Semowmebis analizi maSin,
roca ufrosi moiTxovs amas. Tu TanamSromlebs SeuZliaT gaikeTon analizi,
roca maT undaT, maSin Cven verasodes gamoviWerT narkomanebs.” Kkompania
ADR-is SemTxvevaSi, TanamSromelma jeri baTlerma upasuxa: ”isini ver
gamagdeben! Mme uari vTqvi analizis gakeTebaze, radganac saavadmyofoSi
viweqi.Aamas garda,
cudad gavxdi distrofiis gamo, rac gamoiwvia
gadaWarbebulma sicxem shop floor. –Si. meore dRes gavikeTe analizi.” valtonma
upasuxa: “rogorc CvenTvis cnobilia, jerim uari Tqva analizis gakeTebaze
da es sakmarisia CvenTvis. aranairi damatebiTi gamoZieba ar aris saWiro.
zogierTi wamali organizmidan gamodis sakmaod swrafad. Cven dauyovneblad
gvWirdeba analizi”.
es problema warmoiSva, roca orma TanamSromelma SeamCnia, rom
TanamSromelTa oTaxSi jeri baTlers TeTri fxvnili eWira cxvirTan. isini
daeWvdnen saSiSi nivTierebis moxmarebaSi da es SemTxveva valtons moaxsenes.
ori dRis Semdeg baTlers mosTxoves waredgina narkologiuri Semowmebis
analizi, maSin roca igi distrofiis gamo iwva adgilobriv saavadmyofoSi.
Mman Tqva, rom Zalian cudad iyo da uari ganacxada analizze. man eqims
auxsna, rom ar SeeZlo analizis gakeTeba avadmyofobis gamo. momdevno dRes
baTlerma gaikeTa analizi da miiRo dadebiTi pasuxi, Tumca kompaniam uari
ganacxada
xelaxla
ganexila
misi
ganTavisuflebis
gadawyvetileba.
dakiTxvaze jeri baTlerma aseve ganacxada, rom kompaniam igi imitom gaagdo,
rom kompensacia ar gadaexadaT.
wyaro:
adaptirebulia
“Bulletin
to
Management”–Si
SemTxvevidan (25 Tebervali, 1999). yvela saxeli fiqtiuria.
gamoqveynebuli
kiTxvebi:
Tqven rom gangexilaT es SemTxveva, rogor gadawyvetilebas
miiRebdiT? axseniT srulyofilad.
2. sxva ra informacia iqneboda saWiro am sakiTxis gadaWrisas?
3. qmnis Tu ara kompania eTikur problemebs, roca is TanamSromlebi
jeri
baTleris
winaaRmdeg
mowmeebad
gamohyavs?
axseniT
srulyofilad.
1.
danarTi
menejeri mrCevlis rolSi
ra Tqma unda, TanamSromlebisTvis rCeva-darigebis micema menejeris
saqmianobis metad mniSvnelovani nawilia. disciplinaruli ganxilvisgan
gansxvavebiT, romelic xSirad SezRudulia specifikuri informaciis
mopovebasa da micemaSi, rCevis micema warmoadgens process, romelic
gulisxmobs dinamiur urTierTobas or mxares Soris, roca adamians SeuZlia
Tavisuflad ganixilos moTxovnilebebi, grZnobebi da problemebi daxmarebis
aRmoCenis mizniT. rogorc 13.a sqemazea naCvenebi, konsultacia Seicavs mraval
cvlilebas rogorc damxmares, ise dasaxmareblis mxareze. kavSiri,
97
urTierToba dasaxmareblis problemebis mogvarebis mTavari saSualebaa,
damxmaris rCeva-darigebis gamoyenebiT. rCevis micemiT SegviZlia davexmaroT
TanamSromlebs
piradi
problemebis
mogvarebaSi,
rogoricaa:
susti
janmrTeloba, narkotikebis an alkoholis moxmareba, ojaxuri problemebi an
finansuri problemebi; rCeva aseve SeiZleba gamoviyenoT samsaxurebrivi
problemebis mosagvareblad. saCivrebis Sesamcireblad yvelaze efeqturi
saSualebaa davexmaroT TanamSromlebs, raTa iyvnen gaxsnilebi.
rCeva-darigebis micemis urTierTobis ganviTareba
damxmare
-
kavSiri
moTxovnebi,
grZnobebi,
problemebi,
Sexedulebebi,
miswrafebebi,
gancdebi
-
dasaxmarebeli
moTxovnebi,
grZnobebi,
problemebi,
Sexedulebebi,
miswrafebebi,
gancdebi
urTierTobis ZiriTadi arsi
rCevis micema xdeba or mxares Soris dros. ZiriTadi kavSiri aris
situacia,
garemo.
organizaciebSi
xelmZRvaneloba
xSirad
iyenebs
urTierTobas or mxares Soris. magaliTad, TanamSromels ar SeuZlia ar
daafasos zedamxedvelis daxmareba samuSaosTan dakavSirebul sakiTxebSi,
radganac am dros damxmare ki ar ubrZanebs, aramed rCevas aZlevs
dasaxmarebels. konfidencialuroba kidev erTi mniSvnelovani faqtoria
rCevis micemis procesSi. zogadad miRebulia, rom rac xdeba rCevis
micemisas, saidumlod unda darCes am or mxares Soris. Tumca arsebobs
situacia, roca saWiro xdeba garkveuli informaciis gamxela, winaaRmdeg
SemTxvevaSi SeiZleba seriozuli ziani miadges sxvebs. kidev erTi faqtori,
ramac SeiZleba gavlena moaxdinos urTierTobaze, aris menejeris Carevis
xarisxi daxmarebis gasawevad.
rCevis micemis xerxebi
yvela Cvengans aqvs ganxilvis, Sefasebis, mowonebis an dawunebis
bunebrivi, Tandayolili unari. zogjer Cven am ganxilvebSi verTvebiT
daufiqreblad, Cveni winaswari varaudebis safuZvelze, da amiT vamcirebT
Cvens SesaZleblobas efeqturad movaxdinoT komunikacia.
naadrevi
gadawyvetilebebis Tavidan acilebis erT-erTi gzaa rCevis micemis xerxi,
romelsac hqvia “aqtiuri mosmena”. aqtiuri mosmena niSnavs kargad gagebas,
Tu ras gulisxmobs meore pirovneba, roca igi gvixsnis Tavis Sexedulebas.
naTqvami unda movisminoT srulyofilad, Sewyvetis, kiTxvebis dasmis an
axali Temebis wamoWris gareSe. zedamxedvelma Tvali unda miadevnos da
yuradRebiT unda moisminos, rasac muSaki ambobs an cdilobs, rom Tqvas.
radganac yvela SemTxvevaSi aqtiuri mosmena mniSvnelovania, is metad
aucilebelia, roca:
98
1. Cven ar gvesmis, ras grZnobs meore adamiani da Cven unda mivxvdeT mis
azrs;
2. Cven gvjera, rom rasac ambobs, is ise mniSvnelovani ar aris, rogorc
is, rac ar uTqvams;
3. meore adamiani iseTi dabneulia, rom SeuZlebelia naTeli informaciis
miReba.
A
aqtiur mosmenisas menejers SeuZlia aseve gamoiyenos xerxi, romelsac
“grZnobebis gamoxatvas” uwodeben. Ees saSualeba gulisxmobs TanamSromlis
gacxadebuli an dafaruli grZnobebis gamoxatvas. misi mizania yuradReba
gaamaxvilos ufro metad grZnobebze, vidre
Sinaarsze, raTa bundovnad
gamoxatuli grZnobebi kargad iqnes gacnobierebuli da daexmaros adamians
Tavisi grZnobebis Sesaxeb saubarSi.
am meTodiT sargeblobisas Semdegi gamoTqmebi gamoiyeneba: “Tqven
brazobT imis gamo, Tu rogor geqcevaT ufrosi”, ”Tqven grZnobT, rom met
dafasebas imsaxurebT kompaniis mxridan”. grZnobebis gamoxatvis teqnika
gansakuTrebiT sasargebloa rCevis micemis adreul etapze TanamSromlis
grZnobebis gamosavlenad. es standarturi principia arasadireqtivo rCevis
micemaSi.
TanamSromelTa dasaxmareblad kidev erT saSualebas warmoadgens
kiTxvebis dasma, rac adamians exmareba Tavisi problemis gagebaSi. zogadad
es unda iyos Ria kiTxvebi, romlebsac ar gaecema pasuxi “diax” an “ara”.
magaliTad: “momiyeviT kidev Tqveni gancdebis Sesaxeb baton jonsTan”. Ees
unda iyos iseTi kiTxvebi, romlebic ufro uzrunvelyofs TanamSromlis
TviTgamorkvevas, vidre zedamxedvelisTvis informaciis miRebas. Ria
kiTxvebi saSualebas aZlevs TanamSromels Tavisuflad isaubros, rac
misTvisvea kargi.
rCevis micemis principebi
TanamSromlis dasaxmareblad, romelsac raime problema aqvs, rCevis
micemis mravalgvari principi gamoiyeneba. yvela es midgoma gulisxmobs
aqtiur mosmenas. zogjer informaciis ubralo miwodebam an rCevam SeiZleba
moagvaros problema, romelic Tavdapirvelad metad rTuli Canda. Tumca
ufro
xSirad
problema
advilad
ar
gvardeba
winaaRmdegobebis,
konfliqtebis an gegmebis CaSlis gamo, rasac Tan sdevs Zlieri gancdebi,
rogoricaa SiSi, dabneuloba an SuRli. menejerma unda Seiswavlos, rodis
romeli midgoma aris Sesaferisi. Ffleqsiuroba rCevis micemis procesis
ZiriTadi komponentia.
pirdapiri rCeva-darigeba
D
direqtiuli rCeva-darigebis dros menejeri cdilobs pirdapir an
arapirdapir akontrolos Temebi, ris Sesaxebac saubroben TanamSromlebi,
aRwers TanamSromlis winaSe mdgar arCevans da aZlevs rCevas, ra unda
gaakeTos. mravali SemTxveva arsebobs, roca saWiroa informaciis an
samsaxurebrivi rCevis miwodeba im sferoebSi, romelSic zedamxedveli
erkveva da gamocdilia. Tumca Tu unda gakeTdes arCevani da winaaRmdegoba
iCens Tavs, direqtiuli midgomis gamoyeneba unda aviciloT Tavidan.
99
Aarapirdapiri rCeva-darigeba
aradireqtiuli (arapirdapiri) rCeva-darigebis dros TanamSromels
aqvs maqsimaluri Tavisufleba gansazRvros saubris mimdinareoba. Sefasebis
gareSe mosmenis, rogorc komunikaciis, mniSvneloba metad didia. is aris
mTavari teqnika, romelic gamoiyeneba arapirdapiri rCeva-darigebis dros.
ZiriTadad unda mousmino da gaugo TanamSromels, kritikisa da Sefasebis
gareSe, rogorc igi aRwers problemas. menejeri Tavisi damokidebulebiTa
da reaqciiT amxnevebs TanamSromels, rac man Tqva an ar Tqva, rac emociebiT
gamoxata sircxvilis an aRelvebis gareSe.
Tavisufali gamoxatva ganusazRvreli damokidebulebis dros amcirebs
daZabulobas da imedgacruebas. TanamSromels, romelsac SeeZlo Seekavebina
emociebi, Cveulebriv ukeTesi SesaZlebloba hqonda ufro obieqturad
ganexila
problema
da
moegvarebina
is.
liberaluri
atmosfero
TanamSromels saSualebas aZlevs gaigos problema Tavisi sirTuleebiT da
gansazRvros perspeqtiva, raTa miaRwios sasurvel gadawyvetilebas.
monawileobiTi rCeva-darigeba
gansazRvruli da ganusazRvreli midgomebi aSkarad ukiduresobebis
kavSirs warmoadgens. radganac
konkretuli profesionali mrCeveli
SeiZleba am kavSiris erT boloSi iyos an meoreSi, menejerTa umetesoba
sxvadasxva damokidebulebas irCevs saubris mimdinareobis mixedviT. bevri
irCevs saSualo damokidebulebas, roca orive mxare erTad afasebs
dagegmvis procesSi, Tu konkretuli problema rogor unda ganixilos da
gadawydes. es mimarTuleba, romelic SeiZleba CavTvaloT, rogorc
monawileobiTi midgoma, gansakuTrebiT Sesaferisia SromiT organizaciebSi
gamosayeneblad.
Mmravali problema, romelsac menejerebi da supervaizerebi awydebian,
moiTxovs ara marto TanamSromlebis gancdebis gagebas, aramed imasac, rom
TanamSromlebi gaerkvnen da mxari unda dauWiron xelmZRvanelobis
molodinebs, raTa isini iyvnen produqtiulebi, pasuxismgeblobis mqoneebi
da pativi scen erTmaneTs. meore mxriv, problemis mqone adamianTa
umetesobas urCevnia aqtiurad iyos Cabmuli gadawyvetilebis miRebaSi, Tu
isini xvdebian, rom SesaZlebelia moqmedebis dadebiTad ganviTareba. mraval
samsaxurebriv situaciaSi, rodesac rCeva-darigebas iyeneben, monawileobiTi
damokidebuleba rekomendebulia calkeul adamianebTan muSaobis dros
garkveuli periodis ganmavlobaSi. Tumca sxvadasxva dros, calkeuli
saubrebis procesSi sasurvelia gamoviyenoT orive – gansazRvruli da
ganusazRvreli.
roca rCeva-darigeba ar amarTlebs
rCeva-darigeba
ganixileba,
rogorc
xerxi,
romelic
exmareba
komunikacias da xels uwyobs problemebis mogvarebas, rac gavlenas axdens
TanamSromelTa da organizaciis keTildReobaze. miuxedavad amisa, unda
vaRiaroT, rom menejerebis rCeva-darigebebi yovelTvis ar aris warmatebuli
am miznis miRwevaSi. Tumca garkveuli progresi xSirad miiRweva rCevadarigebis micemis gziT, rodesac aseTi tipis moqmedeba Sesaferisia.
100
zogierT SemTxvevaSi, roca rCeva-darigebas ar mohyveba Sedegi, aucilebelia
sxva zomebis miReba, rogoricaa dasja an ganTavisufleba.
vinaidan menejers an supervaizers SeiZleba ar SeeZlos an dro ar
hqondes TanamSromelTa ufro meti piradi problemebis mosagvareblad, unda
iqnes SemuSavebuli sistema, Tu rogor unda daexmaron mrCevlebi
TanamSromlebs. zogjer problema iseT sferos miekuTvneba, romelzedac
zedamxedvels naklebi gavlena aqvs an saerTod ar SeuZlia gavlenis
moxdena. aseTia, magaliTad, saojaxo urTierTobebi. am SemTxvevaSi
sasurveli iqneba zedamxedvelma urCios, rom TanamSromelma mimarTos
kompetentur, profesional mrCevels. Cveulebriv adamianuri resursebis
departamenti valdebulia gagzavnos TanamSromlebi specialistebTan,
romlebic kompetenturni da licenzirebulni arian aseTi momsaxurebis
gansaxorcieleblad.
SromiTi urTierTobebis mamoZravebeli Zalebi
axseneT sityva “profkavSiri” da adamianTa umetesobas Seeqmneba
garkveuli Sexeduleba – dadebiTi an uaryofiTi _ aSS-is SromiTi
organizaciebis Sesaxeb. zogSi es sityva iwvevs profkavSirsa da
administracias Soris mouwesrigebeli SromiTi urTierTobebis asociacias,
rogoricaa: Seuracxyofebi, gaficvebi, piketireba, boikoti. sxvebisTvis ki es
sityva
warmoadgens
industriul
demokratias,
samarTlianobas,
SesaZleblobas, Tanaswor warmomadgenlobas. bevri profkavSirs aRiqvams,
rogorc menejerebsa da TanamSromlebs Soris Seqmnil mtrul urTierTobas.
sxvadasxva damokidebulebis miuxedavad, 1800-is Sua wlebidan
gaerTianebebi mniSvnelovan Zalas warmoadgenda, romelic ayalibebda
organizaciul praqtikas, kanonmdeblobas da politikur azrs SeerTebul
StatebSi.
dRes
profkavSirebi
isev
aqtualuria
organizaciis
produqtiulobaze, aSS-is kompetenciaze, SromiTi kanonis ganviTarebasa da
adamianuri resursebis strategiebsa da praqtikebze maTi gavlenis gamo.
biznesorganizaciebis msgavsad, kavSirebsac cvlilebebi SeaqvT saqmianobasa
da eTikaSi. ufro metic, wlebis ganmavlobaSi wevrobis Sewyvetis Semdeg
kavSirebi isev aqtiurad asaqmeben arawarmomadgenlobiT TanamSromlebs.
magaliTad, “gaerTianebuli avtomuSakebi” aqtiurad asaqmeben TanamSromlebs
_ avtonawilebis momwodeblebs avtosawarmoebSi, romlebic funqcionirebs
samxreT StatebSi. 2002 wels TanamSromleTa momsaxurebis saerTaSoriso
kavSirma daasaqma cxra aTasi TanamSromeli “kaTolikuri jandacvis –
dasavleTis” kuTvnil oc saavadmyofoSi. AFL-CIO -m da erovnulma kavSirebma
miznad daisaxes dasaqmeba, rogorc mTavari prioriteti ocdameerTe
saukuneSi.
PprofkavSirebis
xangrZlivi
istoriis
miuxedavad,
SromiTi
urTierTobebis sirTuleebi ar aris cnobili mravali adamianisTvis. Ees
Tavi aRwers SromiTi urTierTobebis regulirebas mTavrobis mier, SromiTi
101
urTierTobebis
process,
SromiT
organizaciebSi
TanamSromelTa
gaerTianebis
mizezebs
da
aseve
ganixilavs
SromiTi
kavSirebis
struqturasa da xelmZRvanelobas. mniSvnelovania, rom Sromis samarTlis
Tanaxmad, roca damtkicebulia, rom profkavSirma molaparakeba unda
awarmoos wevrebTan, man unda warmoadginos isini yvela ganyofilebaSi
Tanabrad, mniSvneloba ara aqvs, romeli TanamSromeli rodis SeuerTda an
ganTavisuflda wevrobidan. am Tavis ukanasknel nawilSi Cven ganvixilavT
kontraqtis regulirebis mniSvnelovan sakiTxebs, kerZod, TanamSromelTa
saCivrebis mogvarebasa da arbitraJs. es Tavi aseve exeba SromiTi
organizaciebis Tanamedrove problemebs.
PprofkavSirebsa da sxva organizaciebs SeuZliaT mniSvnelovani
gavlena moaxdinon menejerTa SesaZleblobebze, warmarTon da akontrolon
adamianuri resursebis menejmentis sxvadasxva funqciebi. magaliTad,
profkavSiris
xelmZRvanelobis
debulebebma
SromiT
xelSekrulebaSi
SeiZleba gansazRvros, Tu vin SeirCeva samuSao dawinaurebisTvis an
treningis programebisTvis. anazRaurebis sakiTxi SeiZleba ganisazRvros
profkavSiris
molaparakebebiT,
an
kavSirebma
SeiZleba
wamoayenon
SezRudvebi xelmZRvanelobis mier TanamSromelTa Sefasebis meTodebTan
dakavSirebiT. mniSvnelovania, rom menejerebma kargad ician, rogor muSaoben
kavSirebi
orive
SemTxvevaSi
–
profkavSirebis
arsebobisas
anda
araprofkavSirul garemoSi. SromiTi urTierTobebis maregulirebeli
kompetenturi organosTvis mTlianad cnobilia es sakiTxi. daimaxsovreT,
SromiTi kanonmdeblobis ugulebelyofa ar warmoadgens dacvas, roca
menejerebi da zedamxedvelebi arRveven SromiT kanons. sanam ganagrZobdeT
kiTxvas, SeamowmeT Tqveni codna SromiTi urTierTobebis kanonis Sesaxeb da
upasuxeT kiTxvebs, romlebic mocemulia HRM 1-Si.
HRM 1
SeamowmeT Tqveni codna SromiTi urTierTobebis Sesaxeb
1. avtoSemkeTebelma
samuSaosTvis
mimarTa
avtomobilebiT
movaWre
kompanias. Mmas uari uTxres misi kavSiris wevrobis gamo. iyo Tu ara
damsaqmeblis moqmedeba samarTliani?
Ddiax ----ara ----2. dasaqmebis periodSi zedamxedvelebma hkiTxes calkeul TanamSromlebs
kavSirze maTi Sexedulebebis Sesaxeb. dasaSvebia Tu ara aseTi kiTxvis
dasma?
Ddiax ----ara ----3. roca kavSiris wevrebma daiwyes profkavSiris niSnebis tareba
samsaxurSi, xelmZRvanelobam brZaneba gasca moexsnaT isini. hqonda Tu
ara xelmZRvanelobas amis ufleba?
Ddiax ----ara ----4. dasaqmebis
periodSi
ufrosi
daTanxmda
(socialuri
Jestis
gasakeTeblad), rom TanamSromlebs uzrunvelyofda gamagrilebeli
sasmelebiT dResaswaulebze. moqmedebda Tu ara Ddamsaqmebeli kanonis
farglebSi?
Ddiax ----ara ----5. kompaniam gaanawila sxva kavSiris wevrebi im adgilSi, sadac
ganmcxadeblebi iyvnen kavSiris mxardamWerebi. iyo Tu ara ganawileba
samarTliani?
102
Ddiax ----ara ----6. kavSiris organizebis dros “Servo Pipe”-is mesakuTre dahpirda Tavis
TanamSromlebs
xelfasis
gazrdas,
Tu
isini
xmas
miscemdnen
konkretul gaerTianebas.
mesakuTres SeeZlo Tu ara mesakuTres
kanonierad am dapirebis micema TanamSromlebisTvis?
Ddiax ----ara ----7. TanamSromlebs aqvT ufleba wamoayenon ukanono SromiTi praqtikis
braldebebi TavianTi kavSiris winaaRmdeg.
Ddiax ----ara ----8. kavSiris
survili,
gaasaCivros
wevris
ukmayofileba,
romelic
xelmZRvanelobam gamoavlina, sruliad usafuZvloa. Uunda gaasaCivros
xelmZRvanelobam es saCivari Tu ara?
