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A ROCHA PORTUGAL
A ROCHA PORTUGAL
OBSERVATORY REPORT
2009–2010
Contributors:
Paula Banza
Aleksandra Cisek
Andrew Cole
Marcial Felgueiras
Reda Garmute
Esther Pawley
Guillaume Réthoré
Willem Scheres
Bert Van der Auwermeulen
Editor:
Esther Pawley
© Copyright A Rocha Associação Cristã de Estudos e Defesa do Ambiente
A Rocha was founded in 1983 to put into practice the biblical call to care for all creation. A field
study centre and bird observatory was established in south-west Portugal in 1986. Similar projects
now exist in other countries, coordinated by A Rocha International. For more information visit:
www.arocha.org
A Rocha Portugal:
Marcial and Paula Felgueiras
Isabel Soares
Esther Pawley
Cruzinha, Apt. 41, 8501-903 Mexilhoeira Grande, Portugal.
Tel: + 351 282 968380. Email: [email protected]
International Office: 3 Hooper Street, Cambridge, CB1 2NZ, UK
Tel +44(0) 1387 710286. Email: [email protected]
Please contact Cruzinha for details of how to receive further copies of this report and other
A Rocha publications.
This publication should be referenced as:
A Rocha Portugal Observatory Report for 2009–10. Associação A Rocha, Portimão, Portugal, (2012).
Cover photos l-r: Charaxes jasius (Two-tailed Pasha), Muscicapa striata (Spotted Flycatcher), Andrew Cole
surveying Kentish Plover, Rosmarinus officinalis (Rosemary)
Contents
Preface
The Great Spotted Cuckoo, Clamator glandarius, in the Ria de Alvor Study Area
6
Monitoring of Molluscs in the Alvor Estuary, Algarve, 2010
10
A Study of the Kentish Plover, Charadrius alexandrinus, in the Ria de Alvor, 2010
23
Butterfly Monitoring around the Alvor Estuary, June – October 2009
29
Butterfly Recording on Foia, Monchique, in 2009
44
Ringing Report for 2009 and 2010
48
Ringing Controls and Recoveries Reported in 2009 and 2010
54
Moth Trapping at Cruzinha in 2009 and 2010
68
Cruzinha Weather Report 2009
83
Cruzinha Weather Report 2010
88
PREFACE
This report presents the results of recent field studies undertaken at Cruzinha, A Rocha Portugal’s
field study centre, during the years 2009 and 2010. We are very thankful to all our visitors and
volunteers that have visited the centre and helped add to a better understanding of the Alvor
Estuary and its surrounds. The wonderful variety of wildlife and habitats in the Algarve is mirrored
by the diversity of people who contribute to our work. This is part of the richness of A Rocha
Portugal and I hope you are inspired by this as you read this Observatory Report.
Our bird ringing programme, similar to previous years, included a minimum of one weekly ringing
session in the garden of Cruzinha and a more intensive period during the autumn migration. This
report includes a summary of ringing statistics and reported controls for 2009 and 2010.
In 2010 a repeat of the 2004 Kentish Plover survey was undertaken by European Voluntary Service
(EVS) volunteer Andrew Cole and an update on this important research is provided here. Another
bird study included in the following pages is a summary of local observations of Great Spotted
Cuckoo by our valued regular visitor Willem Scheres.
Local climatic data are a significant addition to details of the wider climatic picture when
interpreting ecological studies together with biotic factors and other environmental factors. It is
for this reason that the weather report is an important part of the Observatory Report and we
hope you find this of interest.
Our Lepidoptera studies have continued and expanded, with weekly moth trapping continuing at
Cruzinha. Our EVS volunteer Bert Van der Auwermeulen has undertaken butterfly surveys not
only at Cruzinha, but elsewhere in the vicinity of the Alvor estuary and Monchique. This report
includes a list of macro and micro moth species identified for each of the two years and two
butterfly monitoring report of studies conducted during 2009.
Aleksandra Cisek, another of our EVS volunteers, has added to our knowledge of the diversity of
molluscs within the Ria de Alvor. She identified 79 species in total, the majority of which were
either bivalves or gastropods. Her report is included here and a reference collection of identified
species can be seen at Cruzinha.
If you would like further information on the work of A Rocha or would like to undertake some
research at our field study centre or join in with our regular monitoring projects - please do
contact us.
We look forward to hearing from you.
The Editor, on behalf of the A Rocha Portugal team
6
A Rocha Portugal Observatory Report 2009-2010
THE GREAT SPOTTED CUCKOO, CLAMATOR GLANDARIUS, IN THE RIA DE ALVOR STUDY AREA
Willem Scheres
Introduction
The Great Spotted Cuckoo, Clamator glandarius, is a brood-parasite that occurs in several populations in
Africa and in the Mediterranean Basin. In Iberia it prefers open woodland of Stone Pines, Pinus pinea, and
heathland interspersed with Cork Oaks, Quercus suber. It also favours cultivated areas such as olive and
almond-groves (Cramp, 1985).
In the Iberian Peninsula the Great Spotted Cuckoo parasitizes mainly on the Magpie, Pica pica, and
occasionally on other Corvidae like the Carrion Crow, Corvus corone, the Raven, Corvus corax, the Jackdaw,
Corvus monedula, and the Chough, Pyrrhocorax pyrrhocorax, according to Arias de Reyna (1998). However,
it is not known to parasitize the nests of the Azure-winged Magpie, Cyanopica cyanus, which is a common
species in the southern half of Iberia and also belongs to the family of the Corvidae. Extensive field-studies
including detailed monitoring of many inhabited nests did not show any case of an Azure-winged Magpie
parasitized by the Great Spotted Cuckoo (Valencia, 2005). Another species that, according to Cramp (1985),
is visited by the Great Spotted Cuckoo is the Hoopoe, Upupa epops.
In Portugal the Great Spotted Cuckoo is a scarce migrant breeder and a scarce passage migrant occurring
from February to August (Moore, 1997). It is more common in the interior parts of Portugal than along the
coast and it parasitizes on the Magpie and the Carrion Crow (Rufino, 1989). It is a rare breeding bird in the
Tejo Estuary south of Lisbon and is also recorded during the period February – August (Leitão, 1998).
This article describes and comments upon the presence of the Great Spotted Cuckoo in the field-study area
of Quinta da Rocha between 1984 and 2010. Observations have been taken from the A Rocha Observatory
Reports and from the Observatory Birdlog.
The presence of the Great Spotted Cuckoo within Quinta da Rocha
The Great Spotted Cuckoo is a very scarce visitor to Quinta da Rocha. In total there are 19 records of this
bird species in the period 1986 - 2010. These records are spread over the 8 months between January and
August. It is most frequently seen in February, with 5 records, and in March, with 3 records. In autumn and
the first month of winter, December, they are not recorded at all (see Figure 1). The single record in
January relates to a wintering individual.
Cramp (1985) mentions that, with the late departure of some juveniles and the early appearance of the
spring vanguard, the Great Spotted Cuckoo may be absent from the Mediterranean Basin for only a few
weeks around midwinter. The sighting of 11 January 2002 is a significant midwinter record.
According to Cramp (1985) the return movement to southern Spain is from early February. Five records in
the study area were made in February, thus corresponding with early returning birds.
Mainly juveniles were seen during the months of June, July and August: 5 of the 6 records are related to
juveniles (see Table 1). This was also the case in Southern France in the Valleé des Baux close to Arles. The
author saw only juvenile Great Spotted Cuckoos on three successive days during a visit in July 2006 to the
French A Rocha Centre at Les Tourades, which is situated in this same valley.
A Rocha Portugal Observatory Report 2009-2010
7
These records were: on 18 July 2006, one individual along the Canal du Vigueirat; on 19 July 2006, one
individual in a field directly west of Les Tourades and on 20 July 2006, one individual on wire along the
Route de Coste Basse close to the Étangs de la Gravière.
Due to the fact that Magpies and Carrion Crows are vagrants at Quinta da Rocha with very few records for
each species in the period 1986 – 2010, and that Ravens also are uncommon (with most records made in
September 2010), there appears to be an absence of the favored hosts for the Great Spotted Cuckoo within
the study area. The Jackdaw is a common visitor on the Quinta da Rocha, but breeds on the rocky cliffs
along the coast south of the city of Lagos (7 Km from Quinta da Rocha). The Azure-winged Magpie has
become very common in the last 15 years, often occurring in big groups and known to be breeding on the
Quinta de Rocha (Scheres, 1999 and 2001), however, this corvid is not recognized to be a real host
(Valencia, 2005). The increasing abundance of the Azure-winged Magpie has not resulted into more records
of the Great Spotted Cuckoo on the Quinta da Rocha. The only remaining recognized candidate as a host to
this cuckoo species is the Hoopoe, a common species within the study area. To date, however, there is no
confirmation of the use of a Hoopoe’s nest by a parasitizing Great Spotted Cuckoo on the Quinta da Rocha.
The majority of the Great Spotted Cuckoos seen within the study area are mostly adults arriving in February
and in the first half of March and juveniles dispersing from their breeding grounds in the summer months,
especially in July. Moore, 1997, mentions that the best time to see juveniles is in June, but that is within
the breeding areas when these juveniles start to fly.
6
5
4
3
2
1
0
Figure 1 Number of records of Great Spotted Cuckoo in each month within the period 1986-2010
8
A Rocha Portugal Observatory Report 2009-2010
Record list of the Great Spotted Cuckoo within the A Rocha study area
The records listed in Table 1 below originate from the A Rocha Portugal Observatory Reports for the period
1986 to 2008 and from the A Rocha Portugal bird log for the years 2009 and 2010.
Table 1
Date
Number
Remarks
1986 and 1987
0
1988, 18 March
1
1989, 17 February
1 An early arrival.
1990, 09 July
1 Juvenile.
1991, 26 February
1
1992, 06 February
1 Adult. Possibly a wintering bird or an early return.
1992, 31 July
1993, 25 February
1993, 19 August
1 Juvenile.
1 Flying from a tree on the western rim of the eastern
marsh.
1 Juvenile ringed at Cruzinha. Latest record.
1994
0
1995, 21 June
1 Juvenile
1996, 1997, 1998 and 1999
0
2000, 19 July
1
2002, 11 January
2002, 27 - 05
Juvenile. Headland, along the road to the pinewood
of Quinta da Rocha.
Adult. Flying from pinewood of Quinta da Rocha and
1
landing in the valley east of it.
1 Adult. Wintering bird. Earliest record.
1 Juvenile. On the pine-bluffs of Quinta da Rocha.
2003, 01 May
1 Perched on a fence close to Cruzinha.
2004 and 2005
0
2006, 28 April
2006, 06 May
1 Adult. Within the almond-grove directly east of
Cruzinha and afterwards landing in the garden of the
A Rocha Portugal centre.
1 Calling from the pinewood of Quinta da Rocha.
2007 and 2008
0
2009, 07 July
1
2001, 27 February
2010, 08 March
2010, 09 March
Seen in the orchard near the train-station of
Mexilhoeira Grande
1 Heard from Cruzinha, the A Rocha Portugal centre.
2 Flying down from the headland into the estuary.
A Rocha Portugal Observatory Report 2009-2010
9
References
Arias de Reyna, L. (1998). ‘Coevolution of the Great Spotted Cuckoo and its host’.
In S.J. Rothstein & S.K Robinson (eds.) Parasitic birds and their hosts: Studies in Coevolution, Vol.9: 129 –
142. Oxford University Press, Oxford, U.K.
Cramp, S. (1985). The Birds of the Western Palearctic. Volume 4. Oxford University Press, Oxford, U.K.
Leitão, D., Catry, P., Costra, H., Elias, G.L. and Reino, L.M. (1998). As Aves do Estuário do Tejo. Instituto de
Conservação da Natureza, Lisboa, Portugal.
Moore, C.C., Elias, G. and Costa, H. (1997). A Birdwatcher’s Guide to Portugal and Madeira.
Prion Ltd, Perry, Huntingdon, Great Britain.
Rufino, R. (1989). Atlas das Aves que nidificam em Portugal Continental. Serviço National de Parques
Reservas e Conservação de Natureza, Lisboa, Portugal.
Scheres, W. (1999). The Azure-winged Magpie, Cyanopica cyanus, on Quinta da Rocha. The A Rocha
Observatory Report for 1999 Associação A Rocha, Portimão, Portugal, pp 48 – 53.
Scheres, W. (2001). Breeding of Azure-winged Magpie, Cyanopica cyanus, at Quinta da Rocha. The A Rocha
Observatory Report 2000 - 2001. Associação A Rocha, Portimão, Portugal, pp 43 – 44.
Valencia, J., de la Cruz, C., Carranza, J and Solís, E. (2005). No brood parasitism by the Great Spotted
Cuckoo, Clamator glandarius, on the Azure-winged Magpie, Cyanopica cyanus. In Bird Study (2005), pp. 204
– 209. British Trust for Ornithology, Taylor & Francis, London, U.K.
10
A Rocha Portugal Observatory Report 2009-2010
MONITORING OF MOLLUSCS IN THE ALVOR ESTUARY, ALGARVE, PORTUGAL
Aleksandra Cisek and Esther Pawley
Introduction
Estuaries are very important ecosystems. They are classified as ‘transitional waters’ under the Water
Framework Directive (Directive 2000/60/EC), where, in Article 2 they are defined as: ” bodies of surface
water in the vicinity of river mouths which are partly saline in character as a result of their proximity to
coastal waters but which are substantially influenced by freshwater flows”. As ecosystems existing on the
boundary between sea and river, they experience big fluctuations of physicochemical factors, mainly due to
the tidal cycle. Estuarine conditions are very specific and only some organisms are able to withstand such
stresses as rapid and substantial changes in salinity levels, dissolved oxygen concentrations, turbidity and
the presence or absence of water (McLusky, 1989; Ysebaert et al, 2003). For these reasons the biological
diversity within estuaries is quite limited. It has been reported by many authors, for example, Constanza,
1997, Barnes, 1984, McLusky, 1989, that while the number of different species living in estuaries is quite
low, the abundance of species is very high. Due to relatively low inter-species competition those species
which have managed to adapt to the difficult conditions can occur in very high numbers. Estuarine
organisms are also very often restricted to particular places largely defined by salinity gradient and
sediment composition (Ysebaert et al, 2003; Sousa et al, 2006).
In spite of these difficult living conditions, estuaries have been claimed to be amongst the most productive
natural habitats in the world (McLusky, 1989). For this reason estuaries are very attractive areas for
secondary consumers, especially for large groups of wading birds, which are higher up the food chain.
Salt marsh habitats also belong to this group of highly productive ecosystems (e.g. Adam, 1990; Vinagre et
al, 2008). This habitat is strongly associated with estuaries. It also attracts many species of secondary
consumers (Hampel et al, 2009) and often provides a safe place for nesting waders (Adam, 1990).
Molluscs are one of the largest and most abundant groups of estuarine animals (Sousa et al, 2007; Ysebaert
et al, 2003). In a previous study of the benthic fauna of the Alvor estuary, Portugal it was found to be the
dominant group (Carpenter 2004). Many estuarine molluscs can feed on a range of food sources and are
tolerant of low salinities, providing success for this group in the colonization of estuaries (McLusky, 1989).
As one of the most numerous groups of animals, the impact they have within estuarine and marsh
ecosystems is not only as a food source for higher trophic levels; by way of feeding they exert a control on
the biomass of phytoplankton and stimulate primary production by excreting nutrients (Nakamura &
Kerciku, 2000). In many cases a few species of molluscs, together with (Arthropoda and Crustacea), are
considered to be the key species within estuarine or salt marsh ecosystems because of their high
abundance (e.g. Sousa et al, 2007). Many mollusc species are used as indicators of the ecological status of
transitional waters (Al-Dabbas, 1984). Simboura and Zentos (2002), for example, used benthic organisms as
indicators of the ecological quality using their new biotic index (BENTIX).
The aim of this study was to analyse the spatial variability of molluscs within the Alvor Estuary, as they
comprise a significant part of benthic macro-invertebrates.
A Rocha Portugal Observatory Report 2009-2010
11
Location of the study
The Alvor Estuary is one of the most important wetlands for wildlife in the Algarve and covers an area of
1,454 ha. In September 2006 it was established as a Natura 2000 site and is one of 14 Natura 2000 sites in
the Algarve. Ten years before this designation, in May 1996, it was accredited as a wetland of international
importance, according to the Convention of Wetlands (Ramsar, 1971). It is one of just three wetlands in the
Algarve on ‘The Ramsar List of Wetlands of International Importance’ (Ramsar (Iran). (1971) Due to its
significance and proximity to the Cruzinha centre, it is the focus of many studies by A Rocha. It is important
to monitor the ecological health of this area due to its high conservation value.
Methodology
Sampling scheme
Five sampling sites were chosen as being representative of the main habitats within the Alvor Estuary. A
preliminary site visit was also undertaken to determine accessibility and safety considerations of sampling
points. The technique employed in a previous invertebrate study at this site (Carpenter, 2004) was
examined, but not used in this study due to various impracticalities such as the sample not being removed
effectively. Sampling at the same points as Carpenter (2004) was undertaken where possible. Some
previous survey sites, such as within the Eastern Marsh and salinas areas of the Alvor Estuary, are no longer
available for study or public access.
Figure 1 Location of sampling points within the Alvor Estuary.
The Western Marsh sample site (4a) was located at the most south-western part of the marsh where the
sea wall turns north. The Upper Estuary site (5a) was on the muddy area, on the opposite side of the river
to the fish farm. The Lower Estuary sample site (5b) was in the area where the Alvor and Odiáxere rivers
join. The Abicada site (6a) was close to the upper end of the Eastern Marsh, located near to a house with a
jetty. The Alvor sample site (6b) was near to the river mouth.
12
A Rocha Portugal Observatory Report 2009-2010
The sampling was carried out in January, March and May 2010. This was in order to examine the possible
variation in species and numbers of individuals over time during the period available for fieldwork.
Sampling took place during the low tide of spring tides (i.e. around a full or new moon), when the sea level
was at its lowest and the time for collecting samples was the longest.
Sampling method
Sediment cores were removed, using a square-bladed spade, from areas of extractable sediment close to
the main stream of water flowing at low tide. In order to take the same quantity of sample every time a
15×15cm quadrat was used to demarcate sample areas. The depth of the sample was 20cm. At each
sampling point 3 core samples were taken. Each core was sieved in situ using a mesh screen of 1 mm
aperture size to remove the fine sedimentary material and the remaining material taken for analysis.
Initially each sample was sorted for relatively large living specimens, which would then be released
immediately, if a positive identification could be made in the field. A number of physicochemical properties
were measured at the same time that samples were taken in the field. These were air and water
temperature, water salinity, pH and dissolved oxygen.
Air and water temperature was measured by aquarium thermometer. To measure water salinity a glass
hydrometer (made by Boots) was used. The concentration of dissolved oxygen was examined using a
LaMotte kit (code 5860) and pH was also measured in situ using a pocket-sized pH meter made by HANNA
instruments. The same instruments and methodology was used as that in the 2003 assessment of water
quality in the Alvor Estuary made by Boyes and Simonson (2004).
Laboratory analysis
The core samples were sorted as soon as possible after collection. Firstly the core sample would be spread
evenly within a photographic tray and all remaining living molluscs extracted, identified and, as soon as
possible, released. If necessary for identification purposes a specimen would be preserved in 70% alcohol.
After dealing with the living specimens, the remaining shells were identified. All shells larger than 1cm in
length were extracted from the sample, identified and counted. Subsampling was applied to specimens
smaller than 1cm in length.
Subsampling method
After dealing with specimens larger than 1cm in length, the core sample was divided into 12 equally sized
subsamples. Of these, 4 subsamples were randomly selected and sorted for good condition, i.e. intact
shells. The number of each species identified in this manner was extrapolated to gain a final figure for the
core sample. Intact empty shells from within the core samples were also identified and a complete list of
species, with an indication of abundance, can be found in Appendix 1.
Results
Water sampling
The results of water sampling within the Alvor Estuary are shown below. Figures 2, 3 and 4 display the
recorded physicochemical measurements in January, March and May 2010. Water sampling was unable to
be undertaken in January at the Abicada site due to adverse site conditions which would have made
sampling unsafe. In May the pH meter failed to work at the Abicada (6a) and Alvor (6b) sample sites.
A Rocha Portugal Observatory Report 2009-2010
13
Table 1 Physicochemical factors of water samples measured in January 2010.
Factor/Site
Air temperature [ºC]
Water temperature [ºC]
Salinity [ppt]
pH
Dissolved oxygen [ppm]
4a
20
17
5a
16
15
5b
18
17
6a
---------
6b
21
17
(1.022)
28.7 ppt
7,63
5,1 ppm
(1,014)
18 ppt
7,36
6,6 ppm
(1,012)
15.8 ppt
7,40
6,8 ppm
-----
(1,024)
31.6 ppt
7,90
2,4 ppm (not
preserved)
---------
Table 2 Physicochemical factors of water samples measured in March 2010.
Factor/Site
Air temperature [ºC]
Water temperature [ºC]
Salinity [ppt]
pH
Dissolved oxygen [ppm]
4a
20
14
(1.028)
36 ppt
7,87
2 ppm
5a
12
14
(1.014)
17.6 ppt
7,85
3,6 ppm
5b
15
14
(1.006)
7.5 ppt
7,62
4,1 ppm
6a
21
16
(1.008)
10.5 ppt
7,45
8,6 ppm
6b
20
19
(1.020)
26.9 ppt
8,02
6,6 ppm
Table 3 Physicochemical factors of water samples measured in May 2010.
Factor/ Site
4a
5a
5b
6a
6b
Air temperature [ºC]
26
21
23
24
25
Water temperature [ºC]
24
22
24
24
22
(1.024)
32.5 ppt
(1.022)
30.4 ppt
(1.020)
27.0 ppt
(1.004)
5.9 ppt
(1.022)
30.4 ppt
8,24
8,02/03
7,98
-----
------
3 ppm
8,8 ppm
2,8 ppm
6,4 ppm
5 ppm
Salinity [ppt]
pH
Dissolved oxygen [ppm]
Species results
A total of 553 living individuals from 25 species were recorded in this study. Eleven of these species
belonged to the class Bivalvia and 13 species to the Gastropoda. In addition, one species belonging to the
class Polyplacophora was found (Figure 5). There were also a few shells of Dentalium sp. (Scaphopoda)
found in Alvor. In total 79 species were identified from the samples (including intact empty shells). This
comprised 39 species of Gastropoda, 39 species within the Bivalvia, and two other species outside of these
two classes. In some cases it was only possible to identify to genus rather than species level. Lists of species
identified can be found in Appendix I.
14
A Rocha Portugal Observatory Report 2009-2010
A considerably large number of empty Bittium reticulatum shells were recorded. No living specimens were
found, but numbers of these shells were greater at almost all sampling points than other similar small-sized
species such as Hydrobia, Turbonilla or Rissoa. Only the sampling site in Alvor gave equal or higher numbers
of Hydrobia sp. than Bittium reticulatum.
Table 4 Total number of living specimens found during this study in the Alvor Estuary 2010.
Species
Abra tenuis
Calyptrea chinensis
Cardium edule
Cerithium vulgatum
Cyclope neritea
Gibbula umbilicalis
Haminoea navicula
Hydrobia acuta
Hydrobia neglecta
Hydrobia ulvae
Jujubinus striatus
Lepidochitona cinereaus
(Polyplacophora)
Loripes lacteus
Mesalia mesal
Monodonta lineata
Nassarius pfeifferi
Nassarius reticulatus
Ostrea edulis
Paphia aurea
Paphia rhomboides
Scrobicularia plana
Spisula subtruncata
Tapes decussatus
Tellina tenuis
Venerupis senegalensis
4a
6
January
5a 5b 6a
3
1
1
2
1
5
6b
March
5a 5b 6a
4a
1
14
1
1
2
2
1
6
6b
4a
1
1
May
5a 5b 6a
2
2
1
4
1
10
4
2
2
2
3
1
6
120
12
3
1
60
9
3
24
1
43
1
6b
3
8
2
5
1
1
2
1
10
1
5
21
8
4
1
3
2
4
2
8
2
1
1
1
5
2
15
2
6
2
1
1
1
3
1
7
4
1
1
1
1
10
8
6
7
1
1
Results by sampling site
At the Western Marsh (4a) a total of 101 living specimens from 8 species were recorded from the samples.
