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trabalho completo - 52ª Reunião Anual da Sociedade Brasileira de
52a Reunião Anual da Sociedade Brasileira de
Zootecnia
Zootecnia: Otimizando Recursos e Potencialidades
Belo Horizonte – MG, 19 a 23 de Julho de 2015
Comportamento diurno de tourinhos nelorados em pastejo recebendo suplementação nutricional com
aditivos1
Edneia Pereira Rosa2, Henrique Jorge Fernandes3, Yasmin dos Santos Falcão6, Vinicius Mota de Deus Souza5,
Luísa Melville Paiva4, Fabrício Ricardo Martinho6, Thiago Garcia Carvalho6
1
Parte da dissertação de mestrado do primeiro autor, financiada pela FUNDECT/Capes
Mestranda do Programa de Pós-Graduação em Zootecnia – UEMS, Aquidauana, MS, Brasil,
[email protected]
3
Professor do curso de Zootecnia – UEMS, Aquidauana, MS, Brasil: [email protected]
4
Professor do curso de Zootecnia – UEMS, Aquidauana, MS
5
Mestrando do Programa de Pós-Graduação em Zootecnia – UEMS, Aquidauana, MS, Brasil
6
Acadêmico do curso de Zootecnia – UEMS, Aquidauana, MS, Brasil
2
Bolsista da FUNDECT/Capes. e-mail:
Resumo: O objetivo com este estudo foi avaliar o efeito de aditivos em suplementos concentrado e mineral sobre o
comportamento de bovinos de corte em pastejo. Foram utilizados trinta e dois tourinhos Nelore, com peso médio
inicial de 332.9 ± 34.3, divididos em quatro grupos. O primeiro grupo recebeu suplemento concentrado
LIPOMAX©, contendo Virginiamicina© e aditivos homeopáticos: Convert H©, SODO 100© e Figotonus©. O
segundo grupo recebeu o mesmo suplemento sem aditivos. O terceiro grupo recebeu suplemento mineral contendo
Virginiamicina® e aditivos homeopáticos: Convert H®, SODO 100®, Figotonus® e Entero 100®. O último grupo
recebeu o mesmo suplemento mineral sem aditivos. Os animais foram identificados individualmente e seu
comportamento foi observado das 0600 às 1800 h, a cada 5 min, durante nove dias. O comportamento animal foi
classificado como em pé em ócio, em pé ruminando, deitado em ócio, deitado ruminando, caminhando, pastejando,
consumindo suplemento ou bebendo água. O tempo total ruminando foi a soma dos tempos em pé e deitado
ruminando. O tempo total em ócio foi a soma do tempo em pé e deitado em ócio. O tempo despendido em cada
comportamento foi analisado considerando o efeito dos aditivos em cada tipo de suplemento e as medidas repetidas.
Um nível de significância de 5% foi adotado. A inclusão de aditivos no suplemento concentrado ou mineral fez os
animais mais lenientes, reduzindo o tempo dispendido em atividades produtivas e aumentando o tempo em
atividades de ócio.
Palavras–chave: bovinos de corte, forragem, suplementos
Diurnal behavior of grazing Nellore bulls receiving nutritional supplementation with additives
Abstract: The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of additives in concentrated and mineral
supplements on the behavior of grazing beef cattle. Thirty-two Nellore bulls with average initial BW of 332.9 ±
34.3 kg were used, divided into four groups. The first group received Lipomax© concentrated supplement
containing virginiamicina© and homeopathic additives: Convert H©, SODO 100© and Figotonus©. The second one
received the same supplement without additives. Third group received mineral supplement containing
Virginiamicina® and homeopathic additives: Convert H®, SODO 100®, Figotonus® and Entero 100®. The last group
received the same mineral supplement without additives. Animals were individually identified and their behavior
was observed from 0600 to 1800 h, every 5 min, during nine days. The animals' behavior was classified as standing
in leisure, standing ruminating, lying in leisure, lying ruminating, walking, grazing, consuming supplement, or
drinking water. Total time ruminating was the sum of time standing and lying while ruminating. The total time of
leisure was the sum of time standing and lying in leisure. The daily time spent in each behavior was analyzed
considering the effect of the additives in each type of supplement, and the repeated measurements. A significance
level of 5% was adopted. Include additives in the concentrate supplement made the animals more lenient, reducing
time expended in productive activities, and increasing time in lying activities.
Keywords: beef cattle, forage, supplements
Introduction
Knowledge of the nutritional behavior patterns of the animals is essential to successfully develop livestock
management techniques (Fraser, 1985). According to Fisher et al. (1997), eating, ruminating and leisure are the
basic behaviors that characterize the daily activities of the ruminants. Diet, management, weather conditions and
animal activities could affect their distribution.
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52a Reunião Anual da Sociedade Brasileira de
Zootecnia
Zootecnia: Otimizando Recursos e Potencialidades
Belo Horizonte – MG, 19 a 23 de Julho de 2015
The interaction of the factors that characterize the grazing cattle production system can affect feeding
behavior of animals, interfering directly with the animal response (Pardo et al., 2003). According to Silva et al.
(2010), there are just few and controversial results in the literature about the effect of nutritional supplementation
on the behavior of grazing ruminants.
The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of additives in concentrated and minerals supplements
on the behavior of grazing beef cattle.