Ddiax ----ara ----9. jon grins, meqanikoss, muSaobis cudi monacemebi aqvs. xelmZRvanelobas
surs gaaTavisuflos igi; Tumca grini kavSiris mmarTvelia da
kompaniis
mimarT
kritikuladaa
ganwyobili.
aqvs
Tu
ara
xelmZRvanelobas
am
TanamSromlis
kanonierad
ganTavisuflebis
ufleba?
D
diax ----ara ----10. organizaciis kampaniis dros ofismenejerma gamoxata Zlieri
antiprofkavSiruli Sexedulebebi da profkavSiris moxeleebs uwoda
“banditebi”, “didi simyrale” da “radikalebis jgufi”. im TanamSromlebs,
romlebic
SeuerTdnen kavSirs, man uTxra, rom maT “TavianTi Tavi unda
akontrolon”. iyo Tu ara samarTliani menejeris komentari?
diax ----ara ----pasuxebi mocemulia Tavis boloSi.
SromiTi urTierTobebis regulireba mTavrobis mier
aSS-is SromiTi kanonmdeblobis ganviTarebas Tavisi safuZveli aqvs
amerikis socialur, ekonomikur da politikur garemoSi. zogadad Cven
SegviZlia vTqvaT, rom SromiTi moZraobis zrda Seesabameba SromiTi
kanonmdeblobis damtkicebas, msvlelobas da muSakTa SesaZleblobas,
wamoayenon TavianTi ekonomikuri moTxovnebi menejmentTan dakavSirebiT. 19201930-ian wlebSi miRebuli SromiTi kanonebi mxars uWerda SromiTi
organizaciebis stabilurobasa da ganviTarebas. radganac profkavSirebi
ufro da ufro Zlierdeba federaluri kanonebis Tanaxmad, SemuSavda
kanonmdebloba, raTa moegvarebina kavSiris darRvevebi da daecva kavSiris
wevrebis uflebebi profkavSiris araeTikuri saqmianobisagan. dResdReobiT
SromiTi urTierTobebis maregulirebeli kanonebi qmnian garemos, sadac
kavSirebsac da damsaqmeblebsac SeuZliaT Sesabamisi uflebebisa da
pasuxismgeblobebis gansazRvra. SromiTi urTierTobebis Sesaxeb codna
dagvexmareba
gavarkvioT,
Tu
rogoria
kavSirisa
da
menejmentis
urTierTobebi SeerTebul StatebSi. pirveli federaluri kanoni, romelic
exeboda SromiT urTierTobebs, iyo 1926 wlis rkinigzis SromiTi aqti. sxva
mTavari kanonebi, romlebic gavlenas axdenen SromiT urTierTobebze kerZo
seqtorSi, aris noris-la guardias aqti, vagneris aqti, taft-harTlis aqti,
da landrum-grifinis aqti.
103
rkinigzis SromiTi aqti
(RLA)
rkinigzis SromiTi aqtis (RLA) ZiriTadi mizania Tavidan aicilos
rkinigzasa da mis kavSirebs Soris warmoSobili davebiT gamowveuli
momsaxurebis Sewyveta. amis misaRwevad RLA Seicavs or ZiriTad princips
profkavSirisa da menejmentis davebis mosagvareblad. pirveli, erovnuli
Suamavlobis sabWo agvarebs molaparakebebis gamouval mdgomareobas
Suamavlobis da/an arbitraJis saSualebiT. sabWos aseve evaleba Caataros
faruli kenWisyra, raTa gansazRvros, surT Tu ara TanamSromlebs
gaerTianeba. meore, erovnuli rkinigzis mmarTveli sabWo muSaobs, raTa
gadaWras
saCivrebi
da
arbitraJis
davebi,
romlebic
warmoiSoba
xelSekrulebis moqmedebis periodSi.
noris-la guardias aqti
noris-la guardias aqti an 1932 wlis antiakrZalviTi aqti mkacrad
uzRudavs damsaqmeblebs iseTi brZanebis gacemis SesaZleblobas, romelic
ukrZalavs profkavSirs CaerTos mSvidobian piketirebaSi, boikotSi,
gaficvaSi an am tipis sxva RonisZiebebSi. aqamde federaluri sasamarTlos
brZanebebi efeqtur iaraRs warmoadgenda profkavSiris winaaRmdeg, radganac
isini kavSirebs aiZulebdnen an SeewyvitaT aseTi qmedebebi an gadaexadaT
jarima sasamarTlos upativcemlobis gamo. akrZalvebi SeiZleba mieniWos
jer kidev SromiTi davebis dros. sanam akrZalva gaicema, damsaqmeblebma
unda aCvenon, rom akrZalvis sisuste ufro did zians miayenebs
damsaqmeblebs, vidre profkavSirs. RLA-s msgavsad, es aqtic xels uwyobs
koleqtiur molaparakebebs da uzrunvelyofs SromiTi organizaciebis
arsebobas, Camoyalibebas da efeqtur muSaobas.
vagneris aqti
1935 wlis vagneris aqti (an SromiTi urTierTobebis erovnuli aqti)
aqamde yvelaze mniSvnelovan gavlenas axdenda kavSirisa da menejmentis
urTierTobebze. aman federaluri mTavrobis dacviTi Zalaufleba daayena
TanamSromelTa Zalisxmevis miRma, raTa koleqtiurad organizacia gauwion
da
molaparakebebi
awarmoon
TavianTi
arCeuli
warmomadgenlebis
saSualebiT.
vagneris aqtma Seqmna erovnuli SromiTi urTierTobebis sabWo (NLRB)
SeerTebul
StatebSi
SromiTi
urTierTobebis
dasaregulireblad.
miuxedavad imisa, rom es aqti Seicvala taft-harTlis aqtiT, misi ZiriTadi
debulebebis umetesoba, romlebic icavs muSakis molaparakebebis uflebebs,
ucvleli darCa. kanonis me-7 nawili icavs Semdeg uflebebs: TanamSromlebs
eqnebaT
TviTorganizebis,
Camoyalibebis,
gaerTianebis
an
SromiTi
organizaciebis daxmarebis ufleba, maT aseve eqnebaT ufleba koleqtiurad
awarmoon molaparakebebi TavianTi arCeuli warmomadgenlebis saSualebiT
da CaerTon SeTanxmebiT RonisZiebebSi koleqtiuri SeTanxmebebis an sxva
ormxrivi daxmarebis an dacvis miznisTvis. maT aseve eqnebaT ufleba Tavi
Seikavon nebismieri aseTi qmedebisgan. TanamSromlebs ar eZlevaT iseTi
ufleba, romelzedac SeiZleba gavlena moaxdinos SeTanxmebam, romelic
moiTxovs wevrobas SromiT organizaciaSi, rogorc muSaobis pirobas.
104
TanamSromlebisTvis me-7 nawilis uflebebis uzrunvelsayofad,
kongresma kanongareSed gamoacxada damsaqmebelTa specialuri praqtikebi,
romlebic uaryofda TanamSromelTa kanonis upiratesobas. aqtis me-8
nawilSi mocemulia xuTi ukanono SromiTi praqtika (ULPs), romlebic
qvemoTaa warmodgenili:
1.
me-7 nawiliT miniWebuli uflebebis gamoyenebaSi Careva, maTi
SezRudva, an TanamSromelTa iZuleba;
2. batonoba an Careva nebismieri SromiTi organizaciis CamoyalibebaSi
an marTvaSi, misi finansuri an sxvagvari mxardaWera;
3. diskriminireba daqiravebasTan an muSaobasTan, muSaobis pirobebTan
an vadasTan dakavSirebiT, ise rom xeli Seuwyos an SeuSalos SromiT
organizaciaSi wevrobas;
4. ganTavisufleba
an
sxvagvari
diskriminacia
TanamSromlebis
winaaRmdeg imis gamo, rom isini ayeneben braldebebs an aZleven
Cvenebas am aqtis Tanaxmad;
5. TanamSromelTa
saTanadod
arCeul
warmomadgenlebTan
erTad
koleqtiuri molaparakebebis warmoebis uaryofa.
damsaqmeblebi yovel wels mraval ULP-s sCadian Segnebulad an
gaucnobiereblad. magaliTad, 2000 fiskalur wels, 29.188 usamarTlo
SromiTi SemTxveva (maqinacia) iqna wardgenili NLRB-s winaSe. damsaqmebelTa
damtkicebuli darRvevebi gamovlinda 22.295 SemTxvevaSi. damsaqmeblebis
winaaRmdeg braldebebis umravlesoba exeba usamarTlo ganTavisuflebas an
sxva diskriminacias TanamSromlebis mimarT. aseve aucilebelia, rom yvela
donis menejerebma miiRon codna TanamSromelTa uflebebisa da ukanono
SromiTi qmedebebis Sesaxeb. roca xelmZRvaneloba arRvevs TanamSromelTa
uflebebs, NLRB-s SeuZlia “miiRos saTanado zomebi, ganaxorcielos
qmedebebi, maT Soris _ SromiTi uflebebis aRdgena anazRaurebiT an mis
gareSe, agreTve gamoiyenos aqtis strategiebi da gaaerTianos SerCeuli
TanamSromlebi”. 2000 wels NLRB-m damsaqmeblebs TanamSromlebisTvis
gadaaxdevina 107.1 milioni dolari aqtis darRvevebis gamo.
SromiTi urTierTobebis erovnuli sabWo
uwyeba, romelic pasuxismgebelia vagneris aqtis marTvasa da dacvaze,
aris SromiTi urTierTobebis erovnuli sabWo. is emsaxureba saxelmwifo
interess, rom Seamciros profkavSirsa da menejments Soris uTanxmoebiT
gamowveuli warmoebis an momsaxurebis Sewyvetis faqtebi. am miznis
misaRwevad NLRB-s ori ZiriTadi valdebuleba ekisreba: (1) faruli
kenWisyris Catareba imis gamosavlenad, surs Tu ara TanamSromels iyos
kavSiris warmomadgeneli da (2) Tavidan aicilos an aRmofxvras ukanono
SromiTi qmedebebi. NLRB ar moqmedebs sakuTari iniciativiT romelime
funqciaSi. is ganixilavs mxolod im ukanono SromiTi qmedebebis
braldebebsa da saCivrebs, romlebic SeiZleba Semotanil iqnes mis
romelime raionul samsaxurSi an sxva patara ganyofilebaSi.
taft-harTlis aqti
105
radganac kavSirebis molaparakebebis uflebamosileba mniSvnelovnad
gaizarda vagneris aqtis Semdeg, kavSirebze garkveuli SezRudvebi
aucilebeli gaxda. 1947 wlis taft-harTlis aqtma (igi cnobilia agreTve,
rogorc profkavSirisa da menejmentis aqti) gansazRvra kavSiris ukanono
qmedebebi (maqinaciebi). Ees qmedebebia:
1. TanamSromelTa SezRudva an iZuleba TavianTi uflebebis gamoyenebaSi;
2. damsaqmeblebis SezRudva an iZuleba mxareebis SerCevaSi, raTa
molaparakebebi awarmoon maT sasargeblod;
3. damsaqmebelTa darwmuneba, moaxdinon diskriminacia maTi romelime
TanamSromlis winaaRmdeg;
4. damsaqmebelTan erTad koleqtiur SeTanxmebaze uaris Tqma;
5. boikotebsa da iurisdiqciul davebSi monawileoba;
6. mcdeloba damsaqmeblisgan moipovon aRiareba, roca sxva kavSiri ukve
warmoadgens damtkicebul warmomadgenlobas;
7. gadaWarbebuli sawevro gadasaxadebisa da Senatanebis braldeba;
8. “frTovani” praqtikebi, romlebic moiTxovs xelfasis gadaxdas
Seusrulebeli momsaxurebisTvis.
mokled rom vTqvaT, tafti-harTlis aqtis miRebiT kongresma moawesriga
kavSirisa da administraciis uflebebi da movaleobebi koleqtiuri
SeTanxmebebis asparezze; da kanonsac aRar akritikebdnen, rogorc
kavSirebis mxardamWerebi.
federaluri Suamdgomloba da momrigebeli samsaxuri
meore msoflio omis Semdeg gaficvebis gaxSirebis gamo tafti-harTlis
aqtma Seqmna federaluri Suamdgomloba da Semrigebluri samsaxuri (FMCS)
davebis mosagvareblad. am damoukidebeli uwyebis funqciaa daexmaros
samuSao Zalasa da xelmZRvanelobas miaRwion koleqtiur SeTanxmebebs
Suamavlobis an Semrigebluri procesebis saSualebiT. es funqciebi iyenebs
neitralur mxares, romelic exmareba SeTanxmebis miRwevaSi. NLRB-sgan
gansxvavebiT, FMCS-s ara aqvs samarTaldamcavi uflebebi da arc SeuZlia
vinmes devnis ganxorcieleba. mxareebma gamouvali mdgomareobis Sesaxeb
molaparakebebis dros unda airCion momsaxureba. Tu FMCS-s mimarTaven
davis mosagvareblad, procesSi misma Carevam SeiZleba mniSvnelovnad
gaaumjobesos TanamSromelTa da menejmentis urTierTobebi maSin, roca is
uzrunvelyofs
meqanizms
koleqtiuri
SeTanxmebis
SemoTavazebebis
gacvlisTvis. komisar ron kolotas Tanaxmad, uwyeba FMCS, Phoenix, Arizona,
yovel wels Suamavlobs 6-7 aTas davas. am bolo wlebSi FMCS mniSvnelovan
rols TamaSobs problemebis mogvarebaSi kavSirgabmulobis, sportis,
ganaTlebisa da trasportirebis mrewvelobis sferoSi.
landrum-grifinis aqti
1959 wels kongresma miiRo landrum-grifinis aqti (igi cnobilia
agreTve, rogorc muSaTa da xelmZRvanelobis angariSisa da gamoxatvis
aqti), raTa daecva kavSiris wevrTa uflebebi da xeli SeeSala
damsaqmeblebisa da kavSiris moxeleebis reketirebisa da sxva unamuso
qmedebebisTvis. landrum-grifinis aqtis erT-erTi yvelaze mniSvnelovani
106
debuleba aris profkavSiris wevrebis uflebebis kanonproeqti, romelic
moiTxovs, rom kavSiris yovel wevrs unda mieniWos ufleba (1) daasaxelos
kandidatebi kavSiris samsaxurisTvis, (2) xma misces kavSiris arCevnebsa da
referendumebSi, (3) daeswros kavSiris Sexvedrebs da (4) monawileoba miiRos
kavSiris SexvedrebSi da mxari dauWiros kavSiris saqmianobas. kavSiris
wevrebs aseve eniWebaT ufleba Seamowmon kavSiris angariSebi da Canawerebi,
raTa daazuston kavSiris angariSebis informacia da wamoayenon saCivari
kavSiris moxelis winaaRmdeg saWiroebis SemTxvevaSi kavSiris Tanxebis
dasacavad. ufro metic, aqtis Tanaxmad kavSirebs moeTxovebaT yovel wels
warudginon finansuri angariSi Sromis mdivans, da damsaqmeblebma unda
uCvenon yvela xarji, romelic gaweul iqna maTi SeTanxmebebis uflebebis
gamoyenebaSi.
SromiTi urTierTobebis procesi
TanamSromlebs
SeuZliaT
isargeblon
Sesabamisi
mcire
uflebamosilebiT xelmZRvanelobasTan urTierTobis dros. ra Tqma unda,
Tu maT sjeraT, rom maT samarTlianad ar eqcevian, maSin erovnuli SromiTi
urTierTobebis
aqtis
me-7
nawili
aniWebs
maT
kanonier
uflebas
koleqtiurad SeaTanxmon da moagvaron sakiTxi xelmZRvanelobasTan. roca
TanamSromlebi mimarTaven am RonisZiebas, iwyeba SromiTi urTierTobebis
procesi. SromiTi urTierTobebis procesi Sedgeba oTxi movlenis logikuri
Tanamimdevrobisgan: (1) muSakebs surT koleqtiuri warmomadgenloba; (2)
kavSiri iwyebs organizebis kampanias; (3) koleqtiuri molaparakebebi midis
kontraqtamde da (4) ganixileba kontraqti. kanonebi da administraciuli
gadawyvetilebebi gavlenas axdenen yovel calkeul movlenaze specialuri
privilegiebis miniWebiT an gansazRvruli SezRudvebis dawesebiT muSakebze,
menejerebsa da kavSiris moxeleebze.
SromiTi urTierTobebis procesi
xelmZRvaneloba da misi warmoadgenlebi
miznebi da amocanebi
adamianuri resursebis yoveldRiuri saqmianoba
(1) muSakebs surT koleqtiuri
warmomadgenloba
(2) kavSiri iwyebs
organizebis kampanias
(3) koleqtiuri molaparakebebi
107
midis kontraqtamde
(4) ganixileba kontraqti
SromiTi klasi da misi warmomadgenlebi
kanonebi da debulebebi
ratom erTiandebian TanamSromlebi
kvlevebis umetesoba imis Sesaxeb, Tu ratom erTiandebian
TanamSromlebi, eyrdnoba cisfersayeloiani muSakebis gamokvlevebs kerZo
seqtorSi. es gamokvlevebi zogadad gviCvenebs, rom TanamSromlebi
erTiandebian ekonomikuri moTxovnis, menejeruli qmedebiT saerTo
ukmayofilebis gamo, da/an es gaerTianeba aris saSualeba socialuri da
iuridiuli
moTxovnebis
Sesasruleblad.
mokled
rom
vTqvaT,
TanamSromlebi gaerTianebaSi xedaven SesaZleblobas, rom miaRwion
Sedegebs, romlis miRwevac calke ar SeuZliaT.
unda aRiniSnos, rom zogierTi TanamSromeli uerTdeba kavSirs
samsaxuris SromiTi xelSekrulebis debulebebis gamo. im StatebSi, sadac
es dasaSvebia, “profkavSiris samsaxuri” aris SromiTi xelSekrulebis
debuleba,
romelic
moiTxovs
TanamSromlebisgan
profkavSirTan
SeerTebas, rogorc muSaobis pirobas. maSinac ki, roca iZulebiT xdeba
gaerTianeba, mravali TanamSromeli eTanxmeba gaerTianebis cnebas da
isini kavSiris wevrebi xdebian.
ekonomikuri moTxovnebi
K
SeZlebs Tu ara profkavSiri gaxdes molaparakebebis saSualeba
TanamSromlebis jgufisTvis, damokidebulia TanamSromelTa ukmayofilebis
xarisxze, muSaobis pirobebze. is aseve damokidebuli iqneba imaze,
TanamSromlebi aRiareben Tu ara, rom profkavSiris daxmareba efeqturi
iqneba am pirobebis gaumjobesebaSi. ukmayofileba xelfasTan, samuSao
pirobebTan dakavSirebiT warmoSobs yvelaze mwvave mizezs kavSirSi
gaerTianebisTvis. am sakiTxs mudmivad adastureben gamokvlevebi, romlebic
gviCveneben, rom kavSiris wevrebsac da arawevrebsac aqvT profkavSiris
saqmianobis udidesi molodini koleqtiuri molaparakebebis (“arsebobis
saSualebis”) sakiTxebTan dakavSirebiT. es warmoadgens xelfasebisa da
daxmarebebis tradiciul sakiTxebs, razedac dafuZnebulia profkavSirebi.
uTanxmoeba xelmZRvanelobasTan
TanamSromlebi SeiZleba gaerTiandnen, roca isini acnobiereben, rom
menejeruli qmedebebi dawinaurebasTan, gadasvlebTan, davalebebTan an sxva
samsaxurebriv strategiebTan dakavSirebiT usamarTlod an mikerZoebulad
xorcieldeba. TanamSromlebi menejerebis mier gamoxatul favoritizms
asaxeleben,
rogorc
kavSirebSi
gaerTianebis
mTavar
mizezs.
es
108
gansakuTrebiT
gamarTlebulia,
roca
favoritizmi
exeba
adamianuri
resursebis disciplinis, dawinaurebisa da xelfasebis gazrdis sferoebs.
Cven
aRvniSneT,
rom
dRes
TanamSromlebi
ukeTesad
arian
informirebulni, vidre warsulSi da isini xSirad gamoTqvamen survils, rom
ufro metad CaerTon samsaxurebrivi gadawyvetilebebis miRebaSi.
me-3 Tavi ganixilavs TanamSromelTa uflebamosilebis cnebas da aSuqebs
TanamSromelTa CarTvis sxvadasxvagvar xerxebs. roca damsaqmeblebi ver
aZleven
TanamSromlebs
SesaZleblobas
monawileoba
miiRon
gadawyvetilebebis miRebaSi, romlebic gavlenas axdenen maT keTildReobaze,
aman SeiZleba xeli Seuwyos profkavSirSi gaerTianebas. Rrmad swamT, rom
erT-erTi mizezi, ris gamoc menejerebi iwyeben TanamSromelTa CarTvis
programebs da mxars uWeren TavanT TanamSromlebs, aris is, rom Tavidan
aicilon
koleqtiuri
qmedeba
TanamSromlebis
mier.
magaliTad,
xelmZRvaneloba iyenebs naxevargamtarebis, \finansur da avtoindustriebSi
TanamSromlobiT
programebSi
TanamSromlebis
CarTvas,
rogorc
gaerTianebis xelisSemSleli saSualebas. nisanis sawarmoSi avtomuSakebis
gaerTianebis organizebis erT-erTi mcdelobis dros kavSirma waago
arCevnebi, radgan TanamSromlebi kmayofilni iyvnen, rom monawileoba miiRes
gadawyvetilebis miRebaSi, risi saSualebac nisanis xelmZRvanelobis
monawileobiTma stilma misca maT.
socialuri da saerTo problemebi
TanamSromlebi, romelTa moTxovnebi aRiarebisa da socialuri
gaerTianebis Sesaxeb ar kmayofildeba, SeiZleba SeuerTdnen profkavSirebs
TavianTi moTxovnebis dasakmayofileblad. kavSiris saSualebiT maT aqvT
SesaZlebloba mxarSi amoudgenen sxva TanamSromlebs, romelTac aqvT
msgavsi survilebi, interesebi, problemebi da saCivrebi. PprofkavSirSi
gaerTianeba aseve SesaZleblobas aZlevs maT gamoavlinon marTvis
(liderobis)
niWi.
daskvniT
analizSi,
Tu
ramdenad
acnobiereben
TanamSromlebi, rom kavSirSi gaerTianebis upiratesoba gadawonis wevrobis
xarjebs, es aris gadamwyveti faqtori.