As it can be seen in Figure 6 the highest number of living specimens (54) was obtained in January
comprising largely of individuals of Loripes lacteus (43 specimens). In general the number of species
recorded at this site was lower than at other sample sites in the Alvor Estuary. Hampel et al (2009) in her
studies also found lower number of species in salt marsh habitat than in the estuary.
A Rocha Portugal Observatory Report 2009-2010
15
Figure 2 Number of live specimens found at the Western Marsh sampling site (4a).
At the Upper Estuary sample site (5a) all of the living specimens found (43) belonged to one of 9 species.
The highest abundance of individuals recorded was found to be Cardium edule (17 individuals in total, 14 in
the March sample). Nassarius pfeifferi was also quite commonly recorded. In January and May the number
of different species identified was similar, however in March only 3 of the most common species were
found alive (Figure 7).
Figure 3 Number of live specimens found at the Upper Estuary sampling site (5a).
At the Lower Estuary sample site (5b) 75 live specimens were recorded from a range of 13 species. The
greatest abundance of a species belonged to Tellina tenuis in the first month’s sample, but the number of
specimens of other species was more regular over the study period (Figure 8). When undertaking sampling
in May a big group of Cerithium vulgatum (around 30 individuals) was seen near to the sampling point, but
not included in graph’s data, because it was not in the sample.
16
A Rocha Portugal Observatory Report 2009-2010
Figure 4 Number of live specimens found at the Lower Estuary sampling site (5b).
The sampling site at Abicada (6a) was very specific due to the wide diversity of substratum present. The
majority of the sediment was composed of very fine clay creating an impermeable layer. Some big stones
were also found. In these conditions it is likely that only a very few species of mollusc can survive due to the
impermeability of the substrate. Colonies of Scrobicularia plana were recorded comprising mostly of large
individuals, however, a number of smaller individuals were also found. High numbers of empty shells of this
species also indicate that this is the main species in the area. Tapes decussatus was recorded at this sample
site, located on the river bed. In total 25 live specimens were recorded from within only 4 species (Figure
9).
Figure 5 Number of live specimens found at the Abicada sampling site (6a).
The number of species recorded at the Alvor sampling site (6b) was significantly higher than at any of the
other sampling sites in this study. This is likely to be due to the close proximity of the sea. A total of 309 live
specimens from within 15 species were recorded from samples taken at this site. Hydrobia ulvae and
Hydrobia neglecta were the most abundant species, with Cerithium vulgatum appearing quite frequently
(Figure 10). During the May sampling period a large number of Cerithium vulgatum and Monodonta lineata
A Rocha Portugal Observatory Report 2009-2010
17
were observed around the sample areas (roughly 30 specimens of each species within a 0.5m radius of the
sample area).
Figure 6 Number of live specimens found at the Alvor sampling site (6b).
All the sample sites in this study were located within the subtidal area and had either no, or very limited,
submerged vegetation present. Aquatic vegetation within the Alvor estuary is in general very poor in
diversity and extent.
Discussion and Conclusion
The species found alive in this study of the Alvor Estuary were also found by Almeida et al (2008) in the Ria
Formosa which is located in the eastern Algarve, Portugal (Bivalvia: C. edule, O. edulis, S. plana, P. aurea, T.
decussatus, and Gastropoda: C. chinensis, C. vulgatum, H. ulvae, N. pfeifferi, N. reticulatus, G. umbilicalis, J.
striatus, M. lineata).
Some of the species found during this study are included on lists of sensitive, tolerant and opportunistic
species used by Simboura and Zenetos (2002) in their study. Most of them, like Tellina tenuis, Tapes
decussatus, Spisula subtruncata, Cerithium vulgatum, Cyclope neritea, Paphia rhomboides are on the list of
sensitive species; being described as “sensitive to disturbance in general”. Some species like Hydrobia acuta
and Bittium reticulatum are also on the list of sensitive species but they are described as being tolerant
species. A very large number of Bittium reticulatum shells were found in this survey, however no living
specimens were found. Although Bittium reticulatum is an estuarine species it is mostly found on seagrass
vegetation (Almeida et al, 2008; Fernandez et al, 1988), therefore, it is highly possible that most of the
shells found in the samples were moved in by the tide. The Upper Estuary site (5a), where the abundance
of Bittium reticulatum was almost always (with the exception of the March sample) greater than that of any
other species, may be an exception due to the proximity of the sample site to a large vegetated area. Other
than in this area, the aquatic vegetation within the Alvor Estuary is poor and this may explain the lack of
several species of gastropods which are commonly associated with seaweed and other aquatic plants
(Sousa, 2007).
18
A Rocha Portugal Observatory Report 2009-2010
The most numerous species identified in this study was Hydrobia ulvae, known to be one of the most
common inhabitants of European estuaries (McLusky, 1989). This species is significantly smaller in size
than, for example, Cerastoderma edule and therefore we might expect a greater number of individuals per
mᶾ. In this case, unlike B. reticulatum, many living specimens were recorded. H. ulvae is a species normally
associated with higher and more fluctuating salinity levels (McLusky, 1989). This study also indicated that
the highest number of individuals of this species was found in locations with the highest salinity: the
Western Marsh and the Lower Estuary sample sites.
The most important physicochemical properties affecting the occurrence and distribution of molluscs in
estuaries are salinity (Ysebaert et al, 2003; Holland et al, 1987; Hampel et al, 2009), type of sediment
(Sousa et al, 2006; Ysebaert et al, 2003) and the level of dissolved oxygen (Sousa et al, 2007). Salinity
readings varied at each of the sample sites over the course of the study, however the salinity was
consistently higher at the Alvor and Western Marsh sampling sites (Figures 2, 3 and 4). The Alvor sampling
site (6b) is relatively close to the river mouth, and far from the main stream of the Alvor River, which
explains the higher salinity readings. In the Western Marsh the relatively high salinity measurements can
largely be attributed to water evaporation. Seawater enters the Western Marsh at high tide and, as it
receives no freshwater input from the river or from rain in the summer months, the salinity is likely to
increase due to evaporation during the summer period.
The highest diversity of species was recorded in the Lower Estuary (13 species) and Alvor (15 species)
sample sites. This may be due to the proximity of the sites to the river mouth as the higher salinity levels
and generally greater stability of hydrological factors, (largely salinity) is conducive to higher levels of
biodiversity. The mouth of the estuary is also richer in organic matter compared to the Upper Estuary,
resulting in a greater quantity of potential food particularly for deposit-feeding species (Sousa et al, 2006;
Ysebaert, et al, 2003).
Loripes lacteus, which was found in high numbers in the Western Marsh, has been characterised as a
tolerant species and is also known to be an indicator of instability and/or pollution. The high abundance of
this species suggests that it may be a key species within the Western Marsh, providing an important food
resource to other trophic levels at this site, for example wading birds.
Scrobicularia plana is another species which could be considered to be a key species, and was recorded in
high abundance at the Abicada sampling site. However, it was less abundant within samples than L. lacteus,
but this may be related to size as most specimens observed were between 4 and 5 cm in length. Galván
(2010) in her research of Cambrian estuaries found that Scrobicularia plana was the most abundant
mollusc. In addition, in research undertaken by Sousa et al (2006), S. plana together with Cardium edule
were the most abundant species in areas of shallow water. Interestingly, in their study the sediment
recorded at the sampling station was coarse, while at Abicada it was found to be a very fine sediment
together with relatively big stones.
Although the data collected are not sufficient to estimate the ecological quality of the Alvor Estuary, the
presence of sensitive species suggests that the ecosystem is at least partly in good health. Following on
from this project, studies could be undertaken using the new biotic index (BENTIX) to establish ecological
quality within the estuary.
A Rocha Portugal Observatory Report 2009-2010
19
Further monitoring of molluscs within the Alvor Estuary could be undertaken, with additional sampling
points within the estuary and further upstream in the Odiáxere River. Another interesting issue would be to
investigate the status of Loripes lacteus in the Western Marsh.
References:
Adam P. (1990). Saltmarsh ecology. Cambridge University Press.
Al-Dabbas, M.A.M., Hubbard, H. and McManus, J. (1984). ‘The shell of Mytilus as an indicator of zonal
variations of water quality within an estuary’. Estuarine, Coastal and Shelf Science 18: 265-270.
Almeida, C., Coelho, R., Silva, M., Bentes, L., Monteiro, P., Ribeiro, J., Erzini, K. and Gonçalves, J.M.S. (2008).
‘Use of different intertidal habitats by faunal communities in a temperate coastal lagoon’. Estuarine, Coastal
and Shelf Science 80: 357–364.
Barnes R.S.K. (1984). Estuarine Biology, Edward Arnold.
Boyes, C. and Simonson, W. (2004). A preliminary assessment of water quality In the Alvor Estuary. A Rocha
Portugal Observatory Report for 2003. Associação A Rocha, Portimão, Portugal.
Carpenter, B. (2005). Towards better characterisation of the macro-invertebrate fauna of the Alvor Estuary,
A Rocha Portugal Observatory Report for 2004. Associação A Rocha, Portimão, Portugal.
Constanza, R., Kemp, M. and Boyton, W. (1997). ‘Scale and biodiversity in coastal and estuarine ecosystems’.
In C. Perrings, K.G. Mäler, C. Folke and C. S. Holling (eds.) Biodiversity loss: economic and ecological issues.
Cambridge University Press.
Fernàndez, E., Anadòn, R. and Fernàndez, C. (1988). ‘Life histories and growth of the gastropods Bittium
reticulatum and Barleeia unifasciata inhabiting the seaweed Gelidium latifolium’. J. Moll. Stud. 54: 119-129
Galván C., Juanes J.A., Puente A. (2010). Ecological classification of European transitional waters in the
North-East Atlantic eco-region, Estuarine, Coastal and Shelf Science 87 p. 442-450
Hampel, H., Elliott, M. and Cattrijsse, A. (2009). ‘Macrofaunal communities in the habitats of intertidal
marshes along the salinity gradient of the Schelde Estuary’. Estuarine, Coastal and Shelf Science 84: 45–53.
Holland, A. F., Shaughnessy, A. T. and Hiegel, M. H. (1987). ‘Long-term variation in mesohaline Chesapeake
Bay macrobenthos: Spatial and temporal patterns’. Estuaries 10: 227-245.
McLusky, D.S. (1989). The estuarine ecosystem. Second Edition. Blackie, Glasgow.
Nakamura Y., Kerciku F. (2000). ‘Effects of filter-feeding bivalves on the distribution of water quality and
nutrient
cycling
in
a
eutrophic
coastal
lagoon’.
Journal
of
Marine
Systems
26 (2): 209-221.
20
A Rocha Portugal Observatory Report 2009-2010
Ramsar (Iran). (1971). Convention on Wetlands of International Importance especially as Waterfowl Habitat.
UN Treaty Series No. 14583. As amended by the Paris Protocol, 3 December 1982, and Regina
Amendments, 28 May 1987.
Sousa R., Antunes C. and Guilhermino L. (2007). ‘Species composition and monthly variation of the
Molluscan fauna in the freshwater subtidal area of the River Minho estuary’. Estuarine, Coastal and Shelf
Science 75: 90-100.
Sousa R., Dias S. and Antunes J. C. (2006). ‘Spatial Subtidal Macrobenthic Distribution in Relation to Abiotic
Conditions in the Lima Estuary, NW of Portugal.’ Hydrobiologia 559: 135–148.
Vinagre C., Cabral H.N. and Caçador I. (2008). ‘Influence of halophytes and metal contamination on salt
marsh macro-benthic communities.’ Estuarine, Coastal and Shelf Science 76: 715-722.
Ysebaert, T., Herman, P.M.J., Meire, P., Craeymeersch, J., Verbeek, H. and Heip, C.H.R. (2003). ‘Large-scale
spatial patterns in estuaries: estuarine macrobenthic communities in the Schelde estuary, NW Europe’.
Estuarine, Coastal and Shelf Science 57: 335–355.
Simboura, N. and Zenetos, A. (2002). ‘Benthic indicators to use in Ecological Quality classification of
Mediterranean soft bottom marine ecosystems, including a new Biotic Index.’ Mediterranean Marine
Science 3 (2): 77-111.
Bibliography
Abbott, R.T. (1990). The pocket guide to seashells of the North Hemisphere, Dragon's World Ltd.
Campbell, A.C. (1976). The Hamlyn Guide to Seashores and Shallow Seas of Britain and Europe, Hamlyn.
Littlehampton Book Services Ltd.
Doneddu, M. and Trainito, E. (2005). Conchiglie del Mediterraneo. Il Castello.
Consolado Macedo, M.C., Consolado Macedo, M.I. and Borges, J.P. (1999). Conchas Marinhas de Portugal,
Verbo.
Acknowledgements
“I would like to acknowledge all the valuable help with identification from Jose Pedro Borges and José Filipe
Bragança. I also thank João Monteiro from the Instituto Português de Malacologia for all his help and time
and Bert van der Auvermeulen for general ideas and to all those people who supported me during this
project."
A Rocha Portugal Observatory Report 2009-2010
21
APPENDIX I
List of species (Gastropoda + other)
+ found just once; o - occasional (2-10); c - common (11-100); n - numerous (>100)
Site
Species
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.
11.
12.
13.
14.
15.
16.
17.
18.
19.
20.
21.
22.
23.
24.
25.
26.
27.
28.
29.
30.
31.
32.
33.
34.
35.
36.
37.
38.
39.
40.
41.
Month
Acmaea virginea
Alvania lactea
Bela oceanica
Bittium reticulatum
Calyptraea chinensis
Cerithium vulgatum
Conus mediterraneus
Cyclope neritea
Diodora italica
Eulima glabra
Euspira pulchella
Gibbula umbilicalis
Gibbula umbilicaris
Haminoea navicula
Hydrobia acuta
Hydrobia neglecta
Hydrobia ulvae
Jujubinus striatus
Littorina neritoides
Littorina saxitilis
Manzania crassa
Mesalia mesal
Monodonta lineata
Nassarius pfeifferi
Nassarius reticulatus
Ocinebrina aciculata
Ovatella myosotis
Patella ullysiponensis
Pusilina marginata
Retusa truncatula
Rissoa cinilis
Rissoa decorata
Rissoa eulacea
Rissoa membranacae
Rissoa multicincta
Tornus subcarinatus
Turbonilla acuta
Turbonilla lactea
Turbonilla sp.
Lepidochitona cineraria (Polyplacophora)
Dentalium sp.(Scaphopoda)
I
4a
II II
I
o
5a
II III
I
5b
II III
o
I
6a
II III
n
n
o
n
n
o
o
o
n
c
o
n
o
o
n
o
o
c
n
n
n
n
o
o
o
c
+
o
+
n
o
o
o
o
o
o
o
+
c
n
o
n
n
n
c
I
o
o
n
o
o
6b
II III
n
n
c
o
+
+
c
o
o
c
n
n
n
o
o
n
n
n
c
c
n
n
c
o
o
o
c
o
o
o
o
c
n
n
n
n
n
o
n
n
o
c
o
c
c
o
c
o
c
o
c
o
o
o
n
n
c
n
n
n
n
o
n
n
o
n
o
o
o
+
c
+
c
c
o
c
o
c
o
+
c
c
o
c
o
o
c
o
+
o
o
o
c
o
c
o
o
o
n
o
c
+
c
+
o
o
o
c
c
o
c
o
o
o
c
c
c
o
o
c
o
o
c
o
o
o
o
o
o
o
c
o
o
o
o
22
A Rocha Portugal Observatory Report 2009-2010
List of species (Bivalvia)
+ found just once; o - occasional (2-10); c - common (11-100); n - numerous (>100)
Site
Species
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.
11.
12.
13.
14.
15.
16.
17.
18.
19.
20.
21.
22.
23.
24.
25.
26.
27.
28.
29.
30.
31.
32.
33.
34.
35.
36.
37.
38.
39.
Month
Abra alba
Abra tenuis
Acanthocardium aculeata
Anomia ephippium
Cardita calyculata
Cardium edule
Chamelea gallina
Chlamys varia
Clausinella fasciata
Corbulla gibba
Digitaria digitaria
Donacilla cornea
Donax trunculus
Donax vittatus
Ervilla castanea
Gastrana fragilis
Glycymeris glycymeris
Irus irus
Laevicardium crassum
Loripes lacteus
Lucinella divaricata
Lutraria lutraria
Mytilus edulis
Mytilus galloprovincialis
Nucula nucleus
Nucula sp.
Nuculana pella
Ostrea edulis
Paphia aurea
Paphia rhomboides
Parvicardium exiguum
Scrobicularia plana
Solen marginatus
Spisula solida
Spisula subtruncata
Striarca lactea
Tapes decussatus
Tellina tenuis
Venerupis senegaliensis
4a
I II III
o
n n n
o
+ o
n
c
o
c
o
o
o
o
o
c
c
o
o
n
c
c
o
o
c
I
5a
II III
c
c
c
I
5b
II III
I
6a
II III
o
c
c
o
o
+
n
c
o
+
c
c
o
n
c
o
n
o
o
n
c
o
o
o
+
o
o
c
c
c
o
o
c
o
o
n
+
o
n
c
o
n
c
c
o
o
+
o
o
o
n
o
n
o
n
c
+
o
o
o
o
o
o
o
c
o
o
n
+
I
6b
II III
o
c
o
c
+
o
o
+
o
o
c
c
o
o
c
o
o
c
+
c
o
o
+
c
+
o
o
o
+
+
o
o
o
+
o
+
o
c
o
+
c
c
o
+
o
o
+
o
c
o
o
o
o
o
o
+
o
o
o
c
o
c
o
c
c
c
o
o
+
o
o
o
o
c
c
+
o
o
c
o
c
o
o
c
n
+
o
c
n
o
c
o
o
o
+
c
c
o
c
o
o
+
o
c
c
c
c
o
c
o
A Rocha Portugal Observatory Report 2009-2010
23
A STUDY OF THE KENTISH PLOVER, CHARADRIUS ALEXANDRINUS, IN THE RIA DE ALVOR
Andrew Cole
Introduction
The Kentish Plover, Charadrius alexandrinus, is a geographically widespread wader which breeds in a range
of different habitats (Cramp & Simmons, 1983). In Portugal there are an estimated 1,500 to 5,000 breeding
pairs with 1,000 to 4,400 individuals over-wintering (Burfield, et al., 2004). There have been recent declines
in Kentish Plover populations thought to be due to habitat changes and human disturbance. The declines
have caused some small subpopulations to disappear, such as in Northern Spain (Norte & Ramos, 2004;
Cramp & Simmons, 1983).
The breeding of the Kentish Plover has been studied in many different habitats; inland saline lakes, alkaline
grasslands, marshes and sandy beaches, although this last habitat has been studied less extensively (Norte
& Ramos, 2004). In Portugal, however, sandy beaches are the most important natural habitat for breeding
Kentish Plover, while salinas and fish farms are important man made habitats (Norte & Ramos, 2004;
Rufino, et al., 1984). An important proportion of Kentish Plovers in Portugal are also found in non-estuarine
habitats (Mendes, et al., 2008).
Different techniques have been used when estimating the number of Kentish Plovers in a given area,
ranging from the number of individuals to the number of pairs (Burfield, et al., 2004; Lorenzo & Emmerson,
1995). Because Kentish Plovers nest close together, territorial behaviour can be used to aid in the
estimation of the number of territories in an area (Cramp & Simmons, 1983). Territories can be counted in
addition to counting the number of individuals, juveniles and nests. This study was carried out on the Alvor
Estuary in southern Portugal and studied Kentish Plovers in three distinct habitats; sand dunes, salinas and
salt marshes. The study was undertaken during the 2010 breeding season and repeated the same
methodology carried out in 2004 and 2005 (Hayden & Heleno, 2004; Hayden & Heleno, 2005; Sousa, et al.,
2007). This facilitates across year comparisons, showing any long term trends in Kentish Plover numbers.
Methods
The research was carried out on the Alvor Estuary (37°07’57N 08°37’03W), a Natura 2000 site and the
location of many studies carried out by A Rocha Portugal. Observations were carried out in five locations
covering one marshland (Western Marsh, WM), two salt pans (Western Marsh Salinas, WMS; Odiaxere
Salinas, OS) and two dune systems (Meia Praia, MP; Alvor Praia, AP). These five sites had been previously
identified as encompassing the main habitat types of the estuary and the majority of known Kentish Plover
breeding areas (Hayden & Heleno, 2005; Sousa, et al., 2007).
Fieldwork was carried out in the breeding season in 2004, 2005 and 2010 following, as closely as possible,
the same methodology (Hayden & Heleno, 2004). Each of the five sites was visited every three weeks from
30 March to 13 July; a total of five visits in both 2004 and 2005, and six visits in 2010.
From a number of fixed observation points the location of every individual was recorded and the type of
behaviour observed, with behaviour grouped into: ‘apparently non-territorial’, ‘territorial’, ‘sitting on a
nest’, an ‘adult with juveniles’ and ‘juveniles’ on their own. ‘Juveniles’ or chicks were classified as very
young, medium age and close to fledging, based on size and moult progress as classified by Hayden and
24
A Rocha Portugal Observatory Report 2009-2010
Heleno (2004). The length of time spent at each site was equal for each visit and across all the years as also
prescribed in Hayden & Heleno’s methodology (2004; 2005).
The number of breeding pairs was estimated by counting the number of territories which were apparently
being defended. An apparently held territory (AHT) was counted if a bird was sitting on a nest, the presence
of chicks, more than three occurrences of territorial behaviour at the same location across different dates,
or two occurrences of territorial behaviour with supporting non territorial behaviour (Hayden & Heleno,
2005).
Wader counts were conducted every fortnight on the Ria de Alvor estuary at high tide. These surveys cover
both the western marsh and western marsh salinas. These counts have been carried out from 1999 to 2010
by staff and volunteers at A Rocha. The maximum count utilised within this report is taken from surveys
carried out in April, May or June to coincide with the Kentish plover breeding period.
Results
The number of apparently held territories declined throughout the period from 53 in 2004, 43 in 2005 and
finally 30 in 2010. Similarly the number of birds seen sitting and the number of juveniles also declined. The
number of adult individuals shows greater variation from 344 in 2004 to 84 in 2005 (Figure 1). The 2010
figure (178 adult individuals) was between the numbers found in the two previous studies.
Figure 1 The total numbers across the last five visits of individuals (adults), juveniles, apparently held
territories and sitting birds. The last five visits are used so that all the years are comparable.
There is a significant difference in number of individual Kentish Plover over the years between the different
sites studied (Figure 2). In all four measures (number of individuals, sitting birds, juveniles and AHTs) the
Western Marsh showed greater abundance than the other sites, however it also showed the greatest
decrease from 2004 to 2010. The Western Marsh Salinas have generally shown the least decline over this
period, and actually showed an increase or the same result in three of the measures.
In 2010 the number of sitting birds in each site correlated significantly with the number of AHTs
(Spearman’s rank, rs= 1.6, d.f=3, p<0.05), but there was no significant correlation between the number of
AHTs and the number of individuals or juveniles. Combining all three years surveyed (2004, 2005, 2010) the
A Rocha Portugal Observatory Report 2009-2010
25
number of AHTs in each site correlated significantly with the number of individuals (Spearman’s rank, rs=
212.3, d.f=13, p<0.05), the number of sitting birds (Spearman’s rank, rs= 171.3, d.f=13, p<0.05) and the
number of juveniles (Spearman’s rank, rs= 181.1, d.f=13, p<0.05).
MP=Meia Praia, AP=Alvor Praia, WM=Western Marsh, WMS=Western Marsh Salinas, OS=Odiaxere Salinas.
Figure 2 The bars show the change in number of individuals for each site from 2004 to 2010 which varied
significantly across the three years (X2=28.67, df=8, p<0.001). The line shows the average number of
individuals in each area across all three years, with error bars showing one standard deviation. (a) the
number of individual birds, (b) the number of sitting birds, (c) the number of apparently held territories –
AHTs, (d) the number of juveniles.
26
A Rocha Portugal Observatory Report 2009-2010
Figure 3 Maximum number of Kentish Plovers recorded in the Alvor Estuary on fortnightly wader counts.
