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Clinical Practices
of African
Traditional
Medicine
Paulo Peter Mhame1
Kofi Busia2
Ossy MJ Kasilo3
1 Traditional and Alternative Health Practice Council, Ministry of Health
and Social Welfare, Dar es Salaam, United Republic of Tanzania
2 West African Health Organization
3 WHO Regional Office for Africa
Corresponding author
Paulo Peter Mhame
E-mail [email protected]
32
9i:<4i
Dans la médecine traditionnelle africaine, les
services de traitement, de formation, de promotion
et de réhabilitation sont considérés comme des
pratiques cliniques. Ces services traditionnels de
soins médicaux sont dispensées en tenant compte de
la tradition et de la culture qui sont préconisées en
vertu d’une philosophie particulière, par exemple,
« Ubuntu ». Les normes, les tabous, la tradition et la
culture, qui sont les pierres angulaires de la pratique
clinique de la médecine traditionnelle, sont les
principales raisons de l’acceptabilité des praticiens
de santé traditionnels dans la communauté qu’ils
servent. La philosophie des soins cliniques étant
intégrée dans ces traditions, la culture et les tabous
ont contribué à rendre les pratiques de la médecine
traditionnelle acceptables et donc très demandées
par la population. Cet article examine les différents
services traditionnels de soins médicaux, tels que
les services de traitement, les soins généraux
traditionnels, les soins de santé mentale, de sagefemme, de rebouteux, les services de rééducation
et de promotion qui sensibilisent sur les problèmes
de santé et développent des attitudes et des
comportements positifs envers une vie plus saine.
S<4Í906
In African traditional medicine, the curative, training, promotive and rehabilitative services are referred to as clinical practices. These
traditional health care services are provided through tradition and culture prescribed under a particular philosophy, e.g. ubuntu or
unhu. Norms, taboos, tradition and culture, which are the cornerstones of clinical practice of traditional medicine, are the major reason
for the acceptability of traditional health practitioners in the community they serve. The philosophical clinical care embedded in these
traditions, culture and taboos have contributed to making traditional medicine practices acceptable and hence highly demanded by the
population. This paper discusses the different traditional health care services, such as curative services, general traditional healthcare,
mental healthcare, midwifery, bone setting, rehabilitative and promotional services that increases health awareness and developing
positive attitudes and behaviour towards healthier living).
Na medicina tradicional africana, os serviços
curativos, de formação, promotores e de reabilitação
são referidos como práticas clínicas. Estes serviços
tradicionais de cuidados de saúde são prestados
por tradição e cultura e prescritos ao abrigo de uma
filosofia particular, por exemplo ubuntu ou unhu.
Normas, tabus, tradição e cultura, que são as pedras
basilares da prática clínica da medicina tradicional,
constituem a principal razão para a aceitabilidade de
praticantes de saúde tradicional na comunidade que
servem. Os cuidados clínicos filosóficos embebidos
nestas tradições, cultura e tabus contribuíram para
tornar as práticas de medicina tradicional aceitáveis
e, assim, procuradas pela população. Este documento
discute os diferentes serviços tradicionais de
cuidados de saúde, tais como serviços curativos,
cuidados de saúde tradicionais gerais, cuidados
de saúde mental, obstetrícia, endireita, serviços
de reabilitação e promocionais que aumentam a
sensibilização para a saúde e o desenvolvimento de
atitudes e comportamentos positivos no sentido de
uma vida mais saudável.
Special Issue 14 • decade of African Traditional Medecine, 2001–2010
Health is a level of functional and/or metabolic efficiency of
an organism, often implicitly human.
