trabalho completo - 52ª Reunião Anual da Sociedade Brasileira de

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trabalho completo - 52ª Reunião Anual da Sociedade Brasileira de
52a Reunião Anual da Sociedade Brasileira de
Zootecnia
Zootecnia: Otimizando Recursos e Potencialidades
Belo Horizonte – MG, 19 a 23 de Julho de 2015
Desempenho de leitões na fase inicial alimentados com diferentes fontes de cálcio
Performance of starting pigs fed different sources of calcium
Ana Lúcia Almeida Santana1, Paulo Levi de Oliveira Carvalho2, Ana Paula Gazola2, Eliseu Carlos Cristofori2,
Mariana Barbizan2, Poliana Caroline da Silva Chambo2, Davi Elias de Sá e Costa2
Department of Animal Science – Universidade Federal da Bahia - UFBA, Salvador, Brazil. FAPESB. E-mail: [email protected]
Department of Animal Science – Universidade Estadual do Oeste do Paraná, Marechal Cândido Rondon Brazil. E-mail:
[email protected]
1
2
Resumo: Objetivou-se com o estudo avaliar o desempenho de suínos na fase de creche alimentados com diferentes
fontes de cálcio. Neste estudo foram utilizados 160 leitões (80 machos e 80 fêmeas), com peso médio inicial de
14.52 ± 1.99 kg e final de 26.95 ± 3.46 kg, distribuídos em delineamento em blocos casualizados, em arranjo
fatorial 2 x 4 (2 sexos x 4 fontes), com oito repetições, sendo cinco animais por unidade experimental. Os animais
foram identificados com brincos numerados e alojados em baias de creche suspensas (1,32 m2), com piso de
plástico ripado, equipadas com de bebedouros niplle e comedouros semi-automáticos frontais. Os tratamentos
foram compostos pelas fontes de cálcio: 1 = calcário calcítico, 2 = fosfato monobicálcico, 3 = farinha de ossos e 4 =
farinha de ostras. Os parâmetros de desempenho avaliados foram: ganho de peso diário (GDP), consumo diário de
ração (CDR), conversão alimentar (CA). Os resultados obtidos mostram que não houve interação entre os fatores
(P>0.05), entretanto houve influência do fator sexo para a conversão alimentar (P = 0.03), sendo que os machos
apresentaram melhor CA (1.533 ± 0.201) em relação as fêmeas (1.671 ± 0.135). Com relação as fontes de cálcio
não houve diferença para nenhumas das variáveis analisadas (P>0.05). Neste contexto, os resultados sugerem que o
uso das diferentes fontes de cálcio na alimentação de leitões não interferem no desempenho.
Palavras–chave: calcário calcítico, farinha de ossos, farinha de ostras, fosfato monobicálcico, nutrição
Abstract: The objective of this study was to evaluate the performance of pigs in the early stage fed different sources
of calcium. This study used 160 animals (80 males and 80 females) with initial weight of 14.52 ± 1.99 kg and final
26.95 ± 3.46 kg, distributed in a randomized block design, in 2 x 4 factorial scheme (two genders x four sources),
with eight replications of five pigs per experimental unit. The animals were identified with numbered earrings and
housed in suspended nursery pens (1,32 m2), with slatted plastic floor, equipped with nipple drinker at the back and
semi-automatic feeders at the front. The treatments consisted of calcium sources: 1 = limestone (calcitic), 2 =
monodicalcium phosphate, 3 = bone meal and 4 = oyster meal. The performance variable evaluated were: daily feed
intake (DFI), daily weight gain (DWG) and feed conversion (FC). The results show that there was no interaction
between factors (P>0.05), however there was influence of gender factor in feed conversion (P=0.03), while males
had better FC (1.533±0.201) compared with females (1.671±0.135). Regarding the sources of calcium there was no
difference for any of the analyzed variables (P>0.05). The results suggest that the use of different sources of
calcium in the piglets feed does not interfere with performance.
Keywords: bone meal, limestone (calcitic), monodicalcium phosphate, oyster meal, nutrition
Introduction
Among the nutrient required for proper development of the animals, minerals are the ones that have an
important function in the body. According to Maiorka & Macari (2002), minerals are as important nutrients as the
others that make up the diet. All living organisms have variable amounts of minerals that are needed to maintain
their physiologic metabolism; therefore minerals are of great importance for the development of species. There has
been constant search for the quantity and the ideal form of mineral supplementation, since its deficiency can cause
losses in production.