The number is the highest observed number of Kentish Plovers on any given wader count in April, May or
June. The linear regression line is plotted indicating a decline.
Supporting data
Before the current methodology was adopted in 2004 A Rocha carried out numerous surveys on Kentish
Plover. From 1991 to 1999 surveys of Kentish Plover were carried out in six of the years with estimates of
the number of breeding pairs ranging from 45 to over 200. However, almost every survey used a different
methodology with different amounts of time spent in observation, therefore any comparisons with data
gathered before 2004 must be made with caution.
A Rocha has also conducted fortnightly wader counts over the study period and going back to 1999. Figure
3 reports the maximum number of Kentish Plover observed on any one wader count in the months of April,
May or June. Results from months before or after these three have been excluded to avoid including the
influx of individuals stopping in the estuary while on migration. Figure 3 indicates that wader counts show
a slight decline in the number of individual Kentish Plovers seen during the breeding season (linear
regression: y=-0.395x + 34.65), from 1999 to 2010. The highest numbers range from 20 to 48, indicating a
great variation in the number of individuals; some years have double the number counted in other years ,
with the linear regression having a low r-squared value (r2=0.07, d.f.=10, p=0.67).
A Rocha Portugal Observatory Report 2009-2010
27
Discussion
Salinas
The importance of salinas has changed through the period this study encompasses. For all observed sites
2010 had lower numbers of individuals and fewer sitting birds, except for the Western Marsh Salinas which
showed slight increases for both. Importantly, due to changes in land access, not all of the salt pans could
be accessed in 2010, which means the latest figure may be a slight underestimate compared with previous
years. The other salt pans, at Odiaxere, showed similar declines to all the other sites.
This increase in Kentish Plover on the Western Marsh Salinas is potentially made up of individuals from
Western Marsh itself. In 2010 the sluice gate controlling the water levels in the Western Marsh was open
allowing water to flow in and out with changes in the tide level of the neighbouring estuary. The result of
the sluice gate being open is that high tides caused water levels to be higher in the marsh than in previous
year. This may have caused Kentish Plover to nest on the neighbouring Salinas.
A previous study by Rufino, et al., (1984) looking at the use of salinas by waders at Ria Formosa, also in
southern Portugal, found that over 89% of Kentish Plover roosted in the salinas, and when feeding 61%
were in the salinas compared to 39% in the Ria. This study therefore complements their findings in
emphasising the importance of salinas for waders, and extends their importance for breeding in addition to
roosting and feeding.
Sand dunes
A possible reason for the dunes having very low numbers of Kentish Plover may be due to the extensive
disturbance that they have suffered. During the end of 2009 and up until April 2010 dredging was carried
out in the Alvor Estuary which resulted in the dredged sand being placed on the Meia Praia and Alvor dunes
before being transported to beaches. This obviously caused major disturbance and change to the
topography and vegetation of the dunes.
In the summer the beaches neighbouring the dunes are very popular with tourists, with people regularly
walking through the dunes and walking their dogs which are most often not on a lead. This obviously
causes major disturbance for the Kentish Plover. In 2005 signboards were used to try to reduce the number
of people walking through the dunes and encourage people to have dogs on leads (Sousa, et.al, 2007).
Calculating territories
The measure AHT was found to positively correlate with the number of sitting birds in 2010. When
combining results from all years the number of AHTs correlated with all the measures (number of
individuals, sitting birds and juveniles). This suggests that AHT successfully incorporates the results as the
number of territories would be expected to increase with individuals, sitting birds and juveniles. It is not
necessarily surprising that the correlations are not always significant for a single year due to their only
being five values which often results in ties in the ranking making p-values impossible to predict accurately.
Additionally, calculating the number of territories can sometimes be difficult given that many of the birds
are seen very close together over numerous visits. This can make it hard to determine how many territories
have been seen. Therefore the decline in the number of AHTs must be interpreted cautiously. However, it
is promising that 2010 had a much higher number of individuals counted than 2005.
The results suggest that the Kentish Plover population in the Alvor Estuary is very variable in the number of
individuals, although this variation is not seen in the number of juveniles or sitting birds, which probably
28
A Rocha Portugal Observatory Report 2009-2010
explains why the number of apparently held territories does not vary greatly. Additional surveys will show
whether 2010 was a particularly unusual year, or whether the decline in AHTs continues beyond 2010. The
results may suggest that in 2005 adults were overall more successful at breeding and producing juveniles. If
this is the case, in years with many adults a large proportion do not contribute to the number of juveniles.
Potentially these adults breed in less suitable habitat or locations prone to disturbance or predation and
therefore have very little effect on the number of successfully fledged juveniles. Again, further surveys will
help show any patterns, and particular experiments designed to look at geographical variation in breeding
success and density will show if these suggestions are accurate.
References
Burfield I, van Bommel F & Gallo-Orsi, U (2004) Birds in Europe: population estimates, trends and
conservation status. BirdLife International, Cambridge.
Cramp, S. & Simmons, K. E. L. 1983. (Eds.) The Birds of the Western Palearctic. Vol. III. Oxford University
Press. Oxford.
Hayden, J. & Heleno, R. (2004) An Informal Guide to the Kentish Plover Annual Survey on the Ria de Alvor
Natura 2000 site. A Rocha Portugal Internal Report. Associação A Rocha, Portimão, Portugal.
Hayden, J. & Heleno, R. (2005) Monitoring breeding numbers and success of Kentish Plovers Charadrius
alexandrinus on the Alvor Estuary. In Simonson, W (ed.) A Rocha Observatory Report for 2004. Associação A
Rocha, Portimão, Portugal.
Lorenzo, J.A. & Emmerson, K.W. (1995) Recent information on the distribution and status of the breeding
population of Kentish Plover Charadrius alexandrinus in the Canary Islands. Wader Study Group Bulletin, 76,
43-46.
Mendes, L., Dias, M. & Rufino, R. 2008. Assessment of the importance of non-estuarine coastal habitats for
wintering waders in Portugal –January/February 2000. pp. 59–63. In: N.H.K. Burton,
M.M. Rehfisch,D.A. Stroud & C.J. Spray (eds). The European Non-Estuarine Coastal Waterbird Survey.
International Wader Studies 18. International Wader Study Group, Thetford, UK.
Norte, A. & Ramos, J. (2004) Nest-site selection and breeding biology of Kentish Plover Charadrius
alexandrinus in sandy beaches of the Portuguese west coast. Ardeola, 51, 255-268.
Rufino, R., Araujo, A., Pina, J.P. & Miranda, P.S. (1984) The use of Salinas by Waders in the Algarve, South
Portugal. Wader Study Group Bulletin, 42, 41-42.
A Rocha Portugal Observatory Report 2009-2010
29
BUTTERFLY MONITORING AROUND THE ALVOR ESTUARY, JUNE – OCTOBER 2009
Bert Van der Auwermeulen
Introduction
This project is a follow-up to the 2004 butterfly monitoring project on Quinta da Rocha by the Alvor
estuary (Hayden & Carpenter, 2005), which compared results with a study undertaken in 1991 (Gardiner,
1992). Due to a change of landownership, none of the transects used in the previous studies were still
accessible, therefore it was necessary to create a series of new transects. Three transects were created
near the Roman ruins in Abicada and one on the north side of the N125 in Mexilhoeira Grande.
Casual observations in Quinta da Rocha during the weekly bird surveys in 2009, and an additional survey
conducted in the Cruzinha garden (Van der Auwermeulen, unpublished), provided more information
regarding the presence or absence of species in the locality throughout the year.
Aims and objectives
The aim of this study was to acquire an understanding of butterfly abundance and species diversity across a
variety of habitats around the Alvor Estuary during the summer of 2009, and to make a comparison with
previous surveys undertaken in Quinta da Rocha.
Methods
The methods followed in this study were based on those described in the Butterfly Monitoring Scheme
(Pollard & Yates, 1993) that was used for the studies in 1991 and 2004.
Using transect lines passing through different habitat types in a given area, provides a representative index
of butterfly species diversity and abundance. Whilst walking a set transect, records were made of each
butterfly seen in the defined area: three metres either side of the transect line, and five metres in front of
the recorder. This did not lead to an estimate of population size, but allowed a comparison to be made with
previous studies.
The transects were chosen in order to sample a variety of habitats found in Abicada and Mexilhoeira
Grande around the Alvor estuary. An obvious location-marker was used (and photographed) as the starting
point for each transect to help future relocation. The surveys took place between 09:00 and 13.30 hrs in
sunny conditions or, if cloudy, when the temperature exceeded 20 °C.
Four transects, each 300m in length, were walked once a week from the beginning of June until the end of
August, and once in both September and October. On 2nd June records were limited to transects 1, 2 and 3.
The time taken to walk each transect was longer than in the previous studies and the vegetation was
disturbed in order to flush resting individuals. The time to complete one transect was often 30 minutes,
especially at the beginning when there were more identification difficulties. Some transects were
necessarily crossed again on the way back. In such cases counts were also made of any species which were
not recorded the first time.
A location map is presented in Appendix 1 and brief habitat descriptions of each transect follows.
30
A Rocha Portugal Observatory Report 2009-2010
Transects 1 – 4 (Abicada and Mexilhoeira Grande)
Abicada 1 (Starting point coordinates: 37°09’03.89’’N 8°35’53.58’’W) followed a SSE direction from the
starting point and lay between the central fresh water channel and a small (ruinous) aqueduct through the
lowland of Abicada.
During the survey the grassy vegetation at the beginning of the track was 1 - 2m tall, with an abundance of
herbs (mainly Apiaceae), this then reduced in height to approximately 1m and became more dominated by
grasses from the middle of the transect until its end. Some low bushes (2-5m) were growing in the first half
of the transect. The fresh water channel east of the transect always contained water and was overgrown
with tall reeds for the first 200m; the remainder was clear of reeds. The majority of the vegetation in the
surrounding area was very short and under the influence of freshwater, with channels and temporary
ponds. The habitats here became established after the construction of dykes in the 1950s and 1960s, and
expanded when the former rice cultivation was abandoned. Simonson (1993 and 2005) provides more
information about the history and vegetation of the Abicada area.
Abicada 2 (37°09’07.10’’N 8°35’47.79’’W) followed the unpaved road from the farm ruins northwards until
the first crossroads. Trees (mainly conifers) and shrubs grew along one side of the road – first on the east
side, later on the west side. The other side of the road was grassy with a varying abundance of herbs. The
surrounding area was abandoned farmland and comprised dry grassland with scattered bushes and trees.
The irrigation channel along the left hand side of the road rarely contained water, but supported flowering
plants when water was present, including Mentha sp.
Abicada 3 (37°09’16.72’’N 8°35’50.26’’W) followed the track that leads through abandoned farmland to the
dam on the Alvor estuary. The habitat was open grassland with scattered trees and shrubs. This was the
most “open” transect of the four. There was a nearby irrigation channel that contained water on an
irregular basis, allowing some nectar plants to flower during the dry season.
Mexilhoeira Grande 4 (37°09’33.88’’N 8°35’38.01’’W) was situated on the north side of the N125, on a
south facing hillside. The transect passed through an abandoned orchard with a row of bushes and trees
bordering an allotment. It followed the track leading around this allotment, no more than 10m from the
field boundary. The vegetation was grassy with an abundance of summer-flowering herbs (including
Mentha sp.) particularly at the start.
Results
A total of 604 butterflies representing 22 different species were recorded in this study and summarised
below in Table 1 and Figure 1a. Appendix 2 provides a full record of the species numbers noted in the
weekly transects. Nearly fifty percent of individuals recorded were Pyronia cecilia (Southern Gatekeeper).
Other numerous species included Thymelicus acteon (Lulworth Skipper), Pararge aegeria (Speckled Wood)
and Aricia cramera (Southern Brown Argus). Figure 1b provides an overview of the number of individuals
recorded for each species, excluding records of P. cecilia.
A Rocha Portugal Observatory Report 2009-2010
31
Table 1 List of species and total number recorded along transects at Abicada and Mexilhoeira Grande in
2009.
Scientific name
1
English name
Papilio machaon
Iphiclides podalirius ssp. feisthamelii
Pieris brassicae
Pieris rapae
Colias croceus
Gonepteryx cleopatra
Satyrium spini
Lycaena phlaeas
Leptotes pirithous
Lampides boeticus
Celastrina argiolus
Swallowtail
(Southern) Scarce Swallowtail
Large White
Small White
Clouded Yellow
Cleopatra
Blue-spot Hairstreak
Small Copper
Lang's Short-tailed Blue
Long-tailed Blue
Holly Blue
Aricia cramera
Polyommatus icarus
Vanessa atalanta
Vanessa cardui
Maniola jurtina
Pyronia cecilia
Coenonympha pamphilus
Pararge aegeria
Muschampia proto
Carcharodus tripolina
Thymelicus acteon
Southern Brown Argus
Common Blue
Red Admiral
Painted Lady
Meadow Brown
Southern Gatekeeper
Small Heath
Speckled Wood
Sage Skipper
False Mallow Skipper
Lulworth Skipper
Number
recorded
9
3
1
19
14
4
1
14
15
1
4
34
15
2
21
19
293
7
37
21
10
60
Figure 1a Total number of butterflies across the transects in Abicada and Mexilhoeira Grande
1 Fauna Europaea (2011)
32
A Rocha Portugal Observatory Report 2009-2010
Figure 1b Total number of butterflies recorded in Abicada and Mexilhoeira Grande with the
exception of Pyronia cecilia.
Table 2 shows the number of individuals recorded for each transect and Table 3 shows the number of
species recorded. The most consistently species-rich site was M4 (Mexilhoeira Grande), which recorded a
mean of 6.3 species per week. The largest number of individuals was recorded along transect A3 (Abicada
grassland), this transect totalled 219 individuals over the course of the survey period. The least diversity
was observed along transect A1 (Abicada lowland), with a mean of 2.7 species per week, and a survey total
of only 47 individuals recorded.
Table 2 Number of individuals recorded for
each transect each week.
Date
02-06-09
09-06-09
16-06-09
23-06-09
30-06-09
07-07-09
14-07-09
22-07-09
28-07-09
04-08-09
12-08-09
19-08-09
25-08-09
22-09-09
13-10-09
Total
Mean
Transects
A1
A2
5
19
14
15
10
22
2
16
3
15
0
9
3
3
0
10
1
14
2
6
1
3
0
6
2
2
2
10
2
14
47
164
3.1 10.9
Table 3 Number of species recorded
for each transect each week.
Date
A3
42
47
11
14
13
10
5
3
15
9
11
16
4
4
15
219
14.6
M4
0
31
27
21
15
12
9
7
7
10
12
6
12
4
1
174
11.6
02-06-09
09-06-09
16-06-09
23-06-09
30-06-09
07-07-09
14-07-09
22-07-09
28-07-09
04-08-09
12-08-09
19-08-09
25-08-09
22-09-09
13-10-09
Total
Mean
Transects
A1 A2
2 10
3
6
3
4
1
6
2
6
0
1
2
1
0
3
1
2
2
1
1
3
0
2
2
2
2
3
2
7
8 17
2.7 3.5
A3
7
8
3
4
4
1
2
2
2
1
2
2
2
3
6
16
3.9
M4
0
10
8
8
6
3
3
3
6
4
5
5
4
3
1
16
6.3
A Rocha Portugal Observatory Report 2009-2010
33
16
14
12
10
8
6
4
2
0
A1
A3
A2
M4
Mean number of species per transect
Mean number of individuals per transect
Figure 2 The mean number of individuals and species recorded on each transect.
The maximum number of species recorded during a single week (inclusive of all transects) was 27, recorded
on 9th June; the maximum number of individuals recorded during a single week was 107, also on 9 th June.
Figure 3 shows the relationship between the number of species and number of butterflies recorded in any
given week.
Number of species recorded each week
16
14
12
10
8
6
4
2
0
0
20
40
60
80
100
120
Number of individuals recorded each week
Figure 3 The relationship between the number of species and number of individuals recorded
on the transects each week.
Comparison with previous surveys
In order to draw a comparison with previous studies undertaken in the area, the relevant data from 1991,
2004 and 2009 were extracted. The surveys in 1991 and 2004 took place over a longer period of time, the
longest period of overlap being between 8th June and 17th August; a period of 11 weeks. As previous survey
data were recorded by ‘week-ending’ the data from this survey were analysed similarly.
34
A Rocha Portugal Observatory Report 2009-2010
The following figures and tables aid a general comparison of species diversity in the Alvor Estuary area.
Figures 4 and 5 show an overview of the total number of species and individuals recorded along transects in
1991, 2004 and 2009.
Figure 4 Number of species recorded
along transects in 1991, 2004 and 2009.
Figure 5 Number of individuals recorded
along transects in 1991, 2004 and 2009,
with the exception of P. Cecilia.
Discussion
Comparison with previous studies - 1991, 2004 and 2009
From the outset, it was recognised that the results from this study would not be directly comparable to
those from previous studies undertaken in the vicinity (Gardiner, 1992, Hayden & Carpenter 2005).
Gardiner (1992) stated that the numbers recorded along the transects do not necessarily provide a realistic
indication of butterfly species abundance on the rest of the Quinta. It was therefore to be expected that
the species diversity and abundance of butterflies on the survey sites in Abicada and Mexilhoeira Grande
would be different to those in Quinta da Rocha. It is important to remember that due to the different
recording technique used in this study (see Methods) the relative number of species and individuals are
likely to be higher in 2009 than in 2004 and 1991.
There were a number of notable differences regarding the species identified across the surveys, as
summarised in Table 4 below. An overview of species data from the three surveys within the comparable
months (June-August) is provided in Table 1 of Appendix 3.
Pieris brassicae (Large White) and Lasiommata megera (Wall Brown), for example, were not recorded in the
2009 survey. It is unlikely that these species were overlooked, but there is the possibility that this was the
case with Pontia daplidice (Bath White) and Thymelicus lineola (Essex Skipper). Many of the skippers and
whites were able to be caught and positively identified, however, many others were not and they were
assumed to be the commoner species of their respective groups. This may be an explanation for the
apparent disappearance of the latter two species in the locality.
A Rocha Portugal Observatory Report 2009-2010
35
Table 4 Differences of species recorded during the surveys
Species
Common name
Pontia
daplidice
Pieris
brassicae
Bath white
Lasiommata
megera
Pyronia
cecilia
Wall brown
Thymelicus
lineola
Essex skipper
Thymelicus
acteon
Lulworth
skipper
Large white
Southern
gatekeeper
Presence 1991
st
th
(1 Jun – 17 Aug)
Recorded weekly in
Quinta da Rocha
Present throughout
– 134 records (all
transects)
Presence 2004
st
th
(1 Jun – 17 Aug)
Present in July –
8 records (4 transects)
th
Present until 6 July–
23 records (5
transects)
Recorded weekly in
Quinta da Rocha
Present throughout
– 149 records (all
transects)
nd
Present until 22
June –107 records
(all transects)
th
Present until 6 July
– 47 records (all
transects)
Sporadic records –
9 records (3 transects)
Present throughout –
185 records (8
transects)
th
Present until 29 June
- 14 records (4
transects)
nd
Present until 22
June – 15 records (4
transects)
Presence 2009
nd
th
(2 Jun – 19 Aug)
Not recorded
Not recorded during
the survey, 4 casual
records on Quinta da
Rocha
Not recorded
Present throughout 280 records within 4
transects
Not recorded
Trend
↘
↘
↘
↗
↘
th
Present until 30 June
– 60 records (4
transects)
↗
Seven of the species mentioned in the discussion (those underlined in the paragraphs below) are listed in
the European Butterfly Indicator for Grassland species (Van Swaay and Van Strien, 2010), six of them
reported to be in decline on a European scale. The status of Lasiommata megera (Wall Brown) being in
“Steep decline” is most concerning and, although the results of the European Butterfly Indicator are mainly
based on data collected in other countries, it suggests that the absence of this species in this 2009 survey
could be analogous to the general trend in Europe.
The structure, composition and abundance of vegetation within the survey areas are likely to have a major
impact on the butterfly fauna. The vegetation on the Abicada peninsula is rather uniform when compared
to that of the previous surveys undertaken on the Quinta da Rocha. It might, therefore, be expected that
the number and diversity of butterflies would be less in this survey whilst acknowledging that many other
variables may also apply.
Other than extensive grazing, the majority of the Abicada headland had largely been agriculturally
abandoned. The vegetation in the vicinity of the transects was mainly dry grassland with scattered fig,
carob and olive trees (Transects A2, A3, M1). Unsurprisingly, the butterfly species that feed2 on diverse
grasses were the most numerous in those transects (Pyronia cecilia, Thymelicus acteon), along with other
grassland species3 that feed on various Fabaceae (Polyommatus icarus, Colias croceus), various Geraniaceae
(Aricia cramera), various Malvaceae (Carcharodus tripolina), Phlomis purpurea (Muschampia proto) and
Rumex acetosella (Lycaena phlaeas). Coenonympha pamphilus (Small Heath), have previously been
observed on Quinta da Rocha but was never recorded in very high numbers. Maniola jurtina (Meadow
2 Feeding refers to the food plant of the caterpillars and not to the nectar source used by the adults
3 Butterfly species having grassland as their main habitat (Van Swaay and Van Strien, 2010)
36
A Rocha Portugal Observatory Report 2009-2010
Brown) was ending its flight period at the beginning of the survey period, thus one would expect the
numbers of this species to be low, however it might also have been more common in previous years. Some
of the Pieridae had also just ended their expected flight period (Euchloe belemia, Euchloe crameri) as well
as Medanargia ines (Spanish Marbled White) and Euphydryas aurinia (Marsh Fritillary). The low number of
Pieris brassicae (Large White) recorded was assumed to be caused by the scarcity of available food plants.
This species clearly takes advantage of Cruciferae growing abundantly in cultivated fields on Quinta da
Rocha, a rare situation in Abicada due to the current lack of agricultural activity. In addition, the conditions
in 1991 might have been unusually favourable for Pieris brassicae. Regarding the absence of Lasiommata
megera (Wall Brown) in 2009, it should be noted that it never appeared in very high numbers and it used to
be most numerous on the limestone scrubland and coastal scrubland (transect 3, 5 in 1991), these habitat
associations were not represented in the current survey and are no longer accessible on Quinta da Rocha.
During the period of this survey the lowlands of Abicada were rather poor both in flowering plants and host
plants. The most common butterfly species along Transect A1 was Pararge aegeria (Speckled Wood) which
appeared to be taking advantage of the shade provided by the high reeds. Pyronia cecilia (Southern
Gatekeeper) was present, but in low numbers. The rest of the butterflies recorded along this transect
(Pieris rapae, Pieris brassicae and Papilio machaon), were mainly fast flying, attempting to reach a more
sheltered area in the usually windy conditions. The observation of Celastrina argiolus (Holly Blue) was
interesting because although widespread and common, this species is most commonly seen in woodland
margins rather than in open marshland habitats. However, the individuals observed were seen crossing the
open areas and seeking shelter around the reedbed, perhaps indicating that this species is more mobile
than many other Lycaenidae.
Although the butterfly species diversity in transects A2, A3 and M1 were dominated by grassland species,
they clearly differed from each other in terms of composition. Transect A2 was the most sheltered site and
included the greatest number of wood/scrubland specialists4. In comparison the vegetation around
transects A3 and M1 was more open and, as might be expected, a higher number of grassland specialists 5
was recorded at these locations. Muschampia proto (Sage Skipper) and Carcharodus tripolina (False Mallow
Skipper), species observed mostly at the Mexilhoeira Grande site, M1, are known to show a strong
correlation with their food plants.
Conclusions and recommendations
The diversity of butterfly species in the wider Alvor Estuary area was similar to that observed in previous
studies in Quinta da Rocha. One notable difference in 2009 was the great abundance of Pyronia cecilia
(Southern Gatekeeper), representing 48.5% of the total number of recorded individuals. A potential
explanation for this difference includes the fact that the Abicada peninsula had less habitat diversity than
Quinta da Rocha and the predominant habitat type (grassland) is very favourable for this species.
While recognising the fact that populations fluctuate every year, the infrequent occurrence of Pieris
brassicae (Large White) and Pontia daplidice (Bath White) was notable. Again the difference in habitat type,
in this case the lack of cultivated fields on the Abicada peninsula, may have been a major contributing
factor. These two species are not currently endangered but it would be interesting to continue to monitor
their population dynamics.