A™‘ˆ‡•‘ (1) †‡ϐ‹‡• Š‡ƒŽ–Š ƒ•
Dzƒ †›ƒ‹… •–ƒ–‡ ‘ˆ ™‡ŽŽǦ„‡‹‰
…Šƒ”ƒ…–‡”‹œ‡† „› ƒ ’Š›•‹…ƒŽ ƒ†
‡–ƒŽ ’‘–‡–‹ƒŽǡ ™Š‹…Š •ƒ–‹•ϐ‹‡•
–Š‡†‡ƒ†•‘ˆŽ‹ˆ‡…‘‡•—”ƒ–‡
™‹–Š ƒ‰‡ǡ …—Ž–—”‡ǡ ƒ† ’‡”•‘ƒŽ
”‡•’‘•‹„‹Ž‹–›dzǡ ™Š‹Ž‡ ƒ”ƒ……Š‹
†‡ϐ‹‡• Š‡ƒŽ–Š ƒ• Dzƒ …‘†‹–‹‘
‘ˆ ™‡ŽŽ „‡‹‰ǡ ˆ”‡‡ ‘ˆ †‹•‡ƒ•‡ ‘”
‹ϐ‹”‹–›ǡƒ†ƒ„ƒ•‹…ƒ†—‹˜‡”•ƒŽ
Š—ƒ”‹‰Š–dz(1)ǤF‘”–Š‡A—•–”ƒŽ‹ƒ
A„‘”‹‰‹ƒŽ ’‡‘’Ž‡ DzǥŠ‡ƒŽ–Š †‘‡•
‘– Œ—•– ‡ƒ –Š‡ ’Š›•‹…ƒŽ ™‡ŽŽǦ
„‡‹‰‘ˆ–Š‡‹†‹˜‹†—ƒŽ„—–”‡ˆ‡”•–‘
–Š‡•‘…‹ƒŽǡ‡‘–‹‘ƒŽǡ•’‹”‹–—ƒŽƒ†
…—Ž–—”ƒŽ ™‡ŽŽǦ„‡‹‰ ‘ˆ –Š‡ ™Š‘Ž‡
…‘—‹–›dzǤTŠ‹•‹•ƒŠ‘Ž‹•–‹…˜‹‡™
‘ˆ Ž‹ˆ‡ ƒ† ‹…Ž—†‡• –Š‡ …›…Ž‹…ƒŽ
…‘…‡’–‘ˆŽ‹ˆ‡Ǧ†‡ƒ–ŠǦŽ‹ˆ‡ (1)Ǥ
CŽ‹‹…ƒŽ ’”ƒ…–‹…‡ ‹• –Š‡ ’”‘…‡••
‘ˆ ‡˜ƒŽ—ƒ–‹‰ …‘†‹–‹‘• ‘ˆ ‹ŽŽ
Š‡ƒŽ–Š ‘ˆ ƒ ‹†‹˜‹†—ƒŽ ƒ† ‹–•
ƒƒ‰‡‡–Ǥ TŠ‡ –”‡ƒ–‡–
‰—‹†‡ —•‡† „› –”ƒ†‹–‹‘ƒŽ Š‡ƒŽ–Š
’”ƒ…–‹–‹‘‡”•ȋTP•Ȍ‹‰‡‡”ƒŽƒ†
†‹˜‹‡”•‹’ƒ”–‹…—Žƒ”ǡ˜ƒ”‹‡•‰”‡ƒ–Ž›
ƒ† †‡’‡†• ‘ –Š‡ TPǯ• ‘™
‘™Ž‡†‰‡ ƒ† •‹ŽŽ•ǡ ƒ• ™‡ŽŽ ƒ•
–Š‡ƒ–—”‡‘ˆ–Š‡’ƒ–‹‡–ǯ•‹ŽŽ‡••Ǥ
ƒ–‹•ˆƒ…–‘”› Š‡ƒŽ‹‰ ‹˜‘Ž˜‡• ‘–
‡”‡Ž› ”‡…‘˜‡”› ˆ”‘ ’Š›•‹…ƒŽ
•›’–‘•ǡ„—–ƒŽ•‘–Š‡•‘…‹ƒŽƒ†
’•›…Š‘Ž‘‰‹…ƒŽ”‡Ǧ‹–‡‰”ƒ–‹‘‘ˆ–Š‡
’ƒ–‹‡–‹–‘Š‹•ȀŠ‡”…‘—‹–›Ǥ
the enjoyment of the
highest attainable
standard of health is one
of the fundamental rights
of every human being.
R‡‰‹‘ǡ•—…Šƒ•ƒŽƒ”‹ƒǡ•–‘ƒ…Š
‹ˆ‡…–‹‘•ǡ”‡•’‹”ƒ–‘”›’”‘„Ž‡•ǡ
”Š‡—ƒ–‹•ǡ ƒ”–Š”‹–‹•ǡ •‡š—ƒŽ
†›•ˆ—…–‹‘ǡ ƒƒ‡‹ƒǡ ’ƒ”ƒ•‹–‹…
‹ˆ‡…–‹‘•ǡ ‡–ƒŽ ’”‘„Ž‡•ǡ
„‘‡ ˆ”ƒ…–—”‡• ƒ† …‘†‹–‹‘•
”‡“—‹”‹‰‹†™‹ˆ‡”›•‡”˜‹…‡•(5)Ǥ
Traditional
medicine and health
care services
I Aˆ”‹…ƒ –”ƒ†‹–‹‘ƒŽ ‡†‹…‹‡
…Ž‹‹…ƒŽ’”ƒ…–‹…‡ǡTP•’‡”•‘ƒŽŽ›
ƒ••‡••’ƒ–‹‡–•‹‘”†‡”–‘†‹ƒ‰‘•‡ǡ
–”‡ƒ–ǡ ƒ† ’”‡˜‡– †‹•‡ƒ•‡ —•‹‰
–Š‡‹”…Ž‹‹…ƒŽŒ—†‰‡‡–ǤTŠ‡TP
Ȃ ’ƒ–‹‡– ”‡Žƒ–‹‘•Š‹’ –›’‹…ƒŽŽ›
„‡‰‹•™‹–Š‹–‡””‘‰ƒ–‹‘•–Š”‘—‰Š
…ƒ•‡ǦŠ‹•–‘”›–ƒ‹‰ƒ†”‡…‘—”•‡–‘
„ƒ•‹…†‹ƒ‰‘•–‹…’”‘…‡†—”‡••—…Šƒ•
†‹˜‹ƒ–‹‘–‘†‡–‡”‹‡–Š‡…ƒ—•‡
‘ˆ –Š‡ ’ƒ–‹‡–ǯ• …‘’Žƒ‹–Ǥ O…‡
–Š‡’”‹ƒ”›…ƒ—•‡•‘ˆ–Š‡ƒ‹Ž‡–
ƒ”‡ †‡–‡”‹‡†ǡ –Š‡ TP –Š‡
’”‡’ƒ”‡• ‡†‹…‹‡•ǡ ™Š‹…Š ƒ›
„‡†‡”‹˜‡†ˆ”‘‡†‹…‹ƒŽ’Žƒ–•ǡ
ƒ‹ƒŽ’ƒ”–•‘”‹‡”ƒŽ• (4,5).