Because the minerals are not synthesized by the body, it is necessary to include them in the diet (Maiorka
& Macari, 2002) and since sources of calcium used in monogastric diets typically exhibit low cost and toxicity, the
results are high levels in the diet. The practical consequence of this is that excessive supplementation of certain
minerals such as calcium, can act as antagonists of other important nutrients for the development of the animal due
to insoluble chelate formation hindering the absorption of other minerals especially phosphorus, sodium, potassium,
magnesium, iron, copper, zinc and manganese (McDonald, 1993), significantly increasing the amount of minerals
excreted in the environment.
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52a Reunião Anual da Sociedade Brasileira de
Zootecnia
Zootecnia: Otimizando Recursos e Potencialidades
Belo Horizonte – MG, 19 a 23 de Julho de 2015
Calcium is the most abundant mineral in the human body, corresponding to 1 or 2% of body weight and
the skeleton is the major reservoir of calcium in the animal body, where 99% of the calcium is found and 1% is in
blood, extracellular space and soft tissue cells. It features a number of functions, among others, in the formation and
maintenance of the integrity of the bone structure, hormone secretion process, in blood clotting, transmission of
nerve impulses, muscle contraction and in the activity of several enzymes (Suttle, 2010). Given the importance of
this mineral as well as the few studies focused on pigs at different stages, we noticed the need for advances in
research, especially on the sources. The most used sources of good calcium suppliers to feed pigs are inorganic,
limestone and phosphates, and animal sources, meat and bone meal, poultry offal meal, fish meal, calcined bone
meal and oyster meal.
In this context, the aim of the present study was to evaluate the performance of piglets fed different sources
of calcium.
Material and Methods
The experiment was carried out at the State University of West Paraná Pig Farm. A total of 160 piglets (80
non-castrated and 80 females) with initial weight of 14.52 kg ± 1.99 kg and a final weight of 26.95 ± 3.46 kg,
distributed in a randomized block design, in 2 x 4 factorial scheme (two genders x four sources), with eight
replications of five pigs per experimental unit.
The animals were identified with numbered earrings and housed in nursery pens. The pens were "suspended"
(1.32 m2), with slatted plastic floor, equipped nipple drinker at the back and semi-automatic feeders at the front.
Diets and water were given ad libitum throughout the experimental period. It was used a datalloger (24
measurements/day) for measuring the ambient temperature (TºC) and relative humidity of the experimental period.
Treatments consisted of four diets, where: 1 = calcium sources, 2 = limestone, 3 = monodicalcium
phosphate, 3 = bone meal and 4 = oyster meal. The diets were formulated to meet the requirements indicated by
Rostagno et al. (2011) except for the nutrient calcium being included sources 0.64% to meet the mineral. The food
was provided five times a day, at 08h:00min, 11h:00min, 13h:30min, 15h:30min and 17h:30min.
The parameters evaluated in this study were daily feed intake (DFI), daily weight gain (DWG), feed:
conversion (FC) and final weight (FW). The animals were weighed at the beginning and the end of the experiment
as well as the total feed consumption and waste were computed, which was calculated daily feed consumption,
daily weight gain and feed conversion in each experimental unit.
The results were submitted to analysis of variance and statistically significant difference means were
analysed by Tukey test at 5% probability.
Results and Discussion
In the trial period the average ambient temperature was 26.22 ± 1.93ºC and the average relative humidity
of the air 75.00 ± 8.53%. The average temperature of the experiment can be considered as thermal neutral for
piglets, considering the range of 22 to 26°C the optimum temperature for this stage (Embrapa, 2003).
The results (Table 1) show that there was no interaction (P>0.05) between gender and calcium sources for
the variables studied. However, there was significant difference between the genders for FC, and the males had
better FC (1.533 ± 0.201) compared with females (1.671 ± 0.135). Regarding the sources of calcium, there were no
influences for the analyzed variables. The results obtained were similar to the studies of Souza et al. (2011) that
evaluated calcium levels in the diet of piglets in post-weaning stage (21 to 63 days). The same authors reported that
the obtained FC was 1.60 kg/kg. Similarly, Oliveira et al. (2012) studying the performance of piglets in initial stage
obtained FC 1.58 kg/kg.