Kkampaniebis organizeba
roca TanamSromels surs gaerTianeba, formaluri organizebis
kampania SeiZleba daiwyos kavSiris organizatorma an TanamSromlebma,
romlebic damoukideblad moqmedeben. cnobili Sexedulebis sapirispirod,
organizebis kampaniebis umravlesobas iwyeben TanamSromlebi da ara
kavSiris organizatorebi. did erovnul kavSirebs, rogoricaa “United Auto
Workers”, “United Brotherhood of Carpenters”, “United Steelworkers, “Teamsters”, aqvT
formaluri organizebis ganyofilebebi, romelTa mizania gansazRvron
organizebis SesaZleblobebi da daiwyon organizebis kampaniebi.
Oorganizebis etapebi
teri moserma, “Teamster Local 104”-is yofilma prezidentma, erTxel
ganacxada, rom organizebis tipur kampanias mohyveba progresuli etapebis
mTeli
seriebi,
ramac
SeiZleba
migviyvanos
TanamSromlis
109
warmomadgenlobamde.
organizebis
procesi,
rogorc
moseri
Cveulebriv moicavs Semdeg etapebs:
1. TanamSromlisa da profkavSiris dakavSireba-kontaqti;
2. organizaciis pirveli Sexvedra;
3. organizaciis Sida komitetis Camoyalibeba;
4. saarCevno moTxovna da xmis micemis momzadeba;
5. molaparakebebi kontraqtis Sesaxeb.
aRwers,
etapi 1. Ppirveli nabiji iwyeba, roca TanamSromlebi da kavSiris
oficialuri pirebi ukavSirdebian erTmaneTs, raTa gaarkvion gaerTianebis
SesaZlebloba. Aam ganxilvebis periodSi TanamSromlebi gamoikvleven
SromiTi warmomadgenlobis upiratesobebs da kavSiris oficialuri pirebi
daiwyeben
informaciis
mogrovebas
TanamSromelTa
moTxovnebis,
problemebisa da saCivrebis Sesaxeb. SromiTi organizatorebi aseve moiZieben
specialur
informacias
damsaqmeblis
finansuri
mdgomareobis,
zedamxedvelobis stilis,
organizaciuli strategiisa da praqtikis
Sesaxeb.
TanamSromelTa
mxardaWeris
mosapoveblad
SromiTma
organizatorebma unda Seqmnan SemTxveva damsaqmeblis winaaRmdeg da
kavSiris sasargeblod.
etapi 2. radganac Oorganizebis kampania agrovebs mamoZravebel Zalas,
organizatori
dagegmavs
kavSiris
pirvel
Sexvedras
ufro
meti
mxardamWerebis mosazidad. organizatori gamoiyenebs pirveli etapis dros
Segrovil informacias, raTa daakmayofilos TanamSromelTa moTxovnebi da
auxsnas, Tu rogor SeZlebs kavSiri am miznebis ganxorcielebas.
organizaciuli Sexvedris kidev or damatebiT mizans warmoadgens: (1) im
TanamSromlebis gansazRvra, romlebic daexmarebian organizators kampaniis
warmarTvaSi da (2) kavSiris damyareba yvela TanamSromelTan.
etapi 3. Oorganizebis procesSi mesame mniSvnelovan etaps warmoadgens Sida
organizebis
komitetis
Camoyalibeba.
komiteti
Sedgeba
im
TanamSromlebisgan, romelTac surT uxelmZRvanelon kampanias. komitetis
funqciaa daainteresos sxva TanamSromlebi profkavSirSi gaerTianebiT da
misi kampaniis mxardaWeriT. Kkomitetis mTavar amocanas warmoadgens, rom
TanamSromlebma xeli moaweron uflebamosilebis baraTs (gancxadebas) (ix.
HRM 2), romliTac isini survils gamoxataven iyvnen SromiTi kavSiris
warmomadgenlebi koleqtiuri SeTanxmebebis procesSi damsaqmebelTan erTad.
xelmowerili uflebamosilebis baraTebis ricxvi gviCvenebs SromiTi
kavSiris potenciur Zalas. TanamSromelTa sul mcire 30 procentma xeli
unda moaweros uflebamosilebis baraTs, sanam SromiTi urTierTobebis
erovnuli sabWo warmomadgenlobiT arCevnebs Caatarebs.
etapi 4. Tu TanamSromelTa sakmarisi raodenoba mxars dauWers kavSirs,
organizatori Seecdeba mTavrobis mier dafinansebuli arCevnebis Catarebas.
warmomadgenlobiTi Txovna waredgineba NLRB-s, rom Catardes arCevnebi
faruli kenWisyriT, raTa gamovavlinoT, TanamSromlebs namdvilad surT Tu
ara gaerTianeba. arCevnebamde farTo sajaro kampania mimarTuli iqneba
TanamSromlebis mimarT, rom maTi
mxardaWera da xmebi moipovos
arCevnebisTvis. Ees aris daZabuli emociebis periodi TanamSromlebisTvis,
SromiTi organizaciisa da damsaqmeblisTvis.
etapi 5. kavSiris organizeba mTavrdeba, roca kavSiri gaimarjvebs arCevnebSi.
NLRB “daamtkicebs” kavSirs, rogorc TanamSromelTa kanonier momrigebel
110
warmomadgenels. Dda axla daiwyeba kontraqtze molaparakebebi; es
molaparakebebi warmoadgens kidev erT brZolas kavSirsa da damsaqmebels
Soris. Mmolaparakebebis periodSi TiToeuli mxare Seecdeba muSaobis
pirobebi miusadagos Tavis Tanamdebobas. Sida organizebis komitetis
wevrebi
da kavSiris organizatori Seecdebian miaRwion TanamSromelTa
pirvel SeTanxmebas. daaxloebiT oTxi kavSiris kampaniidan erT kavSirs ar
SeuZlia uzrunvelyos pirveli SeTanxmeba warmomadgenlobiTi arCevnebis
mogebis Semdeg. Tu kavSiri ver miaRwevs SeTanaxmebas arCevnebis mogebis
Semdeg erTi wlis manZilze, maSin taft-harTlis aqti nebas aZlevs
TanamSromlebs xma ar miscen NLRB-s “daudasturebeli” arCevnebis
saSualebiT.
Oorganizebis aqtiuri taqtika
maSin,
roca
organizebis
xuTi
etapi
warmoadgens
kavSiris
dakompleqtebis tradiciul meTods, SromiTi moZraoba gaxda ufro aqtiuri
da SemoqmedebiTi Tavisi organizebis taqtikaSi. kavSirebi Sokirebulni
iyvnen
am
“revoluciuri”
organizebis
strategiis
SemuSavebiT
da
cdilobdnen, rom aenazRaurebinaT wevrebi Semcirebis mere da winaaRmdegoba
gaewiaT damsaqmeblis antikavSiruli kampaniisTvis (orive sakiTxi ganixileba
mogvianebiT). “gacocxlebuli” SromiTi moZraobis dRis wesrigis misaRwevad,
kavSirebi iyeneben organizaciis Semdeg saSualebebs (sxvadasxva xarisxiT):
1. politikuri Careva. kavSirebi ufro SerCeviT uWers mxars saxelmwifo
moxeleebs, romlebic kavSiris Tanxebs
aZleven kandidatebs,
romlebic
specialurad
hpirdebian
mxardaWeras
SromiTi
kanonmdeblobisTvis. sawinaaRmdegod, kavSirebi apireben “uxeSad
mopyrobas” policielebis mimarT, romlebic ebrZvian antikavSiris
mimarTulebebs. erT-erTi kavSiris moxelis Tanaxmad, organizebuli
Sroma moiTxovs “quCis sicxis” warmoSobas politikuri brZolebis
dros.
“damarileba”. kavSiris organizatorebi dasaqmebisTvis
2. kavSiris
mimarTaven im kompanias, romelic miznad isaxavs organizebas,
Cveulebriv, araprofkavSiruli struqturis firmas. daqiravebis Semdeg
es
organizatorebi
aqtiurad
muSaoben
sxva
TanamSromlebis
gaerTianebisTvis. 1995 wels aSS-is uzenaesma sasamarTlom, “NLRB V
Town and Country Electric” kompaniis SemTxvevaSi, ganacxada, rom
damsaqmeblebs
ar
SeuZliaT
diskriminaciis
ganxorcieleba
daqiravebasTan an dasaqmebis sxva pirobebTan dakavSirebiT. menejerebis
realuri rqa, damarilebis kampaniebi warmatebuli iyo Cveni eris
regionebis zrdaSi.
3. Oorganizatoris treningi. Cveulebriv, organizebas samuSaoa drois
naxevari sWirdeba. dRes AFL-CIO-s organizebis instituti aqtiurad
amzadebs profesionali
organizatorebis axal Taobas. amJamad maT
mizans 1.000 axali organizatoris gadamzadeba warmoadgens. agreTve
AFL-CIO-m mosTxova adgilobriv kavSirebs adgilobrivi samsaxuris
wevrebis sruli mobilizeba moexdinaT, dakompleqtebaze adgilobrivi
Tanxebis 30 procenti daixarja.
111
4. saerTo kampaniebi. kavSirebma SeiZleba gadmoibiron politikuri an
sazogadoebrivi jgufebi samizne kompaniis produqtebis boikotisTvis.
sxva taqtika moicavs sagazeTo gamocemebs, romlebic akritikeben
kompaniis
konkretul
gadawyvetilebebs;
braldebebs
uyeneben
administraciul uwyebebs, rogoricaa “OSHA”, Sromis departamenti da
NLRB, da aiZuleben organizaciis finansur institucias SeaCeron
sesxebi an moiTxovon gadasaxadebi. Aam bolo strategiis dros, Sromis
kavSirebma TxovniT mimarTes fasiani qaRaldebisa da birJis komisias,
raTa gamoekvlia, ratom ver awvdian kompaniebi mniSvnelovan finansur
informacias aqcionerebs. 2002 wels wyalsadenis SemkeTeblebis
gaerTianebulma asociaciam waradgina mewiles gadawyvetileba volt
disneis kompaniaSi Tavisi da sami sxva kavSiris saxeliT, romlebic
floben disneis aqciebs – 93 milion dolars. maT mouwodes kompanias
winadadebiT
Seewyvita
sakonsultacio
samuSaos
micema
misi
auditorisTvis _ “fraisvoTahauskooperisTvis”.
5. sainformacio teqnologia. Eelfosta da interneti ufro da ufro
swrafad
xdebian
kavSiris
efeqturi
saSualebebi.
internetiT
TanamSromlebs xeli miuwvdebaT calkeuli kavSirebis vebgverdebTan,
kavSiris wevrobis msurvelTa gancxadebebTan da a. S. “informaciuli
kavSirebi” cdiloben kompiuteris teqnologia gamoiyenon organizebis
saqmianobis yvela aspeqtSi.
HRM 2
gaerTianebuli kvebisa da komerciuli muSakebi
saerTaSoriso kavSiris uflebamosilebis baraTi
gaerTianebuli kvebisa da komerciuli muSakebis saerTaSoriso kavSiri
uflebamosileba warmomadgenlobisTvis
me uflebamosilebas vaniWeb gaerTianebuli kvebisa da komerciuli muSakebis
saerTaSoriso kavSirs _ AFL-CIO-CLC, an mis adgilobriv kavSirs (kavSirebs)
iyos Cemi warmomadgeneli koleqtiuri SeTanxmebebisTvis.
112
__________________________________________________________________
(dabeWdili saxeli)
(TariRi)
____________________________________
_____________________
(xelmowera)
(saxlis telefonis nomeri)
__________________________________________________________________
(misamarTi)
(qalaqi)
(qveyana)
(safosto kodi)
_________________________________________________________________
(damsaqmeblis saxelwodeba)
(misamarTi)
______________________
______________________
_____________
(daqiravebis TariRi) (Sesasrulebeli samuSaos saxeoba) (ganyofileba)
______________
(saaTebi)
_______________
(dasvenebis dReebi)
dRis cvla ----- Ramis cvla ---- sruli ganakveTi----- naxevari ganakveTi --miiRebT monawileobas organizebis komitetSi?
Ddiax -------
ara -------
damsaqmeblis strategiebi gaerTianebis winaaRmdeg
damsaqmeblebi iyeneben ori mimarTulebis kampanias gaerTianebis
winaaRmdeg sabrZolvelad. Ppirvel mimarTulebis SemTxvevaSi, roca
SesaZlebeli iqneba, damsaqmeblebi aqcents gaakeTeben TanamSromelsa da
xelmZRvanelobas Soris sasurvel urTierTobaze, rac maT hqondaT
warsulSi
kavSiris
gareSe.
xelmZRvanelobam
SeiZleba
gamoyos
is
upiratesobebi xelfasebSi, daxmarebaSi an samuSao pirobebSi, rac maT aqvT
im
organizaciebTan
SedarebiT,
romlebic
ukve
gaerTianebulia
profkavSirSi. xelmZRvanelobam SeiZleba Seaxsenos TanamSromels: “Tqven
gaqvT ufleba gaerTiandeT kavSirSi, Tumca Tqven aseve gaqvT ufleba ar
SeuerTdeT da pirdapir iTanamSromloT organizaciasTan garedan Carevis
gareSe.”
kampaniis meore mimarTulebis gamoyenebisas damsaqmeblebi xazs usvamen
gaerTianebis nebismier arasasurvel aspeqts, maT Soris gaficvebs, kavSiris
sawevro Senatanebis gadaxdasa da specialur Sefasebebs, wevrebis kanonieri
uflebebis darRvevis sajarod gamocxadebas, kampaniis procesSi kavSiris
mier gakeTebul nebismier cru dapirebas. xelmZRvanelobam aseve SeiZleba
gamoiyenos mTavrobis statistika, raTa aCvenos, rom kavSirebi sCadian
mraval SromiT maqinacias. magaliTad, 7.052 ukanono SromiTi SemTxveva
daabrales kavSirebs 2000 wels; umetesobam (5.052) daadastura ukanono
SezRudva da TanamSromelTa iZuleba. Ddamsaqmeblebma SeiZleba wamoiwyon
kanonieri qmedeba, rom profkavSiris wevrebi da/an maTi liderebi CaerTon
nebismier ukanono SromiT maqinaciaSi organizebis procesSi.
Taft-harTlis
aqtiT
daSvebuli
SezRudvebis
farglebSi
xelmZRvanelobas
SeuZlia
gamoxatos
Tavisi
Sexedulebebi
kavSiris
warmomadgenlis uaryofiTi mxareebis Sesaxeb. Tumca kavSiris kampaniisaTvis
winaaRmdegobis gawevis dros menejerebi ar unda daemuqron TanamSromlebs
samsaxuris dakargviT an sxva samsaxurebrivi SeRavaTebis SemcirebiT an
dakargviT, imis gamo, rom isini mxars uWeren gaerTianebas. xelmZRvanelobas
113
ar SeuZlia SesTavazos TanamSromels axali, gaumjobesebuli pirobebi an
maRali xelfasebi, raTa mxari dauWiron “araprofkavSirs”. HRM 3-Si
warmodgenilia zogierTi RonisZieba, romelic menejerebi an zedamxedvelebi
ar unda Caerion.
HRM 3
D damsaqmeblis “akrZalvebi” profkavSiris organizebis kampaniis periodSi
kavSiris organizeba emociurad datvirTulia movlenebiT. ufro metic,
Sromis kanoni,
NLRB-s gadawyvetilebebi da sasamarTlos dadgenilebebi
did gavlenas axdens xelmZRvanelobisa da kavSiris warmomadgenlebis
qcevasa
da
moqmedebebze.
organizebis
kampaniis
msvlelobis
dros
menejerebma da zedamxedvelebma Tavidan unda aicilon Semdegi moqmedebebi:
• kavSiris Sexvedrebze daswreba, jaSuSoba TanamSromlisa da kavSiris
Sekrebebze, an TanamSromlis dakiTxva kavSiris Sexvedris Sinaarsis
gasagebad;
• kiTxvebis
dasma
TanamSromlebisaTvis
profkavSirisadmi
maTi
damokidebulebebis Sesaxeb, kerZod, vis miscemen isini xmas kavSiris
arCevnebSi;
• TanamSromlebisadmi damuqreba an maTi ganTavisufleba kavSirisaTvis
mxardaWeris an pozitiuri Sexedulebebis gamo;
• TanamSromelTa samuSao pirobebis Secvla imis gamo, rom
isini
aqtiurad muSaoben kavSirebisTvis an ubralod mxars uWeren maT
ideebs;
• TanamSromelTa saxelebis, misamarTebis da telefonis nomrebis
miwodeba kavSiris warmomadgenlebisTvis;
• DsamuSao pirobebis gaumjobesebis dapireba TanamSromlebisTvis
(xelfasis gazrda, privilegiebis micema da a.S.), Tu isini xmas
miscemen profkavSiris winaaRmdeg;
• kavSiris uflebamosilebis baraTebis miReba an kavSiris mimarTvebis
ganxilva,
radganac
TanamSromelTa
saxelebi
mocemulia
am
dokumentebSi
rogor erTiandebian TanamSromlebi profkavSirebSi
TanamSromlebi warmoadgenen koleqtiuri SeTanxmebebis jgufs, rac
unda gaformdes SromiTi xelSekrulebiT. NLRB gansazRvravs SeTanxmebebis
jgufs, rogorc ori an meti iseTi TanamSromlisgan Semdgar jgufs,
romelTac aqvT saerTo interesebi da pirobebi da SeiZleba koleqtiuri
SeTanxmebiT gaerTiandnen saerTi miznebis misaRwevad. Tu TanamSromeli da
profkavSiri ver Tanxmdebian, Tu vin unda Sevides SeTanxmebebis jgufSi,
Sesabamisi koleqtiuri ganxilvis jgufs gansazRvravs NLRB saerTo
interesebis safuZvelze (rogoricaa xelfasi, samuSao movaleobebi an
treningi). magaliTad, saavadmyofoebSi NLRB-m Camoayaliba garkveuli
jgufebi eqTnebisTvis, meqanikosebisTvis, eqimebisTvis, SemkeTeblebisTvis,
114
ofisis teqnikuri personalisTvis, yvela sxva araprofesionalisa da dacvis
TanamSromlebisTvis.
NLRB-s warmomadgenlobiTi arCevnebi
Tu TanamSromelTa 30 procenti Caewereba koleqtiuri SeTanxmebebis
jgufSi, profkavSiri TxovniT mimarTavs NLRB-s arCevnebisTvis. mimarTvis
iniciativa _ Caataros warmomadgenlobiTi arCevnebi _ Cveulebriv
profkavSirs
ekuTvnis,
garkveuli
garemoebebis
Tanaxmad,
Tumca
damsaqmeblebsac aqvT ufleba mimarTon mas (ix. HRM 4). arCevnebamde NLRB
gamarTavs winasaarCevno ganxilvas (saqmis mosmenas) damsaqmeblebTan da
profkavSirTan, kavSirebTan erTad TanamSromlebis warmosadgenad. Aam
Sexvedraze ramdenime mniSvnelovani sakiTxi ganixileba, maT Soris
uflebamosilebis baraTebis dadastureba, NLRB-s iurisdiqciis damtkiceba
arCevnebis Casatareblad, koleqtiuri SeTanxmebebis jgufis Camoyalibeba,
arCevnebis TariRi, xmis micemis forma biuletenebze. Bbiuletenze
mocemulia im profkavSirebis saxelebi, romlebic cdiloben aRiarebis
mopovebas; biuleteni aseve gvaZlevs saSualebas avirCioT “araprofkavSiri”.
arCevnebis Catarebis Semdeg gamarjvebuli mxare gamovlindeba
realuri xmebis raodenobaze dayrdnobiT, da ara koleqtiuri SeTanxmebebis
jgufis wevrebis raodenobis mixedviT. magaliTad, ganvixiloT koleqtiuri
molaparakebebis jgufi XYZ korporaciaSi, romelic 100 TanamSromlisgan
Sedgeba, magram mxolod 27 TanamSromelma misca xma arCevnebSi. kavSiri,
romelmac 14 dadebiTi xma miiRo 27 xmidan (umravlesoba), gamocxaddeba
gamarjvebulad, da profkavSiri damtkicdeba yvela (100) TanamSromlisTvis.
kanonis
mixedviT
kavSirs
mieniWeba
eqskluziuri
warmomadgenloba
molaparakebebis jgufis yvela TanamSromlisTvis. prof-kavSirs daamtkicebs
NLRB, rogorc molaparakebiTi saSualeba, sul mcire erTi wlis vadiT, an
SromiTi xelSekrulebis moqmedebis vadiT. kavSiris damtkicebis Semdeg
damsaqmebeli
valdebulia
daiwyos
molaparakebebi
SromiTi
xelSekrulebisTvis.
SromiT
urTierTobebSi
mniSvnelovan
statistikas
warmoadgens
arCevnebSi kavSirebis mogeba-wagebis Canaweri. 1950 wels NLRB-s mier
Catarebul arCevnebSi profkavSiris gamarjvebis maCvenebeli iyo 74.5
procenti. es procentuloba mniSvnelovnad daeca 60.2 procentamde 1965 wels
da 48.2 procentamde 1995 wels. procentulobis maCvenebeli kavSiris
gamarjvebisTvis dastabilurda 48 procentamde 1995 wlis Semdeg. SeiZleba
gakeTdes daskvna, rom profkavSirebma dakarges TanamSromelTa efeqturad
gaerTianebis SesaZlebloba.
gaerTianebis gavlena menejerebze
TanamSromelTa gaerTianebam SeiZleba garkveuli gavlena iqonios
menejerebze.
SesaZloa
yvelaze
mniSvnelovania
misi
gavlena
xelmZRvanelobis mier ganxorcielebul prerogativebze TanamSromlebis
Sesaxeb gadawyvetilebebis miRebisas. ufro metic, gaerTianeba zRudavs
xelmZRvanelobis
Tavisuflebas
adamianuri
resursebis
politikis
calmxrivad
CamoyalibebisTvis
da
SeuZlia
problemebi
Seuqmnas
zedamxedvelTa uflebamosilebas.