4
Iphiclides podalirius, Satyrium spini, Celastrina argiolus, Pararge aegeria
Lycaena phlaeas, Aricia cramera, Polyommatus icarus, Maniola jurtina, Pyronia cecilia, Coenonympha pamphilus,
Muschampia proto, Carcharodus tripolina, Thymelicus acteon
5
A Rocha Portugal Observatory Report 2009-2010
37
The status of Lasiommata megera (Wall Brown) and Thymelicus lineola (Essex Skipper) in this region are
unable to be determined by this survey, but potentially indicated a downward trend reflecting the trend on
a European level (Van Swaay et. al., 2010). Hayden & Carpenter (2005) stated that this decline could be
caused by a change of land use; this would warrant further investigation. Several butterflies present in the
Alvor estuary area would benefit from a conservation programme since they have a limited distribution in
Portugal or Europe, or because the known populations in Europe are in serious decline. Species of
conservation concern in this region include those listed in Table 5.
Table 5 Species of conservation concern in the region.
Scientific name
Gonepteryx cleopatra
Thymelicus lineola
Thymelicus acteon
English name
Cleopatra
Essex Skipper
Lulworth Skipper
Euphydryas aurinia
Marsh Fritillary
Lasiommata megera
Lycaena phlaeas
Coenonympha pamphilus
Spialia sertorius
Wall Brown
Small Copper
Small Heath
Red-underwing
Skipper
Red list status
6
Uncommon (PT )
Uncommon (PT)
Uncommon (PT)
7
Near threatened (EU )
8
Decline (EBI)
Habitat directive – Annex II
Uncertain (EBI)
Notes
EU: Declining rapidly in parts
of its range and in urgent
need for conservation action
Annex II: Species that require
the designation of special
areas of conservation (LIFE)
Decline (EBI)
Decline (EBI)
Decline (EBI)
Uncertain (EBI)
It would be useful to direct future butterfly monitoring programmes towards identifying existing
populations of the above species in the Alvor estuary area and developing practical conservation action
plans. Two suggested projects:


The Lulworth skipper should become the main priority for a future butterfly study. At present it is
still common and widespread in the area, without showing signs of a decline. The implementation
of a comprehensive conservation strategy may prevent this population from following the current
decline in the great majority of Europe.
The Marsh fritillary is known to be very vulnerable to habitat loss and is therefore listed on Annex II
of the Habitat directive. It occurs commonly (although localised) in the Alvor estuary and it is
strongly correlated to its food plants Lonicera implexa and Scabiosa atropurpurea. The imagos,
caterpillars and food plants are all easy to recognise, making it an ideal species for a monitoring
scheme carried out by volunteers.
For both species, possible threats and suggestions for conservation measures are described in the Red data
book of European butterflies (Van Swaay & Warren, 1999).Recommended future studies could include
further investigations into invertebrate associations (particularly lepidoptera) with habitat types occurring
in the Alvor estuary area. There is benefit in sharing butterfly records with national (Tagis) and European
species recording schemes in order to assist monitoring efforts. A locally developed database for the
recording of butterfly observations would aid this suggestion.
6
PT: Red list status of Portugal based on As Borboletas de Portugal (Marvalhas, 2003)
EU: Red list status of Europe based on European Red list of butterflies (Van Swaay, Cuttelod, et.al., 2010)
8
EBI: The European Butterfly Indicator for Grassland species 1990-2009 (Van Swaay et.al., 2010)
7
38
A Rocha Portugal Observatory Report 2009-2010
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Maravalhas, E. (2003). As borboletas de Portugal. Apollo Books
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Simonson, W. (1993). Wild flowers of the Alvor Estuary. A Rocha Portugal Occasional Publication Number 3.
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Van Swaay, C.A.M. & Warren, M.S. (1999) Red Data book of European butterflies (Rhopalocera). Nature and
Environment, No. 99, Council of Europe Publishing, Strasbourg.
Van Swaay, C., Cuttelod, A., Collins, S., Maes, D., Lopez Munguira, M., Šašić, M., Settele, J., Verovnik, R.,
Verstrael, T., Warren, M., Wiemers, M. and Wynhof, I. (2010). European Red List of Butterflies. Luxembourg:
Publications Office of the European Union.
Van Swaay, C.A.M., Van Strien, A.J., Harpke, A., Fontaine, B., Stefanescu, C., Roy, D., Maes, D., Kühn, E.,
Õunap, E., Regan, E., Švitra, G., Heliölä, J., Settele, J., Warren, M.S., Plattner, M., Kuussaari, M., Cornish, N.,
Garcia Pereira, P., Leopold, P., Feldmann, R., Jullard, R., Verovnik, R., Popov, S., Brereton, T., Gmelig
Meyling, A., Collins, S. (2010). The European Butterfly Indicator for Grassland species 1990-2009. Report
VS2010.010, De Vlinderstichting, Wageningen
A Rocha Portugal Observatory Report 2009-2010
Appendix 1. 2009 butterfly survey transect maps
Transect 1-3 (Abicada)
Transect 4 (Mexilhoeira Grande)
39
Appendix 2. Weekly transect data from Abicada and Mexilhoeira Grande.
02-06-2009
A1
A2
09-06-2009
A3
M4 Total
2
A1
A2
16-06-2009
A3
M4 Total
2
0
Southern Scarce Swallowtail
0
0
Large White
0
0
A1
A2
23-06-2009
A3
M4 Total
A2
30-06-2009
A3
M4 Total
Papilio machaon
Iphiclides podalirius ssp.
feisthamelii
Swallowtail
Pieris brassicae
Pieris rapae
Small White
Colias croceus
Clouded Yellow
1
Gonepteryx cleopatra
Cleopatra
Satyrium spini
Blue-spot Hairstreak
Lycaena phlaeas
Small Copper
Lampides boeticus
Long-tailed Blue
Leptotes pirithous
Lang's Short-tailed blue
Celastrina argiolus
Holly Blue
0
Aricia cramera
Southern Brown Argus
1
1
1
8
9
Polyommatus icarus
Common Blue
5
5
4
3
7
0
Vanessa atalanta
Red Admiral
0
0
0
0
Vanessa cardui
Painted Lady
0
1
1
0
0
Maniola jurtina
Meadow Brown
1
4
5
1
1
2
0
0
Pyronia cecilia
Southern Gatekeeper
4
13
17
13
7
27
Coenonympha pamphilus
Small Heath
Pararge aegeria
Speckled Wood
Muschampia proto
Sage Skipper
0
2
2
Carcharodus tripolina
False Mallow Skipper
0
2
2
Thymelicus acteon
Lulworth Skipper
1
2
3
2
0
0
2
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
1
0
0
1
4
5
3
1
1
1
1
1
2
6
3
16
1
1
1
1
6
11
4
1
3
1
18
6
0
19
15
1
21
4
26
38
1
1
6
1
1
2
11
8
30
1
1
1
3
1
1
2
4
6
12
3
1
0
3
11
1
1
1
3
3
13
6
1
0
0
1
5
0
0
0
1
1
1
0
1
1
0
0
1
3
0
1
2
8
M4 Total
0
2
4
1
0
A3
0
5
1
1
A2
2
2
2
1
1
A1
0
3
1
4
2
1
A1
1
1
0
0
1
1
4
1
1
0
1
1
0
1
8
10
10
1
2
29
1
1
1
4
1
1
2
3
1
1
1
1
1
1
2
1
1
NUMBER OF SPECIES
2
10
7
0
13
3
6
8
10
14
3
4
3
8
11
1
6
4
8
11
2
6
4
6
11
NUMBER OF INDIVIDUALS
5
19
42
0
66
14
15
47
31
107
10
22
11
27
70
2
16
14
21
53
3
15
13
15
46
07-07-2009
A1
A2
14-07-2009
A3
M4 Total
A1
A2
22-07-2009
A3
M4 Total
A1
A2
28-07-2009
A3
M4 Total
Papilio machaon
Iphiclides podalirius ssp.
feishamelii
Swallowtail
0
0
0
Southern Scarce Swallowtail
0
0
Pieris brassicae
Large White
0
0
Pieris rapae
Small White
0
Colias croceus
Clouded Yellow
Gonepteryx cleopatra
A1
A2
M4 Total
A2
A3
M4 Total
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
1
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
Cleopatra
0
0
0
0
0
Satyrium spini
Blue-spot Hairstreak
0
0
0
0
0
Lycaena phlaeas
Small Copper
0
0
1
0
0
Lampides boeticus
Long-tailed Blue
0
0
0
0
0
Leptotes pirithous
Lang's Short-tailed blue
0
0
0
0
Celastrina argiolus
Holly Blue
0
0
0
0
Aricia cramera
Southern Brown Argus
2
0
Polyommatus icarus
Common Blue
0
0
Vanessa atalanta
Red Admiral
0
Vanessa cardui
Painted Lady
0
Maniola jurtina
Meadow Brown
0
Pyronia cecilia
Southern Gatekeeper
Coenonympha pamphilus
Small Heath
0
Pararge aegeria
Speckled Wood
0
Muschampia proto
Sage Skipper
Carcharodus tripolina
False Mallow Skipper
0
Thymelicus acteon
Lulworth Skipper
0
2
9
10
9
1
28
3
4
1
1
1
2
1
1
1
2
1
1
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
1
1
0
1
1
0
5
12
1
27
1
1
3
1
0
1
1
2
1
1
2
A1
3
1
1
04-08-2009
A3
8
2
4
14
0
0
2
0
4
2
13
13
0
6
9
6
21
0
1
1
2
2
2
2
2
0
0
1
1
1
1
0
0
0
0
NUMBER OF SPECIES
0
1
1
3
3
2
1
2
3
5
0
3
2
3
5
1
2
2
6
7
2
1
1
4
6
NUMBER OF INDIVIDUALS
0
9
10
12
31
3
3
5
9
20
0
10
3
7
20
1
14
15
7
37
2
6
9
10
27
12-08-2009
A1
Papilio machaon
Iphiclides podalirius ssp.
feisthamelii
Swallowtail
Pieris brassicae
A2
19-08-2009
A3
M4 Total
1
A1
A2
25-08-2009
A3
M4 Total
A1
A2
22-09-2009
A3
M4 Total
A1
A2
13-10-2009
A3
A3
M4 Total
Southern Scarce Swallowtail
0
0
Large White
0
0
Pieris rapae
Small White
0
Colias croceus
Clouded Yellow
Gonepteryx cleopatra
Cleopatra
Satyrium spini
Blue-spot Hairstreak
Lycaena phlaeas
Small Copper
Lampides boeticus
Long-tailed Blue
0
0
0
Leptotes pirithous
Lang's Short-tailed blue
0
0
0
Celastrina argiolus
Holly Blue
1
0
Aricia cramera
Southern Brown Argus
0
Polyommatus icarus
Common Blue
0
0
Vanessa atalanta
Red Admiral
0
Vanessa cardui
Painted Lady
1
Maniola jurtina
Meadow Brown
1
Pyronia cecilia
Southern Gatekeeper
1
13
0
0
Coenonympha pamphilus
Small Heath
0
0
0
0
0
Pararge aegeria
Speckled Wood
0
0
0
0
0
Muschampia proto
Sage Skipper
2
2
1
0
0
0
Carcharodus tripolina
False Mallow Skipper
2
2
0
1
0
0
Thymelicus acteon
Lulworth Skipper
0
0
0
0
0
1
2
10
5
1
0
1
0
1
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
1
0
0
1
1
1
A2
0
1
1
A1
1
1
0
M4 Total
0
1
1
1
2
1
1
1
1
0
0
1
6
1
2
1
1
1
2
1
1
3
0
0
1
3
2
2
1
5
1
0
0
0
0
2
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
2
3
0
0
3
3
5
7
1
0
1
1
4
1
3
2
16
4
1
15
2
1
3
21
1
1
1
1
3
9
1
1
10
1
2
1
0
2
1
13
4
NUMBER OF SPECIES
1
3
2
5
8
0
2
2
5
5
2
2
2
4
7
2
3
3
3
6
2
7
6
1
8
NUMBER OF INDIVIDUALS
1
3
11
12
27
0
6
16
6
28
2
2
4
12
20
2
10
4
4
20
2
14
15
1
32
Appendix 3.
Table 1: Selected data for comparison between the surveys in 1991, 2004 and 2009
1991 (11 transects)
2004 (11 transects)
June
Common name
July
August
June
July
8
15
22
29
6
13
20
27
3
10
17
8
15
22
Swallowtail
Southern (Scarce) Swallowtail
12
10
1
4
*
4
1
4
*
1
1
1
2
4
*
2
*
*
*
3
1
1
Large White
25
18
19
7
10
12
5
4
3
3
3
13
2
3
Small White
7
6
3
*
*
*
1
*
*
23
26
13
1
*
*
*
*
*
1
*
Bath White
Green-striped White
*
13
29
8
1
Small Copper
*
August
20
27
3
10
June
17
8*
15
2
July
22
29
1
1
1
5
2
5
4
1
2
3
4
9
14
1
2
*
2
1
*
4
2
*
*
1
1
*
2
2
1
1
1
1
2
1
3
2
4
3
2
*
*
*
1
*
*
1
1
1
Brown Argus
*
1
1
1
*
2
5
3
*
3
2
1
Common Blue
11
19
11
4
7
11
15
16
11
9
7
Painted Lady
2
3
*
*
*
Red Admiral
1
4
2
3
1
1
3
4
2
2
2
1
1
4
3
5
1
2
9
7
7
14
4
3
11
*
3
1
1
3
8
2
1
17
1
1
1
2
1
1
2
3
3
3
2
6
4
4
1
9
5
7
1
1
1
1
3
5
4
1
1
1
45
12
2
2
1
1
3
*
3
5
37
25
2
2
2
21
28
28
15
5
6
6
4
4
4
4
21
9
10
4
21
1
1
1
1
2
*
*
3
3
1
*
*
*
*
*
*
*
*
5
Wall Brown
5
4
3
*
1
1
1
5
2
1
*
2
1
4
9
16
19
10
2
*
*
*
*
*
Monarch
1
2
2
21
18
21
2
3
2
5
2
21
16
9
17
27
4
Speckled Wood
1
2
2
2
1
1
1
1
3
30
29
1
3
1
15
6
3
4
2
1
3
1
2
1
1
1
19
26
12
1
2
1
6
2
1
1
1
38
28
12
2
1
4
4
2
1
4
3
1
Lulworth Skipper
10
10
10
4
Essex Skipper
30
28
2
212
195
114
39
40
49
46
54
49
36
23
137
86
54
49
54
31
36
32
39
28
15
66
107
70
53
46
31
20
15
21
16
9
14
12
12
11
9
10
7
16
13
13
9
13
7
7
5
7
6
3
13
14
11
11
11
3
5
4
2
7
(*) – the week of 8 June 2009 includes observations from 3 transects (instead of 4)
1
21
16
1
1
2
3
27
1
1
2
1
14
1
Mallow Skipper
th
10
*
64
Number of species
3
1
Southern Gatekeeper
Number of individuals
27
1
Meadow Brown
Sage Skipper
August
20
3
1
Small Heath
13
2
Holly Blue
Long-tailed Blue
6
1
18
2
Blue-spot Hairstreak
13
1
Brimstone
Cleopatra
6
1
*
1
Clouded Yellow
2009 (4 transects)
2
2
2
2
1
1
2
20
37
27
27
5
7
6
8
1
44
A Rocha Portugal Observatory Report 2009-2010
BUTTERFLY RECORDING ON FOIA, MONCHIQUE, IN 2009
Bert Van der Auwermeulen
Introduction
This short study of butterfly species on Foia, in the Monchique hills of the Algarve region, was
undertaken as an addition and comparison to the 2009 butterfly survey conducted around the Alvor
estuary.
Methods
The transect on Foia was walked on an irregular basis due to difficulties of reaching the site, 20 km
north of the A Rocha study centre. Observations were made on three days during September and on
two days in October. Unfortunately, on two of these days the weather conditions were not optimal
for butterfly flight. On 15th September 2009 the weather was windy and largely cloudy with a
temperature around 20°C. On 30th October the observations were made late in the afternoon when
the temperature was under 20°C.
The Foia transect (Starting point coordinates: 37°19’23.73’’N 8°35’37.70’’W) was situated on the
north side of the peak of Foia at an altitude of 790m above sea level. The transect headed eastwards
from the starting point, following a rough track through extensive pasture, grazed by cattle and
sheep. The vegetation comprised of grassland with many shrubs and trees, commonly including
Cistus and Ulex species and Eucalyptus globulus. Towards the end of the transect, the vegetation
became denser on the north side of the road, with more Eucalypts, Pteridium aquilinum (bracken)
and Rubus fruticosus (bramble).
Figure 1 Transect location - Foia, Monchique.
A Rocha Portugal Observatory Report 2009-2010
45
Results
The observations from the Monchique survey are presented in Table 1. A total of 150 butterflies
from 17 different species were recorded at this site. The most numerous species was Leptotes
pirithous (Lang’s Short-tailed Blue), providing more than a third of the number of individuals
recorded during the survey. Other common species were Lampides boeticus (Long-tailed Blue),
Polyommatus icarus (Common Blue), and Pyronia tithonus (Gatekeeper).
Table 1 List of species and number of individuals recorded on the Foia transect in 2009
Scientific name
Date:
Time (UTC):
Common name
Pieris rapae
Small White
Pontia daplidice
Bath White
Colias croceus
Clouded Yellow
Gonepteryx sp.
Brimstone/Cleopatra
Leptidea sinapis
Wood white
Lycaena phlaeas
Small Copper
Lampides boeticus
Long Tailed Blue
Leptotes pirithous
Lang's Short-tailed Blue
Aricia cramera
Southern Brown Argus
Polyommatus icarus Common Blue
Charaxes jasius
Two-tailed Pasha
Vanessa cardui
Painted Lady
Hipparchia statilinus Tree Grayling
Maniola jurtina
Meadow Brown
Pyronia tithonus
Gatekeeper
Pararge aegeria
Speckled Wood
Lasiommata megera Wall Brown
NUMBER OF SPECIES:
NUMBER OF INDIVIDUALS:
1-9-09 8-9-09 15-9-09 16-10-09 30-10-09
10:50 11:15
10:00
10:00
16:00
Total
1
3
1
1
4
1
2
4
12
1
6
1
1
5
8
1
7
1
5
1
1
2
2
10
1
13
1
1
4
12
1
6
13
54
6
2
7
1
1
2
14
47
4
14
7
24
2
9
7
8
3
2
1
3
14
52
2
13
1
1
7
6
20
2
8
2
11 150
Discussion
The presence of Hipparchia statilinus (Tree Grayling) and Leptidea sinapis (Wood white) is of interest
since these species are known to have only patchy distributions within the Western Algarve (S.
Wates pers. comm.; Gardiner, 2000). Both species were also observed near the transect (around the
reservoir – see transect location) on the 18th and 26th August 2009.
46
A Rocha Portugal Observatory Report 2009-2010
Pyronia tithonus sub spp. decolorata (Gatekeeper) is
considered to be scarce in the Algarve, but is more
abundant in the Monchique area. The observed
individuals all belonged to the subspecies decolorata
common in Southern Europe (Tolman, 1997).
Another point of interest was the presence of Polygonia
c-album (Comma) in the same area near the reservoir,
although not recorded during the survey. On 18th August
two individuals were observed, and one on 26th August.
This species is not known to have populations in the
Algarve, however, the territorial behaviour observed on
the forest path close to its main breeding plant (Urtica
sp.) suggests that this may be an isolated population
which has been overlooked in the past. The photograph
taken of this species on 18th August (see Photo 1), is the
first in the Algarve (N. Fonseca pers. comm.). It would be
of interest to continue to monitor this species in the
future.
Figure 2 Polygonia c-album (Comma).
Data from 2009, comparison of the transects in Abicada and Mexilhoeira Grande with the
transects on Foia
Comparing data collected at the same time of year enables us to conclude that the two areas are
very different regarding butterfly diversity. The transect on Foia, in the Monchique hills, provided
both a higher number of species recorded and a higher number of individuals observed than any of
the transects in the near vicinity of the Alvor estuary (see Butterfly Monitoring Around The Alvor
Estuary, June – October 2009 in this report by the same author).
The number of individuals recorded in September on the Foia transect was higher than the sum of
the number of individuals recorded on the other transects. A summary is provided in Table 2.
Table 2 Comparison between the transects in Abicada and Mexilhoeira Grande with Foia
Site and date
Abicada / M. Grande
(total of transects 1-4)
25-08-2009
22-09-2009
13-10-2009
Foia
01-09-2009
08-09-2009
16-10-2009
Number of
individuals
Number of
species
20
20
32
7
6
8
54
47
24
13
14
7
A Rocha Portugal Observatory Report 2009-2010
47
The range of species observed along the transect in Foia, Monchique, was significantly different to
those observed in Abicada and Mexilhoeira Grande. Six additional species were observed at the
former site from a total of 17 species, the rest of which were also recorded at Abicada and
Mexilhoeira Grande.
This difference can be attributed to a number of factors which vary between these sites such as
altitude, average climatic conditions and habitat/vegetation type. To gain a more inclusive list of
species from the Monchique area, it would be valuable to survey further sites, preferably during
each month of the year.
References
Gardiner, A.J. (2000). Annual report to recorders 1999, Algarve Butterfly Atlas, unpublished
Tolman, T. (1997). Collins Field Guide to Butterflies of Britain and Europe. HarperCollins, London
Van der Auwermeulen, B. (2012). Butterfly Monitoring Around The Alvor Estuary, June – October
2009. A Rocha Portugal Observatory Report 2009–2010. (pp. 25-40), Associação A Rocha, Portimão,
Portugal.
48
A Rocha Portugal Observatory Report 2009-2010
RINGING REPORT FOR 2009 AND 2010
Guillaume Réthoré
The ringing programme at Cruzinha continued throughout 2009 and 2010 providing interesting
results. Marcial Felgueiras continued in charge of operations supported by myself and trainees that
were always willing to give a helping hand: Katharina Kühnert in 2009, Andrew Cole in 2010 and
Filipa Bragança, Sara Roda and Leila Duarte during both years. In 2010 I obtained my full ringing
licence and was able to help Marcial to a greater degree. We are very thankful to the many other
ringers who joined us for a few days, a week or even longer, particularly Heather Coats whose
company and help we regularly enjoy. Also worthy of mention are Matt Prior, Elisabeth White, Geoff
White, David Leat, Eliza Leat, Gui McIvor, Richard Barnes, Helen Williams, Roger Gettry Short,
Timothée Schwartz, Muriel Gervais, Kelly Thomas, William Mc Deritt, John Lapton Swallow, Ginny
Weisner and Peter Stewart Weiser. Many thanks to them all.
As usual, ringing took place weekly, all year round including some ringing demonstrations for school
groups, using the ten established net locations in the Cruzinha garden. During the autumn migration
period ringing effort became more intense. Storm Petrel ringing continued in both 2009 and 2010,
for which we are particularly thankful to Rob Thomas and Renata Medeiros of Cardiff University for
their scientific coordination and for gathering so many willing volunteers to help in the night time
fieldwork on the rocks of Ponta de Almadena.
2009 was a rewarding year for ringing including some uncommon species: we caught two Quails in
the Cruzinha garden and our second and third Red-rumped Swallows. The autumn migration brought
some more rare birds as two Yellow-browed Warblers were caught in October and November. Over
the course of 109 ringing sessions in 2009 a total of 1659 new birds were caught. Particularly
important are the 357 new Storm Petrels (Table 1).
Figure 1 Yellow-browed Warbler in the hand
In 2010 we caught our third Barn Owl at Cruzinha, two Lesser Spotted Woodpeckers and our first
three Iberian Chiffchaffs (now considered to be a separate species from the Northern Chiffchaff).
Overall 1492 birds were ringed in 110 sessions. This was not as many as in 2009 due to a bad Storm
Petrel ringing season with only 55 new birds. It was, however, a good year for Golden Oriole records,
with 11 new birds caught – a new record for the station! (Table 3).