The average daily gain (0.597 kg) and the daily feed intake (0.975 kg) was similar among the evaluated
sources as well as between the genders. In other studies, Souza et al. (2011) obtained values similar to this work,
with DWG 0.520 kg and 0.839 kg DFI. Yet, Oliveira et al. (2012) found lower values for the variables, the authors
reported average value of DWG 0.475 kg and 0.750 kg DFI.
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Página - 2 - de 3
52a Reunião Anual da Sociedade Brasileira de
Zootecnia
Zootecnia: Otimizando Recursos e Potencialidades
Belo Horizonte – MG, 19 a 23 de Julho de 2015
Table 1. Pig performance of starting pigs fed different sources of calcium
Calcium sources
IW (kg)
FW (kg)
DFI (kg)
DWG (kg)
FC (kg/kg)
Limestone (calcitic)
14.327 ± 2.21 26.572 ± 3.40 0.965 ± 0.11
0.612 ± 0.09
1.592 ± 0.09
Monodicalcium phosphate
14.530 ± 1.60 27.105 ± 3.32 1.003 ± 0.08
0.631 ± 0.09
1.606 ± 0.13
Bone meal calcined
14.680 ± 1.75 27.313 ± 3.67 1.015 ± 0.09
0.620 ± 0.10
1.657 ± 0.13
Oyster meal
14.482 ± 2.28 25.449 ± 3.54 0.917 ± 0.15
0.528 ± 0.09
1.553 ± 0.28
Mean
14.50 ± 1.96
26.95 ± 3.46
0.975 ± 0.10
0.597 ± 0.09
1.602 ± 0.16
P value
0.977
0.582
0.391
0.492
0.682
Gender
Males
14.45 ± 2.11
27.006 ± 3.74 0.936 ± 0.11
0.572 ± 0.09
1.533 ± 0.20 a
Female
14.56 ± 1.87
26.213 ± 3.17 1.014 ± 0.10
0.623 ± 0.10
1.671 ± 0.13 b
P value
0.845
0.446
0.083
0.335
0.031
Source x Gender
0.694
0.784
0.366
0.496
0.347
IW = initial weight; FW = final weight; DWG = daily weight gain; DFI = daily feed intake; FC = feed conversion.
Values of different letters in the same column are different (p<0.05) by the Tukey Test.
Conclusions
The results suggest that the use of different sources of calcium, limestone, phosphate monodicalcium,
calcined bones meal and oyster meal in feed for piglets does not interfere with the performance of the animals.
References
Fávero, J.A. Sistemas de produção. Embrapa Suínos e Aves. n.2,
<http://sistemasdeproducao.cnptia.embrapa.br>. Acesso em: 16 de maio de 2015.
2003.
Disponível
em:
Maiorka, A.; Macari, M. Absorção de minerais. In: Macari, M.; Furlan, R.L.; Gonzales, E. Fisiologia Aviária
Aplicada a Frangos de Corte. 2. ed. Jaboticabal: Funep/Unesp, p. 167-173, 2002.
Mcdonald, P.E.; Greenhalgh, J.F.D. Nutrición animal. Editorial Acribia S.A, Zaragosa. 1993.
Oliveira, E.L. de; Ludke, M.C.M.; Ludke, J.V.; Bertol, T.M.; Guidoni, A.L.; Salvagni, G. Desempenho de leitões
na fase de creche alimentados com rações contendo proteína concentrada de soja. Acta Scientiarum. Animal
Sciences. v. 34, n. 2, p. 131-136, 2012.
Rostagno, H.S.; Albino, L.F.T.; Donzele, J.L. et al. Tabelas brasileiras para aves e suínos. ED. Rostagno, H. S.
Viçosa: UFV, 186p., 2011.
Suttle, N.F. Mineral nutrition of livestock. Cambridge: CABI, 2010. 587 p.
Souza, M.F.; Donzele, J.L.; Silva, F.C.O. et al. Níveis de cálcio em dietas para leitões dos 21 aos 63 dias de idade.
Ergomix. 2011. Disponível em: < http://pt.engormix.com/MA-suinocultura>. Acesso em: 15 de maio de 2015.
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