IAˆ”‹…ƒTǡŠ‡ƒŽ–Š…ƒ”‡†‡Ž‹˜‡”›
‹…Ž—†‡•…—”ƒ–‹˜‡ǡƒ’’”‡–‹…‡•Š‹’
ȋ–”ƒ‹‹‰Ȍǡ ’”‘‘–‹‘ƒŽ ƒ†
”‡Šƒ„‹Ž‹–ƒ–‹‘ •‡”˜‹…‡•Ǥ TŠ‡•‡
‘™‡˜‡”ǡ –Š‡ ‘•– …‘‘Ž›
•‡”˜‹…‡• ƒ”‡ „‡‹‰ ’”‘˜‹†‡†
“—‘–‡† †‡ˆ‹‹–‹‘ ‘ˆ Š‡ƒŽ–Š ‹•
–Š”‘—‰Š –”ƒ†‹–‹‘ ƒ† …—Ž–—”ƒŽ
–Šƒ–‰‹˜‡„›–Š‡‘”Ž†‡ƒŽ–Š
O”‰ƒ‹œƒ–‹‘ ȋOȌ ‘˜‡” ŠƒŽˆ
’Š‹Ž‘•‘’Š› ˆ‘” ‡šƒ’Ž‡ —„—–—
’Š‹Ž‘•‘’Š›Ǥ TŠ‡ ’Š‹Ž‘•‘’Š›
ƒ…‡–—”›ƒ‰‘ǤI–†‡ˆ‹‡•Š‡ƒŽ–Š
”‡“—‹”‡•ƒTP–‘’”‘˜‹†‡Š‡ƒŽ–Š
ƒ•Ǯǯƒ•–ƒ–‡‘ˆ…‘’Ž‡–‡’Š›•‹…ƒŽǡ
•‡”˜‹…‡• —†‡” ƒ DzŠ—ƒ‹–›Ǧ
‡–ƒŽ ƒ† •‘…‹ƒŽ ™‡ŽŽǦ„‡‹‰
ϐ‹”•–dz …‘•‹†‡”ƒ–‹‘ ƒ† ‘– ˆ‘”
ƒ† ‘– ‡”‡Ž› –Š‡ ƒ„•‡…‡ ‘ˆ
ƒ–‡”‹ƒŽ ‰ƒ‹Ǥ TŠ‡”‡ ƒ”‡ ƒ›
†‹•‡ƒ•‡ ‘” ‹ˆ‹”‹–›dz (2,3)Ǥ TŠ‡
’Š‹Ž‘•‘’Š‹…ƒŽ –‡”‹‘Ž‘‰‹‡• ‹
O C‘•–‹–—–‹‘ •–ƒ–‡• –Šƒ–
Aˆ”‹…ƒ…—Ž–—”‡ǡ—•‡†–‘†‡•…”‹„‡ƒ
Dz–Š‡ ‡Œ‘›‡– ‘ˆ –Š‡ Š‹‰Š‡•–
TPƒ•ƒ’‡”•‘‘ˆŠ‹‰Š•–ƒ†‹‰
ƒ––ƒ‹ƒ„Ž‡•–ƒ†ƒ”†‘ˆŠ‡ƒŽ–Š‹•
‹ ƒ …‘—‹–›ǡ ‘’‡ ƒ†
‘‡ ‘ˆ –Š‡ ˆ—†ƒ‡–ƒŽ ”‹‰Š–•
‘ˆ‡˜‡”›Š—ƒ„‡‹‰dzǤO˜‡”ƒŽŽ TŠ‡TPǯ•‘™‡š’‡”‹‡…‡ǡƒ††‡† ƒ˜ƒ‹Žƒ„Ž‡ –‘ •‡”˜‡ ‘–Š‡”•ǡ ™Š‡
Š‡ƒŽ–Š ‹• ƒ…Š‹‡˜‡† –Š”‘—‰Š –‘ –Š‡ ƒ……——Žƒ–‡† ‘™Ž‡†‰‡ –Š‡›‡‡†Š‡ƒŽ–Š…ƒ”‡•‡”˜‹…‡•Ǥ
ƒ …‘„‹ƒ–‹‘ ‘ˆ ’Š›•‹…ƒŽǡ Šƒ†‡††‘™„›–Š‡‹”ƒ…‡•–‘”•ǡ
‡–ƒŽǡ ‡‘–‹‘ƒŽǡ ƒ† •‘…‹ƒŽ ƒŽŽ‘™–Š‡TP•–‘‘ˆˆ‡”…Š‡ƒ’ǡ„—– T”ƒ†‹–‹‘ƒŽ Š‡ƒŽ–Š …ƒ”‡ •‡”˜‹…‡•
™‡ŽŽǦ„‡‹‰ǡ ™Š‹…Šǡ –‘‰‡–Š‡” ‹• ‡ˆˆ‡…–‹˜‡ ”‡‡†‹‡• ˆ‘” –”‡ƒ–‹‰ ƒ”‡’”ƒ…–‹…‡†‹ƒ……‘”†ƒ…‡™‹–Š
