Luís Paulo Sant`ana

Сomentários

Transcrição

Luís Paulo Sant`ana
Luís Paulo Sant’ana
Hazardous Waste Management in Japan: A report
Luís Paulo Sant’ana¹
Mestrando em Biologia Animal, Universidade Federal dos Vales do Jequitinhonha e
Mucuri ¹
Universidade Federal dos Vales do Jequitinhonha e Mucuri (UFVJM). Departamento de
Ciências Biológicas, FCBS. Campus JK - Rodovia MGT 367 – Km 583, nº 5000 Alto
da Jacuba CEP: 39100-000 Diamantina/MG Telefone: (38) 99244991 Email:
[email protected]
Abstract
Throughout the world considerable attention has been paid to consent of environmental
regulations and the inappropriate disposal of waste that is one of the greatest obstacles
faced. These problems steam from the simple fact that waste is useless to both waste
disposers and waste management firms (WMFs). Even though Japan is an industrialized
civilization, it faces the same concerns that other urban societies also encounter, such as
overpopulated cities and pollution issues. In the Japanese constitution minimizing the
waste generation is the most important aspect followed by reuse and recycle of
materials. Despite the fact that Japan is a developed country with high standards of
technologies and has considerable waste regulations, hazardous waste management
still being a great challenge to overcome. This study provides an overview of the
hazardous waste management in Japan and points out aspects related to waste
generation, institutional and financial perspectives, and major issues in discussion.
Keywords: Hazardous waste, waste management, Japan, waste generation
Gestão de Resíduos Tóxicos no Japão: Um informe
Resumo
Em todo o mundo considerável atenção tem sido dada a autorização de normas
ambientais e à eliminação inadequada de resíduos que é um dos maiores obstáculos
enfrentados. Estes problemas surgem a partir do simples fato de os resíduos serem
inúteis para ambos os trituradores de resíduos e as empresas de gestão de resíduos.
Mesmo o Japão sendo uma civilização industrializada, este enfrenta as mesmas
preocupações que outras sociedades urbanas também encontram, como cidades
superpovoadas e problemas de poluição. Na constituição japonesa minimizar a geração
de resíduos é o aspecto mais importante seguido da reutilização e reciclagem de
materiais. Apesar do fato de que o Japão é um país desenvolvido com elevados padrões
de tecnologias e tem consideráveis regulamentos de resíduo, a gestão de resíduos
tóxicos continua sendo um grande desafio a superar. Este estudo fornece uma visão
geral do gerenciamento de resíduos tóxicos no Japão e aponta aspectos relacionados à
produção de resíduos, as perspectivas institucionais e financeiros, e as principais
questões em discussão.
Palavras chave: Resíduos tóxicos, manejo de resíduos, Japão, Geração de resíduos
UNISANTA BioScience Vol. 4 (2015) nº4 – short notes
Página 1
Luís Paulo Sant’ana
Introduction
Extending along the eastern or Pacific coast of Asia, Japan is a country with
several islands and mountains. Currently, its population is around 127 million citizens
and it has a territory almost similar to California's area. Japan is a metropolitan and
industrialized society that holds
the third-largest economy in the world
(ANONYMOUS, 2012). Furthermore, Anheier (2009) points out that Japan's economy
has become a huge and elaborated field of economic activity with various international
relationships. With restricted natural resources, Japan’s people are its greatest recourse
(AOKI, 2013). Even though Japan is an industrialized civilization, it faces the same
concerns that other urban societies throughout the world also encounter, such as
overpopulated cities, overcrowded roads and pollution issues (ANONYMOUS, 2012).
Not only in Japan, but also throughout the world considerable attention has been paid to
consent of environmental regulations. In the current scenario, illicit disposal of waste in
particular is one of the most severe obstacles faced (SHINKUMA. & MANAGI, 2012).