A Rocha Portugal Observatory Report 2009-2010
49
Table 1 Monthly and annual totals of birds ringed by A Rocha in 2009, and in all years together
Species
Quail
Cory's Shearwater
Storm Petrel
Yellow-legged Gull
Collared Dove
Little Owl
Hoopoe
Kingfisher
Wryneck
Barn Swallow
Red-rumped Swallow
Grey Wagtail
Robin
Nightingale
Redstart
Black Redstart
Song Thrush
Blackbird
Garden Warbler
Blackcap
Whitethroat
Sardinian Warbler
Subalpine Warbler
Sedge Warbler
Grasshopper Warbler
Cetti's Warbler
Reed Warbler
Melodious Warbler
Willow Warbler
Bonelli's Warbler
Northern Chiffchaff
Yellow-browed Warbler
Wren
Spotted Flycatcher
Pied Flycatcher
Great Tit
Blue Tit
Penduline Tit
Short-toed Treecreeper
Woodchat Shrike
Azure-winged Magpie
Golden Oriole
House Sparrow
Spanish Sparrow
Common Waxbill
Chaffinch
Goldfinch
Greenfinch
Serin
Totals
J
F
M
A
M
J
J
A
S
O
N
D
2
1
139
1
3
3
218
3
2
5
1
1
1
4
6
1
4
1
1
2
1
1
1
1
1
1
19
5
1
1
1
4
4
4
2
6
10
9
6
4
1
13
21
12
1
3
14
1
1
3
1
1
4
1
1
1
2
2
5
23
11
5
1
5
34
1
6
21
17
172
1
1
1
1
2
4
50
15
1
1
4
1
3
2
4
2
4
5
1
1
12
2
11
1
2
4
1
3
2
20
2
1
1
5
2
2
17
1
1
5
29
28
1
6
1
47
41
5
6
6
3
12
13
12
2
1
48
2
5
1
3
3
322
2
11
6
20
6
6
77
117
180
1
1
1
1
1
5
4
1
42
1
29
1
4
1
1
1
2
3
1
1
1
1
6
6
3
1
1
3
5
2
2
1
5
3
41
33
1
5
1
6
9
2
1
49
209
2
2
49
1
24
5
4
15
2
420
7
1
7
1
4
14
2
132
5
3
1
1
31
2009
2
1
357
3
16
1
18
3
2
9
2
1
46
5
2
2
15
90
40
289
7
23
7
1
1
1
23
8
21
3
88
2
2
2
30
27
4
2
1
3
19
3
242
2
76
11
48
86
12
1659
Grand Total
8
6
5043
5
62
89
493
209
28
1552
3
52
2598
580
310
145
573
1736
3854
10194
459
1355
247
250
151
139
2295
793
2345
88
8192
10
16
183
1484
692
96
167
31
323
157
52
1172
66
1506
966
2098
2524
1437
50
A Rocha Portugal Observatory Report 2009-2010
Table 2 Birds ringed between 1987 and 2008 but not in 2009
Species
Teal
Red-legged Partridge
Little Grebe
Madeiran Storm Petrel
Swinhoe's Storm Petrel
Little Bittern
Cattle Egret
Little Egret
Osprey
Short-toed Eagle
Marsh Harrier
Montagu's Harrier
Sparrowhawk
Black-winged Kite
Kestrel
Water Rail
Spotted Crake
Moorhen
Oystercatcher
Avocet
Black-winged Stilt
Stone Curlew
Little Ringed Plover
Ringed Plover
Kentish Plover
Grey Plover
Golden Plover
Lapwing
Knot
Sanderling
Scops Owl
Nightjar
Red-necked Nightjar
Swift
Pallid Swift
Bee-eater
Green Woodpecker
Great Spotted
Lesser
Spotted
Woodpecker
Skylark
Woodpecker
Crested Lark
Thekla Lark
Woodlark
Short-toed Lark
Sand Martin
Crag Martin
House Martin
Tawny Pipit
Water Pipit
Meadow Pipit
Tree Pipit
Olive-backed Pipit
White Wagtail
Yellow Wagtail
Dunnock
Rufous Bush Robin
Bluethroat
Total of birds
1
1
2
3
1
3
17
1
4
7
1
1
1
4
6
3
1
12
1
3
15
8
12
384
448
76
1
1
132
3
12
1
29
111
69
95
1
1
3
24
83
2
1
58
55
7
68
8
17
221
32
1
56
179
6
4
188
Species
Turnstone
Dunlin
Curlew Sandpiper
Little Stint
Wood Sandpiper
Green Sandpiper
Common Sandpiper
Redshank
Greenshank
Black-tailed Godwit
Bar-tailed Godwit
Curlew
Whimbrel
Snipe
Jack Snipe
Semipalmated Sandpiper
Ruff
Buff-breasted Sandpiper
Pectoral Sandpiper
Black-headed Gull
Herring Gull
Lesser Black-backed Gull
Little Tern
Sandwich Tern
Common Tern
Turtle Dove
Cuckoo
Great Spotted Cuckoo
Long-eared Owl
Barn Owl
Dartford Warbler
Aquatic Warbler
Zitting Cisticola
Marsh Warbler
Paddyfield Warbler
Great Reed Warbler
Icterine Warbler
Wood Warbler
Dusky Warbler
Goldcrest
Firecrest
Red-breasted Flycatcher
Long-tailed Tit
Iberian Grey Shrike
Jay
Spotless Starling
Tree Sparrow
Rock Sparrow
Brambling
Linnet
Siskin
Bullfinch
Hawfinch
Crossbill
Common Rosefinch
Reed Bunting
Rustic Bunting
Total of birds
33
2449
74
37
3
11
105
306
17
1
19
4
35
79
13
1
15
1
1
19
23
16
295
4
2
16
3
1
3
2
11
2
353
16
1
62
2
3
2
10
67
3
16
17
1
13
185
1
3
64
72
1
46
36
1
37
1
A Rocha Portugal Observatory Report 2009-2010
Species
Wheatear
Black-eared Wheatear
Stonechat
Redwing
Rock Thrush
Orphean Warbler
Spectacled Warbler
Total of birds
51
4
276
3
1
7
5
51
Species
Ortolan Bunting
Cirl Bunting
Corn Bunting
Scaly-breasted Munia
Senegal Parrot
Chestnut Mannikin
Total of birds
36
1
183
17
1
1
Table 3 Monthly and annual totals of birds ringed by A Rocha in 2010, and in all years together
Species
Storm Petrel
Barn Owl
Little Owl
Hoopoe
Kingfisher
Lesser Spotted Woodpecker
Wryneck
Barn Swallow
White Wagtail
Robin
Nightingale
Redstart
Black Redstart
Stonechat
Song Thrush
Blackbird
Garden Warbler
Blackcap
Whitethroat
Sardinian Warbler
Subalpine Warbler
Reed Warbler
Melodious Warbler
Willow Warbler
Wood Warbler
Bonelli's Warbler
Northern Chiffchaff
Iberian Chiffchaff
Wren
Spotted Flycatcher
Pied Flycatcher
Great Tit
Blue Tit
Short-toed Treecreeper
Azure-winged Magpie
Golden Oriole
House Sparrow
Spanish Sparrow
Common Waxbill
Chaffinch
Goldfinch
Greenfinch
Siskin
Serin
Hawfinch
Corn Bunting
Total
J
F
M
A
M
1
1
J
J
A
S
1
3
5
2
3
2
2
1
1
1
1
1
6
1
1
5
4
2
N
D
12
6
1
14
9
1
2
1
2
1
1
1
2
1
1
1
1
1
2
1
O
54
10
4
3
2
6
2
8
3
2
9
8
7
60
13
6
5
1
18
8
28
1
6
1
4
3
8
4
26
1
1
1
38
50
1
3
1
2
7
4
158
1
1
1
10
1
4
2
1
3
2
3
2
109
41
1
6
1
2
6
1
1
1
1
4
4
3
1
1
3
1
1
2
3
5
7
17
37
56
2
7
10
90
2
1
5
1
21
30
6
1
1
2
5
4
1
1
3
8
17
4
13
2
3
2
1
2
15
1
2
1
4
34
1
1
1
17
1
1
46
8
1
1
2
10
12
1
6
3
1
6
1
4
20
1
3
1
4
4
2
1
1
9
7
31
38
43
136
99
225
287
332
206
1
78
2010
55
1
3
8
7
2
1
8
1
68
11
6
2
2
9
62
69
337
9
29
2
23
17
44
1
2
107
3
1
5
46
39
7
3
19
11
274
1
90
9
30
52
6
8
1
1
1492
Grand Total
5098
3
92
501
216
5
29
1560
57
2666
591
316
147
278
582
1798
3923
10531
468
1384
249
2318
810
2389
4
90
8299
3
17
188
1530
731
103
34
176
63
1446
67
1596
975
2128
2576
78
1445
47
184
52
A Rocha Portugal Observatory Report 2009-2010
Table 4 Birds ringed between 1987 and 2009 but not in 2010
Species
Teal
Red-legged Partridge
Quail
Little Grebe
Cory's Shearwater
Madeiran Storm Petrel
Swinhoe's Storm Petrel
Little Bittern
Cattle Egret
Little Egret
Osprey
Short-toed Eagle
Marsh Harrier
Montagu's Harrier
Sparrowhawk
Black-winged Kite
Kestrel
Water Rail
Spotted Crake
Moorhen
Oystercatcher
Avocet
Black-winged Stilt
Stone Curlew
Little Ringed Plover
Ringed Plover
Kentish Plover
Grey Plover
Golden Plover
Lapwing
Knot
Sanderling
Turnstone
Dunlin
Bee-eater
Green Woodpecker
Great Spotted Woodpecker
Skylark
Crested Lark
Thekla Lark
Woodlark
Short-toed Lark
Sand Martin
Crag Martin
Red-rumped Swallow
House Martin
Tawny Pipit
Water Pipit
Meadow Pipit
Tree Pipit
Olive-backed Pipit
Yellow Wagtail
Grey Wagtail
Dunnock
Rufous Bush Robin
Bluethroat
Wheatear
Grand total
1
1
8
2
6
3
1
3
17
1
4
7
1
1
1
4
6
3
1
12
1
3
15
8
12
384
448
76
1
1
132
3
33
2449
95
1
1
24
83
2
1
58
55
7
3
68
8
17
221
32
1
179
52
6
4
188
51
Species
Curlew Sandpiper
Little Stint
Wood Sandpiper
Green Sandpiper
Common Sandpiper
Redshank
Greenshank
Black-tailed Godwit
Bar-tailed Godwit
Curlew
Whimbrel
Snipe
Jack Snipe
Semipalmated Sandpiper
Ruff
Buff-breasted Sandpiper
Pectoral Sandpiper
Black-headed Gull
Herring Gull
Yellow-legged Gull
Lesser Black-backed Gull
Little Tern
Sandwich Tern
Common Tern
Collared Dove
Turtle Dove
Cuckoo
Great Spotted Cuckoo
Long-eared Owl
Scops Owl
Nightjar
Red-necked Nightjar
Swift
Pallid Swift
Grasshopper Warbler
Cetti's Warbler
Marsh Warbler
Paddyfield Warbler
Great Reed Warbler
Icterine Warbler
Dusky Warbler
Yellow-browed Warbler
Goldcrest
Firecrest
Red-breasted Flycatcher
Long-tailed Tit
Penduline Tit
Woodchat Shrike
Iberian Grey Shrike
Jay
Spotless Starling
Tree Sparrow
Rock Sparrow
Brambling
Linnet
Bullfinch
Crossbill
Grand total
74
37
3
11
105
306
17
1
19
4
35
79
13
1
15
1
1
19
23
5
16
295
4
2
62
16
3
1
3
12
1
29
111
69
151
139
16
1
62
2
2
10
10
67
3
16
167
323
17
1
13
185
1
3
64
1
36
A Rocha Portugal Observatory Report 2009-2010
Species
Black-eared Wheatear
Redwing
Rock Thrush
Orphean Warbler
Spectacled Warbler
Dartford Warbler
Sedge Warbler
Aquatic Warbler
Zitting Cisticola
Grand total
4
3
1
7
5
11
250
2
353
Species
Common Rosefinch
Reed Bunting
Rustic Bunting
Ortolan Bunting
Cirl Bunting
Corn Bunting
Scaly-breasted Munia
Senegal Parrot
Chestnut Mannikin
53
Grand total
1
37
1
36
1
183
17
1
1
54
A Rocha Portugal Observatory Report 2009-2010
RINGING CONTROLS AND RECOVERIES REPORTED DURING 2009 AND 2010
Guillaume Réthoré
The following list refers to birds which were reported from sites other than the original
ringing location. This includes two groups of birds: those ringed during the course of
Observatory operations in the Algarve and subsequently reported elsewhere; and those
which had been ringed elsewhere and were subsequently controlled at Quinta da Rocha or
reported to the Observatory. The recovery circumstances are given.
The following codes are used:
Condition at recovery
R caught and released by a ringer
VV rings or colour marks read in the field
released
XF
F
found freshly dead or dying
found probably healthy and
Age when ringed
1 nestling
2 fully grown, year of hatching unknown
3 ringed during calendar year of hatching
4 hatched before calendar year of ringing, but exact year of hatching unknown
5 hatched during calendar year prior to ringing
6 hatched before year prior to ringing, but exact year unknown etc.
Abbreviations used for foreign ringing schemes
BLB
Brussels, Belgium
DKC
Copenhagen, Denmark
FRP
Paris, France
ESI
ICONA, Spain
NLA
Arnhem, Netherlands
IAB
Bologna Ozzano (BO), Italy
ISR
Reykjavik, Iceland
DEW
Wilhelmshaven (Helgoland), Germany
Storm Petrel Hydrobates pelagicus
N00896
N03611
6
17-06-1999
R
08-07-2007
6
11-06-2007
R
08-07-2007
Ponta de Almádena, Faro, Algarve
Portugal
Svinoya, Möre og Romsdal
Norway
2963 Km
Ponta de Almádena, Faro, Algarve
Portugal
Tullagh Point, Donegal
Rep. Ireland
2028 Km
37 04' N 08 47' W
62 19' N 05 16' E
2943 days
37 04' N 08 47' W
55 18' N 07 30' W
412 days
A Rocha Portugal Observatory Report 2009-2010
N03755
N04297
N04480
N03526
N1815
N1576
N04407
N02360
N04227
6
27-05-2008
R
18-07-2008
6
07-06-2008
R
05-08-2008
6
12-06-2008
R
27-07-2008
6
09-06-2007
R
24-06-2008
6
03-07-2002
R
26-08-2002
6
19-06-2001
R
27-07-2002
6
11-06-2008
R
08-08-2008
6
02-06-2005
R
05-08-2008
6
05-06-2008
R
05-08-2008
55
Ponta de Almádena, Faro, Algarve
Portugal
Eilean Nan Ron, Highland Region,
Great
Britain
Scotland
2408 Km
37 04' N 08 47' W
Ponta de Almádena, Faro, Algarve
Portugal
Tullagh Point, Donegal
Rep. Ireland
2028 Km
37 04' N 08 47' W
Ponta de Almádena, Faro, Algarve
Portugal
Tullagh Point, Donegal
Rep. Ireland
2028 Km
37 04' N 08 47' W
Ponta de Almádena, Faro, Algarve
Portugal
Lunga Island, Treshunish Isles,
Great
BritainRegion, Scotland
Strathclyde
2165 Km
37 04' N 08 47' W
Ponta de Almádena, Faro, Algarve
Portugal
Hornoy, Finmark
Norway
4374 Km
37 04' N 08 47' W
Ponta de Almádena, Faro, Algarve
Portugal
Lindesness, Vest-Agder
Norway
2594 Km
37 04' N 08 47' W
Ponta de Almádena, Faro, Algarve
Portugal
Sanda Island, Strathclyde Region,
Great
Britain
Scotland
2039 Km
37 04' N 08 47' W
Ponta de Almádena, Faro, Algarve
Portugal
Sanda Island, Strathclyde Region,
Great
Britain
Scotland
2039 Km
37 04' N 08 47' W
Ponta de Almádena, Faro, Algarve
Portugal
Isle of May, Fife Region, Scotland
Great Britain
2174 Km
37 04' N 08 47' W
58 33' N 04 26' W
52 days
55'18 N 07 30' W
59 days
55 18' N 07 30' W
45 days
56 29' N 06 26' W
381 days
70 23' N 31 09' E
54 days
57 58' N 07 03' E
403 days
55 17' N 05 34' W
58 days
55 17' N 05 34' W
1160 days
56 11' N 02 34' W
61 days
56
N03715
D014458
D014458
A Rocha Portugal Observatory Report 2009-2010
6
26-05-2008
R
28-08-2008
4
14-06-1996
R
04-08-2004
4
14-06-1996
R
10-08-2000
1299 Km
1518 days
N04307
6
10-06-2008
R
13-07-2008
N04223
N04205
N03835
N03506
N03503
6
05-06-2008
R
28-07-2008
6
04-06-2008
R
28-06-2008
6
14-06-2007
R
26-07-2008
6
09-06-2007
R
13-08-2007
6
09-06-2007
R
13-07-2008
Ponta de Almádena, Faro, Algarve
Portugal
Annagh Head, Mayo
Rep. Ireland
1910 Km
37 04' N 08 47' W
Ponta de Almádena, Faro, Algarve
Portugal
Banneg, Finistère
France
1296 Km
37 04' N 08 47' W
Ponta de Almádena, Faro, Algarve
Portugal
Banneg, Finistère
France
1296 Km
37 04' N 08 47' W
Ponta de Almádena, Faro, Algarve
Portugal
Eilean An Taighe, Western Isles, Scotland
Great Britain
2320 Km
37 04' N 08 47' W
Ponta de Almádena, Faro, Algarve
Portugal
Eilan Nan Ron, Highland Region, Scotland
Great Britain
2408 Km
37 04' N 08 47' W
Ponta de Almádena, Faro, Algarve
Portugal
Sheepland, Down, Northern Ireland
Great Britain
1929 Km
37 04' N 08 47' W
Ponta de Almádena, Faro, Algarve
Portugal
East Light, Northern Ireland
Great Britain
2036 Km
37 04' N 08 47' W
Ponta de Almádena, Faro, Algarve
Portugal
Inishglora, Galway
Rep. Ireland
1909 Km
37 04' N 08 47' W
Ponta de Almádena, Faro, Algarve
Portugal
Annagh Head, Mayo
Rep.Ireland
1910 Km
37 04' N 08 47' W
54 14' N 10 07' W
94 days
48 21' N 04 46' W
2973 days
48 26' N 05 01' W
1518 days
57 53' N 06 21' W
33 days
58 33' N 04 26' W
53 days
54 17' N 05 34' W
24 days
55 18' N 06 10' W
408 days
54 13' N 10 08' W
65 days
54 14' N 10 07' W
400 days
A Rocha Portugal Observatory Report 2009-2010
N04461
N04363
N04363
N04267
N04234
N04400
N04266
N04490
D21090
6
12-06-2008
R
28-07-2008
6
10-06-2008
R
11-07-2008
6
10-06-2008
R
18-07-2008
6
06-06-2008
R
21-07-2008
6
05-06-2008
R
03-07-2008
6
10-06-2008
R
26-07-2008
6
06-06-2008
R
05-08-2008
6
14-06-2008
R
04-08-2008
6
31-05-2008
R
13-06-2009
57
Ponta de Almádena, Faro, Algarve
Portugal
Eilean Nan Ron, Highland Region, Scotland
Great Britain
2408 Km
37 04' N 08 47' W
Ponta de Almádena, Faro, Algarve
Portugal
Souter Lighthouse, Tyne and Wear, England
Great Britain
2065 Km
37 04' N 08 47' W
Ponta de Almádena, Faro, Algarve
Portugal
Twinyess, North Ronaldsay, Orkney, Scotland
Great Britain
2065 Km
37 04' N 08 47' W
Ponta de Almádena, Faro, Algarve
Portugal
Eilean Nan Ron, Highland Region, Scotland
Great Britain
2408 Km
37 04' N 08 47' W
Ponta de Almádena, Faro, Algarve
Portugal
Faraid Head, Highland Region, Scotland
Great Britain
2410 Km
37 04' N 08 47' W
Ponta de Almádena, Faro, Algarve
Portugal
Isle of Canna, Highland Region, Scotland
Great Britain
2226 Km
37 04' N 08 47' W
Ponta de Almádena, Faro, Algarve
Portugal
Twinyess, North Ronaldsay, Orkney, Scotland
Great Britain
2517 Km
37 04' N 08 47' W
Ponta de Almádena, Faro, Algarve
Portugal
Isla de Mouro, Santander
Spain
831 Km
37 04' N 08 47' W
Ponta de Almádena, Faro, Algarve
Portugal
Cabo Tourinan, Coruña
Spain
668 Km
37 04' N 08 47' W
58 33' N 04 26' W
46 days
54 57' N 01 22' W
31 days
59 21' N 02 27' W
31 days
58 33' N 04 26' W
45 days
58 36' N 04 46' W
28 days
57 03' N 06 35' W
46 days
59 21' N 02 27' W
60 days
43 29' N 03 45' W
51 days
43 04' N 09 19' W
378 days
58
N04316
N03365
N03399
N00414
D21244
N03901
N04416
A Rocha Portugal Observatory Report 2009-2010
6
10-06-2008
R
21-06-2008
6
02-06-2007
R
04-08-2008
6
07-06-2007
R
30-07-2008
6
18-06-1998
R
26-07-2008
6
20-06-2008
R
11-08-2008
6
24-05-2009
R
01-07-2009
6
11-06-2008
R
14-07-2008
Ponta de Almádena, Faro, Algarve
Portugal
Cabo Tourinan, Coruña
Spain
668 Km
37 04' N 08 47' W
Ponta de Almádena, Faro, Algarve
Portugal
Isla de Mouro, Santander
Spain
831 Km
37 04' N 08 47' W
Ponta de Almádena, Faro, Algarve
Portugal
Eilan Nan Ron, Highland Region, Scotland
Great Britain
2408 Km
37 04' N 08 47' W
Ponta de Almádena, Faro, Algarve
Portugal
St Kilda, Western Isles, Scotland
Great Britain
37 04' N 08 47' W
Ponta de Almádena, Faro, Algarve
Portugal
Fair Isle, Scotland
Great Britain
2548 Km
37 04' N 08 47' W
Ponta de Almádena, Faro, Algarve
Portugal
Fladda, Strathclyde Region, Scotland
Great Britain
2167 Km
37 04' N 08 47' W
Ponta de Almádena, Faro, Algarve
Portugal
Annagh Head, Mayo
Rep.Ireland
1910 Km
37 04' N 08 47' W
43 04' N 09 19' W
11 days
43 29' N 03 45' W
490 days
58 33' N 04 26' W
419 days
57 49' N 08 34' W
59 32' N 01 38' W
52 days
56 30' N 06 24' W
38 days
54 14' N 10 07' W
33 days
Spoonbill Platalea leucorodia
NLA 8048716
NLA 8048751
1
21-05-2007
VV
16-04-2008
1
2147 Km
01-06-2007
VV
16-04-2008
Schiermonnikoog, Oosterkwelder
Netherlands
Ria de Alvor, Faro, Algarve
Portugal
331 days
Schiermonnikoog, Oosterkwelder
Netherlands
Ria de Alvor, Faro, Algarve
Portugal
2147 Km
53 29' N 06 09' E
37 08' N 08 35' W
53 29' N 06 09' E
37 08' N 08 35' W
320 days
A Rocha Portugal Observatory Report 2009-2010
NLA 8048371
NLA 8050695
NLA 8048665
NLA 8050212
NLA 8050615
NLA 8048751
NLA 8048766
NLA 8050457
NLA 8041532
1
20-06-2006
VV
16-04-2008
1
29-07-2009
VV
25-11-2009
1
08-06-2009
VV
25-11-2009
1
31-05-2009
VV
25-11-2009
1
08-06-2009
VV
25-11-2009
1
01-06-2007
VV
11-10-2010
1
10-06-2007
VV
26-03-2010
1
31-05-2009
VV
26-03-2010
1
25-06-1997
VV
26-03-2010
59
Vlieland, Bomenland
Netherlands
Ria de Alvor, Faro, Algarve
Portugal
2079 Km
53 17' N 04 59' E
Den Oever, Banaan
Netherlands
Ria de Alvor, Faro, Algarve
Portugal
2043 Km
52 56' N 05 02' E
Vlieland, Bomenland
Netherlands
Ria de Alvor, Faro, Algarve
Portugal
2073 Km
53 17' N 04 59' E
Schiermonnikoog, Oosterkwelder
Netherlands
Ria de Alvor, Faro, Algarve
Portugal
2141 Km
53 29' N 06 09' E
Markiezaat, Spuitkop
Netherlands
Ria de Alvor, Faro, Algarve
Portugal
1880 Km
51 27' N 04 16' E
Schiermonnikoog, Oosterkwelder
Netherlands
Ria de Alvor, Faro, Algarve
Portugal
2147 Km
53 29' N 06 09' E
Schiermonnikoog, Oosterkwelder
Netherlands
Ria de Alvor, Faro, Algarve
Portugal
2147 Km
53 29' N 06 09' E
Schiermonnikoog, Oosterkwelder
Netherlands
Ria de Alvor, Faro, Algarve
Portugal
2141 Km
53 29' N 06 09' E
Vlieland, Bomenland
Netherlands
Ria de Alvor, Faro, Algarve