…‘‘Ž› ”‡ˆ‡””‡† –‘ ƒ• –Š‡ –Š‡ ƒ‹ ƒ‹Ž‡–• –Šƒ– ƒˆϐŽ‹…– —„—–— ’Š‹Ž‘•‘’Š› ȋƒ Aˆ”‹…ƒ
Š‡ƒŽ–Š–”‹ƒ‰Ž‡Ǥ
–Š‡ ’‘’—Žƒ–‹‘• ‘ˆ –Š‡ Aˆ”‹…ƒ ‡–Š‹…ƒŽ ‘” Š—ƒ‹•– ’Š‹Ž‘•‘’Š›
33
t h e A f r i c a n h e a lt h m o n i t o r
ˆ‘…—•‹‰‘’‡‘’Ž‡ǯ•ƒŽŽ‡‰‹ƒ…‡•
ƒ† ”‡Žƒ–‹‘• ™‹–Š ‡ƒ…Š ‘–Š‡”ȌǤ
I– ‹• „‡Ž‹‡˜‡† –Šƒ– TP•ǡ ™Š‘
—’Š‘Ž†–Š‹•’”‹…‹’Ž‡–Š”‘—‰Š‘—–
–Š‡‹”Ž‹˜‡•™‹ŽŽǡ‹†‡ƒ–Šǡ„‡—‹–‡†
™‹–Š–Š‡Ž‹˜‹‰Ǥ
„—–— ’Š‹Ž‘•‘’Š› ”‡“—‹”‡•
TP• ‘– –‘ ’”‘˜‹†‡ •‡”˜‹…‡•
ˆ‘” ƒ–‡”‹ƒŽ ‰ƒ‹Ǥ TP• ƒ”‡
–Š‡”‡ˆ‘”‡ ‘„Ž‹‰‡† –‘ ’”‘˜‹†‡
Š‡ƒŽ–Š …ƒ”‡ •‡”˜‹…‡• –‘ –Š‡‹”
’ƒ–‹‡–•™‹–Š‘—–†‡ƒ†‹‰ƒ›
…Šƒ”‰‡•Ǥ TŠ‹• –ƒ„‘‘ ‹’‘•‡• ‘
–Š‡’”ƒ…–‹–‹‘‡”•ƒ•–”‘‰…‘†‡‘ˆ
‡–Š‹…•‹–Š‡’”‘˜‹•‹‘‘ˆŠ‡ƒŽ–Š
…ƒ”‡ •‡”˜‹…‡• –‘ ™Š‹…Š –Š‡›
•Š‘—Ž†ƒŽ™ƒ›•ƒ„‹†‡ǤTŠ‹•’Žƒ…‡•
ƒŠ—‰‡”‡•’‘•‹„‹Ž‹–›‘–Š‡TPȀ
‹†‹˜‹†—ƒŽ–‘†‡‘•–”ƒ–‡ƒŠ‹‰Š
•‡•‡ ‘ˆ Dz’”‘ˆ‡••‹‘ƒŽ‹•dz ƒ†
‹–‡‰”‹–›‹–Š‡†‹•…Šƒ”‰‡‘ˆ–Š‡‹”
™‘”Ǥ A TPǡ ™Š‘ „‡Ž‹‡˜‡• ‹
—„—–—•–”‹˜‡•–‘’”‘˜‹†‡Š‡ƒŽ–Š
…ƒ”‡ •‡”˜‹…‡• ƒ……‘”†‹‰ –‘ –Š‡
–‡‡–•‘ˆ–Š‡–ƒ„‘‘Ǥ
TŠ‡”‡ƒ”‡•‡˜‡”ƒŽ–›’‡•‘ˆAˆ”‹…ƒ
–”ƒ†‹–‹‘ƒŽ ‡†‹…‹‡ ’”ƒ…–‹…‡•
‹ –Š‡ R‡‰‹‘ǡ Š‘™‡˜‡”ǡ ƒ† ‘–
ƒŽŽ ‘ˆ –Š‡ ƒ”‡ ”‡…‘‰‹œ‡† „›
…‘—‹–‹‡• ƒ† ‰‘˜‡”‡–•Ǥ
A……‘”†‹‰ –‘ –Š‡ R‡‰‹‘ƒŽ
–”ƒ–‡‰› ‘ P”‘‘–‹‰ –Š‡ R‘Ž‡
‘ˆT”ƒ†‹–‹‘ƒŽ‡†‹…‹‡‹‡ƒŽ–Š
›•–‡•ǡ ™Š‹…Š ™ƒ• ƒ†‘’–‡†
„› –Š‡ F‹ˆ–‹‡–Š ‡••‹‘ ‘ˆ O
R‡‰‹‘ƒŽ C‘‹––‡‡ ˆ‘” Aˆ”‹…ƒ