115
xelmZRvanelobis prerogativebis problemebi
Cveulebriv profkavSiri cdilobs ufro metad miiRos monawileoba
xelmZRvanelobis gadawyvetilebebis miRebaSi, rac gavlenas axdens maT
wevrebze. es gadawyvetilebebi SeiZleba moicavdes iseT sakiTxebs,
rogoricaa samuSaos, produqtiulobis standartebisa da samuSaos Sinaarsis
gacnoba. damsaqmeblebi sakmaod bunebrivad asaxeleben mraval amgvar
gadawyvetilebas, rogorc maTi eqskluziuri xelmZRvanelobis prerogativas
– gadawyvetilebebs, razec xelmZRvaneloba eqskluziuri uflebebis
pretenzias acxadebs. Tumca es prerogativebi problemebs qmnis da iwvevs
kavSiris winaaRmdegobas. maT SeiZleba ikamaTon molaparakebis magidasTan
Seuracxmyofeli formiT da gaficvebis muqariT.
zedamxedvelobis uflebamosilebis dakargva
profkavSirisa da administraciis bolo konferenciaze profkavSiris
moxelem gaakeTa komentari: “kontraqtis pirobebi: xelfasi, sargebeli,
samuSaos
dacva
da
samuSao
saaTebi
Zalze
mniSvnelovania
Cveni
wevrebisTvis”. menejerebisa da zedamxedvelebisTvis mTavaria kavSiris
gavlena samuSao doneze (qarxnis an ofisis SesaZlebloba), sadac SromiTi
xelSekrulebis pirobebi xorcieldeba yoveldRiurad. magaliTad, am
pirobebma SeiZleba gansazRvros, romeli moqmedeba unda ganxorcieldes
TanamSromlebTan mimarTebaSi da maT disciplinirebaSi. TanamSromelTa
dasjis dros zedamxedvelebi unda iyvnen darwmunebulni, rom maT SeuZliaT
daasaxelon
“safuZvliani mizezi” (ix. Tavi 13) TavianTi qmedebebisTvis,
radganac am qmedebebs SeiZleba problemebi mohyves kavSirisa da
zedamxedvelis
mxridan,
da
zedamxedveli
SeiZleba
saCivris
gamo
gamoZaxebuli iyos dakiTxvaze, rogorc mopasuxe. Tu problemas mivyvebiT,
zedamxedvelis qmedobaunarianoba Semdgomi disciplinaruli problemebis
aRmosafxvrelad SeiZleba Sesustdebuli iqnes. specialuri kontraqtis enam
SeiZleba aseve Seamciros zedamxedvelis SesaZlebloba marTos iseTi
sferoebi, rogoricaa dagegmva, treningi, gadasvlebi, saqmianobis Sefaseba,
dawinaureba da a.S.
HRM 4
NLRB-s saarCevno posteri
Setyobineba TanamSromlebisTvis
SromiTi urTierTobebis erovnuli sabWo
werilobiTi Txovna Semosulia federaluri uwyebisgan arCevnebTan
dakavSirebiT, rom ganisazRvros, surT Tu ara konkretul TanamSromlebs
warmoadgendnen kavSirs.
saqme ganixileba da aranairi ganmarteba ar aris gakeTebuli am
droisTvis SromiTi urTierTobebis erovnuli sabWos mier. arCevnebis
Catarebamde gamoikvreba Setyobinebebi xmis micemis sruli monacemebis
Sesaxeb.
116
sasurvelia Tqvenma damsaqmebelma gamoacxados es Setyobineba, ise rom
SromiTi urTierTobebis erovnulma sabWom SeZlos gacnoboT Tqven ZiriTadi
uflebebis Sesaxeb SromiTi urTierTobebis erovnuli aqtis Sesabamisad.
Tqven gaqvT ufleba federaluri kanonis Tanaxmad:
• TviTorganizebis;
• CamoayaliboT, SeuerTdeT an daexmaroT SromiT organizaciebs;
• koleqtiurad awarmooT SeTanxmebebi Tqveni arCeuli warmomadgenlebis
saSualebiT;
• erTad
imuSaoT
koleqtiuri
SeTanxmebebis
an
sxva
ormxrivi
daxmarebisa da dacvisaTvis;
• uari TqvaT nebismier an yvela saqmeze, Tu saxelmwifoSi, sadac aseTi
SeTanaxmebebi dasaSvebia, profkavSiri da damsaqmebeli ar deben
kanonieri kavSiris dacvis xelSekrulebas, romelic moiTxovs
TanamSromlebisgan gadaixadon periodulad sawevro gadasaxadi da
sainiciativo gadasaxadebi. Tu TanamSromeli ar aris profkavSiris
wevri da acnobebs profkavSirs, rom is winaaRmdegia gamoiyenon misi
gadasaxadebi arawarmomadgenlobiTi miznebisTvis, SeiZleba misgan
moiTxovon, rom gadaixados mxolod kavSiris xarjebis nawili,
gankuTvnili
warmomadgenlobiTi
saqmianobisaTvis
(rogoricaa
koleqtiuri molaparakebebi, kontraqtis marTva da darRvevebis
mowesrigeba).
SesaZlebelia, zogierTma Tqvenganma monawileoba miiRos TanamSromlebis
warmomadgenlobiT arCevnebSi arCevnebis Taobaze Setanili gancxadebis
safuZvelze, aranairi ganmarteba ar aris gakeTebuli im drois Sesaxeb,
rodesac imarTeba arCevnebi; SromiTi urTierTobebis erovnul sabWos surs
yvela kanonieri amomrCeveli gaecnos Tavis uflebebs kanonis Tanaxmad.
sabWo iyenebs normebs, rac uzrunvelyofs samarTlian arCevnebs da
Tavisufali arCevanis gakeTebas. Tu prof-kavSirebis an damsaqmeblebis
Suamavlebi erevian Tqvens uflebebSi Tavisufali arCevnebis dros, arCevnebi
SeiZleba gadaidos sabWos mier. sabWo uzrunvelyofs agreTve sxvadasxva
saWiro daxmarebas, rogoricaa TavianTi uflebebiT sargeblobis gamo
ganTavisuflebuli TanamSromlebis samsaxurSi aRdgena, maTi Sromis
anazRaureba im mxaris mier, romelic pasuxismgebelia maT ganTavisuflebaze.
SeniSvna:
qvemoT
mocemulia
im
qmedebebis
magaliTebi,
romlebic
TanamSromelTa uflebebs arRveven da SeiZleba
arCevnebis gadadeba
gamoiwvion:
• Ddamsaqmeblis an kavSiris mier samsaxuris dakargviT damuqreba;
• TanamSromelTa
mxardaWeris
mopovebis
mizniT,
dawinaurebis,
xelfasis gazrdis an sxva daxmarebebis dapireba im mxaris mier,
romelsac SeuZlia aseTi dapirebebis Sesruleba;
• damsaqmeblis mier TanamSromlebis gaTavisufleba imis mixedviT,
xels uwyoben Tu uSlian kavSirs saqmianobaSi;
• kampaniis
gamosvlebis
warmarTva
TanamSromelTa
Sekrebili
jgufebisTvis arCevnebamde 24 saaTis ganmavlobaSi;
• rasis an religiuri Sexedulebebis gamo damsaqmeblis an kavSiris
mier saCivrebis gamowveva;
117
•
fizikuri Zalis gamoyenebiT an ZaladobiT damuqreba TanamSromlebis
mimarT kavSiris an damsaqmeblis mier, xmebis mopovebis mizniT.
gTxovT darwmundeT, rom Tu arCevnebi tardeba, yvelanairi Zalisxmeva
iqneba gamoyenebuli Tqveni uflebebis dasacavad, gaakeToT Tavisufali
arCevani kanonis Sesabamisad. ar iqneba daSvebuli araswori saqcieli. Yyvela
mxarem unda iTanamSromlos am uwyebasTan samarTliani arCevnebis ZiriTadi
principebis SesanarCuneblad, rogorc kanoni moiTxovs. Eerovnuli SromiTi
urTierTobebis sabWo, rogorc SeerTebuli Statebis samTavrobo uwyeba, ar
adasturebs raime arCevans arCevnebSi.
Eerovnuli SromiTi urTierTobebis sabWo
SeerTebuli Statebis samTavrobo uwyeba
es aris oficialuri samTavrobo
gadakeTebuli an Secvlili.
Setyobineba
da
ar
unda
iqnes
SromiTi profkavSirebis struqtura, funqciebi da xelmZRvaneloba
P
profkavSirebs, romlebic warmoadgenen xelobis muSakebs (durgals an
kalatozs), uwodeben xelobis profkavSirs. masSi Sedis rkinaze momuSave
muSakebis saerTaSoriso asociacia, durglebis gaerTianebuli amxanagoba da
wyalsadenebisa da milsadenebis SemkeTeblebis gaerTianebuli asociacia.
kavSirebi, romlebic warmoadgenen industriaSi momuSave (xelobis da
naxevrad
xelobis)
muSakebs,
cnobilia,
rogorc
industriuli
kavSirebi.Ffostis muSakebis amerikuli kavSiri aris industriuli kavSiri,
iseve rogorc gaerTianebuli avtomuSakebi; gaerTianebuli foladis
muSakebi; saxelmwifos, qveynis da municipalitetis TanamSromlebis amerikis
federacia; da samsaxurisa da profesionali TanamSromlebis saerTaSoriso
kavSiri. sanam es gansxvaveba isev arsebobs, teqnologiurma cvlilebebma,
kavSiris gaerTianebebma da kavSirebs Soris konkurenciam xeli Seuwyo am
profkavSirebis Semcirebas. amJamad xelobis da araxelobis muSakebi,
TeTrsayeloianebi
da
cisfersayeloianebi,
da
profesiuli
jgufebi
warmoadgenen orive saxis kavSirebs.
PprofkavSirebis garda, aseve arsebobs TanamSromelTa asociaciebi,
romlebic warmoadgenen profesionali da TeTrsayeloiani muSakebis
sxvadasxva jgufebs.
magaliTad, TanamSromelTa asociaciebia: erovnuli
ganaTlebis asociacia, miCiganis saxelmwifo TanamSromelTa asociacia,
amerikel eqimTa asociacia, da aviaxazebis pilotTa asociacia. kavSirebTan
SedarebiT am asociaciebs SeuZliaT imuSaon, rogorc kavSirebma yvelanairi
miznisTvis da gaxdnen iseTive aqtiurebi wevrebis warmodgenaSi, rogoric
kavSirebi arian.
tipis miuxedavad, SromiTi organizaciebi erTmaneTisgan gansxvavdebian
TavianTi marTvis meTodebiTa da miznebiT. ufro metic, maT aqvT sakuTari
stuqturebi. magaliTad, SromiTi organizaciebis aRweris dros mkvlevarTa
umetesoba maT yofs sam jgufad: (1) industriuli organizaciebis kongresisa
da Sromis amerikuli federacia (AFL-CIO), (2) erovnuli kavSirebi, (3)
adgilobrivi kavSirebi, romlebic ekuTvnian mTavar erovnul kavSirebs.
118
TiToeuls aqvs arsebobis
strategia da meTodebi.
sakuTari
mizani,
iseve
rogorc
muSaobis
industriuli organizaciebis kongresisa da Sromis amerikuli federaciis
(AFL-CIO) struqtura da funqciebi
1955 wels Sromis amerikuli federacia, romelic Sedgeba ostatebis
profkavSirebisgan, da industriuli organizaciebis kongresi, romelic
Sedgeba ZiriTadad industriuli kavSirebisgan, gaerTiandnen da amis
Sedegad Camoyalibda AFL-CIO. AFL-CIO samocdaeqvsi avtonomiuri erovnuli
da saerTaSoriso kavSiris federaciaa. radganac am avtonomiuri kavSirebis
interesebi da organizebis meTodebi AFL-CIO-Si yovelTvis ar emTxveva
erTmaneTs,
AFL-CIO-Si
upiratesoba
eniWeba
debulebas,
romelic
uzrunvelyofs wevri kavSirebis dacvas sxva kavSirebis “Tavdasxmisagan”
federaciis farglebSi. Tavdasxmis Sesaxeb am debulebis darRvevam SeiZleba
gamoiwvios federaciidan garicxva.
sinamdvileSi, AFL-CIO aris “Sromis saxli”, romelic mowodebulia
warmoadginos
gaerTianebuli
fronti
organizebuli
Sromis
sasargeblod. is avrcelebs Tavisi Svilobili kavSirebis liderebis
mier SemuSavebul politikas, exmareba organizaciebs saqmianobis
koordinaciaSi Svilobil kavSirebs Soris, atarebs gamokvlevebs da
uzrunvelyofs sxva saxis daxmarebebs sxvadasxva ganyofilebis
saSualebiT. kavSirebis umetesoba ekuTvnis am federacias. AFL-CIO-s
daaxloebiT 13 milioni wevri hyavs, anu daaxloebiT yvela kavSiris
wevrebis 80 procenti. Svilobili kavSirebi ixdian erT sulze sawevro
Senatanebs (amJamad 50 centi erT wevrze TveSi) federaciis saqmianobis
mxardasaWerad. kerZod, AFL-CIO exmareba Tavis wevrebs Semdeg
sakiTxebSi:
1. Sromis interesebis Temebis ganxilva sakanonmdeblo organoebSi;
2. Svilobil
kavSirebs
Soris
kavSiris
organizebis
samuSaoebis
koordinacia;
3. gaerTianebis
problemebisa
da
upiratesobebis
gacnoba
sazogadoebisTvis;
4. davebis mogvareba sxvadasxva kavSirebs Soris.
am
servisebis
SemoTavazebis
garda,
AFL-CIO inarCunebs
interess
saerTaSoriso vaWrobaSi da Sidaekonomikur sakiTxebSi, sagareo politikis
sakiTxebSi, erovnul da regionalur politikaSi. magaliTad, AFL-CIO-m am
bolo dros gamoyo 35 milioni dolari politikuri saqmianobisTvis, raSic
Sedis politikuri organizatorebisa da politikosebis treningi Sromis
sakiTxebSi.
Eerovnuli kavSirebis struqtura da funqciebi
SromiTi moZraobis centraluri Zalaufleba aris erovnul da
saerTaSoriso
kavSirebSi.
Ees
organizaciebi
aweseben
mniSvnelovan
principebs
kavSiris
wevrebis
marTvisTvis,
agreTve
koleqtiuri
molaparakebebis miznebis CamoyalibebisTvis xelmZRvanelobasTan erTad
erovnuli kavSirebi atareben yrilobebs, rom miiRon dadgenilebebi,
119
Seasworon konstituciebi da irCeven moxeleebs. erovnuli kavSiris
prezidenti pasuxismgebelia mTlianad kavSirebis marTvaze da is did
gavlenas
axdens
(Tu
ar
akontrolebs)
kavSiris
strategiasa
da
mimarTulebaze.
Eerovnuli kavSiri Tavisi konstituciis saSualebiT ayalibebs
normebsa da pirobebs, romelTa mixedviTac imarTeba adgilobrivi kavSirebi.
Eerovnuli kavSirebis umetesobas aqvs debulebebi, romlebic awesrigebs
sawevro
Senatanebs,
gawevrianebis
gadasaxadebsa
da
adgilobrivi
organizaciebis Sida administracias. Eerovnulma profkavSirebma SeiZleba
moiTxovon,
rom
damsaqmeblebis
SromiT
xelSekrulebebSi
Sediodes
konkretuli standartis debulebebi. magaliTad, standartuli kontraqtis
pirobebi usafrTxoebis, darRvevis procedurebis, TanamSromelTa da
xelmZRvanelobis uflebebis Sesaxeb. am kontrolis sanacvlod isini uweven
profesiul da finansur daxmarebas organizebisa da gaficvebis dros da
exmarebian administraciasa da SromiTi SeTanxmebebis molaparakebebSi,
agreTve administraciaSi. Eerovnuli kavSiris mier uzrunvelyofili sxva
momsaxurebebia: (1) kavSiris liderebis treningi, (2) kanonieri daxmareba, (3)
politikuri
saqmianobis
xelmZRvaneloba,
(4)
saganmanaTleblo
da
socialuri
urTierTobebis
programebi,
(5)
kavSiris
wevrebis
disciplinireba.
Aadgilobrivi profkavSirebis struqtura da funqciebi
A
adgilobrivi profkavSirebis moxeleebi Cveulebriv pasuxismgebelni
arian
adgilobriv
SromiT
SeTanxmebebze
da
wevrebis
darRvevebis
gamoZiebasa da procesze. rac yvelaze mniSvnelovania, isini uzrunvelyofen,
rom adgilobrivi kavSiris wevrebs ar moeqcnen TavianTi damsaqmeblebi
adamianuri resursebis dadgenili politikis sawinaaRmdegod.
adgilobrivi
profkavSirebis
moxeleebSi
Sedis
prezidenti,
viceprezidenti, mdivani-xazinadari da sxvadasxva komitetis Tavmjdomareebi.
kavSiris sididis mixedviT, erT an met mosamsaxures kavSiri uxdis
anazRaurebas sruli ganakveTis safuZvelze. darCenili moxeleebi wevrebia,
romelTac
aqvT
regularuli
samsaxuri
da
emsaxurebian
kavSirs
anazRaurebis gareSe, SesaZloa maTTvis simboluri saCuqrebisa da xarjebis,
SeRavaTebis gamoyofa. erovnuli kavSiris xelfasiani moxeleebi – egreT
wodebuli amerikis kavSirgabmulobis muSakebis CWA warmomadgenlebi –
daexmarebian adgilobriv kavSirs
iseTi funqciebis ganxorcielebaSi,
rogoricaa organizeba, SromiTi xelSekrulebebis mogvareba, wevrebis
darRvevebis arbitraJi da samarTlebrivi sakiTxebi.
Madgilobriv kavSirSi metad mniSvnelovan Tanamdebobas warmoadgens
kavSiris warmomadgeneli. igi kavSiris wevrebis interesebs icavs maT
uSualo
zedamxedvelebTan
da
xelmZRvanelobis
sxva
wevrebTan
urTierTobaSi. warmomadgenlebs Cveulebriv kavSiris wevrebi irCeven
ganyofilebis farglebSi, isini TanamSromlebs anazRaurebis gareSe
emsaxurebian.
radganac
warmomadgenlebi
srul
ganakveTze
muSaoben
organizaciaSi, samuSao saaTebis Semdeg isini xSirad didi dros wevrebis
problemebis ganxilvasa da mogvarebas uTmoben. roca warmomadgeneli
monawileobs Sexvedrebze organizaciis samuSao drois periodSi, maSin
dakarguli samuSao drois anazRaurebas ixdis adgilobrivi profkavSiri.
120
PprofkavSiris
warmomadgeneli
SeiZleba
CavTvaloT,
rogorc
“Suamavali adamiani”, romelic momwyvdeulia sawinaaRmdego interesebsa da
jgufebs Soris. Aar SeiZleba vivaraudoT, rom warmomadgenlebi yovelTvis
daicaven
wevrebs
da
angariSs
ar
gauweven
menejerul
amocanebs.
profkavSiris warmomadgenlebi xSirad windaxeduli pirovnebebi arian,
romlebic muSaoben TanamSromlebisa da organizaciis mdgomareobis
gaumjobesebisTvis. aseve zedamxedvelebi da menejerebi yvela doneze
amyareben samuSao urTierTobebs warmomadgenelTan da kavSiris yvela
moxelesTan. am urTierTobas SeiZleba didi mniSvneloba hqondes kavSirisa
da
xelmZRvanelobis
efeqturi
TanamSromlobisaTvis.
TanamSromelTa
moralisaTvis.
PprofkavSiris xelmZRvanelobis mimarTulebebi da damokidebulebebi
P
profkavSiris liderebis rolis zusti SefasebisTvis adamianma unda
gaiazros maTi warsuli, ambiciebi da aRiaros maTi samsaxuris politikuri
arsi. Mmravali erovnuli profkavSiris liderebs SeeZloT SeemuSavebinaT
politikuri saSualebebi, riTac isini daamarcxebdnen opozicias da
samudamod SeinarCunebdnen samsaxurs. ATumca adgilobrivi kavSiris
liderebisTvis muSaobis vada naklebad daculia. adgilobriv profkavSirSi,
federaluri kanonis Tanaxmad, moxeleebis xelaxali arCeva xdeba sul
mcire yovel sam weliwadSi. Tu isini darCebian samsaxurSi, maT unda
SeZlon wevrebis umravlesobis darwmuneba, rom isini wevrebs efeqturad
emsaxurebian.
MTumca simarTlea, rom profkavSiris liderebi maRal Tanamdebobebs
TavianT organizaciebSi ikaveben, Cveulebrivi wevrebi xSirad Zalian did
gavlenas am liderebis mxridan ganicdian, kerZod, SromiTi xelSekrulebis
molaparakebebTan
da
marTvasTan
dakavSirebiT.
menejerebma
unda
gaiTvaliswinon, rom profkavSiris Tanamdebobis pirebi arCevnebis gziT
modian Tanamdebobebze, nebismieri politikuri Tanamdebobis piris msgavsad,
da unda upasuxon TavianTi amomrCevlebis interesebs. profkavSiris lideri,
romelic kavSiris wevrebis moTxovnebs ugulebelyofs, safrTxis qveS
ayenebs Tavis xelaxal arCevas an mis, rogorc SeTanxmebebis Suamavlis,
mxardaWeras.
warmatebuli liderobisTvis saWiroa Sromis moxeleebma
didi yuradReba miaqcion saerTo miznebs da Sromis mimarTulebebs.
biznesgaerTianeba
aris
zogadi
safirmo
niSani
amerikis
Sromis
organizaciebis Semdegi miznebisTvis: gazrdili xelfasi, samuSaos dacva da
gaumjobesebuli samuSao pirobebi. Uufro metic, kavSiris liderebma ician
agreTve,
rom
profkavSirebma
unda
gadaWran
wevrebis
socialuri,
ekonomikuri da samarTlebrivi sakiTxebi. magaliTad, gaerTianebuli
avtomuSakebi zemoqmedebas axdenen kongresze dacviTi kanonmdeblobis
misaRebad, romelic gavlenas axdens avtoindustriaze. Statis, qveynisa da
municipalitetis TanamSromelTa amerikuli federacia, nemsebis warmoebis
kavSiri, industriuli da safeiqro TanamSromlebis da saaviacio asociacia
aqtiurad uWerdnen mxars qalTa sakiTxebs saxelmwifo da erovnul doneze.