Portugal
2073 Km
53 17' N 04 59' E
37 08' N 08 35' W
666 days
37 08' N 08 35' W
119 days
37 08' N 08 35' W
170 days
37 08' N 08 35' W
178 days
37 08' N 08 35' W
170 days
37 08' N 08 35' W
1228days
37 08' N 08 35' W
1020 days
37 08' N 08 35' W
299 days
37 08' N 08 35' W
4657 days
60
DEW 268797
NLA 8048531
DEW 253979
NLA8048371
NLA 8052515
FRP CA69166
NLA 8052740
A Rocha Portugal Observatory Report 2009-2010
1
29-05-2010
VV
21-09-2010
1
12-06-2008
VV
20-11-2010
1
15-06-2010
VV
20-11-2010
1
20-06-2006
VV
20-11-2010
1
20-07-2010
VV
20-11-2010
1
08-05-2009
VV
20-11-2010
1
20-05-2010
VV
07-12-2010
Schleswig-Holstein, Oland
Germany
Ria de Alvor, Faro, Algarve
Portugal
2352 Km
54 41' N 08 43' E
Vlieland, Bomenland
Netherlands
Ria de Alvor, Faro, Algarve
Portugal
2079 Km
53 17' N 04 59' E
Niedersachsen, Mellum
Germany
Ria de Alvor, Faro, Algarve
Portugal
2250 Km
53 44' N 08 10' E
Vlieland, Bomenland
Netherlands
Ria de Alvor, Faro, Algarve
Portugal
2079 Km
53 17' N 04 59' E
Terschelling, Boschplaat, 2e d
Netherlands
Ria de Alvor, Faro, Algarve
Portugal
2110 Km
53 25' N 05 28' E
Lac de Grand-Lieu, Loire Atlantique
France
Ria de Alvor, Faro, Algarve
Portugal
47 10' N 01 68' W
Schiermonnikoog, Oosterkwelder
Netherlands
Ria de Alvor, Faro, Algarve
Portugal
2147 Km
53 29' N 06 09' E
37 08' N 08 35' W
115 days
37 08' N 08 35' W
891 days
37 08' N 08 35' W
158 days
37 08' N 08 35' W
1614 days
37 08' N 08 35' W
123 days
37 08' N 08 35' W
37 08' N 08 35' W
201 days
Greater Flamingo Phoenicopterus roseus
FRP X5192
A3/7V
1
23-07-2009
VV
07-09-2010
1
31-07-2009
VV
03-12-2010
Etang du Fangassier, Bouches du
France
Rhône
Ria de Alvor, Faro, Algarve
Portugal
1305 Km
43 25' N 04 37' E
Garaa Ezzemoul, Sebkhet Ez Zemoul,
Algeria
W.Oum el Bouagh
Ria de Alvor, Faro, Algarve
Portugal
1350 Km
35 53' N 06 33' E
37 08' N 08 35' W
wWwW
37 08' N 08 35' W
No metal ring
A Rocha Portugal Observatory Report 2009-2010
IAB E0008338
IAB E0008782
ESI 1015482
ESI 1015390
ESI 1015163
ESI 1015214
ESI 1016225
FRP X4830
FRP X1836
1
12-07-2006
VV
11-07-2008
1
29-07-2006
VV
08-07-2008
1
01-07-2007
VV
08-07-2008
1
01-07-2007
VV
08-07-2008
1
02-07-2006
VV
23-03-2008
1
02-07-2006
VV
08-07-2008
1
02-07-2006
VV
16-04-2008
1
26-07-2006
VV
08-07-2008
1
18-07-2001
VV
09-03-2008
61
Saline di Comacchio, Ferrara
Italy
Ria de Alvor, Faro, Algarve
Portugal
1998 Km
44 39' N 12 12' E
Saline di Macchiareddu, Cagliari
Italy
Ria de Alvor, Faro, Algarve
Portugal
1577 Km
39 13' N 09 02' E
Punta de la Banya, PNDE, Tarragona
Spain
Ria de Alvor, Faro, Algarve
Portugal
902 Km
40 34' N 00 40' E
Punta de la Banya, PNDE, Tarragona
Spain
Ria de Alvor, Faro, Algarve
Portugal
912 Km
40 34' N 00 40' E
Punta de la Banya, PNDE, Tarragona
Spain
Ria de Alvor, Faro, Algarve
Portugal
1041 Km
40 34' N 00 40' E
Punta de la Banya, PNDE, Tarragona
Spain
Ria de Alvor, Faro, Algarve
Portugal
932 Km
40 34' N 00 40' E
Punta de la Banya, PNDE, Tarragona
Spain
Ria de Alvor, Faro, Algarve
Portugal
874 Km
40 34' N 00 40' E
Etang du Fangassier, Bouches du
France
Rhône
Ria de Alvor, Faro, Algarve
Portugal
1370 Km
43 25' N 04 37' E
Etang du Fangassier, Bouches du
France
Rhône
Ria de Alvor, Faro, Algarve
Portugal
3342 Km
43 25' N 04 37' E
37 08' N 08 35' W
37 08' N 08 35' W
37 08' N 08 35' W
37 08' N 08 35' W
37 08' N 08 35' W
37 08' N 08 35' W
37 08' N 08 35' W
37 08' N 08 35' W
37 08' N 08 35' W
62
FRP X4461
FRP X4694
FRP X4828
ESI 10-17303
ESI 10-17716
ESI 10-19095
ESI 10-17289
ESI 10-16607
ESI 10-16703
A Rocha Portugal Observatory Report 2009-2010
1
26-07-2006
VV
08-07-2008
1
16-07-2006
VV
11-07-2008
1
26-07-2006
VV
29-02-2008
1
15-07-2006
VV
08-07-2008
1
15-07-2006
VV
08-07-2008
1
14-07-2007
VV
08-07-2008
1
15-07-2006
VV
08-07-2008
1
07-08-2004
VV
19-04-2008
1
07-08-2004
VV
19-04-2008
Etang du Fangassier, Bouches du
France
Rhône
Ria de Alvor, Faro, Algarve
Portugal
1315 Km
43 25' N 04 37' E
Etang du Fangassier, Bouches du
France
Rhône
Ria de Alvor, Faro, Algarve
Portugal
1429 Km
43 25' N 04 37' E
Etang du Fangassier, Bouches du
France
Rhõne
Ria de Alvor, Faro, Algarve
Portugal
1363 Km
43 25' N 04 37' E
Laguna de Fuente de Piedra, Malaga
Spain
Ria de Alvor, Faro, Algarve
Portugal
363 Km
37 06' N 04 46' W
Laguna de Fuente de Piedra, Malaga
Spain
Ria de Alvor, Faro, Algarve
Portugal
388 Km
37 06' N 04 46' W
Laguna de Fuente de Piedra, Malaga
Spain
Ria de Alvor, Faro, Algarve
Portugal
362 Km
37 06' N 04 46' W
Laguna de Fuente de Piedra, Malaga
Spain
Ria de Alvor, Faro, Algarve
Portugal
337 Km
37 06' N 04 46' W
Laguna de Fuente de Piedra, Malaga
Spain
Ria de Alvor, Faro, Algarve
Portugal
326 Km
Laguna de Fuente de Piedra, Malaga
Spain
Ria de Alvor, Faro, Algarve
Portugal
350 Km
37 06' N 04 46' W
37 08' N 08 35' W
37 08' N 08 35' W
37 08' N 08 35' W
37 08' N 08 35' W
37 08' N 08 35' W
37 08' N 08 35' W
37 08' N 08 35' W
37 08' N 08 35' W
37 06' N 04 46' W
37 08' N 08 35' W
A Rocha Portugal Observatory Report 2009-2010
ESI 10-09196
ESI 9-011765
ESI 10-13143
ESI 10-16503
ESI 10-17327
ESI 10-17367
ESI 10-17450
ESI 10-17604
ESI 10-17646
1
13-08-2004
VV
08-07-2008
1
20-07-1991
VV
08-07-2008
1
12-07-2003
VV
11-07-2008
1
07-08-2004
VV
08-07-2008
1
15-07-2006
VV
08-07-2008
1
15-07-2006
VV
08-07-2008
1
15-07-2006
VV
11-07-2008
1
15-07-2006
VV
08-07-2008
1
15-07-2006
VV
11-07-2008
63
Vetones del Burro, Huelva
Spain
Ria de Alvor, Faro, Algarve
Portugal
195 Km
37 00' N 06 24' W
Laguna de Fuente de Piedra, Malaga
Spain
Ria de Alvor, Faro, Algarve
Portugal
2690 Km
37 06' N 04 46' W
Laguna de Fuente de Piedra, Malaga
Spain
Ria de Alvor, Faro, Algarve
Portugal
3173 Km
37 06' N 04 46' W
Laguna de Fuente de Piedra, Malaga
Spain
Ria de Alvor, Faro, Algarve
Portugal
337 Km
37 06' N 04 46' W
Laguna de Fuente de Piedra, Malaga
Spain
Ria de Alvor, Faro, Algarve
Portugal
1591 Km
37 06' N 04 46' W
Laguna de Fuente de Piedra, Malaga
Spain
Ria de Alvor, Faro, Algarve
Portugal
337 Km
37 06' N 04 46' W
Laguna de Fuente de Piedra, Malaga
Spain
Ria de Alvor, Faro, Algarve
Portugal
337 Km
37 06' N 04 46' W
Laguna de Fuente de Piedra, Malaga
Spain
Ria de Alvor, Faro, Algarve
Portugal
1230 Km
37 06' N 04 46' W
Laguna de Fuente de Piedra, Malaga
Spain
Ria de Alvor, Faro, Algarve
Portugal
337 Km
37 06' N 04 46' W
37 08' N 08 35' W
37 08' N 08 35' W
37 08' N 08 35' W
37 08' N 08 35' W
37 08' N 08 35' W
37 08' N 08 35' W
37 08' N 08 35' W
37 08' N 08 35' W
37 08' N 08 35' W
64
A0/6N
A0/3P
ESI 1018634
ESI 1023983
IAB E0009501
IAB E12386
IAB E12463
ESI 10-12182
ESI 10-17579
A Rocha Portugal Observatory Report 2009-2010
1
11-08-2006
VV
16-04-2008
1
11-08-2006
VV
08-07-2008
1
01-07-2007
VV
07-09-2010
1
01-08-2008
VV
11-10-2010
1
12-07-2007
VV
07-09-2010
1
01-08-2009
VV
07-09-2010
1
01-08-2009
VV
07-09-2010
1
08-08-2003
VV
07-09-2010
1
15-07-2006
VV
07-09-2010
Garaa Ezzemoul, Sebkhet Ez Zemoul,
Algeria
W.Oum el Bouagh
Ria de Alvor, Faro, Algarve
Portugal
1394 Km
35 53' N 06 33' E
Garaa Ezzemoul, Sebkhet Ez Zemoul,
Algeria
W.Oum el Bouagh
Ria de Alvor, Faro, Algarve
Portugal
1345 Km
35 53' N 06 33' E
Punta de la Banya, PNDE, Tarragona
Spain
Ria de Alvor, Faro, Algarve
Portugal
1040 Km
40 34' N 00 40' E
Punta de la Banya, PNDE, Tarragona
Spain
Ria de Alvor, Faro, Algarve
Portugal
874 Km
40 34' N 00 40' E
Saline di Comacchio, Ferrara
Italy
Ria de Alvor, Faro, Algarve
Portugal
1914 Km
44 39' N 12 12' E
Saline di Macchiareddu, Cagliari,
Italy
Sardegna
Ria de Alvor, Faro, Algarve
Portugal
1540 Km
39 13' N 09 02' E
Saline di Macchiareddu, Cagliari,
Italy
Sardegna
Ria de Alvor, Faro, Algarve
Portugal
1743 Km
39 13' N 09 02' E
Lucio Serrado Garrido, Sevilla
Spain
Ria de Alvor, Faro, Algarve
Portugal
2765 Km
Laguna de Fuente de Piedra, Malaga
Spain
Ria de Alvor, Faro, Algarve
Portugal
330 Km
37 04' N 06 23' W
37 08' N 08 35' W
No metal ring
37 08' N 08 35' W
No metal ring
37 08' N 08 35' W
37 08' N 08 35' W
37 08' N 08 35' W
37 08' N 08 35' W
37 08' N 08 35' W
37 08' N 08 35' W
37 06' N 04 46' W
37 08' N 08 35' W
A Rocha Portugal Observatory Report 2009-2010
ESI 10-19963
ESI 1023336
ESI 1024945
ESI 1022738
ESI 1022881
1
19-07-2008
VV
07-09-2010
1
08-08-2009
VV
07-09-2010
1
07-08-2010
VV
07-09-2010
1
18-07-2009
VV
12-11-2010
1
18-07-2009
VV
12-11-2010
65
Marismas del Odiel, Huelva
Spain
Ria de Alvor, Faro, Algarve
Portugal
268 Km
37 15' N 06 53' W
Marismas del Odiel, Huelva
Spain
Ria de Alvor, Faro, Algarve
Portugal
139 Km
37 15' N 06 53' W
Laguna de Fuente de Piedra, Malaga
Spain
Ria de Alvor, Faro, Algarve
Portugal
326 Km
37 06' N 04 46' W
Laguna de Fuente de Piedra, Malaga
Spain
Ria de Alvor, Faro, Algarve
Portugal
330 Km
37 06' N 04 46' W
Laguna de Fuente de Piedra
Spain
Ria de Alvor, Faro, Algarve
Portugal
468 Km
37 06' N 04 46' W
37 08' N 08 35' W
37 08' N 08 35' W
37 08' N 08 35' W
37 08' N 08 35' W
37 08' N 08 35' W
Oystercatcher Haematopus ostralegus
FRP aBY/OfL
2
04-06-2009
VV
21-11-2009
RN du Banc d'Arguin
France
Ria de Alvor, Faro, Algarve
Portugal
44 59' N 01 23' W
RN du Banc d'Arguin
France
Ria de Alvor, Faro, Algarve
Portugal
44 59' N 01 23' W
37 08' N 08 35' W
Ring number not communicated by ringer
FRP BY/Of
2
07-05-2008
VV
05-10-2010
Ring number not communicated by ringer
37 08' N 08 35' W
66
A Rocha Portugal Observatory Report 2009-2010
Redshank Tringa totanus
G1946
6
10-05-1990
R
28-04-2006
Ponta de Almádena, Faro, Algarve
Portugal
Reserve Natural de Moeze, CharenteFrance
Maritme
1158 Km
37 04' N 08 47' W
Austurey, Árnessýsla
Iceland
Ria de Alvor, Faro, Algarve
Portugal
64 20' N 20 67' W
Dalvik sub-station, Eyjafjordur
Iceland
Ria de Alvor, Faro, Algarve
Portugal
65 99' N 18 52' W
Hollustadir, Reykholar
Iceland
Ria de Alvor, Faro, Algarve
Portugal
65 67' N 22 26' W
45 54' N 01 02' W
5832 days
Black-tailed Godwit Limosa limosa
ISR OO/WO
1
29-05-2002
VV
12-03-2008
37 08' N 08 35' W
Ring number not communicated by ringer
ISR OO/ORf
1
15-07-2007
VV
16-10-2010
37 08' N 08 35' W
Ring number not communicated by ringer
ISR WR/YRf
1
02-07-2009
VV
13-10-2010
37 08' N 08 35' W
Ring number not communicated by ringer
Mediterranean Gull Larus melanocephalus
BLB E909863
BLB E916984
1
18-05-2005
VV
15-12-2010
1
20-06-2009
VV
15-12-2010
Verrebroek, Verrebroekse Plassen,
Belgium
Antwerpen
Ria de Alvor, Faro, Algarve
Portugal
Total, Antwerpen, province of
Belgium
Antwerpen
Ria de Alvor, Faro, Algarve
Portugal
51 15' N 04 12' E
Moerdijk, Shell Chemie-West, NoordNetherlands
Brabant
Ria de Alvor, Faro, Algarve
Portugal
Langli, Blåvandshuk
Brabant
Denmark
Ria de Alvor, Faro, Algarve
Portugal
51 41' N 04 33' E
37 08' N 08 35' W
51 15' N 04 19' E
37 08' N 08 35' W
Lesser Black-backed Gull Larus fuscus
NLA 5420834
DKC 4L1134
1
14-06-2007
VV
22-05-2008
1
01-07-2008
VV
07-09-2010
37 08' N 08 35' W
55 31' N 00 81' E
37 08' N 08 35' W
A Rocha Portugal Observatory Report 2009-2010
67
Garden Warbler Sylvia borin
A220082
3
30-09-2004
R
10-07-2009
Mexilhoeira Grande, Faro, Algarve
Portugal
Pibe Lodge, Devon, England
Great Britain
1533 Km
37 07' N 08 38' W
Mexilhoeira Grande, Faro, Algarve
Portugal
Elmevej, Jylland, Juttland
Denmark
2413 Km
37 07' N 08 38' W
Mexilhoeira Grande, Faro, Algarve
Portugal
Manecorro, P.N. Donana, Huelva
Spain
194 Km
37 07' N 08 38' W
50 29' N 03 52' W
1744 days
Willow Warbler Phylloscopus trochilus
085169
3
03-10-2009
XF
22-05-2010
55 39' N 08 41' W
231 days
Pied Flycatcher Ficedula hypoleuca
A244292
3
06-10-2006
R
09-10-2008
36 54' N 06 28' W
734 days
68
A Rocha Portugal Observatory Report 2009-2010
MOTH TRAPPING AT CRUZINHA IN 2009 - 2010
Bert Van der Auwermeulen, Paula Banza and Aleksandra Cisek
This report shows the results of moth trapping undertaken in the garden of Cruzinha between 15
January 2009 and 16 December 2010. Some 106 trapping nights were undertaken over the course of
the two years, 55 in 2009 and 51 in 2010. A Skinner trap, with a 125W mercury vapour lamp, located
in the Cruzinha front garden near the weather station, was used on average once a week (every
Thursday). A more intensive programme of trapping was undertaken on occasion, particularly
during the European Moth Nights9 which were held over 21 - 25 May 2009 and 9 – 13 September
2010. From May 2009 onwards, white sheets were spread around the moth trap to act as an
additional attraction to moths. The list of species also includes a few casual observations made at
Cruzinha during the daytime.
The one hectare garden at Cruzinha contains many mature shrubs and trees, mostly native species
such as Olive, Almond, Cistus species, Mastic and Stone pine. There is an orchard of fruit trees
including citrus, peaches and loquats and a number of organic vegetable plots. Around the garden
are three pond areas and a small reedbed planted for water filtration purposes. With the exception
of areas of grass lawn, the herbs and grasses are native species and left to grow naturally. Cruzinha
is located in an area of extensive grazing, abandoned orchards and traditional small scale farming. In
addition there are a number of private properties with associated gardens. It lies close to the Alvor
Estuary.
In 2009 a total of 5111 individual moths were identified from 301 species at Cruzinha. In 2010 a total
of 7919 individuals from 314 species were identified from those recorded at Cruzinha. The
percentage of individuals trapped and identified within each family, are displayed in Figure 4 and
Figure 6 for 2009 and 2010 respectively.
Much of the dedicated trapping and identification work was undertaken by Paula Banza. She also
gave training to keen long-term volunteers: Bert Van der Auwermeulen and Aleksandra Cisek, who
became very proficient themselves over the course of their time at A Rocha. Aleksandra became
particularly interested in micro-moth identification. This helps to explain the greater number of
individuals and species identified in 2010 compared to previous years.
9
The aim of European Moth Nights is to gather a wide-ranging snapshot of the macro-moths flying during the
period, paying particular attention to migrant species and those in need of conservation within Europe .
A Rocha Portugal Observatory Report 2009-2010
69
Figure 1 Ethmia bipunctella – a very common micro moth species recorded at Cruzinha, with its most
important host plant – Echium vulgare (Viper’s bugloss). (Photo E. Pawley)
.
Figure 2 Palpita vitrealis (Jasmine moth) – One of
the species most commonly identified each year at
Cruzinha.
Figure 3 Pseudozarba bipartita. (Photo A. Cisek)
The 5 most common species identified in 2009 were: Eilema caniola, Ethmia bipunctella (Figure 1),
Palpita unionalis (Figure 2), Spodoptera exigua, Hoplodrina ambigua and Rhodometra sacraria; and
in 2010: Ethmia bipunctella, Palpita unionalis, Eilema caniola, Lamoria anella, Rhodometra sacraria,
and Thaumetopoea pityocampa.
In 2009 we had our first record of Nola subchlamydula at Cruzinha (28 May 2009) and our second
record of Aglaope infausta, the very descriptively named Almond-tree Leaf Skeletonizer Moth.
During the European Moth Nights trapping programme in 2010 the first record at Cruzinha of
Pseudozarba bipartita was made (see figure 3). Also during 2010 (12 August 2010), we made our
second record of Hypomecis punctinalis (Pale Oak Beauty).
One or two of the micro-moth species records were awaiting verification by the time this report was
complied. Any corrections will be noted in future Observatory Reports.
70
A Rocha Portugal Observatory Report 2009-2010
Figure 4 Percentage of individuals trapped within each most well represented family (including
number of species identified in each family) in 2009.
Figure 5 Percentage of individuals trapped within each most well represented family (including
number of species identified in each family) in 2010.
A Rocha Portugal Observatory Report 2009-2010
71
Figure 6 Number of individuals and species trapped each month in 2009, with an indication of the
number of trapping nights each month.
Figure 7 Number of individuals and species trapped each month in 2010, with an indication of the
number of trapping nights each month.
72
A Rocha Portugal Observatory Report 2009-2010
Table 1: Species and numbers of individuals trapped and identified in 2009
Family
Alucitidae
Alucitidae
Arctiidae
Arctiidae
Arctiidae
Arctiidae
Arctiidae
Arctiidae
Arctiidae
Blastobasidae
Blastobasidae
Coleophoridae
Cosmopterigidae
Cosmopterigidae
Cosmopterigidae
Cossidae
Cossidae
Depressariidae
Drepanidae
Ethmiidae
Gelechidae
Gelechidae
Gelechidae
Gelechidae
Gelechidae
Gelechidae
Gelechidae
Gelechidae
Gelechidae
Gelechidae
Gelechidae
Gelechidae
Gelechidae
Gelechidae
Gelechidae
Gelechidae
Gelechidae
Geometridae
Geometridae
Geometridae
Geometridae
Geometridae
Geometridae
Geometridae
Geometridae
Geometridae
Geometridae
Geometridae
Geometridae
Geometridae
Geometridae
Geometridae
Geometridae
Geometridae
Geometridae
Geometridae
Geometridae
Geometridae
Geometridae
Geometridae
Species
Alucita palodactyla
Alucita sp.
Apaidia mesogona
Coscinia cribraria
Cymbalophora pudica
Eilema caniola
Eilema pygmaeola
Phragmatobia fuliginosa
Utetheisa pulchella
Blastobasis acuta
Blastobasis phycidella
Coleophora hieronella
Eteobalea dohrnii
Eteobalea intermediella
Pyroderces argyrogrammos
Dyspessa ulula
Zeuzera pyrina
Agonopterix thapsiella
Watsonalla uncinula
Ethmia bipunctella
Anarsia lineatella
Aproaerema anthyllidella
Bryotropha sp.