‹ O—ƒ‰ƒ†‘—‰‘— ‹ ʹͲͲͲ (7)ǡ
”‡…‘‰‹–‹‘‘ˆ–”ƒ†‹–‹‘ƒŽŠ‡ƒŽ–Š
•‡”˜‹…‡•ǡ „› …‘—‹–‹‡• ƒ†
‰‘˜‡”‡–•‹•ƒ’”‡”‡“—‹•‹–‡ˆ‘”
‹–‡‰”ƒ–‹‰ –”ƒ†‹–‹‘ƒŽ •›•–‡•
34
‘ˆ‡†‹…‹‡‹–‘ƒ–‹‘ƒŽŠ‡ƒŽ–Š I Aˆ”‹…ƒ –”ƒ†‹–‹‘ƒŽ ‡†‹…‹‡ǡ
…ƒ”‡•‡”˜‹…‡•Ǥ
’”ƒ…–‹–‹‘‡”•–”‡ƒ–ƒŽŽƒ‰‡‰”‘—’•
ƒ† ƒŽŽ Š‡ƒŽ–Š ’”‘„Ž‡•ǡ —•‹‰
šƒ’Ž‡• ‘ˆ Aˆ”‹…ƒ –”ƒ†‹–‹‘ƒŽ ƒ† ƒ†‹‹•–‡”‹‰ ‡†‹…‹‡•
‡†‹…‹‡ ’”ƒ…–‹…‡• –Šƒ– ƒ”‡ –Šƒ– ƒ”‡ ”‡ƒ†‹Ž› ƒ˜ƒ‹Žƒ„Ž‡ ƒ†
”‡…‘‰‹œ‡† „› ƒŽ‘•– ƒŽŽ ƒˆˆ‘”†ƒ„Ž‡Ǥ TŠ‡ –”‡ƒ–‡– ‰—‹†‡
…‘—‹–‹‡• ‹ –Š‡ Aˆ”‹…ƒ —•‡† „› TP• ‹ ‰‡‡”ƒŽ ƒ†
R‡‰‹‘‹…Ž—†‡‰‡‡”ƒŽ–”ƒ†‹–‹‘ƒŽ †‹˜‹‡”• ‹ ’ƒ”–‹…—Žƒ”ǡ ƒ› ˜ƒ”›
Š‡ƒŽ–Š •‡”˜‹…‡•ǡ –”ƒ†‹–‹‘ƒŽ ‰”‡ƒ–Ž›ƒ††‡’‡†•‘–Š‡TPǯ•
‹†™‹ˆ‡”›ǡ „‘‡ •‡––‹‰ ƒ† ‘™‘™Ž‡†‰‡ƒ†•‹ŽŽ•ǡƒ•™‡ŽŽ
‡–ƒŽ Š‡ƒŽ–Š…ƒ”‡Ǥ T”ƒ†‹–‹‘ƒŽ ƒ• –Š‡ ƒ–—”‡ ‘ˆ –Š‡ ’ƒ–‹‡–ǯ•
Š‡ƒŽ–Š•‡”˜‹…‡•–Šƒ–ƒ”‡‘–‘ˆ–‡ ‹ŽŽ‡••Ǥ ƒ–‹•ˆƒ…–‘”› Š‡ƒŽ‹‰
”‡…‘‰‹œ‡† „› ƒŽŽ …‘—‹–‹‡• ‹˜‘Ž˜‡•‘–‡”‡Ž›–Š‡”‡…‘˜‡”›
ƒ† ‰‘˜‡”‡–• ‹…Ž—†‡ ˆ”‘’Š›•‹…ƒŽ•›’–‘•ǡ„—–ƒŽ•‘
†‹˜‹ƒ–‹‘ƒ†…‹”…—…‹•‹‘Ǥ
–Š‡ •‘…‹ƒŽ ƒ† ’•›…Š‘Ž‘‰‹…ƒŽ ”‡Ǧ
‹–‡‰”ƒ–‹‘ ‘ˆ –Š‡ ’ƒ–‹‡– ‹–‘
D‹ƒ‰‘•‹•‹•ƒ‡›’ƒ”–‘ˆAˆ”‹…ƒ Š‹•ȀŠ‡”…‘—‹–›ǤT”‡ƒ–‡–‹•
–”ƒ†‹–‹‘ƒŽ‡†‹…‹‡ǤTŠ‹•‡–ƒ‹Ž• …‘’”‡Š‡•‹˜‡ƒ†Šƒ•…—”ƒ–‹˜‡ǡ
ƒ •›•–‡ƒ–‹… “—‡•– ˆ‘” ƒ•™‡”• ’”‘–‡…–‹˜‡ ƒ† ’”‡˜‡–‹˜‡
–‘ –Š‡ ‘”‹‰‹• ȋ‹‡†‹ƒ–‡ ‡Ž‡‡–•Ǥ ‘”‡‘˜‡”ǡ –”‡ƒ–‡–
…ƒ—•‡Ȍ‘ˆƒ’ƒ”–‹…—Žƒ”†‹•‡ƒ•‡–‘ …ƒ „‡ ‡‹–Š‡” ƒ–—”ƒŽ ‘” ”‹–—ƒŽ