SromiTi urTierTobebi saxelmwifo seqtorSi
K
koleqtiuri molaparakebebi federaluri, saxelmwifo da adgilobrivi
mmarTvelobis TanamSromlebs Soris warmoadgenda ganviTarebis sferos
profkavSiris moZraobisTvis adre, 1960 wlis Semdeg. dRes Svidi milioni
121
saxelmwifo mosamsaxurea gaerTianebuli profkavSirebSi an TanamSromelTa
asociaciebSi. isini Seadgenen mTavrobis moxeleTa daaxloebiT 40 procents.
profkavSiris wevrTa raodenobis bolo monacemebi aCveneben, rom udidesi
SromiTi organizaciebi warmoadgenen TanamSromlebs saxelmwifo seqtorSi –
erovnuli saganmanaTleblo asociacia (2.7 milioni wevri), maswavlebelTa
amerikuli
federacia
(900.000
wevri)
da
saxelmwifo,
qveynis
da
municipalitetis
TanamSromlebi
(1.3
milioni
wevri).
radganac
maswavleblebis, policielebis, mexanZreebis da saxelmwifo moxeleebis
profkavSirebisa da asociaciebis masStabebi gaizarda da gazarda
politikuri Zalauflebac, isini iTxoven imave uflebebs SeTanxmebisTvis da
imave pirobebs, rac kerZo seqtoris TanamSromlebs aqvT.
Mmiuxedavad imisa, rom saxelmwifo da kerZo seqtoris koleqtiur
molaparakebebs mravali saerTo Tviseba aqvs, mainc bevri faqtori
ganasxvavebs am or seqtors erTmaneTisgan. P pirveli, aq ar aris erovnuli
kanonebi, romlebic marTavs saxelmwifo seqtoris SromiT urTierTobebs,
erovnuli SromiTi urTierTobebis aqtis msgavsad kerZo seqtorSi.
saxelmwifo seqtoris koleqtiuri molaparakebebi mimdinareobs TiToeuli
Statis calkeuli iurisdiqciis farglebSi, da arsebobs gansxvaveba
sxvadasxva Statis kanonebs Soris. magaliTad, zogierT Stats: arizonas,
utas da misisips ara aqvs koleqtiuri molaparakebebis kanonebi; sxva
Statebs:
floridas, havais da niu iorks
sayovelTao kanonebi aqvs,
romlebic aniWeben koleqtiuri molaparakebebis uflebebs yvela saxelmwifo
moxeles. am or ukiduresobas Soris aris saxelmwifo kanonebi, romlebic
aniWeben koleqtiuri molaparakebebis uflebebs mxolod TanamSromelTa
specialur jgufebs, rogoricaa maswavleblebi da formiani servisebi
(policia da saxanZro). Ffederaluri TanamSromlebisTvis koleqtiur
molaparakebebs awesrigebs aRmasrulebeli brZanebebi (aSS-is prezidentis
mier gamocemuli debulebebi) da 1978 wlis samoqalaqo servisis reformis
aqti.
Mmeore,
saxelmwifo
iurisdiqciebi
xSirad
aweseben
xelfass,
TanamSromelTa sargebels da organizaciul wesebs, ris mixedviTac
muSaoben maTi TanamSromlebi. sajaro samoqalaqo servisis sistemebi
arsebobs, raTa ganixilon TanamSromelTa saCivrebi an darRvevebi. kanoniT
gansazRvruli xelfasiTa da samuSao pirobebiT profkavSirebs ar aZleven
SesaZleblobas
moagvaron
koleqtiuri
SeTanxmebebis
yoveldRiuri
sakiTxebi. KprofkavSirebi miiCneven amas, rogorc TavianTi mizezebis
“dacvis~ SesaZleblobis dakargvas.
Dda bolos, gaficva saxelmwifo seqtorSi mkacrad akrZalulia.
radganac is momsaxureba, romelsac uzrunvelyofen mTavrobis moxeleebi,
xSirad
iTvleba
mniSvnelovnad
sazogadoebis
keTildReobisTvis,
sazogadoebrivi politika aseTi gaficvebis winaaRmdegia. A amrigad,
Statebis umetesobis sakanonmdeblo organoebi TanamSromlebs ar aniWeben
gaficvis uflebas. im StatebSi, sadac gaficva dasaSvebia, ufleba
SezRudulia TanamSromelTa garkveuli jgufebisTvis – Cveulebriv, uformo
(araformiani) TanamSromlebisTvis, romelTa gaficvas SeuZlia safrTxe
Seuqmnas sazogadoebis janmrTelobas, usafrTxoebas an keTildReobas.
saxelmwifo moxeleTa profkavSirebi kamaToben, rom radgan isini uars
amboben gaficvis imave uflebaze, romelzec kerZo seqtoris TanamSromlebi,
maTi Zalaufleba koleqtiuri molaparakebebis dros metad Sesustebulia.
122
profkavSiris
moxeleebi
xSirad
aRweren
saxelmwifo
moxeleebTan
molaparakebas, rogorc “Sexvdi da moiTxove”-s process.
Mmolaparakebebis uflebamosilebaSi samarTlianobis, miukerZoeblobis
uzrunvelsayofad sxvadasxva arbitraJis meTodebi gamoiyeneba, riTac xdeba
koleqtiuri SeTanxmebebis gamouvali mdgomareobis mogvareba saxelmwifo
seqtorSi. erT-erTia savaldebulo arbitraJi TanamSromlebisTvis: policiis
TanamSromlebi, mexanZreebi da sxvebi, am sferoSi gaficvebi ar SeiZleba
daSvebuli iyos. Kkidev erT meTods warmoadgens bolo SeTavazebis
arbitraJi, romlis mixedviTac arbitrma unda aarCios modave mxareeebis
mier warmodgenili erT-erTi saboloo SemoTavazeba. Aam meTodiT arbitri
im mxarisken ixreba, romlis saboloo SeTanxmebis winadadeba yvelaze
axlosaa sakiTxis gonivrul mogvarebasTan.
SeTanxmebis, molaparakebebis procesi
xSirad adamianebi, romlebic ar arian garkveulni kontraqtis
molaparakebebSi, am process miiCneven emociur konfliqtad mSromel klassa
da xelmZRvanelobas Soris, rac xorcieldeba xangrZlivi sesiebiT, muStis
dartymebiT kvamliT savse oTaxebSi. sinamdvileSi SromiTi xelSekrulebis
molaparakebas didi dro sWirdeba momzadebisTvis, maT Soris _
diplomatiuri manevrireba da SeTanxmebis strategiis SemuSaveba. ufro
metic, molaparakeba mxolod koleqtiuri SeTanxmebebis procesis erT
nawils warmoadgens. koleqtiuri SeTanxmebebi aseve gulisxmobs ekonomikuri
zewolis gamoyenebas gaficvebisa da boikotis formiT profkavSiris mier.
Llokautebi, sawarmos daxurva da gaficulebis gadaadgileba msgavsi
zemoqmedebaa, romelsac iyenebs damsaqmebeli. agreTve erT-erTma an orive
mxarem
SeiZleba
moiTxovos
mxardaWera
sazogadoebisgan
an
sasamarTloebisgan, rogorc mowinaaRmdege mxaris zewolis saSualeba.
molaparakebebisTvis momzadeba
molaparakebebisTvis
mzadeba
niSnavs
monacemebis
Segrovebas
SeTanxmebis
winadadebebisTvis
da
koleqtiuri
SeTanxmebis
gundis
Camoyalibebas. es saSualebas iZleva koleqtiuri molaparakebebi Catardes
mowesrigebulad, realur da pozitiur safuZvelze sasurveli miznis
misaRwevad. Mmolaparakebebis dros xSirad adgenen molaparakebebis wignaks,
masSi mocemulia SeniSvnebi, romlebic gansazRvravs, kontarqtis romel
punqtze SeiZleba moTxovnam gavlena moaxdinos. molaparakebebis wignakSi
aseve mocemulia kontarqtis pirobebis zogadi istoria da maTi mniSvneloba
xelmZRvanelobisTvis. SromiTi xelSekruleba ar aris pirveli, razedac
mxareebi Tanxmdebian, aramed molaparakebebisTvis momzadeba idealur
SemTxvevaSi
unda
daiwyos
Zalian
male
arsebuli
xelSekrulebis
xelmoweridan. es praqtika saSualebas aZlevs molaparakebis monawileebs
ganixilon wina molaparakebebis dros daSvebuli Secdomebi.
Mmolaparakebebis monacemTa Segroveba
darRvevebTan, disciplinarul qmedebebTan, dawinaurebasTan, warmoebis
droebiT SeCerebasTan, damatebiT samuSao saaTebTan, arbitraJis wina
dadgenilebebTan da xelfasebTan dakavSirebuli Sida monacemebi exmareba
damsaqmebels SeTanxmebis Camoyalibebasa da mxardaWeraSi. zedamxedvelebma
da menejerebma, romlebic valdebulni arian moagvaron SromiTi SeTanxmeba,
123
SeiZleba
metad
mniSvnelovani
ideebi
da
winadadebebi
mogvawodon
cvlilebebTan dakavSirebiT, rac saWiroa xelSekrulebis momzadebisTvis.
maTi kontaqti profkavSiris wevrebTan da warmomadgenlebTan uzrunvelyofs
cvlilebebis
pirvelad
informacias,
rac
molaparakebisas
kavSiris
wamomadgenlebma unda SemogvTavazon.
Kkontraqtis
Sesaxeb
molaparakebebis
dros
profkavSiris
SemTanxmeblebi saubroben “konkurenciuli xelfasis miRebaze”. es termini
exeba msgavsi kontraqtis debulebebis arsebobas – kerZod, xelfasisa da
sargeblis Sesaxeb – sxvadasxva kompaniebs Soris, raTa Tavidan aviciloT
sasurveli SromiTi Rirebulebis upiratesoba meoreze. molaparakebebis
modeli saSualebas aZlevs kavSirebs aCvenenon TavianT wevrebs, rom isini
iReben anazRaurebas sxv TanamSromlebis msgavsad, romlebic asruleben
msgavs samuSaos, da damsaqmebelebi darwmunebulni arian, rom maTi Sromis
Rirebuleba konkurencias uwevs maT konkurentebs. sxva miRweuli SromiTi
SeTanxmebebi, kerZod adgilobriv da regionalur doneze, did rols
TamaSobs SromiTi xelSekrulebis pirobebis dadgenaSi.
koleqtiuri molaparakebebis procesi
1. momzadeba molaparakebebisTvis
_________________________________ • monacemTa Segroveba;
• SeTanxmebis pirobebis dadgena.
2. strategiebis SemuSaveba
________________________________ • xelmZRvanelobis winadadebebisa da dasaSvebi SezRudvebis ganxilva; • oponentebis miznebis ganxilva; • gaficvis gegmis SemuSaveba. 3. molaparakebebis Catareba ___________________________ • gulwrfeli SeTanxmeba; • winadadebebis analizi; • SeTavazebebis gadawyveta; • SeTanxmebebis formatSi darCena. 4. xelSekrulebis gaformeba ____________________________ • kontraqtis enis dadgena;
• xelSekrulebis damtkiceba.
gaficvebi – kanonieri moTxovnebi – lokautebi – gaficvis gadaadgilebebi –
boikoti
Mmolaparakebebis gundebi
Cveulebriv TiToeul mxares eyoleba oTxi an eqvsi warmomadgeneli
molaparakebis magidasTan.
xelmZRvanelobis mTavari momlaparakebeli
124
(mediatori) iqneba viceprezidenti an SromiTi urTierTobebis menejeri;
profkavSiris
mTavari momlaparakebeli iqneba adgilobrivi kavSiris
prezidenti an erovnuli kavSiris warmomadgeneli. sxvebi, romlebic
Seadgenen menejmentis gunds, iqnebian warmomadgenlebi sabuRaltro an
finansuri
operciebis,
dasaqmebis,
samarTlebrivi
an
satreningo
ganyofilebebis. adgilobrivi kavSiris prezidents mxars dauWers mTavari
Suamavali, sxva adgilobrivi kavSiris prezidentebi da erovnuli kavSiris
warmomadgenlebi.
SeTanxmebis gundis pirveli Sexvedra gansakuTrebiT mniSvnelovania,
radganac is ayalibebs garemos, romelSic warimarTeba molaparakebebi.
gulwrfelma damokidebulebam, zogjer mcire iumoris Semotanamac, SeiZleba
ganmuxtos daZabuloba da xeli Seuwyos molaparakebebis Tavisuflad
dawyebas. damokidebulebis amgvari struqtura momzadda mxareebs Soris
damokidebulebebis Sesacvlelad, xSirad erTi mxaris dasarwmuneblad, rom
daakmayofilos meore mxaris moTxovnebi.
SeTanxmebebis strategiisa da taqtikis SemuSaveba
damsaqmeblis Suamavlebma unda SeimuSaon werilobiTi gegma, romelic
Seicavs
maTi
SeTanxmebis
strategias.
gegma
unda
iTvaliswinebdes
winadadebebs,
romlebsac
albaT
profkavSiri
waradgens,
sxva
damsaqmeblebTan dadebul yvelaze bolo xelSekrulebebze dayrdnobiT, da
unda Seicavdes moTxovnebs, romlebic daukmayofilebeli darCa wina
molaparakebebis Semdeg. gegma agreTve unda iTvaliswinebdes kavSiris
miznebs, agreTve imas, ramdenad apirebs is daTmobebze wasvlas, Tu
mimarTavs gaficvebis qmedebebs am miznebis misaRwevad.
Mdamsaqmeblis SeTanxmebis strategiam sul mcire unda moagvaros es
sakiTxebi:
¾ profkavSiris winadadebebi da xelmZRvanelobis reaqcia maTze;
¾ xelmZRvanelobis
moTxovnebis,
daTmobebis
SezRudvebis,
da
gansazRvruli kavSiris reaqciebis nusxa;
¾ monacemTa
bazis
SemuSaveba
xelmZRvanelobis
SeTanxmebebis
winadadebebis mxardasaWerad da kavSiris moTxovnebis sawinaaRmdegod;
¾ moqmedma gegmam unda moaxdinos gavlena YTanamSromlebze.
strategiis garkveuli elementebi saerToa damsaqmeblisTvisac da
profkavSirisTvisac.
zogadad
TiToeuli
mxaris
mier
wamoyenebuli
Tavdapirveli moTxovnebi ufro mniSvnelovania, vidre isini, romlebic
faqtobrivad
SeiZleba
miRweul
iqnes.
es
keTdeba
daTmobebis
uzrunvelsayofad. ufro metic, TiToeuli mxare yovelTvis gaurbis daTmos
maqsimumi, mas SeuZlia iseT daTmobaze wavides, romelic SeiZleba saWiro
gaxdes SeTanxmebis gamouvali mdgomareobidan gamosasvlelad.
SromiTi xelSekrulebis molaparakebas SeiZleba hqondes pokeris
TamaSis zogierTi Tviseba: TiToeuli mxare cdilobs gansazRvros Tavisi
oponentis pozicia, maSin roca Tavisas ar amJRavnebs. TiToeuli mxare,
bunebrivia, cdilobs Tavidan aicilos Sesabamisi mniSvnelobis gamxela, rac
mohyveba SeTavazebas, ise rom is ar iqneba iZulebuli gadaixados ufro meti
Tanxa, vidre saWiroa SeTavazebis misaRebad. es isevea, rogorc manqanis
yidvis dros, roca myidveli da gamyidveli mraval strategias iyeneben
saukeTeso SesaZlo Sedegis mosapoveblad.
125
SromiTi xelSekrulebis Sesaxeb molaparakeba
roca molaparakebebi iwyeba, damsaqmebeli valdebulia gulwrfelad
moelaparakos
kavSiris
warmomadgenels
samuSao
pirobebis
Taobaze.
gulwrfeloba
moiTxovs,
rom
damsaqmeblis
Suamavlebi
Sexvdnen
profkavSiris kolegebs saWiro adgilas am pirobebis gansaxilvelad. is
agreTve moiTxovs, rom TiToeuli mxaris mier warmodgenili winadadebebi
iyos realuri. Mmeore mxaris SemoTavazebebis ganxilvis dros TiToeuli
mxare valdebulia wamoayenos Sesabamisi sawinaaRmdego winadadebebi.
sabolood, orive mxarem unda moaweros xeli werilobiT dokuments,
romelic Seicavs molaparakebebis saSualebiT miRweul SeTanxmebas.
SromiTi
urTierTobebis
erovnuli
sabWo
(NLRB) gansazRvravs
movaleobas SeaTanxmos yvela sakiTxi xelfasis, samuSao saaTebis an sxva
pirobebis Sesaxeb. am Temebs uwodeben SeTanxmebis savaldebulo sakiTxebs.
orive mxare _ damsaqmebelic da profkavSiric _ unda SeTanxmdes
gulaxdilad am sakiTxebze. Tumca kanoni ar sTxovs arc erT mxares
daeTanxmos winadadebas an wavides daTmobebze am sakiTxebze molaparakebis
dros. sxva sakiTxebis (egreT wodebuli arCeviTi sakiTxebis) Sesaxeb ki,
romlebic kanonieria, magram ar ukavSirdeba anazRaurebas, samuSao saaTebs,
an sxva pirobebs, mxareebs Tavisuflad SeuZliaT SeTanxmdnen, magram arc
erTma mxarem ar unda aiZulos meore daiTanxmos am sakiTxebze. arCeviTi
sakiTxebi SeiZleba moicavdes profkavSiris moTxovnas daadasturos
zedamxedvelobiTi dawinaurebebi an konsultacia organizaciis produqtis
an servisis fasis dadgenis Sesaxeb. SeTanxmebis arakanonieri sakiTxebi
moicavs iseT sakiTxebs, rogoricaa daxuruli sawarmos an savaldebulo
sawevro gadasaxadebis daqviTvebi. Tu moTxovna gakeTda arakanonier
punqtTan dakavSirebiT, NLRB gamoavlens darRvevas taft-harTlis aqtis (5)
(8) a nawilis mixedviT. sadac Sromis klasis da xelmZRvanelobis
Suamavlebs ar SeuZliaT daeTanxmon, SeTanxmebis winadadeba savaldebulo
sakiTxia Tu arCeviTi, NLRB gadawyvets davas.
Yyoveli SeTanxmebis gadasaWreli sakiTxisTvis problema, razedac
SeTanxmeba miRweul iqna, unda iyos damsaqmeblisa da kavSiris mier miRebul
farglebSi. xSirad xsenebuli SeTanxmebis modelSi, ros stagneri da
jalmar rozeni am or struqturas Soris arsebul sferos uwodeben
SeTanxmebis, ganxilvis zonas. zogierTi SeTanxmebis situaciaSi, erT-erTi
amgvari zona mocemulia 14.3 sqemaze, erTi mxaris sasurveli gadawyvetileba
SeiZleba gascdes meore mxaris sazRvrebs. ase rom, gamosavali SeTanxmebis
zonis gareTaa. Tu is mxare uars ganacxadebs Secvalos Tavisi moTxovnebi,
rom moaqcios isini SeTanxmebis zonaSi, an Tu mowinaaRmdege mxare uars
ganacxadebs gaafarToos Tavisi SezRudva meore mxaris moTxovnaTa
Sesarigeblad, moveqceviT SeTanxmebis CixSi. magaliTad, TanamSromlebisTvis
xelfasis gazrdaze mimdinareobs SeTanxmeba, da Tu profkavSiris yvelaze
dabali limiti aris 4-procentiani zrda da xelmZRvanelobis maqsimaluri
limiti ki – 6 procenti, misaRebi sfero – SeTanxmebis zona –
xelmisawvdomia orive mxarisTvis. Tu xelmZRvanelobis maqsimaluri limiti
aris mxolod 3 procenti, SeTanxmebis zona ar aris xelmisawvdomi arc erTi
mxarisTvis da Seiqmneba gamouvali mdgomareoba. sqema 14.3, romelic
eyrdnoba stagnerisa da rozenis original models, gviCvenebs, rom roca
molaparakeba mimdinareobs, ramdenime mniSvnelovani cvlileba gavlenas
126
axdens
Suamavlebze
da
maT
molaparakebis zonis farglebSi.
SesaZleblobaze
SeTanxmebas
miaRwion
interesebze dafuZnebuli molaparakeba
administraciasa da profkavSirebs Soris aSS-is SromiTi urTierTobebi
konkurentunarianobiT
xasiaTdeba.
Suamavlebi
iwyeben
sawinaaRmdego
SeTanxmebebiT. gansazRvruli poziciebiT da Seferxebis, darwmunebis,
xelobis an Zalauflebis saSualebiT mxareebi muSaoben calkeuli
SeTanxmebis moTxovnebis mogvarebisaTvis. tradiciuli SeTanxmebiT da
ormxrivi daTmobis meTodiT, Sedegebi SeiZleba srulad akmayofilebdes
erT an orive mxares. faqtobrivad,
roca erTi mxare xvdeba, rom mas
“usamarTlod” moeqcnen, mwvave gancdebi SeiZleba sul gahyves SeTanxmebis
moqmedebis ganmavlobaSi. rogorc erT-erTma Sromis Suamavalma aRniSna,
“sawinaaRmdego SeTanxmeba didad ver amyarebs grZelvadian pozitiur
urTierTobas, kavSirs, romelic Ria urTierTobebsa da ndobas emyareba.