Dichomeris alacella
Dichomeris lamprostoma
Dichomeris limbipunctella
Helcystogramma triannulella
Mesophleps corsicella
Mesophleps silacella
Ornativalva plutelliformis
Ornativalva pseudotamariciella
Palumbina guerinii
Phthorimaea operculella
Platyedra subcinerea
Scrobipalpa ocellatella
Stomopteryx basalis
Stomopteryx detersella
Adactylotis gesticularia
Aleucis distinctata
Aspitates ochrearia
Campaea honoraria
Camptogramma bilineata
Catarhoe basochesiata
Compsoptera opacaria
Costaconvexa polygrammata
Crocallis dardoinaria
Cyclophora puppillaria
Dysstroma citrata
Eupithecia breviculata
Eupithecia centaureata
Eupithecia dodoneata
Eupithecia innotata
Eupithecia laquaearia
Eupithecia sp.
Eupithecia venosata
Eupithecia weissi
Gnopharmia stevenaria
Gymnoscelis rufifasciata
Idaea belemiata
Idaea bigladiata
J
F
M
A
M
J
J
1
1
9
1
3
187
3
20
1
A
S
2
1
1
1
2
40
14
3
O
5
12
21
4
1
N
9
9
41
46
2
2
1
1
D
1
8
1
1
36
1
1
1
1
3
2
1
3
1
1
2
1
5
11
2
58
37
1
2
9
1
1
1
6
1
3
6
71
2
10
5
15
5
1
3
1
4
28
1
4
1
1
1
2
1
3
3
1
1
7
1
1
1
2
5
1
1
1
1
4
1
3
6
17
9
4
5
2
1
1
1
1
2
3
1
1
1
7
1
1
1
2
43
3
4
6
7
4
1
1
1
1
2
1
6
2
3
5
1
6
1
2
1
6
5
Total
3
2
11
21
53
345
14
2
2
39
1
1
1
1
9
1
3
1
15
226
4
4
1
25
14
1
1
4
1
2
1
4
1
10
1
1
1
2
6
2
15
1
22
9
1
6
7
1
2
77
1
2
1
1
1
2
1
17
15
6
A Rocha Portugal Observatory Report 2009-2010
Family
Geometridae
Geometridae
Geometridae
Geometridae
Geometridae
Geometridae
Geometridae
Geometridae
Geometridae
Geometridae
Geometridae
Geometridae
Geometridae
Geometridae
Geometridae
Geometridae
Geometridae
Geometridae
Geometridae
Geometridae
Geometridae
Geometridae
Geometridae
Geometridae
Geometridae
Geometridae
Geometridae
Geometridae
Geometridae
Geometridae
Geometridae
Geometridae
Geometridae
Geometridae
Geometridae
Geometridae
Geometridae
Geometridae
Lasiocampidae
Lecithoceridae
Lecithoceridae
Lymantrydae
Lymantrydae
Noctuidae
Noctuidae
Noctuidae
Noctuidae
Noctuidae
Noctuidae
Noctuidae
Noctuidae
Noctuidae
Noctuidae
Noctuidae
Noctuidae
Noctuidae
Noctuidae
Noctuidae
Noctuidae
Noctuidae
Noctuidae
Noctuidae
Noctuidae
Noctuidae
Species
Idaea carvalhoi
Idaea degeneraria
Idaea dimidiata
Idaea efflorata
Idaea elongaria
Idaea eugeniata
Idaea hispanaria
Idaea incisaria
Idaea longaria
Idaea minuscularia
Idaea ochrata
Idaea rusticata
Idaea subsericeata
Isturgia inconspicuaria
Isturgia pulinda
Itame vincularia
Larentia malvata
Menophra abruptaria
Menophra japygiaria
Microloxia herbaria
Nebula ibericata
Pachycnemia hippocastanaria
Peribatodes ilicaria
Phaiogramma etruscaria
Phaiogramma faustinata
Pseudoterpna coronillaria
Rhodometra sacraria
Scopula imitaria
Scopula marginepunctata
Scopula minorata
Scopula ornata
Scotopteryx peribolata
Semiaspilates ochrearia
Stegania trimaculata
Tephronia codetaria
Tephronia sepiaria
Timandra comae
Xanthorhoe fluctuata
Lasiocampa trifolii
Eurodachtha canigella
Ilieroxestes briantiella
Lymantria atlantica
Ocneria rubea
Abrostola tripartita
Acontia lucida
Acronicta psi
Acronicta rumicis
Aedia leucomelas
Aegle vespertinalis
Agrochola lychnidis
Agrotis crassa
Agrotis exclamationis
Agrotis ipsilon
Agrotis puta
Agrotis segetum
Agrotis spinifera
Agrotis trux olivina
Allophyes alfaroi
Aporophyla nigra
Atethmia algirica
Autographa gamma
Bryonicta pineti
Calophasia platyptera
Cardepia sociabilis
J
F
M
A
2
M
11
J
J
11
1
3
4
73
2
1
A
S
1
1
1
3
4
9
4
2
2
1
2
1
3
1
2
1
2
3
1
8
3
15
24
29
N
D
7
1
1
O
3
2
6
1
16
1
20
12
8
9
1
1
2
1
1
1
3
2
2
1
3
1
1
1
1
2
2
2
2
6
6
1
1
1
9
4
4
7
22
1
4
4
4
3
6
17
1
1
17
11
14
21
1
3
1
3
1
1
5
2
79
1
12
4
1
1
5
5
8
1
9
1
3
5
23
12
1
2
1
4
1
32
7
3
13
3
4
6
1
17
1
25
10
3
1
3
5
1
1
3
4
1
2
6
2
10
1
4
1
2
1
2
1
3
1
5
4
1
3
4
1
1
4
1
1
3
1
1
5
1
2
1
2
1
6
1
6
2
4
1
3
3
2
2
2
2
6
1
2
1
2
2
1
1
3
2
7
1
1
1
1
1
1
2
1
4
7
5
7
2
2
17
1
3
3
14
2
3
7
1
6
10
2
15
6
13
12
1
3
6
1
1
1
Total
2
32
1
1
14
31
9
22
12
38
2
44
37
2
2
9
21
5
23
3
4
5
39
36
12
3
145
13
21
27
4
5
11
2
118
14
2
5
2
21
2
8
2
1
16
2
12
9
2
12
16
3
17
27
22
5
32
3
32
1
10
42
4
5
74
Family
Noctuidae
Noctuidae
Noctuidae
Noctuidae
Noctuidae
Noctuidae
Noctuidae
Noctuidae
Noctuidae
Noctuidae
Noctuidae
Noctuidae
Noctuidae
Noctuidae
Noctuidae
Noctuidae
Noctuidae
Noctuidae
Noctuidae
Noctuidae
Noctuidae
Noctuidae
Noctuidae
Noctuidae
Noctuidae
Noctuidae
Noctuidae
Noctuidae
Noctuidae
Noctuidae
Noctuidae
Noctuidae
Noctuidae
Noctuidae
Noctuidae
Noctuidae
Noctuidae
Noctuidae
Noctuidae
Noctuidae
Noctuidae
Noctuidae
Noctuidae
Noctuidae
Noctuidae
Noctuidae
Noctuidae
Noctuidae
Noctuidae
Noctuidae
Noctuidae
Noctuidae
Noctuidae
Noctuidae
Noctuidae
Noctuidae
Noctuidae
Noctuidae
Noctuidae
Noctuidae
Noctuidae
Noctuidae
Noctuidae
Noctuidae
A Rocha Portugal Observatory Report 2009-2010
Species
Catocala conjuncta
Catocala elocata
Catocala nupta
Catocala nymphagoga
Cerastis faceta
Chloantha hyperici
Chortodes pygmina
Chrysodeixis chalcites
Clytie illunaris
Coccidiphaga scitula
Condica viscosa
Conisania andalusica
Cryphia algae
Cryphia muralis
Cryphia petrea
Ctenoplusia accentifera
Cucullia calendulae
Discestra sodae
Discestra trifolii
Dysgonia algira
Earias insulana
Eremochlaena orana
Eublemma ostrina
Eublemma parva
Eublemma pulchralis
Eublemma pura
Eutelia adulatrix
Gortyna puengeleri
Hadena confusa
Hadena perplexa
Hadena sancta
Hecatera corsica
Hecatera dysodea
Helicoverpa armigera
Heliothis nubigera
Heliothis peltigera
Hoplodrina ambigua
Hypena obsitalis
Lacanobia oleracea
Leucania loreyi
Leucania punctosa
Leucochlaena oditis
Lithophane leauteri
Luperina dumerilii
Mesoligia furuncula
Metachrostis velox
Mniotype spinosa
Mythimna albipuncta
Mythimna ferrago
Mythimna L-album
Mythimna riparia
Mythimna scirpi
Mythimna unipuncta
Mythimna vitellina
Noctua comes
Noctua pronuba
Nodaria nodosalis
Ochropleura leucogaster
Omphalophana serrata
Omphaloscelis lunosa
Paradrina clavipalpis
Paradrina flavirena
Paradrina noctivaga
Pechipogo plumigeralis
J
F
M
A
M
J
J
A
1
1
S
1
1
O
N
1
D
1
1
5
2
2
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
2
1
1
1
2
6
40
6
3
2
9
1
1
20
8
4
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
3
10
1
1
2
4
1
6
1
2
2
10
4
2
21
3
1
2
1
1
1
1
8
9
3
1
5
2
6
1
1
1
4
5
1
2
4
1
1
1
1
2
14
1
16
3
1
1
7
1
2
5
86
1
5
3
2
5
11
24
2
1
14
47
1
2
6
2
1
4
4
10
2
4
2
1
1
1
1
2
16
4
3
2
2
2
1
10
2
3
4
1
25
1
5
3
11
11
9
2
19
1
6
1
1
10
29
1
8
2
1
3
9
24
8
5
1
2
24
7
3
1
1
1
4
11
9
16
9
3
1
2
5
1
2
3
1
1
3
1
2
2
1
1
1
1
11
2
1
24
11
14
3
11
4
3
1
1
Total
1
4
1
1
10
1
1
6
2
2
9
1
72
3
1
1
5
39
4
11
22
1
26
26
1
9
5
1
2
7
2
6
11
46
4
12
170
2
26
6
2
4
2
11
2
1
39
29
1
19
14
53
10
22
11
92
21
45
1
4
47
16
17
2
A Rocha Portugal Observatory Report 2009-2010
Family
Noctuidae
Noctuidae
Noctuidae
Noctuidae
Noctuidae
Noctuidae
Noctuidae
Noctuidae
Noctuidae
Noctuidae
Noctuidae
Noctuidae
Noctuidae
Noctuidae
Noctuidae
Noctuidae
Noctuidae
Noctuidae
Noctuidae
Noctuidae
Noctuidae
Noctuidae
Noctuidae
Noctuidae
Nolidae
Nolidae
Nolidae
Notodontidae
Plutellidae
Pterophoridae
Pterophoridae
Pyralidae
Pyralidae
Pyralidae
Pyralidae
Pyralidae
Pyralidae
Pyralidae
Pyralidae
Pyralidae
Pyralidae
Pyralidae
Pyralidae
Pyralidae
Pyralidae
Pyralidae
Pyralidae
Pyralidae
Pyralidae
Pyralidae
Pyralidae
Pyralidae
Pyralidae
Pyralidae
Pyralidae
Pyralidae
Pyralidae
Pyralidae
Pyralidae
Pyralidae
Pyralidae
Pyralidae
Pyralidae
Pyralidae
Species
Peridroma saucia
Phlogophora meticulosa
Photedes pygmina
Platyperigea aspersa
Platyperigea germainii
Platyperigea proxima
Polyphaenis sericata
Proxenus hospes
Pseudenargia ulicis
Shargacucullia verbasci
Spodoptera cilium
Spodoptera exigua
Spodoptera littoralis
Synthymia fixa
Thalpophila vitalba
Thysanoplusia orichalcea
Trichoplusia ni
Trigonophora flammea
Tyta luctuosa
Xestia agathina
Xestia c-nigrum
Xestia xanthographa
Xylocampa areola
Zebeeba falsalis
Meganola togatulalis
Nola chlamitulalis
Nola subchlamydula
Harpyia milhauseri
Plutella xylostella
Emmelina monodactyla
Pterophorus sp.
Acrobasis bithynella
Acrobasis obliqua
Acrobasis romanella
Actenia brunnealis
Aglossa brabanti
Aglossa caprealis
Agriphila geniculea
Agriphila latistria
Agriphila sp.
Agriphila tersella
Ancylolomia inornata
Ancylolomia tentaculella
Ancylosis oblitella
Antigastra catalaunalis
Apomyelois ceratoniae
Cadra figulilella
Dioryctria mendacella
Dolicharthria punctalis
Duponchelia fovealis
Endotricha flammealis
Ephestia parasitella
Ephestia welseriella
Epischnia bankesiella
Epischnia illotella
Epischnia peroni
Etiella zinckenella
Euchromius gozmanyi
Eudonia angustea
Eudonia lineola
Evergestis isatidalis
Galleria mellonella
Hellula undalis
Herculia incarnatalis
J
F
1
M
3
A
5
1
M
J
75
J
A
2
S
2
O
5
N
11
5
D
3
1
1
7
1
18
5
1
68
1
4
1
3
5
13
3
14
3
1
2
1
8
5
10
39
8
2
1
1
1
1
1
47
54
13
7
2
1
1
2
5
2
2
2
2
3
1
5
1
5
5
1
6
1
1
6
1
71
2
1
7
1
2
3
1
1
1
1
1
13
8
1
2
1
2
1
1
2
1
12
1
1
2
1
7
1
3
1
2
5
3
2
15
12
2
2
17
6
10
1
1
1
1
10
1
13
1
2
1
1
1
1
2
1
4
3
4
1
4
1
1
3
1
2
4
6
9
16
4
1
3
1
1
6
9
7
1
10
3
3
1
1
2
1
3
1
18
20
2
2
5
1
1
1
3
2
8
2
1
2
1
1
6
6
3
1
6
73
1
1
1
2
1
2
Total
37
1
1
1
2
7
6
58
1
1
61
210
4
2
5
4
15
7
13
6
6
74
2
11
1
22
1
2
8
1
27
14
22
12
30
1
1
24
1
2
3
4
2
1
39
48
28
4
20
1
9
8
1
1
4
2
8
4
85
9
4
1
10
1
76
Family
Pyralidae
Pyralidae
Pyralidae
Pyralidae
Pyralidae
Pyralidae
Pyralidae
Pyralidae
Pyralidae
Pyralidae
Pyralidae
Pyralidae
Pyralidae
Pyralidae
Pyralidae
Pyralidae
Pyralidae
Pyralidae
Pyralidae
Pyralidae
Pyralidae
Pyralidae
Pyralidae
Pyralidae
Pyralidae
Pyralidae
Pyralidae
Sphingidae
Sphingidae
Sphingidae
Symmocidae
Symmocidae
Symmocidae
Symmocidae
Thaumetopeidae
Tineidae
Tineidae
Tortricidae
Tortricidae
Tortricidae
Tortricidae
Tortricidae
Tortricidae
Tortricidae
Tortricidae
Tortricidae
Tortricidae
Tortricidae
Tortricidae
Tortricidae
Tortricidae
Tortricidae
Tortricidae
Tortricidae
Tortricidae
Tortricidae
Tortricidae
Yponomeutidae
Zygaenidae
A Rocha Portugal Observatory Report 2009-2010
Species
Herpetogramma licarsisalis
Homoeosoma sinuellum
Hydriris ornatalis
Hypotia corticalis
Hypsopygia costalis
Lamoria anella
Mecyna asinalis
Metasia suppandalis
Myelois circumvoluta
Nomophila noctuella
Oncocera semirubella
Oxybia transversella
Palpita vitrealis
Phycitodes inquinatella
Phycitodes saxicola
Psorosa dahliella
Pyralis farinalis
Pyralis obsoletalis
Pyrausta aurata
Pyrausta despicata
Pyrausta sanguinalis
Spoladea recurvalis
Synaphe punctalis
Udea ferrugalis
Udea numeralis
Ulotricha egregialis
Uresiphita gilvata
Hippotion celerio
Hyles livornica
Macroglossum stellatarum
Apatema mediopallidum
Oegoconia quadripuncta
Symmoca signatella
Symmocoides oxybiella
Thaumetopoea pityocampa
Neurothaumasia ragusaella
Trichophaga bipartitella
Acleris variegana
Aethes bilbaensis
Aethes francillana
Ancylis sparulana
Clepsis consimilana
Clepsis siciliana
Cnephasia conspersana
Crocidosema plebejana
Cydia amplana
Cydia fagiglandana
Cydia splendana
Epinotia thapsiana
Lobesia botrana
Lozotaenia cupidinana
Lozotaeniodes cupressanus
Phalonidia contractana
Phtheochroa duponchelana
Phtheochroa ecballiella
Pseudococcyx tessulatana
Rhyacionia buoliana
Zelleria oleastrella
Aglaope infausta
Total
J
F
M
A
M
J
J
A
1
S
O
N
21
D
7
1
13
7
3
1
2
1
3
78
1
3
1
49
1
3
5
2
1
6
3
5
1
1
31
1
51
18
1
39
5
2
1
2
1
1
4
2
1
4
27
4
6
1
1
1
8
1
3
1
2
1
8
3
21
2
3
1
4
1
1
6
2
1
9
2
3
8
26
43
34
3
1
1
1
2
2
2
1
1
2
1
1
9
1
1
1
2
2
5
1
1
3
1
2
1
2
1
2
1
1
1
1
2
1
5
2
1
1
1
1
9
1
62
2
1
1
1
9
10
62
1
6
2
2
13
1
1
4
2
4
8
3
1
2
11
1
9
1
1
7
1
2
1
1
1
2
1
1
4
1
1
1
2
1
1
4
14
2
1
1
1
6
6
15
1
2
2
4
2
27
1
1
1
1
3
1
1
2
41
38
209
231
1
858
416
302
617
Species name highlighted indicates that identification is awaiting confirmation.