†‡–‡”‹‡ǡ ™Š‘ ‘” ™Šƒ– …ƒ—•‡† ‘”„‘–Šǡ†‡’‡†‹‰‘–Š‡…ƒ—•‡
‹– ȋ‡ˆϐ‹…‹‡– …ƒ—•‡Ȍǡ ƒ† ™Š› ‹– ‘ˆ –Š‡ †‹•‡ƒ•‡Ǥ TŠ‡ ‘†‡ ‘ˆ
Šƒ• ƒˆˆ‡…–‡† ƒ ’ƒ”–‹…—Žƒ” ’‡”•‘ ƒ†‹‹•–”ƒ–‹‘ ‘ˆ ‡†‹…ƒ–‹‘•
ƒ– ƒ ’ƒ”–‹…—Žƒ” –‹‡ ȋ—Ž–‹ƒ–‡ ‹…Ž—†‡•ǡ ƒ‘‰ ‘–Š‡”•ǡ ‘”ƒŽ
…ƒ—•‡ȌǤ I •‹–—ƒ–‹‘• ™Š‡”‡ ‹‰‡•–‹‘ǡ •–‡ƒ‹‰ǡ •‹ˆϐ‹‰ ‘ˆ
†‹˜‹ƒ–‹‘ ‹• —–‹Ž‹•‡†ǡ †‹ƒ‰‘•‹• •—„•–ƒ…‡•ǡ …—–• ȋ–Š‡ Aˆ”‹…ƒ
ƒ›…‘’”‹•‡‘ˆƒ…‘„‹ƒ–‹‘‘ˆ –”ƒ†‹–‹‘ƒŽ ‡†‹…‹‡ ˆ‘” ‘ˆ
‘„•‡”˜ƒ–‹‘ǡ™Š‡”‡–Š‡’ƒ–‹‡–ǯ• ‹Œ‡…–‹‘Ȍ ƒ†Ȁ‘” „‘†› ’‹‡”…‹‰
’Š›•‹…ƒŽ •›’–‘• ƒ”‡ ‘–‡†ǡ ȋ–Š‡Aˆ”‹…ƒ–”ƒ†‹–‹‘ƒŽ‡†‹…‹‡
ƒ†’ƒ–‹‡–•‡Žˆ†‹ƒ‰‘•‹•ǡ™Š‡”‡ ˆ‘”‘ˆƒ…—’—…–—”‡ȌǤ
–Š‡’ƒ–‹‡–”‡’‘”–•–Š‡‹”’”‘„Ž‡
–‘ –Š‡ TPǤ Š‡”‡ ‡…‡••ƒ”›ǡ A‘–Š‡”ƒ•’‡…–‘ˆ…Ž‹‹…ƒŽ’”ƒ…–‹…‡
–Š‡ ‹’”‡••‹‘• ‘ˆ ‘–Š‡” ˆƒ‹Ž› ‘ˆ Aˆ”‹…ƒ –”ƒ†‹–‹‘ƒŽ ‡†‹…‹‡
‡„‡”•”‡‰ƒ”†‹‰–Š‡’ƒ–‹‡–ǯ• ƒ”‡ ‘”• ƒ† –ƒ„‘‘•Ǥ TŠ‡•‡
‹ŽŽ‡••ƒ›ƒŽ•‘„‡‘„–ƒ‹‡†ǤTŠ‡ „‡Ž‹‡ˆ •›•–‡• ƒ……‘—– ˆ‘” –Š‡
’”‘…‡•• ‘ˆ †‹˜‹ƒ–‹‘ ™‹ŽŽ –Š‡ ™‹†‡•’”‡ƒ†ƒ……‡’–ƒ„‹Ž‹–›‘ˆTP•
‹˜‘Ž˜‡ •—…Š –‡…Š‹“—‡• ƒ† ‹–Š‡…‘—‹–‹‡•–Š‡›•‡”˜‡Ǥ
„‡Ž‹‡ˆ•ƒ•–Š‡…ƒ•–‹‰‘ˆ†‹˜‹ƒ–‹‘
‘„Œ‡…–•ǡ‡š–”ƒǦ•‡•‘”›’‡”…‡’–‹‘ I –Š‡ Aˆ”‹…ƒ …‘–‡š– ƒ†
‘ ” ƒ „ ‹ Ž ‹ – › ȋ … Ž ƒ ‹ ” ˜‘›ƒ  … ‡ Ȁ –”ƒ†‹–‹‘ƒŽ‡†‹…‹‡’”ƒ…–‹…‡•‹
–‡Ž‡’ƒ–Š›Ȍ ‘” ‹–‡”’”‡–ƒ–‹‘ ‘ˆ ’ƒ”–‹…—Žƒ”ǡ ˆ‘‘† –ƒ„‘‘• ƒ”‡ ƒ •‡–
†”‡ƒ•ƒ†˜‹•‹‘•Ǥ
‘ˆ”—Ž‡•†‡˜‡Ž‘’‡†–‘…‘–”‘Ž–Š‡