Tavisi xasiaTis mixedviT is iwvevs eWvsa da kompromacias.” am negatiuri
grZnobebis dasaZlevad profkavSirebisa da administraciis praqtikosebma
SeiZleba gamoiyenon arawinaaRmdegobrivi damokidebuleba molaparakebebis
mimarT.
interesze dafuZnebuli SeTanxmeba eyrdnoba ormxrivi interesebis
gansazRvrasa da dadgenas, da ara konkretuli moTxovnebis mogvarebas.
rogorc
gansazRvrulia
federaluri
Suamavlobisa
da
momrigebiTi
samsaxuris mier, interesze dafuZnebuli SeTanxmeba aris “problemis
gadaWris
procesi,
romelic
xorcieldeba
principuli
gziT;
es
uzrunvelyofs
efeqtur
gadawyvetilebebs
SeTanxmebiTi
urTierTobis
gaumjobesebis periodSi”. SeTanxmebis strategiis mTavari mizania aRmoaCinos
SeTanxmebis ormxrivi interesebi, ormxrivi miznisa da gamosavalis
gansazRvris surviliT.
interesze dafuZnebuli SeTanxmeba aris patara novela SeTanxmebis
procesSi. gansazRvrulia agreTve SeTanxmebis saSualebebi, romlebic
SeiZleba gamoviyenoT warmatebuli da warumatebeli molaparakebebis
gamocdilebis gaTvaliswinebiT, procesis dasaCqareblad. winadadebebisa da
sapirispiro winadadebebis gamoyenebaze metad, rogorc SeTanxmebis miRwevis
saSualebas, monawileebi iyeneben jgufur gadawyvetilebas, konsensuss,
aqtiur mosmenas, Semowmebis processa da matricul Camoyalibebas, raTa
xeli Seuwyon sakiTxebis mogvarebas. interesze dafuZnebuli SeTanxmebis
mizania samomavlod daamyaros kavSiri ndobaze, urTierTgagebasa da
ormxriv pativiscemaze.
xelmZRvaneloba da profkavSiris uflebamosileba koleqtiuri
molaparakebebis dros
molaparakebebis dros Tu arc erTi mxare ar Tmobs Tavis
Tavdapirvel pozicias SeTanxmebis miRwevis mizniT,, maSin Suamavlebi
vardebian gamouval mdgomareobaSi. am etapze molaparakebebi metad
daiZabeba, roca TiToeuli mxare gamoiyenebs Tavis SeTanxmebis uflebas
miaRwios sasurvel Sedegebs. Mmxaris SeTanxmebis ufleba gulisxmobs mis
ekonomikur, politikur da socialur gavlenas, raTa daikmayofilos Tavisi
moTxovnebi meore mxaris xarjze.
127
SeTanxmebis zona da molaparakebebis gavlena
faqtorebi, romlebic gavlenas axdenen
sazogadoebis azri;
Suamavlebis Tvisebebi;
ekonomikuri gavlena;
SeTanxmebis istoria mxareebs Soris;
kanonebi da administraciuli gadawyvetilebebi;
sxva molaparakebebis Sedegebi;
profkavSiris sasurveli Sedegi;
profkavSiris sasurveli Sedegebis mosalodneli jaWvi;
profkavSiris dabali limiti;
administraciis maRali limiti;
administraciis sasurveli Sedegebis mosalodneli jaWvi;
administraciis sasurveli Sedegi.
profkavSirebis SeTanxmebis uflebamosileba
profkavSirebis uflebamosileba SeiZleba gamoiyenon damsaqmeblis
winaaRmdeg
gaficvis,
piketirebis
an
boikotis
mowyobiT.
gaficvis
saSualebiT TanamSromelTa jgufebi uars amboben muSaobis gagrZelebaze.
profkavSirebi, Cveulebriv, gaficvas ucxadeben xelmZRvanelobas, rom
molaparakebebiT daTmobaze wavidnen, rac gamoricxavs gaficvis saWiroebas.
profkavSirebis wevrebis gaficva ar gulisxmobs, rom maT realurad surT
an moelian gaficvis gagrZelebas, aramed maTi mizania ndobis mopoveba maTi
ufrosebis mdgomareobis gansamtkiceblad molaparakebebis magidasTan.
PprofkavSirisTvis metad mniSvnelovania, Tu ramdenad SeZlebs
damsaqmebeli muSaobis gagrZelebas zedamxedvelebiT da im TanamSromlebis,
personalis
saSualebiT,
romlebic
daqiravebulni
iyvnen
gaficuli
TanamSromlebis Sesanacvlebad. organizaciebSi, romlebsac maRali donis
teqnologiebi
da
avtomatika
gaaCnia
da
hyavs
SedarebiT
mcire
TanamSromlebi,
albaT
agrZeleben
muSaobas
zedamxedvelebTan
da
menejerebTan erTad. maRalavtomatur satelefono kompaniebSi momsaxurebis
umetesi nawili SeiZleba SenarCunebuli iyos zedamxedvelebis mier gaficvis
dros. erT-erTma xelmZRvanelobam ganacxada: “teqnologiuri cvlilebebis
gamo gaficvebi bevr industriaSi aRar axdens mniSvnelovan gavlenas
damsaqmeblis saqmianobaze.” Aase rom, muSaobis gagrZelebis rac ufro meti
SesaZlebloba aqvs damsaqmebels, miT ufro naklebi Sansi aqvs profkavSirs
daikmayofilos moTxovnebi gaficvis saSualebiT.
roca kavSiri gaficvas awyobs, is axdens samsaxuris Sesasvlelis
piketirebas, raTa uTanxmoebis reklamireba moaxdinos da sxvebic ar SeuSvas
SenobaSi,
radganac
profkavSirebi
xSirad
uars
amboben
sxva
profkavSirebis
piketirebis darRvevaze; piketirebam SeiZleba xeli
SeuSalos
satvirTo manqanebsa
da vagonebs saqonlis gadazidvebSi.
128
magaliTad, satvirTo manqanis mZRolma SeiZleba uari ganacxados, rom
miawodos saqoneli im kompaniebs, romelTa TanamSromlebic gaficulni
arian kvebisa da komerciul muSakTa gaerTianebul kavSirTan erTad.
PprofkavSiris kidev erT ekonomikur iaraRs boikoti warmoadgens,
romelic kategoriulad uaryofs damsaqmeblis mfarvelobas. magaliTad,
xelsawyoebis mwarmoeblis winaaRmdeg gaficulma TanamSromlebma SeiZleba
gadaketon gza im sacalo maRaziis win, sadac iyideba gaficulTa ufrosis
mier warmoebuli xelsawyoebi. profkavSirebma aseve SeiZleba gamoiyenon
plakatebi, radio da presa gancxadebebisaTvis, raTa xeli SeuSalon
mwarmoeblis produqciis an servisis Sesyidvas.
Aadministraciis molaparakebebis uflebamosileba
roca molaparakeba CixSi eqceva, damsaqmeblis SeTanxmebis perspeqtiva
damokidebulia
saqmianobis
gagrZelebaze,
gaficvisa
da
operaciebis
mTlianad SeCerebis miuxedavad.
TanamSromlebs SeuZliaT gaificnon organizaciis winaaRmdeg, Tumca
damqiraveblebs kanonieri ufleba aqvT daiqiraon an Caanacvlon rezervis
TanamSromlebi.
am
uflebiT
damqiraveblebi
moipoveben
SeTanxmebis
saSualebas, rac prof-kavSiris gaficvis uflebas utoldeba. erTma
damkvirvebelma aRniSna: “momuSaveTa Canacvlebis strategia menejers aZlevs
SesaZleblobas SeebrZolos profkavSirs ise, rogorc aTeuli wlebis
ganmavlobaSi kavSirebi ebrZodnen damsaqmeblebs.” NLRB-s dadgenilebebis
Tanaxmad, Casanacvlebeli TanamSromlebi unda daiqiraon, xolo gaficul
TanamSromlebs aqvT erTi wliT samsaxurSi aRdgenis ufleba da Tu isini
gamoTqvamen samsaxurSi dabrunebis survils, maT es gadawyvetileba Riad
unda daafiqsiron.
kidev
erT,
farTod
gavrcelebul
molaparakebebis
strategias
warmoadgens is, rom damqiraveblebma SeiZleba gaagrZelon muSaoba
menejerebisa
da zedamxedvelebis daxmarebiT, raTa daakompleqton
gaficulTa samuSao adgilebi. magaliTad, 2000 wels, agvistoSi daaxloebiT
sami aTasamde menejerma datova samsaxuri, rom emuSavaT operatorebad,
teqnikur specialistebad da momxmarebelTa servisis warmomadgenleblad
amerikis kavSirgabmulobisa da verizonis
TanamSromelTa gaficvis
periodSi. rogorc zemoT aRvniSneT, teqnologiuri progresis zrda
saSualebas aZlevda damsaqmeblebs gaficvis ganmavlobaSi emuSavaT.
eqstremalur
situaciebSi
damqiravebels
SeuZlia
lokauti
gamoucxados Tavis TanamSromlebs. lokauti
aris strategia, romlis
saSualebiTac
damqiravebeli
uars
eubneba
TanamSromlebs
muSaobis
SesaZleblobaze samuSao operaciebis daxurvis gziT. garda amisa, lokauti
SeiZleba gamoyenebul iqnes xelmZRvanelobis mier, rom SeebrZolon
profkavSirebs
da
sakuTrebisadmi
zianis
miyenebas,
an
darRvevas
organizaciaSi SromiT davasTan dakavSirebiT.
damqiraveblebi SeiZleba iZulebulni gaxdnen, rom mimarTon lokauts,
miuxedavad imisa, rom regularuli TanamSromlebisTvis muSaobaze uaris
gamocxadebam SeiZleba ziani miayenos organizaciis imijs da problemebi
Seuqmnas damqiraveblebs.
molaparakebebis problemebis gadaWra
129
profkavSirebi da damsaqmeblebi yvela saxis industriaSi _ sportSi,
transportSi, mrewvelobaSi, kavSirgabmulobasaA da jandacvaSi _ iyeneben
Suamavlobasa da arbitraJs molaparakebebisas gamouvali mdgomareobis
mosagvareblad.
rogorc
me-13 TavSia
ganxiluli,
Suamavloba
aris
nebayoflobiTi
procesi,
romelic
damokidebulia
komunikaciaze
da
mediatorebis SesaZleblobebze daexmaron mxareebs maTi uTanxmoebis
mogvarebaSi. federaluri mTavroba SromiT davebSi erTveba
FMCS -is
servisebis saSualebiT.
mediatorisagan
gansxvavebiT,
arbitri
Tavis
Tavze
iRebs
gadawyvetilebis mimRebas da gansazRvravs, Tu rogor SeiZleba mogvardes
urTierToba or mxares Soris. sxvagvarad rom vTqvaT, arbitri saboloo
dadgenilebas wers, romelsac mxareebi unda daemorCilon. SuamavlobasTan
SedarebiT, arbitraJi ise xSirad ar gamoiyeneba kerZo seqtoris davebis
gadasawyvetad. saxelmwifo seqtorSi, sadac gaficva mkacrad akrZalulia,
procentuli arbitraJis gamoyeneba problemis gadaWris zogad meTods
warmoadgens.
zogadad,
erTi
an
orive
mxare
iZulebuli
xdeba
uflebamosileba mianiWon mesame mxares moagvaros maT Soris dava. amitomac,
mediatori uTanxmoebis mosagvareblad gamoiyeneba da is exmareba mxareebs
SeTanxmebis miRwevaSi. Aarbitrs iwveven, raTa gadaWras davebi, romlebic
warmoiSveba xelSekrulebasTan dakavSirebiT. amas
arbitraJis ufleba
ewodeba.
sabednierod, profkavSirsa da administracias Soris molaparakebebis
didi
umravlesoba
mSvidobianad
mTavrdeba.
roca
molaparakebebi
damTavrebulia, SromiTi SeTanxmeba xdeba formaluri dokumenti, romelSic
aRniSnulia vadebi, pirobebi, da wesebi, romelTa Sesrulebazec SeTanxmdnen
TanamSromlebi da menejerebi. HRM5 aCvenebs SromiTi SeTanxmebis zogierT
mniSvnelivan punqts da aseve warmoadgens axali da progresuli kontraqtis
zogierTY magaliTs. nebismieri SromiTi xelSekrulebis ori yvelaze
mniSvnelovani punqti menejeris uflebebsa da profkavSiris dacvis formebs
exeba.
xelmZRvanelobis uflebebi
menejeris uflebebi unda Seesabamebodes samuSao pirobebs, ris
meSveobiTac menejments SeuZlia eqskluziuri kontroli moipovos.
gamonaklisis garda, SromiTi xelSekruleba unda Seicavdes menejeris
uflebebis muxls. es muxli amtkicebs rom, “menejeris uflebamosileba
yvela sakiTxSi mTavaria, Tu TviTon ar daTmobs raime uflebas koleqtiur
SeTanxmebaSi, an im sferoebSi, sadac misi uflebamosileba kanoniT
izRudeba.” xelmZRvanelobis uflebebi SeiZleba Seicavdes uflebas
gansazRvros
produqtis
warmoeba,
warmoebis
adgilmdebareoba
an
momsaxurebis SesaZlebloba, an SearCios warmoebis aRWurviloba da
procedurebi. qvemoT mocemulia erT-erTi muxlis magaliTi, romelic
gansazRvravs menejeris uflebebs SromiT xelSekrulebaSi.
SeTanxmebulia, rom kompania flobs yvela uflebas, privilegiebs da
uflebamosilebas, romelic win uZRoda am SeTanxmebis Sesrulebas da am
SeTanxmebaSi araferi ar SeiZleba aRiniSnos iseTi, ramac SeiZleba kompania
SezRudos raime gziT menejmentis regularuli da Cveulebrivi funqciis
130
ganxorcielebaSi da biznesis muSaobaSi, Tumca is SeiZleba iyos uaryofili
an Secvlili am xelSekrulebis debulebiT.
HRM 5
SromiTi xelSekrulebis punqtebi
tipuri muxlebi
• anazRaureba
• Svebuleba
• dasvenebis dReebi
• samuSao grafiki
• xelmZRvanelobis uflebebi
• profkavSiris dacva
• gadayvanebi
• disciplina
• saCivris ganxilvis meTodebi
• gaficvis ararseboba /lokautis muxlis ararseboba
• damatebiTi samuSao saaTebi
• usafrTxoebis meTodebi
• samuSao gamocdileba
• pensiebi da SeRavaTebi
• autsorsingi
progresuli muxlebi
• TanamSromlebis ufleba oqmebze xelis miwvdomis Sesaxeb
• SezRudvebi saqmianobis Sefasebis gamoyenebaze
• ufrosTa pativiscema
• fleqsiuri samedicino xarjebi
• teqnologiuri aRWurvilobis dacva incidentebisagan
• SezRudvebi eleqtronul monitoringze
• narkologiuri analizis marTvis meTodebi
• orenovani stipendiebi
• Sida partniorobis SeRavaTebi
profkavSirebis dacvis garantia
rogorc am Tavis dasawyisSi aRvniSneT, profkavSirebma Tanabrad unda
warmoadginon molaparakebebis jgufis yvela wevri, miuxedavad imisa,
gaerTianebulni arian Tu ara isini profkavSirebSi. am valdebulebis
sanacvlod, profkavSirebis xelmZRvanelebma unda scadon, rom SeTanxmdnen
savaldebulo wevrobis zogierT formaze. profkavSirebis xelmZRvanelebi
amtkiceben, rom savaldebulo wevroba xels uSlis zogierT momuSaves, rom
miiRos
gaerTianebisgan sargebeli ise, rom ar gadaixados Tavisi wili
gadasaxadi. profkavSirebis SeTanxmebis standartuli debuleba aris
xelfasidan
profkavSiruli
sawevros
daqviTva,
romelic
akisrebs
131
damsaqmebels pasuxismgeblobas, rom ar damalos profkavSirebis wevrebis
sawevro Senatani.
SromiT
kontraqtSi
profkavSirebis
dacvis
sxva
saSualebebs
warmoadgens sxvadasxva formis xelSekrulebebi. es gansxvavebuli xarisxis
xelSekrulebebi moiTxovs, rom TanamSromlebi SeuerTdnen profkavSirebs.
magaliTad,
profkavSirebis ,,sawarmo“ iTvaliswinebs, rom Tu romelime
momuSave ar aris profkavSiris wevri, aucileblad unda gawevriandes
ocdaaTi dRis ganmavlobaSi an daiTxoven samsaxuridan. meore mxriv, uwyeba
iTvaliswinebs nebayoflobiT wevrobas, Tumca SeTanxmebis yvela wevrma unda
gadaixados profkavSirebis sawevro gadasaxadi.
koleqtiur molaparakebebSi
ramdenime sakiTxi ufro metad sakamaToa,
vidre
TviT
am
xelSekrulebasTan
dakavSirebuli
molaparakeba.
profkavSirebis
dacvis
yvelaze
popularuli
punqti,
profkavSirTa
“samsaxuri” arakanonieria 22 StatSi, sadac moqmedebs kanonebi Sromis
uflebis Sesaxeb. es kanoni krZalavs profkavSiris wevrobis nebismier
formas. Taft-harTlis aqtis me-14 nawili (b) nebas rTavs calkeul Statebs,
miiRon kanonmdebloba, romelic krZalavs profkavSirebis savaldebulo
wevrobas, rogorc muSaobis pirobas.
SromiTi xelSekrulebis regulireba
rogorc ukve aRvniSneT, SromiTi SeTanxmebis molaparakebebi
SromiTi urTierTobebis yvelaze cnobili da mniSvnelovani aspeqtia.
gaficvis vadebi, preskonferenciebi da momuSaveTa piketireba xels uwyobs
am imijis Seqmnas;
profkavSiruli organizaciebis menejerebma ician, rom
SromiTi
urTierTobebis
warmarTva
ZiriTadad
gamomdinareobs
xelSekrulebis yoveldRiuri Sesrulebidan. radganac xelSekrulebas ar
SeeZlo winaswar ganemarta davebis yvelanairi SesaZlo forma. agreTve,
rogorc ki xelSekrulebas xeli moewereba, TiToeuli mxare ganmartavs
TavisTvis xelsayrel punqtebs. es gansxvavebebi tradiciulad gvardeba
saCivris ganxilvis meTodebiT.
SeTanxmebuli saCivrebis ganxilvis procesi
Ukmayofilebis gadaxedvis procesi saSualebas aZlevs profkavSirs
warmoadginos Tavisi wevrebis (da ara mxolod wevrebis) interesebi saCivris
ganxilvis
procesSi.
zogi
administracia
Tvlis,
rom
is
aris
molaparakebiTi SeTanxmebis centri (guli) an usafrTxoebis saSualeba,
romelic ganapirobebs fleqsiurobas koleqtiuri SeTanxmebis mTliani
sistemisTvis. saCivris ganxilvis procesis dros orive mxarisTvis
mniSvnelovan sakiTxs warmoadgens Tu ramdenad efeqturad daakmayofilebs
sistema
profkavSirisa
da
administraciis
moTxovnebs.
Kkargad
Camoyalibebuli werilobiTi saCivris ganxilvis meTodi saSualebas
mogvcems
ukmayofileba
gadaxedil
iqnes
swrafad
da
naklebi
biurokratizmiT, ramdenadac SesaZlebelia. aseve man unda Seuwyos xeli
TanamSromlobas da ara konfliqts damsaqmebelsa da profkavSirs Soris.
saCivris
ganxilvis
meTodis
moqmedeba
unikaluria
TiToeuli
koleqtiuri
SeTanxmebis
urTierTobisTvis,
Tumca
arsebobs
saerTo
elementebi sistemebs Soris. magaliTad, saCivris gadaxedvis meTodebi
Cveulebriv gansazRvraven, Tu rogor unda daiwyos saCivris ganxilva,
132
procesis Semadgeneli etapebis ricxvsa da dros, da TiToeuli mxaris
warmomadgenlebs, romlebic CarTulni arian yoveli etapis dakiTxvebSi (ix.
sqema 14.4.). roca saCivari ver gvardeba romelime etapze, SeTanxmebebis
umetesoba unda waredginos mesame mxares (Cveulebriv, arbitrs), romlis
gadawyvetilebac sabolooa. zogierTi SromiTi SeTanxmeba uzrunvelyofs
Suamavlobas, rogorc TanamSromelTa saCivrebis mogvarebis saSualebas.
Suamavloba iTvleba oficialur etapad ukmayofilebis ganxilvis procesSi.
saCivrebis ganxilvis xuTetapiani procesi
arbitraJi
etapi 5
30 samuSao dRe
- adgilobrivi profkavSiris prezidenti
etapi 4
15 samuSao dRe
ufrosi momrigebeli
etapi 3
10 samuSao dRe
- profkavSiris momrigebeli
etapi 2
5 samuSao dRe
Seuracxyofili
etapi 1
industriuli urTierTobebi
ganyofilebis menejeri
uSualo zedamxedveli
uSualo zedamxedveli
kontraqtis darRveva
SeTanxmebuli saCivrebis ganxilvis procesis ganxorcieleba
imisaTvis, rom formalurad ganxilul iqnes TanamSromlis saCivari,
is unda waredginos zepiri da/an werilobiTi formiT TanamSromlis
uSualo
zedamxedvels
(ix.
HRM 2).
radganac
saCivrebi
xSirad
gaurkvevlobisa da cudi zedamxedvelobis Sedegia, mravali maTgani
SeiZleba mogvardes adgilzeve. SesaZlebelia Tu ara saCivris pirvelive
etapze mogvareba, es damokidebulia zedamxedvelis SesaZleblobaze da
survilze
ganixilos
problema
TanamSromelTan
da
momrigebelTan.
adamianuri resursebis specialistebi aRiareben da kvlevebic adastureben,
rom saCivrebis mogvareba ufro warmatebulia, roca zedamxedvelebi
oficialurad gadian trenings saCivrebis mogvarebaSi. es treningi unda
uzrunvelyofdes SromiTi SeTanxmebis pirobebis gacnobasa da rCeviTi
unarebis ganviTarebas, raTa xeli SevuwyoT problemis mogvarebas. imisaTvis,
rom saCivari warmatebiT mogvardes, administraciisa da profkavSiris
warmomadgenlebma
damatebiT
unda
SeZlon
problemis
ganxilva
racionalurad da obieqturad. saCivari ar unda miviCnioT iseT qmedebad,
133
razec SeiZleba gavimarjvoT an raSic SeiZleba davmarcxdeT. piriqiT: orive
mxarem unda ganixilos mdgomareoba, rogorc adamianuri urTierTobebis
problemis mogvarebis mcdeloba.
zogierT SemTxvevaSi damakmayofilebeli gadawyvetileba SeiZleba ver
iqnes miRweuli pirvelive etapze TanamSromelsa da zedamxedvels Soris
azrTa kanonieri sxvadasxvaobis gamo an imis gamo, rom zedamxedvels ara
aqvs uflebamosileba miiRos raime zomebi ukmayofilo TanamSromlis
dasakmayofileblad. piradi konfliqtebi, cru Sexedulebebi, emociebi,
sijiute an sxva faqtorebi SeiZleba aseve iyos barieri am etapze
damakmayofilebeli Sedegis miRwevisaTvis.
saCivrebis arbitraJi
arbitraJis funqcias warmoadgens uzrunvelyos saCivris ganxilvis
Sedegad gamosavlis moZebna, rac profkavSirma da damsaqmebelma ver SeZles.
rogorc adre aRvniSneT, arbitraJs axorcielebs neitraluri mesame mxare
(arbitri an miukerZoebeli samediatoro sasamarTlo). Aam mesame mxaris
gadawyvetileba karnaxobs, Tu rogor unda mogvardes es ukmayofileba.
orive mxare valdebulia daemorCilos am gadawyvetilebas.
samediatoro sasamarTloTi problemis gadawyveta
imis gadasawyvetad, gamoiyenon Tu ara arbitraJi gadawyvetilebis miRebis
dros, TiToeulma mxarem unda Seafasos xarjebi, amasTan gaiTvaliswinos
saqmis mniSvneloba da sasurveli Sedegis miRebis perspeqtiva. is unda iyos
logikuri, arc erTma mxarem ar unda warudginos arbitraJs umniSvnelo
saqme, Tu sasurveli Sedegis miRebis mcire SesaZlebloba arsebobs. Tumca
logika yovelTvis ar aris gadamwyveti. magaliTad, profkavSiri xSirad
warudgens xolme umniSvnelo saqmes arbitraJs, raTa aCvenos wevrebs, rom
kavSirs surs yvela Rone ixmaros maTi interesebis dasacavad. profkavSiris
moxeleebi aseve ar eridebian arbitraJSi Seitanon im wevrebis saCivrebi,
romlebic arian cnobili pirebi an aqvT politikuri Zalaufleba kavSirSi,
maSinac ki, roca maTi saqme ar aris metad seriozuli. ufro metic,
samarTliani warmomadgenlobis moZRvrebis Tanaxmad, kavSirebs aqvT
kanonieri movaleoba daxmareba gauwion wevrebs, romlebsac saCivrebi SeaqvT.
radganac wevrebs SeuZliaT saCivris Setana TavianTi kavSirebis winaaRmdeg,
rom maTi saCivrebi adekvaturad ar ganixileba, profkavSiris mravali
moxele iZulebulia uari Tqvas araseriozuli saCivrebis arbitraJSi
Setanaze.