Material e Methods
Thirty-two Nellore bulls with average initial body weight of 332.9 ± 34.3 kg were divided into four groups
and grazed Piatã grass (B. brizantha cv. BRS Piatã) pastures in the Beef Cattle Center of the State University of
Mato Grosso do Sul, Aquidauana, Brazil, at the rainy season. The first group of animals, received concentrate
supplement Lipomax® (Real H, Campo Grande, Brazil) (18.9% CP, 2.35% EE, 12.0% NDF, 50.9% NFC, and
76.2% TDN), containing Virginiamicina© (1.3 g kg-1) and homeopathic additives: Convert H© (20 g kg-1), SODO
100© (20 g kg-1) and Figotonus© (20 g kg-1). The second group received the same concentrate supplement without
additives. Third group received mineral supplement Real H 650® (Real H, Campo Grande, MS, Brazil), containing
Virginiamicina® (20 g kg-1) and homeopathic additives: Convert H ® (40 g kg-1), SODO 100® (15 g kg-1),
Figotonus® (30 g kg-1) e Entero 100® (15 g kg-1). The last (fourth) group received the same mineral supplement
without additives. After 56 d of adaptation, animals were individually identified in both sides of the body using a
black hair paint, and their behavior was observed using binoculars from 0600 to 1800 h, every 5 min, during nine
non-consecutive days in April and May, 2014. At each observation, the animals' behavior was classified as standing
in leisure, standing ruminating, lying in leisure, lying ruminating, walking, grazing, consuming supplement, or
drinking water. Total time ruminating was calculated as the sum of time standing and lying while ruminating. The
total time of leisure was calculated as the sum of time standing and lying in leisure. As an interaction between the
presence of additives and the type of supplement was observed, the daily time spent in each behavior was analyzed
considering: the effect of the additives in each type of supplement separately, and the repeated measurements in
each animal. The PROC MIXED of SAS v.9.4 (SAS Institute Inc., Cary, NC) was used in all analysis, and a
significance level of 5% was adopted.
Results and Discussion
Diurnal time standing in leisure, grazing and consuming supplement were greater in animals consuming
concentrate supplement without additives (Table 1). The diurnal time lying in leisure, lying ruminating, drinking
water and the total time ruminating was greater for animals that received concentrate supplement with additives.
Include additives in the concentrate supplement reduced the time in productive activities, and increased time in
lying activities. This can be an effect of the better use of the feed by animals.
The total diurnal time ruminating in animals receiving mineral supplement without additives was greater
than those receiving mineral supplement with additives. The diurnal time lying in leisure, consuming supplement
and drinking water was greater for animals that received mineral supplement with additives. It was also possible to
see a tendency (P<0.10) to increase total time of leisure when additives were added to the mineral supplement.
Despite the differences in the observed results, the general effect of the use of the additives in mineral supplement
was also to make the animals more lenient.
Other observed behaviors were not affected by the use of additives in the concentrate or mineral supplement.
Table 1 Means of diurnal behavior (min d-1) of cattle during the rainy season.
Concentrate
Mineral
supplement
supplement
Behavior
SE
additives
additives
Without
With
Without
With
Standing in leisure
54.8
40.8
38.9
40.6
2.18
Standing ruminating
30.7
34.8
37.5
32.6
2.16
Lying in leisure
34.3
45.9
33.6
41.1
2.36
Lying ruminating
110
125
119
110
3.73
Total time ruminating
141
161
156
143
3.99
Total time of leisure
89.1
86.6
72.5
81.7
3.87
Walking
27.2
26.2
18.9
21.8
1.17
Grazing
435
419
471
467
5.23
P-value
Effect of additives in
supplement
Concentrate
Mineral
<0.001
0587
0.190
0.118
0.002
0.033
0.007
0.131
0.001
0.023
0.595
0.057
0.557
0.100
0.026
0.587
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52a Reunião Anual da Sociedade Brasileira de
Zootecnia
Zootecnia: Otimizando Recursos e Potencialidades
Belo Horizonte – MG, 19 a 23 de Julho de 2015
Consuming supplement
Drinking water
30.1
2.30
26.4
5.28
5.43
1.19
9.00
2.92
0.96
0.46
0.010
0.001
0.014
0.014
Conclusions
Include additives in the concentrate supplement made the animals more lenient, reducing time expended in
productive activities, and increasing time in lying activities.
Acknowledgements
Thanks to FUNDECT, UEMS, Capes and CNPq for the financial support for this project.
References
FRASER, A.F. Ethology of farm animals: A comprehensive study of the behavior al features of the common farm
animals. A Basic Information, n.5. Elsevier Science Publishers: Netherlands, p. 500, 1985.
FISHER, V.; DESWYSEN, A.G.; DESPRES, L. et al. Comportamento ingestivo de ovinos recebendo dieta à base
de feno durante um período de seis meses. Revista Brasileira de Zootecnia, 5: 1032-1038, 1997.
PARDO, R.M.P.; FISCHER, V.; BALBINOTTI, M. et al. Comportamento ingestivo diurno de novilhos em pastejo
a níveis crescentes de suplementação energética. Revista Brasileira de Zootecnia, v.32, p.1408-1418, 2003.
SILVA, R.R.; PRADO, I.N.; SILVA, F.F. et al. Comportamento ingestivo diurno de novilhos Nelore recebendo
níveis crescentes de suplementação em pastejo de capim-braquiária. Revista Brasileira de Zootecnia, v.39, n.9,
p.2073-2080, 2010.
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