Special Issue 14 • decade of African Traditional Medecine, 2001–2010
†‹‡–ƒ”› Šƒ„‹–• ‘ˆ Š—ƒ•Ǥ TŠ‡›
‡•—”‡–Šƒ–’‡‘’Ž‡ƒ„•–ƒ‹ˆ”‘
…‘•—‹‰ …‡”–ƒ‹ ˆ‘‘†• ƒ†
†”‹• ˆ‘” ”‡ƒ•‘•ǡ ™Š‹…Š ƒ›
„‡”‡Ž‹‰‹‘—•ǡ…—Ž–—”ƒŽ‘”Š›‰‹‡‹…Ǥ
TŠ‡› ƒŽ•‘ ‰‹˜‡ †‹”‡…–‹‘• ƒ•
–‘ Š‘™ …‡”–ƒ‹ ˆ‘‘†• ƒ› „‡
’”‡’ƒ”‡†Ǥ TŠ‡ ‘”‹‰‹ ‘ˆ –Š‡•‡
’”‘Š‹„‹–‹‘•‘””‡•–”‹…–‹‘•˜ƒ”‹‡•
ˆ”‘‘‡…‘—‹–›–‘ƒ‘–Š‡”Ǥ
F‘‘† –ƒ„‘‘• ‹…Ž—†‡ ƒ„•–‡–‹‘
ˆ”‘ –Š‡ …‘•—’–‹‘ ‘ˆ ‡ƒ–
‘ˆ …‡”–ƒ‹ ƒ‹ƒŽ•Ǥ TŠ‡•‡
ƒ› „‡ ƒƒŽ•ǡ ”‘†‡–•ǡ
”‡’–‹Ž‡•ǡ ƒ’Š‹„‹ƒ•ǡ „‘› ϐ‹•Šǡ
‘” …”—•–ƒ…‡ƒ•Ǥ ‘‡ –ƒ„‘‘•
ƒ”‡ •’‡…‹ϐ‹… –‘ ƒ ’ƒ”–‹…—Žƒ”
’ƒ”– ‘” ‡š…”‡–‹‘ ‘ˆ ƒ ƒ‹ƒŽǡ
™Š‹Ž‡ ‘–Š‡” –ƒ„‘‘• ”‡•–”‹…– –Š‡
…‘•—’–‹‘ ‘ˆ …‡”–ƒ‹ ’Žƒ–•ǡ
ˆ—‰‹ǡ‘”‹•‡…–•Ǥ
T‘ †ƒ–‡ǡ ƒ› ƒ–‡ƒ–ƒŽ ƒ†
’‘•–ƒ–ƒŽ…ƒ•‡•ƒ”‡•–‹ŽŽŠƒ†Ž‡†
„› –”ƒ†‹–‹‘ƒŽ Š‡ƒŽ‡”• ƒ†
‹†™‹˜‡•‹ƒ›’ƒ”–•‘ˆAˆ”‹…ƒǤ
I Tƒœƒ‹ƒǡ ˆ‘” ‡šƒ’Ž‡ǡ ͻ͹Ψ
‘ˆ ƒŽŽ ’”‡‰ƒ– ‘–Š‡”• ƒ––‡†
ƒ–‡ƒ–ƒŽ …Ž‹‹…•ǡ „—– ‘Ž› Ͷ͹Ψ
ƒ––‡† ‘†‡” Š‡ƒŽ–Š ˆƒ…‹Ž‹–‹‡•
†—”‹‰ †‡Ž‹˜‡”›ǡ ƒ† ͷ͵Ψ ‘ˆ ƒŽŽ
†‡Ž‹˜‡”‹‡•‘……—”ƒ–Š‘‡™‹–Š–Š‡
ƒ••‹•–ƒ…‡ ‘ˆ ‡‹–Š‡” –”ƒ†‹–‹‘ƒŽ
‹†™‹˜‡•‘””‡Žƒ–‹˜‡•ǤA•ƒ”‡•—Ž–ǡ
•‘‡ –ƒ„‘‘• Šƒ˜‡ ‡˜‘Ž˜‡† –‘
…‘–”‘Ž ƒ–‡”ƒŽ Š‡ƒŽ–ŠǤ F‘”
‡šƒ’Ž‡ǡ ‹–ƒ‡ ‘ˆ •‘‡ ˆ‘‘†•
‹•’”‘Š‹„‹–‡††—”‹‰‰‡•–ƒ–‹‘ƒ•
ƒ ™ƒ› ‘ˆ …‘–”‘ŽŽ‹‰ ƒ„‘”ƒŽ
™‡‹‰Š– ‰ƒ‹ ‘ˆ —„‘” „ƒ„‹‡•ǡ
™Š‹…Š …‘—Ž† …ƒ—•‡ Šƒ” –‘
‘–Š‡”•†—”‹‰Žƒ„‘—”(7)Ǥ