Mmeore mxriv, xelmZRvanelobam SeiZleba dauSvas susti saqmis Setana
arbitraJSi, raTa anaxos profkavSiris TanamSromlebs, rom administracia
“ar SeiZleba SeSinebuli iyos”. Mmenejerebma SedarebiT dabal doneze
SeiZleba gariskon ufrosi xelmZRvanelobis usiamovneba imis gancxadebiT,
rom konkretuli adamianuri resursebis politikam ar gaamarTla an ar aris
saTanado. sijiutem da ormxrivma antagonizmma SeiZleba aseve gamoiwvios
mravali saCivris Setana arbitraJSi, radganac arc erT mxares ar surs
daTmobebze wasvla SeTanxmebis misaRwevad, maSinac ki, roca is aRiarebs,
rom is ar aris marTali.
HRM 6
134
saCivris forma
saCivris oqmi
transporti, adgilobrivi gadazidva da gayidva, sawyobebis mcvelebi da
maSvelebi, samTo mrewvelobis da kinos produqcia, arizonas Stati,
adgilobrivi kavSiri # 104
wevris saxeli--------------------------------------------------------------- TariRi ---------------------wevris misamarTi-------------------------------------- saxlis telefonis nomeri-----------qalaqi -------------------------------------- Stati------------------------- safosto kodi-----------kompaniis dasaxeleba, vis winaaRmdegac SegaqvT saCivari----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------detalurad axseniT saCivari------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------Tu saCivari exeba ganTavisuflebas, miuTiTeT kompaniis mizezi--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------es Seicavs srul uflebamosilebas, rom
transportisa da adgilobrivi
gadazidvis driverebi lokal 104 an maT mier daniSnuli nebismieri
TanamSromeli an Suamavali, rogorc rwmunebuli, aris Cemi warmomadgeneli
am saCivris procesSi da vaniWeb uflebamosilebas imoqmedos Tavisi
survilisamebr, rogorc miiCnevs CemTvis saWirod da miiRos Tanxa Cemi
saxeliT.
Ees saCivari SeiZleba ganxilul iqnes saCivris ganxilvis meTodiT,
(a)
me viTxov Setyobinebas dakiTxvis drois, TariRisa da
adgilis Sesaxeb;
(b)
me ar viTxov Setyobinebas dakiTxvis drois, TariRisa da
adgilis Sesaxeb.
me veTanxmebi, rom Tu daveswrebi dakiTxvas Cemi saxeliT, me gavakeTeb amas
Cemi xarjebiT da profkavSiri ar iqneba valdebuli amaze.
wevris xelmowera------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------kavSiris moqmedebis oqmi--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------saqme moagvara:--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------Suamavali
arbitraJis dakiTxva
Cveni gamocdilebis Tanaxmad, TanamSromlebi, romlebmac ar ician
arbitraJis Sesaxeb, xSirad procesi eCvenebaT gaurkveveli da daZabuli.
135
arbitraJis dakiTxvebi hgavs sasamarTlos dakiTxvas, mxolod sasamarTlo
procesis mravali formalobis gareSe. procesi iwyeba mowmeTa ficis
dadebiT da wardgenili SeTanxmebis gacnobiT. wardgenili SeTanxmeba
warmoadgens mosagvarebeli problemis gancxadebas. amgvari gancxadeba
SeiZleba ase JRerdes: ”aleqs heideis samdRiani droebiTi daTxovna iyo
safuZvliani Tu ara, ra aris Sesabamisi gamosavali?” Semdeg mxareebi
gaakeTeben Ria gancxadebebs, rasac faqtebisa da mtkicebulebis wardgena
mohyveba da mowmeTa zepiri Cvenebebi. dakiTxva moicavs ToToeuli mxaris
mokle gancxadebebs, rac warmoadgens argumentebs
maTi poziciis
mxardasaWerad.
davis
ganxilvis
procesSi,
arbitri
valdebulia
uzrunvelyos
samarTliani dakiTxva TiToeuli mxarisTvis. dakiTxvis dros SesaZlebelia
yvelanairi faqtebis Cveneba, rac saqmisTvisaa misaRebi. dakiTxvis mTavari
mizania daexmaros arbitrs saWiro faqtebis mopovebaSi adamianuri
urTierTobebis problemis mosagvareblad. arbitrs aqvs ufleba dakiTxos
mowme an moiTxovos damatebiTi faqtebi romelime mxarisgan. dakiTxvis
Catarebisa da daskvnebis gamotanis Semdeg (SeiZleba mxareebma airCion maTi
wardgena), arbitrs Cveulebriv aqvs ocdaaTi dRe, raTa ganixilos
mtkicebuleba da gamoitanos gadawyvetileba. SromiTi kontraqtebis
umravlesobaSi arbitraJis xarjebs mxareebi Tanabrad inawileben.
arbitraJis gadawyvetileba
arbitraJis ganaCeni moicavs ara mxolod arbitris gadawyvetilebas,
aramed agreTve uzrunvelyofs mis gonivrul axsna-ganmartebas da ZiriTad
mizezs.
gadawyvetilebis
miRma
msjeloba
daexmareba
arbitrs
xelmZRvanelobaSi
SromiTi
SeTanxmebis
interpretaciasTan
da
administraciis mxridan warmoSobili momavali davebis mogvarebasTan
dakavSirebiT. TiToeuli mxaris poziciebis dafiqsirebis dros msjeloba
amcirebs imedgacruebas da icavs im pirovnebaTa TviT-pativiscemas,
romlebic warmoadgenen warumatebel mxares.
Mmravali sarCelis SemTxvevaSi, romlebic exeba TanamSromelTa
saqmianobas an samsaxurSi qcevas, arbitrma unda gansazRvros, uWers Tu ara
mtkicebuleba mxars damsaqmebels dazaralebulis winaaRmdeg. mtkicebulebam
unda aCvenos, misces Tu ara TanamSromels Sesabamisi samarTlebrivi
procesis ufleba, romelic warmoadgens TanamSromlis kanonier uflebas
acnobon aradamakmayofilebeli saqmianobis Sesaxeb da miscen SesaZlebloba
upasuxos am braldebebs. SromiTi SeTanxmebebis umravlesobis Tanaxmad,
damsaqmebels unda hqondes gatarebuli RonisZiebis safuZvliani mizezi da
es qmedeba unda dadasturdes warmodgeneli mtkicebulebiT. roca
xelmZRvaneloba ver uWers mxars mZime mtkicebulebas (an xelmZRvanelobis
qmedebebi CaiTvleba usamarTlod), maSin arbitris kompetenciaSi Sedis
sasjelis Semsubuqeba. magaliTad, arbits SeuZlia ganTavisfleba Secvalos
droebiTi
daTxovniT
anazRaurebis
gareSe
gansazRvruli
periodis
ganmavlobaSi.
arbitraJis mniSvnelobis gamo, profkavSirisa da araprofkavSirul
organizaciebSi
procesi,
ris
safuZvelzec
arbitrebs
gamoaqvT
gadawyvetileba,
agreTve
faqtebi,
romlebic
gavlenas
axdenen
am
gadawyvetilebebze,
menejerebisTvis
mudmiv
interess
warmoadgens.
136
Cveulebriv arbitrebi iyeneben oTx faqtors saqmeebis gadawyvetilebebis
miRebis dros:
1. SromiTi
SeTanxmebis
formulireba
(an
samuSao
politika
araprofkavSirul organizaciebSi);
2. SeTanxmebis wardgena arbitrisTvis;
3. dakiTxvis dros SemoTavazebuli mtkicebuleba da Cveneba;
4. arbitraJis kriteriumebi da standartebi (saerTo kanonis msgavsi
standartebi), ris winaaRmdegac ganixileba saqmeebi.
xangrZlivi gacdenebis gamo ganTavisuflebuli TanamSromlis saqmis
ganxilvisas, magaliTad, arbitri ganixilavs am faqtorebs
calke da/an
mTlianad. arbitrebi ZiriTadad SezRudulni arian miiRon gadawyvetileba
SromiTi SeTanxmebis formulirebis safuZvelze, an samuSao politikis, da
dakiTxvaze
warmodgenili
faqtebis,
Cvenebebisa
da
mtkicebulebis
safuZvelze.
Ppraqtikulad, arbitraJis gadawyvetilebis miReba ar aris zusti
mecniereba. sinamdvileSi arbitrebis gadawyvetilebebi SeiZleba ufro metad
subieqturi iyos. arbitrebi ganmartaven kontraqtis enas sxvadasxvanairad
(magaliTad, ras niSnavs “safuZvliani ganTavisufleba”), isini adgenen
mniSvnelobis sxvadasxva xarisxebs mtkicebulebisTvis, isini sxvanairad
ganixilaven mowmeTa samarTlianobas, da aZleven arbitraJis standartebs
ufro met an nakleb mniSvnelobas, roca mimarTaven faqtebs. TiToeuli es
gavlena emsaxureba subieqturobis damkvidrebas gadawyvetilebis miRebis
procesSi.
SromiTi organizaciebis Tanamedrove problemebi
SromiTi urTierTobebis ganxilvas davasrulebT profkavSirebis winaSe
wamoyenebuli sami mniSvnelovani sakiTxis gaSuqebiT: ucxouri konkurencia
da teqnologiuri winsvlebi, profkavSirebis wevrebis Semcireba, da
damsaqmebelTa koncentracia araprofkavSiruli statusis SenarCuneba.
ucxouri konkurencia da teqnologiuri cvlileba
foladis, samomxmareblo eleqtronikis, avtomobilebis, tansacmlis,
safeiqro
nawarmisa
da
fexsacmelebis
importireba
sazRvargareTis
qveynebidan iwvevs samuSao adgilebis dakargvas SeerTebul StatebSi im
muSakebisTvis, romlebic am produqtebs awarmoeben. ufro metic, amerikuli
korporaciebis ucxouri filialebi, rogoricaa naiki, vesTinghauzi da
qseroqsi,
daadanaSaules
profkavSirebma
amerikeli
muSakebisTvis
samuSaoebis warTmevaSi. amis Sedegad profkavSirebi moiTxoven ufro met
samTavrobo dacvas importis winaaRmdeg. aseTma dacvam waaqeza kongresis
debatebi erTi mxriv, imaT Soris, vinc amtkicebs, rom dacviTi savaWro
barierebi qmnian ufro maRal fasebs amerikeli momxmareblebisTvis da,
meore mxriv, imaT Soris, vinc cdilobs daicvas amerikis samsaxurebi
dabalfasiani
ucxouri
mwarmoeblebisgan.
aSS-is
kavSirebi
zogadad
winaaRmdegni
arian
savaWro
SeTanxmebisa,
romelic
daexmareba
dabalxelfasian damsaqmeblebs sxva qveynebSi.
ucxouri konkurenciis muqara problemas warmoadgens SromiTi
procesisaTvis, rac
swrafma teqnologiurma winsvlebma gamoiwvia.
kompiuteruli
teqnikis
ganviTarebam
da
maRalavtomaturma
samuSao
137
sistemebma Seamcira garkveuli Tanamdebobebis TanamSromlebze moTxovna.
wevrebis Semcireba avto, foladis, rezinis warmiebisa da transportirebis
prof-kavSirebSi am faqtze miuTiTebs. teqnologiurma winsvlebma agreTve
Seamcira
gaficvebis
efeqturoba,
radganac
maRalavtomatizebul
organizaciebs,
samuSaos
Seferxebis
dros,
SeuZliaT
saqmianobis
damakmayofilebeli donis SenarCuneba minimaluri kadrebiT.
profkavSiris wevrebis Semcireba
mTavari problema, romelic ewinaaRmdegeba organizebul profkavSirs,
aris kavSirebis wevrebis Semcireba. Pproblemis mniSvnelobas asaxavs
statistika, romelic gviCvenebs, rogor Semcirda kavSiris wevrTa raodenoba
da rogor daeca mTliani samoqalaqo samuSao Zalis procentuloba. 1970
wels profkavSiris wevrTa raodenoba Seadgenda daaxloebiT 21 milions,
rac iyo
samoqalaqo samuSao Zalis 25 procenti. 1990 wels es cifrebi
daeca 16.7 milion wevramde, rac iyo samoqalaqo samuSao Zalis 16 procentze
odnav meti. 2001 wels wevrTa raodenoba Seadgenda 16.3 milions _
samoqalaqo samuSao Zalis 13.5 procents. kerZo seqtorSi kavSiris wevrTa
raodenoba Seadgenda daaxloebiT yvela dasaqmebulis 10 procents, an
daaxloebiT 9 milion muSaks. profkavSiris samsaxurebis dakargva
nawilobriv asaxavs aSS-is warmoebis samsaxurebs, radgan kavSirebi wevrebs
ver iReben TeTrsayeloianebisgan, sadac samuSao Zala ufro swrafad
izrdeba.
ras akeTeben SromiTi organizaciebi wevrTa Semcirebis SesaCereblad?
erT-erTi profkavSiris moxelis TqmiT, am kiTxvis pasuxia “energiuli
organizeba”. pirvel rigSi profkavSirebi gamiznulia muSakebze, romlebic
maT didi xania aRar axsovT. esenia dabalxelfasiani muSakebi aSS-is
ekonomikis bolo doneze, magaliTad, mcvelebi, mosamsaxureebi, da momsaxure
muSakebi; kvebis momsaxurebis TanamSromlebi da klarkebi. Uufro metic:
profkavSirebi miiCneven imigrantebs _
momuSave mosaxleobis yvelaze
swrafad mzard nawils _ kavSiris zrdis Zlevamosil perspeqtivad.
Hhaitianis mZRolebi da azia-amerikis momsaxurebis muSakebi gamiznulni
arian
prof-kavSiris
warmomadgenlobisTvis.
jon
svinma,
AFL-CIO-is
prezidentma, fraza “amerikas sWirdeba aRorZineba” miiRo, rogorc AFL-CIOis devizi weliwadSi 20-milioniani organizebisTvis.
damatebiT profkavSirebi aZliereben TavianT Zalisxmevas marTon
TeTrsayeloiani muSakebi. Bbolo wlebis ganmavlobaSi damsaqmeblebma
individualuri gaxades TeTrsayeloianebis jgufebis muSaoba da gamoyves
isini xelmZRvanelobisgan. saCivrebis mogvarebaSi siZneleebma, agreTve
samuSaos usafrTxoebis simcirem warmoebis SeCerebis dros ubiZga
TeTrsayeloianebs gaerTianebisken. kavSirebi aseve kapitalizacias axdens
jandacvis
da
usafrTxoebis
axal
sakiTxebze
TeTrsayeloianebis
samsaxurebSi, rogoricaa muSaobis Sedegebi videoekranebis terminalebze an
muSaoba potenciurad saSiS nivTierebebTan. TeTrsayeloiani TanamSromlebis
dakompleqtebaSi aqtiurad monawileoben Semdegi kavSirebi: momsaxurebis
TanamSromlebis
saerTaSoriso
kavSirebi;
mZRolebis
saerTaSoriso
amxanagoba;
9-dan
5-mde
qalTa
erovnuli
asociacia;
profesional
TanamSromelTa saerTaSoriso asociacia; muSakTa dazRvevis saerTaSoriso
kavSiri;
gaerTianebuli
avtomuSakebi
da
amerikis
gaerTianebuli
mefoladeebi.
138
damsaqmeblis fokusireba araprofkavSiruli statusis SenarCunebaze
K
kirk adamsma, AFL-CIO-is organizebis direqtorma, aRniSna, rom
“damsaqmeblis SezRudva organizebis sakiTxebSi TandaTan izrdeba”. da
marTlac, mniSvnelovani faqti aSS-is SromiT urTierTobebSi 1990-ian
wlebSi da ocdameerTe saukuneSi aris profkavSiris gauqmebis programebis
gavlena. Yyvela saxis organizaciebSi menejerebi gamoxataven survils
SeinarCunon profkavSirisgan Tavisufali garemo. am miznis misaRwevad
damsaqmeblebi
uzrunvelyofen
xelfass
da
servisebs,
raTa
TanamSromlebisTvis gaerTianeba araefeqturi gaxadon. SemoTavazebulia
agreTve
monawileobiTi
administraciis
stili,
mogebis
ganawilebis
programebi da alternatiuli davebis mogvarebis meTodebi (ix. Tavi 13), raTa
SeewinaaRmdegon
didi
xnis
Camoyalibebuli
profkavSiris
miznebs
gaumjobesebuli anazRaurebisa da samuSao pirobebis misaRwevad. HRM7-Si
mocemulia adamianuri resursebis specialistebis mier gansazRvruli
ZiriTadi strategiebi, rogorc gaerTianebis Tavidan acilebis saSualeba.
mniSvnelovania vaRiaroT, rom es strategiebi, rogorc TanamSromelTa
gaerTianebis mTavari mizezi, pasuxoben am Tavis dasawyisSi ganxilul
pirobebs. radgan am pirobebs uSualod administracia aregulirebs, isini
ise SeiZleba Secvalon, rom xeli SeuSalon gaerTianebas an saerTod
Tavidan aicilon is.
HRM 7
strategiebi imisTvis, rom davrCeT profkavSirisgan Tavisufali
•
•
•
•
•
•
SesTavazeT konkurentunariani anazRaureba da SeRavaTebi Sromis
bazris Sedarebebsa da xelfasebis gamokvlevebze dayrdnobiT;
gadaamzadeT zedamxedvelebi progresuli adamianuri urTierTobebis
unarebSi; sxva unarebTan erTad unda ganixilebodes TanamSromlis
motivacia, samsaxuris dizaini da Sromis kanoni;
SeimuSaveT oficialuri meTodebi TanamSromelTa saCivrebisa da
ukmayofilebis
mosagvareblad; es SeiZleba gulisxmobdes ganxilvis
komitetebs, saCivrebis etapobrivi ganxilvis sistemebs an “Ria karis”
politikas;
CarTeT TanamSromlebi samsaxurebrivi gadawyvetilebebis miRebaSi,
romlebic gavlenas axdenen saqmianobaze, produqtis an servisis
xarisxsa da raodenobaze,
yuradReba miaqcieT TanamSromelTa zrdasa da ganviTarebis saWiroebas;
daakvirdiT,
rom
samuSao
Zala
izrdebodes
ufro
asakovani
TanamSromlebiT, ufro metad _
qalbatonebiT, ganaTlebulebiT,
momTmenebiT da naklebad momTxovnebiT;
SeimuSaveT
adamianuri
resursebis
politika,
romelic
asaxavs
samarTlebrivi
usafrTxoebis
zomebs,
rogoricaa
disciplina,
dawinaureba, treningi da ganTavisufleba.
M
mokle mimoxilva
1.
1926 wlis
molaparakebebis
rkinigzis
uflebebs
SromiTi aqti uzrunvelyofs koleqtiuri
TanamSromlebisTvis,
romlebic
muSaoben
139
rkinigzasa da aviaxazebis industriaSi. oris-la guardias aqti (1932)
warmoadgens SezRudvebs sasamarTlo akrZalvebis Sesaxeb profkavSirisa da
administraciis
davebSi.
kerZo
TanamSromlebis
umetesobas
eniWeba
warmomadgenlobiTi uflebebi vagneris aqtis (1935) saSualebiT, romelic
daexmara profkavSiris organizebisa da molaparakebebis RonisZiebebis
dacvasa da xelis Sewyobas. Taft-harTlis aqtis nawyveti (1947) da landrumgrifinis aqti (1959) gamiznulia, raTa Camoyalibdes konkretuli kontroli
kavSirebis Sida saqmianobasa da damsaqmeblebTan urTierTobaze.
2.
Ggamokvlevebi gviCvenebs, rom muSakebi erTiandebian sxvadasxva
ekonomikuri, fsiqologiuri da socialuri mizezebis gamo. zogierT
TanamSromels SeuZlia SeuerTdes kavSirebs, radgan maT amis gakeTebas
sTxoven, Tumca umetesoba ukve ekuTvnis profkavSirebs, radganac isini
darwmunebulni arian, rom profkavSirebi maT daexmareba xelfasebis
gazrdasa da sxva samuSao pirobebis gaumjobesebaSi.
TanamSromelTa
gaerTianeba umetesad gamowveulia menejeruli praqtikebiTa da meTodebiT
ukmayofilebis gamo.
3.
FprofkavSiris
formaluri
organizebis
kampania
gamoiyeneba
TanamSromelTa
mxardaWeris
mosapoveblad
kavSirisTvis.
radgan
TanamSromlebi
gamoxateven
survils
gaerTiandnen
uflebamosilebis
baraTebze xelis moweriT, profkavSiri mimarTvas NLRB-s faruli
kenWisyriT arCevnebisTvis. Tu amomrCevelTa 51 procenti mxars dauWers
kavSirs,
NLRB daamtkicebs profkavSirs, rogorc yvela TanamSromlis
momrigebel warmomadgenels molaparakebebis ganyofilebaSi.