Waste Generation
Nakano& Managi (2012) reveal that in Japan, in the constitution for establishing
a material-cycle society, minimizing the waste generation is the most important aspect
followed by reuse and recycle of materials. As reported by them, in the recent moment
one of the main concerns of the country is the lack of final landfill areas for municipal
and industrial waste dispose. Moreover, they also claim that household products should
be considered as another waste generation issue mainly because of that some objects
present problems that might exhaust resources or toxicities from manufacturing to
disposal. For instance, spray cans or cassette gas cylinders discarded represent a danger
of explosion while they are collected or treated if they are not entirely emptied and
perforated. They comment that the constant use of mercury in household products,
including fluorescent lamps and thermometers it is also a relevant matter that should
be treated. According to a report from The Ministry of the Environment Japanese, until
2008 around 102,000 tons of waste were illegally disposed
According to Yasuda & Tanaka (2006) in Japan, the overall generation rate of
hold hazardous waste (HHW) is quite similar to that of other developed countries,
around 2.5 to 4.3 kg of HHW are generated per each tonne of the domestic waste. They
reveal that detergents, aerosol sprays such as insecticides and cosmetics, used batteries
constituted most of the HHW investigated.
Waste management
Shinkuma & Managi (2012) mention that Japan’s elementary law for waste
management was established in 1970. Since 1970 the regulation has been adjusted ,
and through these changes the penalties have been increasing. Currently, the
maximum penalty that can be charged for illegal disposal correspond to about $100,000
per person and $1,000,000 for companies. One of the most significant characteristic of
the law is that it is based on licensing. Furthermore, waste management maintenances
UNISANTA BioScience Vol. 4 (2015) nº4 – short notes
Página 2
Luís Paulo Sant’ana
are closed to licensed WMFs (Waste Management Firms). In this case, the law forbids
operating without licensing. Otherwise, if a licensed WMF breaks the rules, a fine is
promulgated on the WMF and its license is withdrawn for considerable years. They
remind that manifest systems were created to emphasize the licensing. Basically, this
manifest is a voucher that has data on the flow of waste, including who emits the waste,
transports, treats, disposes, and the name of the final disposal site.
Even though the Japanese system tends to be considerably thorough in several
aspects Asari & Sakai (2011) explain that the management system of waste materials,
including recycling has only been arranged for some categories of HHW. In addition, it
is important to remind that the management of various HHW depends on each local
politics. In this case, for many goods it is completely demanding to determine the
material and its flow because of the shortage of precise data. Once the management of
most HHW is different in each city, most cities ban paint and medicine in their waste
collection and collect fluorescent lamps or thermometers, spray cans, and primary
batteries separately, but some not.
Yasuda & Tanaka (2006) add that:
The disposal of waste materials possessing dangerous properties (e.g.
explosive, ignitable, corrosive or toxic properties) is regulated in Japan
by the Special Managed Waste Regulations. However, when these types
of waste are generated in small quantities by commercial sources or
generated by households their disposal is not controlled.
Shinkuma & Managi (2012) found out considerable aspects related to the waste
management systems used in Japan from 1995 to 2005. First, they concluded that
penalties can rise with the amount of disposed waste and the hazardousness of the
material. Second, they found that the licensing system is efficient in deterring irregular
disposal. Finally, in their study, they showed that the movement of waste for unlicensed
disposal is also assured by economic rationality
Major problems and issues
Issues related to hazardous waste is not only restrict to some countries it
goes beyond the concepts of development. Shinkuma & Managi (2012) claim that
these problems come up from the simple fact that waste is useless to both waste
disposers and waste management firms (WMFs). They are indifferent and unfamiliar
about how waste treatment occurs and how it can degrade the natural environment.
Although new laws have been included to define a standard for how waste need to be
treated, the loss of interest from disposers has incentivized refusal or illegal disposal
from the WMFs.