Cesees
I …‘—–”‹‡• ‘ˆ O Aˆ”‹…ƒ
R‡‰‹‘ǡ ͸ͲǦͺͲΨ ‘ˆ ’‡‘’Ž‡ ”‡Ž›
‘ Aˆ”‹…ƒ –”ƒ†‹–‹‘ƒŽ ‡†‹…‹‡
ˆ‘” –Š‡‹” ’”‹ƒ”› Š‡ƒŽ–Š …ƒ”‡Ǥ
T”ƒ†‹–‹‘ƒŽ ‡†‹…‹‡• ƒ”‡
—•‡† –‘ –”‡ƒ– ‘•– ‘Ǧƒ…—–‡
‹ŽŽ‡••‡• –Šƒ– †‘ ‘– ‡‡†
‡‡”‰‡…› ‹–‡”˜‡–‹‘Ǥ ˜‡
–‘†ƒ›ǡ „‡…ƒ—•‡ ‘ˆ –Š‡ Ž‹‹–‡†
ƒ……‡•• –‘ ƒ–‹”‡–”‘˜‹”ƒŽ• ȋARV•Ȍ
ƒ› ’‡‘’Ž‡ Ž‹˜‹‰ ™‹–Š IVȀ
AID ȋPLA•Ȍ ”‡Ž› –‘–ƒŽŽ› ‘
Aˆ”‹…ƒ–”ƒ†‹–‹‘ƒŽ‡†‹…‹‡•ˆ‘”
–”‡ƒ–‡–ǤAŽ•‘ǡ•‡˜‡”ƒŽ…ƒ•‡•‘ˆ
„‘‡ ˆ”ƒ…–—”‡• ƒ† ’•›…Š‹ƒ–”‹…
†‹•‘”†‡”• ƒ”‡ –”‡ƒ–‡† „› TP•
—•‹‰ –”ƒ†‹–‹‘ƒŽ ‡†‹…‹‡•Ǥ I
”‡•’‡…– ‘ˆ …—”ƒ–‹˜‡ •‡”˜‹…‡•ǡ –Š‡
‡ˆϐ‹…ƒ…›ƒ†’‘–‡…›‘ˆŠ‡”„•ƒ”‡
˜‡”› ”‡ƒŽ ‹ –”ƒ†‹–‹‘ƒŽ Š‡ƒŽ–Š
•‡”˜‹…‡•’”‘˜‹•‹‘•Ǥ
TP• ƒŽ•‘ ’”‘˜‹†‡ ’”‡˜‡–‹˜‡
Š‡ƒŽ–Š …ƒ”‡Ǥ TŠ‡ ‡š’‡”‹‡…‡•
–Š‡›ƒ……——Žƒ–‡ǡƒ”‡–”ƒ•ˆ‡””‡†
–‘ –Š‡‹” •—……‡••‘”• ˆ”‘ ‘‡
‰‡‡”ƒ–‹‘ –‘ ƒ‘–Š‡” –Š”‘—‰Š
ƒ’’”‡–‹…‡•Š‹’Ǥ
‘‡Aˆ”‹…ƒ…‘—–”‹‡•ƒ”‡Ž‘…ƒŽŽ›
’”‘†—…‹‰–”ƒ†‹–‹‘ƒŽ‡†‹…‹‡•
—•‡† ˆ‘” ˜ƒ”‹‘—• †‹•‡ƒ•‡• •—…Š
ƒ• …Š”‘‹… †‹ƒ””Š‘‡ƒǡ Ž‹˜‡”
†‹•‘”†‡”•ǡ ƒ‘‡„‹… †›•‡–‡”›ǡ
…‘•–‹’ƒ–‹‘ǡ …‘—‰Šǡ ‡…œ‡ƒǡ
—Ž…‡”•ǡ Š›’‡”–‡•‹‘ǡ †‹ƒ„‡–‡•ǡ
ƒŽƒ”‹ƒǡ ‡–ƒŽ Š‡ƒŽ–Š ƒ†
IVȀAID ‹ ‘”†‡” –‘ ‹’”‘˜‡
’‡‘’Ž‡ǯ• ƒ……‡•• –‘ ‡†‹…‹‡•Ǥ
TŠ‹•™‹ŽŽ‡Šƒ…‡–Š‡’”‘…‡••‘ˆ
‹–‡‰”ƒ–‹‰ –”ƒ†‹–‹‘ƒŽ •›•–‡•
‘ˆ ‡†‹…‹‡ ‹–‘ –Š‡ Š‡ƒŽ–Š…ƒ”‡
•‡”˜‹…‡•(6)Ǥ
35

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