4.
SromiTi xelSekrulebis Sesaxeb molaparakebebi detaluri ganxilvis
process warmoadgens. TiToeuli mxare winadadebebis nusxas amzadebs;
mxareebs surT miaRwion TavianT mizans da aseve damatebiT cdiloben
gansazRvron meore mxaris sasurveli SemoTavazebebi. molaparakebebis
gundebma unda SearCion da ganixilon yvela SemoTavazeba, raTa gansazRvron
maTi mniSvneloba da gavlena organizaciaze. Oorive mxare – damsaqmebelic
da profkavSiris Suamavlebic _ zustad iyenebs molaparakebebis modelebs
industriis,
zogadad
cxovrebis
donis
tendenciebis,
geografiuli
anazRaurebis gansxvavebebSi. Mmenejerebi miznad isaxaven, rom SeinarCunon
kontroli operaciebze da minimumamde daiyvanon xarjebi. profkavSiris
Suamavlebi
TavianT
moTxovnebs
ayeneben
gaumjobesebuli
pirobebis,
xelfasebisa da samuSao saaTebis Taobaze. SeTanxmeba miiRweva, roca orive
mxare SeTanxmdeba Tavdapirvel poziciebsa da saboloo pirobebze mxareTa
molaparakebebis zonis SezRudvebis farglebSi.
tradiciulad
koleqtiuri
molaparakebebi
profkavSirsa
da
administacias Soris urTierTsawinaaRmdegoa. amJamad gaizarda interesi
molaparakebebze, romlebic dafuZnebulia ormxriv Sedegebze da mxareTa
Soris
gaRrmavebul
pativiscemaze.
rasac
FMCS uwodebs
interesze
dafuZnebul molaparakebebs aris arawinaaRmdegobrivi molaparakebebis erTerTi forma.
5.
koleqtiuri molaparakebis procesi gulisxmobs ara marto realur
molaparakebas, aramed agreTve Zalauflebis taqtikas, romelic gamoiyeneba
mosagvarebeli moTxovnebis mxardasaWerad. roca molaparakeba CixSi Sedis,
igi gadaiqceva uflebamosilebis brZolad, romlis drosac romelime mxare
ZaldatanebiT cdilobs daTmobebis miRwevas, rac gamoiyvans maT gamouvali
mdgomareobidan. PprofkavSiris Zalaufleba koleqtiur SeTanxmebebSi
140
gamomdinareobs misi SesaZleblobidan gamoucxados gaficva, boikoti an
piketireba damsaqmebels. xelmZRvanelobis uflebamosileba molaparakebebis
periodSi gamomdinareobs misi SesaZleblobidan lokauti gamoucxados
TanamSromlebs an gaficvis dros imuSaos xelmZRvanelisa da rezervis
TanamSromlebis gamoyenebiT.
6.
roca problemebi warmoiSoba profkavSirebsa da xelmZRvanelobas
Soris, isini Cveulebriv saCivrebis ganxilvis MmeTodebis saSualebiT
regulirdeba. saCivrebis ganxilvis SemuSaveba mxareebis moTxovnebsa da
survilebs gamoxatavs. tipuri meTodi Sedgeba sami, oTxi an xuTi etapisgan.
yovel safexurs gansazRvruli vadebi aqvs. SedarebiT ufrosi menejerebi da
profkavSiris moxeleebi erTvebian davebSi saCivrebis ganxilvis MmeTodebis
SedarebiT maRal etapebze. am meTodis bolo safexuri SeiZleba iyos
arbitraJi. arbitrebs saboloo gadawyvetileba gamoaqvT, rac ver mogvarda
dawyebiT etapebze.
wardgenili SeTanxmeba warmoadgens sakiTxis gancxadebas, romelic
unda mogvardes arbitraJis saSualebiT. es ubralod aris problema,
romlis mogvarebac surT mxareebs. arbitrma pasuxi unda gasces sakiTxs
arbitraJis oTx faqtorze dayrdnobiT, raTa daexmaros profkavSirisa da
administraciis sxvadasxva tipis davebis mogvarebas. Es faqtorebia: SromiTi
xelSekrulebis Sinaarsi (an Sromis politika), wardgenili werilobiTi
SeTanxmeba, dakiTxvaze mopovebuli Cveneba da mtkicebuleba da drodadro
SemuSavebuli sxvadasxva saarbitro standartebi, arbitraJi ar aris zusti
mecniereba, radganac arbitrebi sxvadasxvagvar mniSvnelobas aniWeben
davebis mosagvarebel mtkicebulebasa da kriteriumebs.
7. profkavSiris liderebis winaSe mdgar problemebs dRes warmoadgens
teqnologiuri
winsvlebiT
gamowveuli
wevrebis
Semcireba
da
gazrdili Sida da globaluri konkurencia. Sromis organizaciebi
aRweven nakleb warmatebas organizaciebSi, roca damsaqmeblebi adgenen
adamianuri
resursebis
progresul
politikas
xelfasis,
TanamSromelTa
sargeblobisa
da
organizaciuli
politikis
sferoebSi, rac aZlierebs samuSao usafrTxoebas da TanamSromelTa
pativiscemas. wevrTa Semcirebis SesaCereblad profkavSirebi aqtiurni
gaxdnen dabali Tanamdebobis TanamSromlebis, imigrantebisa da
TeTrsayeloiani TanamSromlebis organizebaSi.
ZiriTadi terminebi
arbitri
uflebamosilebis baraTi
molaparakebebis ufleba
molaparakebebis jgufi
molaparakebebis zona
biznesis gaerTianeba
koleqtiuri SeTanxmebebis procesi
xelobis profkavSirebi
TanamSromelTa asociaciebi
eqskluziuri warmomadgenloba
samarTliani warmomadgenlobis moZRvreba
141
saCivrebis ganxilvis meTodi
industriuli profkavSirebi
interesze dafuZnebuli molaparakebebi
SromiTi urTierTobebis procesi
uflebaTa arbitraJi
ukanono SromiTi maqinaciebi (ULPs)
profkavSiris ganyofileba
profkavSiris Suamavali
gansaxilveli kiTxvebi
1. taft-harTlis aqtis debulebebis Tanaxmad, romeli ukanono SromiTi
praqtika exeba orives – profkavSirsa da damsaqmebels?
2. erTmaneTs SeadareT profkavSirisa da damsaqmeblis mier wardgeneli,
kavSirTan dakavSirebuli argumentebi
3. aRwereT etapebi tradiciul organizebaSi. romel “aratradiciul”
organizebis
taqtikas
iyeneben
kavSirebi
TavianTi
wevrebis
gasazrdelad?
4. ra mniSvneloba eniWeba SeTanxmebis zonas
molaparakebebis
warmoebaSi? ra axdens gavlenas molaparakebebis Sedegebze?
5. saerTaSoriso monacemTa samsaxursa da mis profkavSirs Soris
molaparakebebi CixSi moeqca. Mmogvarebis uflebamosilebis ra formas
flobs ToToeuli mxare Tavisi moTxovnebis gasaZliereblad? Mra
aris mogvarebis uflebamosilebis TiToeuli formis dadebiTi da
uaryofiTi mxareebi damsaqmeblisa da profkavSirisTvis?
6. nensi bafetma gadawyvita waeyenebina saCivari Tavisi kavSiris
SuamavlTan. saCivris Tanaxmad, mas umcrosi TanamSromeli “aiZulebda”,
rom daewinaurebina ufros teqnikosad.
a. axseniT
safexurebi,
romelsac
misi
saCivari
gaivlis
profkavSirisa da administraciis saCivris ganxilvis oficialur
procesSi;
b. unda warudginon misi saCivari arbitraJs, axseniT arbitraJis
dakiTxvis
procesi
da
gansazRvreT
misi
pretenziis
mosagvareblad arbitris mier gamoyenebuli kriteriumebi.
7. a. ra RonisZiebebs mimarTaven kavSirebi Tanamedrove problemebis
aRmosafxvrelad?
b. ratom gaxda Cveni sazogadoebis ama Tu im konkretuli nawilis
damokidebulebebi organizebuli profkavSiris mimarT naklebad
keTilganwyobili, vidre es warsulSi iyo?
PprofkavSiris organizebis kampania
P
profkavSiris organizebis kampaniebi aris daZabuli da emociuri
periodebi
profkavSiris
moxeleebisTvis,
TanamSromlebisa
da
menejerebisTvis.
TanamSromlebi
SeiZleba
emociurad
daiZabon
da,
eqstremalur situaciebSi, SeiZleba maT Soris megobrobac gawydes.
menejerebisTvis profkavSiris organizebis dasawyisi metad rTulia. Zalze
mniSvnelovania TanamSromelTa problemebis marTva ise, rom orive mxaris
warmatebas miaRwio. es savarjiSo dagexmarebaT SeiswavloT profkavSiris
organizebis tipuri kampania.
142
davaleba
kavSiris organizebis dros profkavSiri da administracia amuSaveben
gegmas, raTa warudginon TavianTi pozicia TanamSromlebs. TiToeuli mxaris
mizania Seagrovos informacia, romelic SeiZleba saqmis warmarTvisTvis
profkavSiris sasargeblod an sawinaaRmdegod gamoiyenos. TiToeuli mxare
cdilobs Tavidan aicilos ukanono SromiTi qmedebebi. kavSirisa da
administraciis warmomadgenlebis gundebSi muSaobis dros upasuxeT Semdeg
kiTxvebs da moemzadeT warmoadginoT Tqveni daskvnebi ganxilvis dros.
kiTxvebi:
1. ra meTodebi SeiZleba gamoiyenos profkavSirma TanamSromlebTan
urTierTobisTvis?
2. ra
informacia
SeiZleba
moipovos
xelmZRvanelobis
Sesaxeb
profkavSirma TanamSromlis mxardasaWerad?
3. ra
informaciis
Segroveba
SeiZleba
surdes
administracias
profkavSiris Sesaxeb?
4. ra meTodebi SeiZleba gamoiyenon profkavSirma da administraciam
TanamSromlebisTvis “TavianTi zRaprebis mosayolad”?
5. romeli ukanono qmedebebisgan unda daicvan Tavi profkavSirma da
administraciam?
Kkonkretuli SemTxvevis ganxilva 1
PprofkavSiris kampania apolos korporaciaSi: ULP da organizebis taqtikebi
B bob tomasi gaaTavisufles apolos korporaciaSi sawarmos SemkeTebel
meqanikosad cxrametwliani muSaobis Semdeg. am drois ganmavlobaSi is
iRebda saSualo, zogjer saSualoze dabal yovelwliuri saqmianobis
Sefasebebs. tomass icnobdnen, rogorc ukmayofilo da Semawuxebel
TanamSromels,
is
Zalian
akritikebda
xelmZRvanelobas.
Mmis
ganTavisuflebamde wina xuTi wlis ganmavlobaSi misi daswrebis monacemebi
Zalian cudi iyo. Mmiuxedavad amisa, apolos korporacias arasodes
gamouyenebia daswrebis politika da arasodes dausjia tomasi cudi
daswrebis gamo. Ffaqtobrivad, bolo dromde apolos administracia metad
tolerantuli iyo TanamSromelTan urTierTobebSi.
Aapolos
korporacia
awarmoebs
kavSirgabmulobis
industriis
nawilebs. industria Seferxda 1998 wlidan intensiuri konkurenciuli
zemoqmedebiT. Aam problemis gadasaWrelad, jin lipskim, adamianuri
resursebis direqtorma, Caatara mravali Sexvedra menejerebTan da gaacno
maT TanamSromlebTan maTi sazedamxedvelo urTierTobis gaZlierebis
Sesaxeb. maT moaxsenes, rom zustad unda daicvan adamianuri resursebis
politika
da
daiwyon
disciplinaruli
moqmedebebis
ganxorcieleba
TanamSromlebis winaaRmdeg, romelTa saqmianobac ar Seesabameba kompaniis
politikas.
es
cvlilebebi
didad
ar
moewonaT
TanamSromlebs,
gansakuTrebiT ki bob tomass. rodesac administraciis axali
midgomis
Sesaxeb gaigo, tomasi gabrazda da ganacxada: “isini amas ver gaarTmeven
Tavs. Mme wigni davwere amis Sesaxeb”. magram farulad tomass sjeroda, rom
misi warsuli qceva mis sawinaaRmdegod SeiZleboda gamomdgariyo da daiwyo
zrunva samuSaos dasacavad.
143
samsaxuris
Semdeg,
saRamos
tomasi
daukavSirda
meqanikosTa
amxanagobis profkavSiris organizators da sTxova kavSirs kampania daewyo
apoloSi. erTi kviris ganmavlobaSi TanamSromlebma eqspress acnobes
profkavSiris Sexvedris Sesaxeb. roca lipskim gaigo am kampaniisa da
tomasis xelmZRvanelobis Sesaxeb, man gadawyvita gaeTavisuflebina igi.
tomasis ganTavisuflebis brZaneba ityobineba: “ganTavisuflebul iqna cudi
muSaobisa da aradamakmayofilebeli daswrebis gamo.” tomasi gamoiZaxes
lipskis ofisSi da acnobes ganTavisuflebis Sesaxeb. ofisis datovebis
Semdeg igi daukavSirda profkavSiris organizators da isini gaemarTnen
NLRB-is raionul samsaxurSi, raTa waeyenebinaT ukanono SromiTi praqtikis
braldeba tomasis saxeliT. ULP daamtkica, rom is gaagdes profkavSirisa da
organizebis kampaniisadmi mxardaWerisTvis.
jin lipskis saerTod naklebi gamocdileba hqonda kavSirebis
sakiTxebSi da ar hqonda specialuri gamocdileba kavSiris organizebis
kampaniebTan urTierTobaSi. lipskis samwuxarod, meqanikosTa amxanagobam _
lokal
1463-m
daiwyo
kampania
apolos
winaaRmdeg
1
ivniss.
sanamPprofkavSiris
dawyebiTi
moqmedebebi
ixveweboda
(ecnobebinaT
mfrinavebisTvis organizaciuli Sexvedris Sesaxeb), 10 ivnisisTvis aSkara
gaxda,
rom
TanamSromelTa
mxardaWera
kavSirisadmi
gaizarda
da
profkavSiris kampaniac metad intensiuri gaxda. Llipskis winaSe aRar idga
sakiTxi ase: “ rame unda moimoqmedos “apolom”?”, aramed ase: “ra unda
gaakeTos
“apolom”?”
lipskisTvis
naTeli
gaxda,
rom
profkavSiri
valdebuli
iyo
sruliad
axali
Zalixmeva
gamoeyenebina
kompaniis
TanamSromelTa gasaerTianeblad. zedamxedvelebma mas moaxsenes, rom
kavSiris mxardamWerebi iRebdnen uflebamosilebis baraTebs, raTa TxovniT
miemarTaT NLRB-sTvis dasamtkicebeli arCevnebis Taobaze.
kiTxvebi:
1. ra kanondarRveva (arsebobis SemTxvevaSi) Caidina apolos korporaciam?
2. ra argumentebi gamoiyenes jin lipskim da bob tomasma TavianTi
saqmeebis mxardasaWerad?
3. CamoTvaleT, ra ar unda gaakeTon menejerebma, roca isini sCadian
ukanono SromiT qmedebebs.
Kkonkretuli SemTxvevis ganxilva 2
arbitraJi, jeisi stranksis SemTxveva
arbitraJis dakiTxvaze orive mxarem mtkiced unda daicvas Tavisi
pozicia. “poeniqs semikonduqtoris” mTavari menejeri irwmuneboda, rom
mosarCle, nensi houngi axlaxans gaaTavisufles TanamSromelTan kamaTisa
da dartymis gamo, rac warmoadgens kompaniis politikisa da TanamSromlis
saxelmZRvanelos pirdapir darRvevas. stanksi amtkicebda, rom muSaobis
dros, rva wlis ganmavlobaSi is kargi TanamSromeli iyo.
wardgenili SeTanxmeba, romelic marTavda am saqmes, ase JRerda:
“damqiraveblis poziciis Tanaxmad, arsebobda safuZvliani mizezi batoni
jeisi stanksis
ganTavisuflebisTvis; mas Sesaferisi jarima daekisra
Cadenili samarTaldarRvevis gamo.” damsaqmebelma CvenebaSi axsena Sromis
xelSekruleba, romelic gansazRvravda ganTavisuflebis mizezs:
144
safuZvliani mizezi ganapirobebs disciplinarul RonisZiebas, es
mizezebia:
arakeTilsindisiereba,
araefeqturoba,
araprofesionaluri
moqceva, gacdenebi, oqmebis gayalbeba, kompaniis politikis darRveva, qonebis
xelyofa, ganadgureba an alkoholis an narkotikebis floba an misi
zemoqmedebis qveS yofna.
stanksi muSaobda sistemis teqnikosad 1994 wlis 20 noembridan
mis
ganTavisuflebamde, 2002 wlis 25 oqtombramde. huangis Cvenebis Tanxmad,
P”poeniqs semikonduqtor” kompania ecada SeenarCunebina pozitiuri da
centraluri samuSao garemo TanamSromlebSi. brZola samsaxurisTvis
mkacrad iyo akrZaluli. stanksis saqmianobis Sefasebam aCvena, rom is iyo
saSualo donis TanamSromeli, Tumca mas miRebuli hqonda ramdenime
disciplinaruli gafrTxileba cudi daswrebis gamo da daimsaxura erTi
samdRiani droebiTi daTxovna “sistemis kontrolis SecdomisTvis”. stankss
zogadad pativs scemdnen Tavisi TanamSromlebi da ramdenime maTganma
arbitraJis dakiTxvaze mis sasargeblod misca Cveneba.
stanksis samsaxuridan daTxovnas kavSiri hqonda mas da meore
teqnikoss, gari lindekins Soris momxdar CxubTan. am incindentis
TviTmxilvelebis Tanaxmad, orive – stanksi da lindekini metad gabrazdnen
warmoebis aRWurvilobis saTuTi nawilis Semowmebis swor meTodze
kamaTisas. rogorc erT-erTma mowmem ganacxada, es gacxarebuli kamaTi
gagrZelda daaxloebiT sami wuTi da damTavrda maSin, roca stanksim
Zlierad daartya xeli lindekins mxarze. lindekini Zlier ganarisxa
stanksis saqcielma da saswrafod Seatyobina xelmZRvanelobas. mas Semdeg,
rac dakiTxes stanksi da lindekini da am incindentis TviTmxilvelebi:
haungi da samanta lovri, TanamSromelTa uSualo zedamxedvelma da granT
grinma, departamentis menejerma gadawyvites stanksis samsxaxuridan
daTxovna araprofesiuli saqcielisa da kompaniis politikis darRvevisTvis.
kiTxvebi:
1. romel arguments mianiWeben ufro did mniSvnelobas: imas, romelic
eyrdnoba kompaniis politikas, TanamSromlis saxelmZRvanolos da Sromis
xelSekrulebas Tu
Semamsubuqebel faqtorebs, romlebic damnaSavem da
mowmeebma miawodes?
2. rogor SeiZleba ganisazRvros araprofesiuli qceva? axseniT.
3. Tqven rom iyoT arbitri, rogor moagvarebdiT am saqmes? srulad axseniT
gadawyvetilebis mizezebi.
1.
2.
3.
4.
HRM 1-s pasuxebi:
ara. aplikantebi iTvlebian TanamSromlebad da Sesabamisad maT kanoni
icavs.
ara. TanamSromelTa individualuri dakiTxva maTi profkavSiris wevrobis
an saqmianobis Sesaxeb ukanonoa.
ara. specialuri situaciebis garda (magaliTad, usafrTxoebisTvis xelis
Sewyoba), TanamSromlebs ufleba aqvT ataron profkavSiris niSnebi.
diax.
145
5. diax. aplikantebis an TanamSromlebis Savi sia Sromis kanonis
sawinaaRmdegoa.
6. ara. organizebis kampaniis periodSi damsaqmebels ar SeuZlia dahpirdes
xelfasis
gaumjobeseba,
rogorc
saSualeba
profkavSiris
dasamarcxeblad.
7. diax. damsaqmeblebic da kavSirebic eqvemdebarebian ukanono Sromis
braldebebs.
8. diax. roca saCivris arbitraJis punqti arsebobs Sromis xelSekrulebaSi,
xelmZRvanelobam unda gadasces arbitraJs saqmeebi.
9. diax. TanamSromlebi SeiZleba daisajon an ganTavisufldnen araswori
samsaxurebrivi moqmedebis gamo, magram ara maTi Sexedulebebis an
profkavSiris wevrobis gamo.
10. diax. antikavSiruli SeniSvnebi ar aris ukanono, imis gaTvaliswinebiT,
rom isini ar aris iZulebiTi.
sarCevi
pirveli Tavi
adamiani da organizacia
meore Tavi
personalis menejmenti
mesame Tavi
146
organizaciuli kultura
meoTxe Tavi
Sromis motivireba da karieris marTva
mexuTe Tavi
adamianebTan urTierTobis xelovneba
meeqvse Tavi
treningebis sistemis analizi da marTva
meSvide Tavi
adamianuri resursebis marTvis strategia da politika
merve Tavi
drois marTvis principebi
mecxre Tavi
TanamSromelTa uflebebi da disciplina
147

Documentos relacionados

biznesis safuZvlebi

biznesis safuZvlebi f. xaieki amtkicebda, rom mewarmeoba aris axal ekonomikur SesaZleblobaTa Zieba da Seswavla, qcevis maxasiaTebeli da ara saqmianobis saxe. cneba „mewarmesTan“ mWidrod aris dakavSirebuli samewarmeo s...

Leia mais

Untitled

Untitled situaciuri Teoria da organizaciuli reJimi skolebSi ................................................ 209 Tavi 5 .........................................................................................

Leia mais

biznesis samarTali BUSINESS LAW

biznesis samarTali BUSINESS LAW _ saxelmwifosaTvis damaxasiaTebelia sajaro anu politikuri xelisuflebis arseboba. am xelisuflebas sajaro ewodeba imitom, rom igi moqmedebs sazogadoebis saxeliT. sajaro xelisufleba xorcieldeba saxelm...

Leia mais