837
1
1
1167
392
77
Total
30
28
4
1
14
140
13
9
3
46
1
1
220
1
57
4
3
14
2
11
3
5
2
33
55
2
3
2
5
4
2
1
20
15
126
1
15
18
5
3
1
38
4
3
6
1
3
2
45
3
1
2
2
7
3
1
1
4
1
5185
A Rocha Portugal Observatory Report 2009-2010
77
Table 2: Species and numbers of individuals trapped and identified in 2010
Family
Alucitidae
Amphisbatidae
Arctiidae
Arctiidae
Arctiidae
Arctiidae
Arctiidae
Arctiidae
Arctiidae
Blastobasidae
Blastobasidae
Coleophoridae
Coleophoridae
Coleophoridae
Cosmopterigidae
Depressariidae
Drepanidae
Elachistidae
Ethmiidae
Gelechidae
Gelechidae
Gelechidae
Gelechidae
Gelechidae
Gelechidae
Gelechidae
Gelechidae
Gelechidae
Gelechidae
Gelechidae
Gelechidae
Gelechidae
Gelechidae
Gelechidae
Gelechidae
Gelechidae
Gelechidae
Gelechidae
Gelechidae
Gelechidae
Geometridae
Geometridae
Geometridae
Geometridae
Geometridae
Geometridae
Geometridae
Geometridae
Geometridae
Geometridae
Geometridae
Geometridae
Geometridae
Geometridae
Geometridae
Geometridae
Geometridae
Geometridae
Geometridae
Geometridae
Species
Alucita palodactyla
Pseudatemelia xanthosoma
Apaidia mesogona
Coscinia cribraria
Cymbalophora pudica
Eilema caniola
Eilema pygmaeola
Lithosia quadra
Phragmatobia fuliginosa
Blastobasis acuta
Blastobasis phycidella
Coleophora crepidinella
Coleophora glaucicolella
Coleophora rectilineella
Pyroderces argyrogrammos
Agonopterix ciliella
Watsonalla uncinula
Mendesia echiella
Ethmia bipunctella
Anarsia lineatella
Aproaerema anthyllidella
Bryotropha figulella
Dichomeris acuminata
Dichomeris alacella
Dichomeris lamprostoma
Epidola stigma
Helcystogramma lutatella
Isophrictis kefersteiniella
Mesophleps corsicella
Nothris verbascella
Ornativalva pseudotamariciella
Palumbina guerinii
Platyedra subcinerea
Ptocheuusa paupella
Recurvaria nanella
Scrobipalpa ocellatella
Scrobipalpa salinella
Scrobipalpa vasconiella
Sophronia exustella
Stomopteryx remissella
Aleucis distinctata
Aplasta ononaria
Campaea honoraria
Catarhoe basochesiata
Chloroclysta siterata
Costaconvexa polygrammata
Cyclophora puppillaria
Eupithecia centaureata
Eupithecia cocciferata
Eupithecia dodoneata
Eupithecia innotata
Gymnoscelis rufifasciata
Hypomecis punctinalis
Idaea belemiata
Idaea bigladiata
Idaea cervantaria
Idaea degeneraria
Idaea elongaria
Idaea eugeniata
Idaea hispanaria
J
F
M
A
M
J
J
A
S
O
N
D
1
1
4
1
4
3
1
3
3
2
36
8
6
1
1
2
9
8
1
124
34
1
1
3
2
1
4
3
1
13
1
2
98
10
1
117
3
12
4
42
24
4
4
23
12
4
211
15
1
21
2
24
77
3
2
5
2
3
1
1
1
1
3
5
2
1
12
2
389
1
1
88
5
10
17
3
27
11
1
4
41
1
2
1
2
2
1
4
9
1
1
1
2
1
1
1
1
10
4
8
5
1
1
3
1
1
1
1
1
2
3
3
2
3
1
1
2
1
2
2
1
4
3
1
2
1
3
1
1
3
8
2
2
1
1
1
1
1
1
2
23
1
1
1
4
2
4
1
4
2
1
15
3
20
2
3
2
4
10
2
1
3
6
1
14
11
20
2
1
27
1
5
1
4
14
6
11
7
2
24
6
1
3
4
Total
1
1
51
20
28
465
33
3
1
185
81
1
2
3
4
1
15
2
650
13
3
1
2
38
37
12
3
3
4
2
1
23
5
3
2
4
2
3
1
4
3
1
11
10
1
2
11
104
2
4
1
5
1
55
7
3
36
34
33
9
78
Family
Geometridae
Geometridae
Geometridae
Geometridae
Geometridae
Geometridae
Geometridae
Geometridae
Geometridae
Geometridae
Geometridae
Geometridae
Geometridae
Geometridae
Geometridae
Geometridae
Geometridae
Geometridae
Geometridae
Geometridae
Geometridae
Geometridae
Geometridae
Geometridae
Geometridae
Geometridae
Geometridae
Geometridae
Geometridae
Geometridae
Geometridae
Geometridae
Geometridae
Gracillariidae
Lasiocampidae
Lasiocampidae
Lecithoceridae
Lecithoceridae
Lymantrydae
Lymantrydae
Noctuidae
Noctuidae
Noctuidae
Noctuidae
Noctuidae
Noctuidae
Noctuidae
Noctuidae
Noctuidae
Noctuidae
Noctuidae
Noctuidae
Noctuidae
Noctuidae
Noctuidae
Noctuidae
Noctuidae
Noctuidae
Noctuidae
Noctuidae
Noctuidae
Noctuidae
Noctuidae
Noctuidae
A Rocha Portugal Observatory Report 2009-2010
Species
Idaea incisaria
Idaea longaria
Idaea lutulentaria
Idaea minuscularia
Idaea obsoletaria
Idaea ochrata
Idaea predotaria
Idaea rusticata
Idaea subrufaria
Idaea subsericeata
Isturgia pulinda
Itame vincularia
Larentia malvata
Menophra abruptaria
Menophra japygiaria
Microloxia herbaria
Nebula ibericata
Orthonama obstipata
Peribatodes ilicaria
Petrophora convergata
Phaiogramma etruscaria
Phaiogramma faustinata
Pseudoterpna coronillaria
Rhodometra sacraria
Scopula imitaria
Scopula marginepunctata
Scopula minorata
Scopula ornata
Semiaspilates ochrearia
Stegania trimaculata
Tephronia codetaria
Tephronia sepiaria
Xanthorhoe fluctuata
Dialectica scalariella
Lasiocampa trifolii
Psilogaster loti
Eurodachtha canigella
Ilieroxestes briantiella
Lymantria atlantica
Ocneria rubea
Abrostola triplasia
Acontia lucida
Acronicta psi
Acronicta rumicis
Aedia leucomelas
Aegle vespertinalis
Agrotis crassa
Agrotis exclamationis
Agrotis ipsilon
Agrotis puta
Agrotis segetum
Agrotis spinifera
Agrotis trux olivina
Allophyes alfaroi
Aporophyla chioleuca
Aporophyla nigra
Autographa gamma
Bryonicta pineti
Calophasia platyptera
Cardepia sociabilis
Catocala conjuncta
Catocala conversa
Catocala elocata
Catocala mariana
J
F
M
A
1
1
M
J
2
1
3
2
15
3
3
1
1
1
2
2
8
1
2
J
1
1
1
5
1
8
A
S
11
1
7
1
5
O
N
10
2
1
9
14
8
2
1
74
3
12
5
1
4
1
1
4
5
1
2
12
8
1
11
5
8
1
1
6
3
1
2
3
2
4
1
3
3
1
2
4
27
3
33
10
4
4
7
5
1
204
4
3
5
3
47
2
3
6
3
1
1
1
3
72
3
10
14
8
10
1
30
13
D
1
2
1
1
1
3
1
1
8
1
13
7
1
1
2
3
1
3
1
1
1
1
3
1
2
4
31
2
1
3
1
23
5
2
10
3
4
1
12
1
1
21
2
1
6
1
1
1
3
15
3
1
1
6
5
2
4
1
1
2
2
1
2
4
1
1
2
3
5
3
2
2
2
4
3
3
1
2
7
2
6
1
13
1
5
1
2
6
2
5
10
4
2
2
2
3
1
1
2
1
7
1
2
4
20
3
3
4
3
3
1
14
1
12
1
19
14
11
1
9
4
6
14
1
1
3
1
4
2
3
1
2
4
1
1
1
1
3
3
1
1
10
2
1
4
3
1
1
29
1
1
2
1
1
2
1
1
8
1
Total
27
13
19
45
2
11
2
76
1
30
2
24
4
9
38
7
2
5
46
1
66
21
2
364
22
28
47
19
18
3
87
18
4
6
1
1
33
3
5
1
1
47
9
17
18
11
15
2
34
22
34
32
40
3
1
11
12
54
10
4
1
1
4
3
A Rocha Portugal Observatory Report 2009-2010
Family
Noctuidae
Noctuidae
Noctuidae
Noctuidae
Noctuidae
Noctuidae
Noctuidae
Noctuidae
Noctuidae
Noctuidae
Noctuidae
Noctuidae
Noctuidae
Noctuidae
Noctuidae
Noctuidae
Noctuidae
Noctuidae
Noctuidae
Noctuidae
Noctuidae
Noctuidae
Noctuidae
Noctuidae
Noctuidae
Noctuidae
Noctuidae
Noctuidae
Noctuidae
Noctuidae
Noctuidae
Noctuidae
Noctuidae
Noctuidae
Noctuidae
Noctuidae
Noctuidae
Noctuidae
Noctuidae
Noctuidae
Noctuidae
Noctuidae
Noctuidae
Noctuidae
Noctuidae
Noctuidae
Noctuidae
Noctuidae
Noctuidae
Noctuidae
Noctuidae
Noctuidae
Noctuidae
Noctuidae
Noctuidae
Noctuidae
Noctuidae
Noctuidae
Noctuidae
Noctuidae
Noctuidae
Noctuidae
Noctuidae
Noctuidae
Species
Catocala nymphagoga
Cerastis faceta
Chrysodeixis chalcites
Cleonymia baetica
Clytie illunaris
Coccidiphaga scitula
Cryphia algae
Cryphia muralis
Cryphia petrea
Cucullia calendulae
Cucullia chamomillae
Discestra sodae
Discestra trifolii
Dysgonia algira
Earias insulana
Eublemma ostrina
Eublemma parva
Eublemma pura
Eutelia adulatrix
Hadena perplexa
Hadena sancta
Hecatera corsica
Hecatera dysodea
Hecatera weissi
Helicoverpa armigera
Heliothis peltigera
Hoplodrina ambigua
Hypena obsitalis
Lacanobia oleracea
Leucania loreyi
Leucania punctosa
Leucania putrescens
Leucania zeae
Lithophane leauteri
Mamestra brassicae
Mesapamea secalis
Mesoligia furuncula
Metopoceras felicina
Mniotype spinosa
Mythimna albipuncta
Mythimna l-album
Mythimna loreyi
Mythimna riparia
Mythimna scirpi
Mythimna unipuncta
Mythimna vitellina
Noctua comes
Noctua pronuba
Nodaria nodosalis
Ochropleura leucogaster
Ochropleura plecta
Omphalophana serrata
Ophiusa tirrhaca
Paradrina clavipalpis
Paradrina noctivaga
Peridroma saucia
Platyperigea aspersa
Platyperigea germainii
Platyperigea proxima
Polyphaenis sericata
Proxenus hospes
Pseudozarba bipartita
Shargacucullia verbasci
Spodoptera cilium
J
F
M
A
M
J
79
J
A
S
O
N
D
1
2
1
1
2
2
3
1
1
1
2
3
37
2
1
29
3
1
4
88
1
1
2
3
5
1
10
2
1
2
4
3
1
2
2
1
1
4
12
2
2
1
7
17
3
10
2
1
3
3
3
1
33
3
24
70
10
1
1
1
4
1
1
1
1
1
10
1
1
1
1
2
1
1
11
1
2
1
2
59
4
8
3
2
1
3
1
3
2
1
1
1
2
2
1
1
2
3
1
5
2
8
2
1
1
8
2
1
1
3
1
3
16
1
4
1
2
1
8
6
2
1
2
12
2
2
1
4
1
3
5
1
8
4
1
16
1
13
2
1
1
8
3
1
3
3
1
6
6
8
36
16
4
91
1
8
2
4
1
1
1
2
15
1
1
1
2
1
5
1
1
5
1
6
7
6
1
4
5
1
1
1
1
1
3
2
22
1
18
1
26
1
6
2
23
3
3
1
2
14
Total
1
5
7
1
2
7
167
6
1
3
1
38
1
25
4
2
19
5
5
7
3
3
2
11
47
4
177
1
12
1
3
4
1
2
1
3
3
1
10
8
16
1
9
28
37
19
9
148
21
59
1
3
6
36
18
20
1
3
6
6
48
1
3
45
80
Family
Noctuidae
Noctuidae
Noctuidae
Noctuidae
Noctuidae
Noctuidae
Noctuidae
Noctuidae
Noctuidae
Noctuidae
Nolidae
Nolidae
Oecophoridae
Oecophoridae
Oecophoridae
Plutellidae
Pterolonchidae
Pterophoridae
Pterophoridae
Pterophoridae
Pterophoridae
Pterophoridae
Pterophoridae
Pterophoridae
Pyralidae
Pyralidae
Pyralidae
Pyralidae
Pyralidae
Pyralidae
Pyralidae
Pyralidae
Pyralidae
Pyralidae
Pyralidae
Pyralidae
Pyralidae
Pyralidae
Pyralidae
Pyralidae
Pyralidae
Pyralidae
Pyralidae
Pyralidae
Pyralidae
Pyralidae
Pyralidae
Pyralidae
Pyralidae
Pyralidae
Pyralidae
Pyralidae
Pyralidae
Pyralidae
Pyralidae
Pyralidae
Pyralidae
Pyralidae
Pyralidae
Pyralidae
Pyralidae
Pyralidae
Pyralidae
Pyralidae
A Rocha Portugal Observatory Report 2009-2010
Species
Spodoptera exigua
Spodoptera littoralis
Thalpophila vitalba
Thysanoplusia orichalcea
Trichoplusia ni
Tyta luctuosa
Xestia c-nigrum
Xestia xanthographa
Xylocampa areola
Zebeeba falsalis
Bena bicolorana
Nola chlamitulalis
Batia lunaris
Esperia sulphurella
Pleurota amaniella
Plutella xylostella
Pterolonche traugottolseniella
Agdistis frankeniae
Agdistis manicata
Amblyptilia acanthadactyla
Crombrugghia laeta
Emmelina monodactyla
Pterophorus sp.
Stangeia siceliota
Achyra nudalis
Acrobasis bithynella
Acrobasis obliqua
Acrobasis romanella
Actenia brunnealis
Aglossa caprealis
Agriphila geniculea
Agriphila latistria
Agriphila tersella
Ancylolomia inornata
Antigastra catalaunalis
Apomyelois ceratoniae
Cadra figulilella
Cryptoblabes gnidiella
Diasemiopsis ramburialis
Dioryctria mendacella
Dolicharthria punctalis
Duponchelia fovealis
Endotricha flammealis
Ephestia parasitella
Ephestia welseriella
Epischnia illotella
Epischnia peroni
Etiella zinckenella
Euchromius gozmanyi
Eudonia angustea
Eudonia lineola
Evergestis isatidalis
Hellula undalis
Herculia incarnatalis
Herpetogramma licarsisalis
Homoeosoma sinuellum
Hydriris ornatalis
Hypotia corticalis
Hypotia delicatalis
Hypsopygia costalis
Hypsotropa vulneratella
Lamoria anella
Mecyna asinalis
Metasia suppandalis
J
F
M
A
M
3
1
4
J
J
7
20
1
1
2
9
2
2
1
2
2
1
2
4
2
A
3
S
O
N
5
1
21
4
5
6
1
2
1
21
1
9
1
35
1
D
10
3
2
1
1
4
3
6
4
6
2
2
2
2
1
1
2
3
1
1
1
2
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
2
4
1
2
3
2
2
1
1
1
1
5
2
4
6
2
7
2
4
3
4
3
6
7
2
3
2
10
11
1
2
1
4
14
3
1
1
2
16
15
4
2
1
13
3
5
1
3
37
1
4
22
1
3
2
14
1
45
2
7
79
44
57
2
7
8
1
2
1
1
5
1
4
13
12
1
1
4
1
1
3
1
3
1
1
17
22
53
2
2
2
8
1
3
1
2
5
11
36
10
4
1
4
21
1
1
1
1
2
21
4
1
4
2
6
5
2
1
2
2
18
1
3
1
40
30
4
2
1
1
1
4
1
4
3
3
3
2
1
23
7
1
1
1
150
4
1
4
2
6
17
5
2
1
1
5
4
146
7
1
1
Total
63
6
6
9
6
48
7
47
3
18
3
14
4
1
3
1
2
3
2
10
4
7
1
1
7
19
13
30
18
1
23
1
3
10
144
126
173
1
5
16
22
7
22
52
1
10
5
7
11
24
66
1
10
1
40
46
6
3
3
13
2
380
16
5
A Rocha Portugal Observatory Report 2009-2010
Family
Pyralidae
Pyralidae
Pyralidae
Pyralidae
Pyralidae
Pyralidae
Pyralidae
Pyralidae
Pyralidae
Pyralidae
Pyralidae
Pyralidae
Pyralidae
Pyralidae
Pyralidae
Pyralidae
Pyralidae
Pyralidae
Pyralidae
Scythrididae
Scythrididae
Sphingidae
Sphingidae
Sphingidae
Symmocidae
Symmocidae
Thaumetopeidae
Tineidae
Tineidae
Tineidae
Tineidae
Tineidae
Tortricidae
Tortricidae
Tortricidae
Tortricidae
Tortricidae
Tortricidae
Tortricidae
Tortricidae
Tortricidae
Tortricidae
Tortricidae
Tortricidae
Tortricidae
Tortricidae
Tortricidae
Tortricidae
Tortricidae
Tortricidae
Tortricidae
Tortricidae
Tortricidae
Tortricidae
Tortricidae
Tortricidae
Tortricidae
Tortricidae
Yponomeutidae
Yponomeutidae
Yponomeutidae
Zygaenidae
Species
Nomophila noctuella
Oncocera combustella
Oncocera semirubella
Palpita incoloralis
Palpita vitrealis
Pempelia palumbella
Phycitodes saxicola
Psorosa dahliella
Pyralis farinalis
Pyralis obsoletalis
Pyrausta aurata
Pyrausta despicata
Pyrausta purpurata
Pyrausta sanguinalis
Spoladea recurvalis
Udea ferrugalis
Udea numeralis
Ulotricha egregialis
Uresiphita gilvata
Episcythris triangulella
Scythris limbella
Hippotion celerio
Hyles livornica
Macroglossum stellatarum
Symmoca signatella
Symmocoides oxybiella
Thaumetopoea pityocampa
Crassicornella agenjoi
Monopis imella
Neurothaumasia ragusaella
Reisserita chrysopterella
Trichophaga bipartitella
Acleris variegana
Aethes bilbaensis
Aethes francillana
Bactra venosana
Clepsis consimilana
Clepsis siciliana
Cnephasia alfacarana
Cnephasia chrysantheana
Cnephasia conspersana
Cnephasia incertana
Cnephasia longana
Cnephasia stephensiana
Cochylidia heydeniana
Crocidosema plebejana
Cydia fagiglandana
Cydia pomonella
Endothenia gentianaena
Endothenia marginana
Epinotia thapsiana
Lobesia botrana
Lozotaeniodes cupressanus
Phalonidia contractana
Phtheochroa duponchelana
Phtheochroa ecballiella
Pseudococcyx tessulatana
Rhyacionia buoliana
Prays citri
Prays oleae
Zelleria oleastrella
Aglaope infausta
Total
J
F
M
A
M
12
1
2
2
10
23
J
81
J
A
1
2
81
3
11
1
235
116
34
1
15
30
5
21
3
1
14
1
1
12
S
2
1
O
1
1
17
1
56
1
16
1
N
28
D
3
4
7
1
1
1
6
24
3
3
1
13
1
3
1
6
2
2
1
6
4
1
5
4
5
1
1
4
1
1
3
10
3
5
1
2
1
6
3
8
2
1
2
2
3
9
1
2
3
1
1
1
2
3
23
5
14
12
275
3
3
21
9
9
1
1
5
1
5
1
1
1
1
2
1
2
7
24
2
1
1
1
1
1
6
1
2
1
2
3
2
5
1
7
1
2
4
1
1
6
3
2
16
2
2
4
8
1
1
5
2
4
1
1
1
1
1
14
1
1
5
4
5
2
8
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
3
2
2
2
1
1
57
70
165
169
1
1
10
2
617
34
14
1
1
4
940
1434
922
2404
933
205
3
Total
19
1
17
1
556
4
86
6
2
78
6
4
1
3
2
37
55
2
14
7
4
4
11
2
19
29
319
10
3
3
2
49
18
6
2
2
26
1
10
2
16
3
4
8
1
15
1
1
2
6
42
8
2
3
3
2
4
1
2
1
64
2
7919
82
A Rocha Portugal Observatory Report 2009-2010
Acknowledgements
The authors would like to thank Martin Corley for his help with identification of difficult species and
to Esther Pawley for her contribution to this article.
Bibliography
Calle, J. A. (1982). Noctuidos españoles. Boletín del servicio contra plagas e inspección fitopatológica,
Fuera de serie 1, 430 pp, Madrid.
Corley, M. (2011). Checklist of the Portuguese Lepidoptera. Unpublished.
Gardiner, A.J. (2000). Macrolepidoptera on Quinta da Rocha (@ 3.3.2000). Unpublished.
Gardiner, A.J. (2000). Microlepidoptera on Quinta da Rocha (@ 18.3.2000). Unpublished.
Leraut, P. (2006). Papillons de nuit d'Europe, Volume 1. NAP Editions, 387 pp.
Leraut, P. (2009). Moths of Europe, Volume 2. NAP Editions, 808 pp.
Manley, C. (2008). British Moths and Butterflies: A Photographic Guide. A&C Black, 352 pp, London.
Waring, P. and Townsend, M. (2003). Field Guide to the Moths of Great Britain and Ireland. British
Wildlife Publishing, 432 pp, Hook.
A Rocha Portugal Observatory Report 2009-2010
83
CRUZINHA WEATHER REPORT 2009
Andrew Cole
Introduction
Weather data has been recorded every day at Cruzinha, A Rocha’s field study centre, since
September 2002 and continued throughout 2009. The measurements are taken at 09:00 UTC and
consist of:
 Current temperature (˚C)
 Maximum and minimum temperatures for the previous 24 hours (˚C)
 Relative humidity (%)
 Rainfall over previous 24 hours
 Wind direction and strength (compass bearing, Beaufort scale and km/h)
 Cloud cover
 Visibility
 Additional notes
Summary of the year 2009
 The maximum temperature, 40.0˚C, was recorded on 21 June.
 The minimum temperature, -2.5˚C, was recorded on 9 January.
 Total annual rainfall: 616.5mm.
 Maximum rainfall in 24 hours: 61.5mm.
 Prevailing wind direction was NW on 52 of 333 days recorded.
 The maximum wind strength was level 4 on the Beaufort scale which only occurred on 4
February.
Air temperature and relative humidity
2009 was slightly warmer than 2008 but very similar to previous years. Average maximum
temperatures in 2009 were 0.5˚C higher than in 2008 and average minimum temperatures were
0.9˚C higher. January had much lower maximum temperatures than average while March had much
higher maximum and minimum temperatures; April had lower temperatures. June had higher
minimum temperatures and August had higher maximum temperatures than average. October,
November and December saw generally higher temperatures than average. In 2009 the relative
humidity was generally lower than in previous years with the exception of January and February. In
particular the summer months had very low relative humidity both compared with other months, as
expected, and when compared with previous years.
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A Rocha Portugal Observatory Report 2009-2010
Figure 1 Average monthly maximum and minimum air temperatures for 2009 and averages for 20032008. To show the across year variation in the 2003-2008 data, error bars are plotted which
represent one standard error.
Figure 2 Monthly relative humidity for 2009 and the average of 2003-2008. To show the across year
variation in the 2003-2008 data, error bars are plotted which represent one standard error.
A Rocha Portugal Observatory Report 2009-2010
85
Rainfall
Rainfall was 89mm lower in 2009 than 2008, but above the average for 2003-2008 which is 542mm
per year (Fig 3). This higher rainfall is mainly caused by the very wet December when 284.5mm fell
across the month. Other than the very large peak in December, the months September, October and
November were lower than average while January had higher rainfall.
Figure 3 Monthly rainfall for 2009 and average rainfall for each month from 2003-2008. To show
variation across different years (2003-2008) error bars are plotted which represent one standard
error.
Wind direction, strength, cloud cover and visibility
The predominant wind direction in 2009 was NW recorded on 52/333 days (15.6%). The second
most common wind direction was N with 37 days (11.1%), while the directions NNE, NE, SE, SW, W
and NNW were all recorded on more than 20 days. In 2008 the predominant direction was NW and
in 2007 it was NE.
The maximum wind speed was on 4th February and was 4 on the Beaufort scale or 21.7km/h. This
was the only day with a wind speed of 4 on the Beaufort scale out of the 334 days recorded; 3 on the
Beaufort scale was recorded on 15 days.
Predominantly Cruzinha had clear skies (42%) and good visibility (63%). 67/336 days were overcast;
only 30/335 days had poor visibility.
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A Rocha Portugal Observatory Report 2009-2010
Figure 4 Wind direction showing the number of days each direction was recorded.
Figure 5 Wind speed (Beaufort scale) measured at Cruzinha for 2009.
A Rocha Portugal Observatory Report 2009-2010
Figure 6 Cloud cover at Cruzinha measured on 336 days.
Figure 7 Visibility at Cruzinha measured on 335 days.
References
Hof, A. (2007) Cruzinha weather report 2005. A Rocha Observatory report for 2005-2006. A Rocha,
Portimão, pp. 66-71.
Hawkins, B. (2007) Cruzinha weather report 2006. A Rocha Observatory report for 2005-2006. A
Rocha, Portimão, pp. 72-75.
Cisek, A. & Pawley, E. (2010) Cruzinha weather report 2007. A Rocha Observatory report for 20072008. A Rocha, Portimão, pp. 72-77.
Cisek, A. & Pawley, E. (2010) Cruzinha weather report 2008. A Rocha Observatory report for 20072008. A Rocha, Portimão, pp. 78-82.
87
88
A Rocha Portugal Observatory Report 2009-2010
CRUZINHA WEATHER REPORT 2010
Reda Garmute
Introduction
Weather data has been recorded every day at Cruzinha, A Rocha’s field study centre, since
September 2002 and continued throughout 2010. The measurements were taken as close as
possible to 9 am UTC and consisted of:








Current temperature (˚C)
Maximum and minimum temperatures for the previous 24 hours (˚C)
Relative humidity (%)
Rainfall over previous 24 hours
Wind direction and strength (compass bearing, Beaufort scale and km/h)
Cloud cover
Visibility
Additional notes
Summary of the year 2010






The maximum temperature, 41.5˚C, was recorded on 10 August.
The minimum temperature, 1.9˚C, was recorded on 3 December.
Total annual rainfall: 889.0 mm.
Maximum rainfall in 24 hours: 50.0 mm on 25 December.
Prevailing wind direction was N on 36 out of 351 days recorded.
The maximum wind strength was level 4 on the Beaufort scale and was reached on six days
in December-November.
Air temperature and relative humidity
2010 was slightly warmer than 2009 but very similar to previous years. Average maximum
temperatures in 2010 were 0.4˚C higher than in 2009 and average minimum temperatures were
0.3˚C higher. The average maximum temperatures recorded in 2010 were very similar to previous
years, excluding April and the hottest months of the year: July, August and September which showed
much higher maximum temperatures than in previous years. The minimum temperatures recorded
in 2010 varied more than maximum temperatures around the average of previous years this century.
Throughout January - April the minimum temperatures were higher, whilst in June temperatures
were lower. Changing again, the minimum temperature in August was higher, in October - lower and
in December higher again.
In 2010 the relative humidity was generally lower than in previous years. In particular, the summer
months had a very low relative humidity both compared with other months, as expected, and when
compared with previous years.
A Rocha Portugal Observatory Report 2009-2010
89
Figure 4 Average monthly maximum and minimum air temperatures for 2010 and averages for 20032009. To show the across year variation in the 2003-2009 data, error bars are plotted which
represent one standard error.
Figure 5 Monthly relative humidity for 2010 and the average for 2003-2009. To show the across
year variation in the 2003-2008 data, error bars are plotted which represent one standard error.
90
A Rocha Portugal Observatory Report 2009-2010
Rainfall
2010 was the wettest year since 2003. The total rainfall for the year was 273mm higher in 2010 than
in 2009 and was 336 mm (37.8%) higher than the yearly average for 2003-2009 which is 553 mm per
year (Figure 3). The higher total rainfall was largely due to the very wet months of December,
January and February.
Figure 6 Monthly rainfall for 2010 and average rainfall for each month from 2003-2009. To show
variation across different years (2003-2009) error bars are plotted which represent one standard
error.
Wind direction, strength, cloud cover and visibility
The predominant wind direction in 2010 was N which was recorded on 36/351 days (10.2%). The
second and third most common wind directions were W with 34 days (9.7%) and NNW 33 days
(9.4%), while the directions E, ENE, NE, S and SSE were all recorded on more than 20 days. In 2009
and 2008 the predominant direction was NW (Figure 4).
A Rocha Portugal Observatory Report 2009-2010
91
Figure 7 Wind direction showing the number of days each direction was recorded.
The maximum wind speed recorded during 2010 at Cruzinha was on 12 January, measuring 4 on the
Beaufort scale or 16.6km/h. (Figure 5).
Figure 8 Wind speed (Beaufort scale) measured at Cruzinha for 2010.
Cruzinha predominantly had clear skies (39%) and good visibility (68%). 74/331 days were overcast;
only 29/331 days had poor visibility (Figure 6 and Figure 7).
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A Rocha Portugal Observatory Report 2009-2010
Figure 9 Cloud cover at cruzinha measured on 331 days.
Figure 10 Visibility at cruzinha measured on 331 days.
References
Cisek, A. & Pawley, E. (2010) Cruzinha weather report 2007. A Rocha Observatory report for 20072008. A Rocha, Portimão, pp. 72-77.
Cisek, A. & Pawley, E. (2010) Cruzinha weather report 2008. A Rocha Observatory report for 20072008. A Rocha, Portimão, pp. 78-82.
Associação Cristã de Estudo e Defesa do Ambiente