Another problem according to Asari et al (2013) is that several materials with
hazardous features might be included in with disaster waste. In this case, it is preferred
to remove and separate these materials to ensure safe work, deposit, and manipulating
UNISANTA BioScience Vol. 4 (2015) nº4 – short notes
Página 3
Luís Paulo Sant’ana
conditions. In addition, Wen et al (2014) report other issues related to the waste
classification system. The majority of countries have created their own classification
systems. In spite of the fact that different classifications exist in Japan and other
countries, there is one global classification called the Basel Convention, which includes
specification for hazardous waste and nonhazardous waste. Consequently, defining
which waste is hazardous or not might vary from region to region. For instance,
Rochman et al (2013) remark that in some occasions certain kinds of plastics can be
chemically hazardous or potentially toxic. Nevertheless, in Japan plastics are classified
as solid waste and processed as same as food and garden waste.
Conclusions
Despite the fact that Japan is a developed country with a high standards of
living, production, technologies and has considerable waste regulations , hazardous
waste management still being a great challenge to overcome in the next decades or
even centuries. In this current context, economists, environmentalists and population
should seek alternative strategies (such as reduce and truly reuse waste) and measures
that might allow natural resources and economic development kept on the same track. In
other words, using the natural environment in a sustainable manner and at the same
time providing an opportunity to the economic from these resources. Finally, optimizing
the regulations and providing accurate data about hazardous waste would be other ways
to ensure an ideal and appropriate final disposal.
References
ANHEIER, H.K. (2009). Japan's cultural economy in a globalizing world, Japan
Spotlight: Economy, Culture & History, vol. 28, no. 5, pp. 26.
ASARI, M. & SAKAI, S. (2011). Consumer perspectives on household hazardous
waste management in Japan. Journal of Material Cycles and Waste Management, vol.
13, no. 1, pp. 10-24.
ASARI, M., SAKAI, S., YOSHIOKA, T., TOJO, Y., TASAKI, T., TAKIGAMI, H. &
WATANABE, K. (2013). Strategy for separation and treatment of disaster waste: a
manual for earthquake and tsunami disaster waste management in Japan. Journal of
Material Cycles and Waste Management, vol. 15, no. 3, pp. 290-299.
ANONYMOUS. (2012) Japan, Department of State Publication.Background Notes
Series (Online), pp. 1.
UNISANTA BioScience Vol. 4 (2015) nº4 – short notes
Página 4
Luís Paulo Sant’ana
AOKI, R. (2013). A Demographic Perspective on Japan's “Lost Decades”", Population
and Development Review, vol. 38, no. s1, pp. 103-112.
MINISTRY OF THE ENVIRONMENT, JAPAN. (2008). Annual reports on illegal
disposal or improper treatment of industrial waste in Japan (in Japanese). Ministry of
the Environment, Tokyo. http://www.env.go.jp/press/press.php?serial=10609.
NAKANO, M. & MANAGI, S. (2012). Waste generations and efficiency measures in
Japan. Environmental Economics and Policy Studies, vol. 14, no. 4, pp. 327.
ROCHMAN, C.M., BROWNE, M.A., HALPERN, B.S., HENTSCHEL, B.T., HOH, E.,
KARAPANAGIOTI, H.K., RIOS-MENDOZA, L.M., TAKADA, H., TEH, S. &
THOMPSON, R.C. (2013). Classify plastic waste as hazardous. Nature, vol. 494, no.
7436, pp. 169.
SHINKUMA, T. & MANAGI, S. (2012). Effectiveness of policy against illegal
disposal of waste. Environmental Economics and Policy Studies, vol. 14, no. 2, pp. 123.
WEN, X., LUO, Q., HU, H., WANG, N., CHEN, Y., JIN, J., HAO, Y., XU, G., LI, F. &
FANG, W. (2014). Comparison research on waste classification between China and the
EU, Japan, and the USA. Journal of Material Cycles and Waste Management, vol. 16,
no. 2, pp. 321-334.
YASUDA, K. & TANAKA, M. (2006). Report on hazardous household waste
generation in Japan. Waste Management & Research, vol. 24, no. 4, pp. 397-401.
UNISANTA BioScience Vol. 4 (2015) nº4 – short notes
Página 5