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boletim do museu nacional - acd
BOLETIM DO MUSEU NACIONAL
NOVA SÉRIE
RIO DE JANEIRO - BRASIL
ISSN 0080-312X
ZOOLOGIA
o
N 516
29 DE ABRIL DE 2004
DESCRIPTION OF A NEW SPECIES OF WHIPTAILED STINGRAY
FROM THE SOUTHWESTERN ATLANTIC OCEAN
(CHONDRICHTHYES, MYLIOBATIFORMES, DASYATIDAE) 1
(With 11 figures)
HUGO RICARDO SECIOSO SANTOS
MARCELO R. DE CARVALHO
2
3
ABSTRACT: A new species of whiptailed stingray, Dasyatis hipostigma sp.nov., is described from
the southwestern Atlantic Ocean and compared with Dasyatis species mostly from the Western
and Eastern Atlantic. The new species differs from all congeners in presenting a sinuous, wshaped furrow ventrally at middisc over the coracoid bar just posterior to the gill openings
(coracoid groove), dorsal surface of disc almost entirely naked, without enlarged denticles, spines
or tubercles, outer corners of disc subangular, a weakly protruding snout, dorsal and ventral
tailfolds about equal in height or dorsal tailfold slightly taller, and ventral tailfold much longer than
dorsal tailfold. The new species has been misidentified by most previous authors as D. say, a
species now restricted to the northwestern Atlantic Ocean, Gulf of Mexico, and Caribbean Sea.
Dasyatis hipostigma sp.nov. is distributed from the states of Espírito Santo to Rio Grande do Sul,
Brazil according to examined specimens, but probably occurs farther south to Mar del Plata,
Argentina, in predominantly shallow coastal waters down to 80m in depth.
Key words: Dasyatis hipostigma sp.nov., Dasyatidae; southwestern Atlantic Ocean; taxonomy.
RESUMO: Descrição de uma espécie nova de raia-manteiga do sudoeste do Oceano Atlântico
(Chondrichthyes, Myliobatiformes, Dasyatidae).
Uma espécie nova de raia-manteiga, Dasyatis hipostigma sp.nov., é descrita do sudoeste do
Oceano Atlântico e comparada com as demais espécies do gênero, particularmente com aquelas
que ocorrem no Atlântico Leste e Oeste. A espécie nova difere das demais espécies de Dasyatis por
apresentar um sulco sinuoso e raso na parte ventral do disco sobre o coracóide, ausência de
dentículos dérmicos, espinhos ou tubérculos na superfície dorsal do disco e da cauda,
extremidades laterais do disco não arredondadas, ponta do focinho não se projetando muito além
da margem anterior do disco, e abas caudais dorsal e ventral mais ou menos da mesma altura,
sendo que a aba ventral é bem mais longa que a dorsal. A nova espécie foi erroneamente
identificada por muitos autores como D. say, uma espécie restrita ao noroeste do Atlântico, Golfo
do México e Mar do Caribe. Dasyatis hipostigma sp.nov. está distribuída do Espírito Santo ao Rio
Grande do Sul de acordo com o material examinado, mas provavelmente ocorre até Mar del Plata,
Argentina, em águas costeiras rasas de até 80m de profundidade.
Palavras-chave: Dasyatis hipostigma sp.nov., Dasyatidae, sudoeste do Oceano Atlântico,
taxonomia.
1 Submitted on April 7, 2004. Accepted on April 26, 2004.
2 Museu Nacional/UFRJ, Programa de Pós-Graduação em Ciências Biológicas/Zoologia. Quinta da Boa Vista, São Cristóvão,
20940-040, Rio de Janeiro, RJ, Brasil.
Universidade do Estado do Rio de Janeiro, Instituto de Biologia, Departamento de Zoologia. Rua São Francisco Xavier, 542,
20559-900, Rio de Janeiro, RJ, Brasil. E-mail: [email protected]
3 Universidade de São Paulo, Departamento de Biologia (FFCLRP), Laboratório de Ictiologia de Ribeirão Preto (LIRP). Avenida
dos Bandeirantes, 3900, 14040-901, Ribeirão Preto, SP, Brasil. E-mail:[email protected]
2
H.R.S.SANTOS & M.R.CARVALHO
INTRODUCTION
Myliobatiformes (stingrays) are the second largest group of batoids, presently
represented by some 185 species in 24 living genera (COMPAGNO, 1999). Recent
authors have recognized from seven (CARVALHO, MAISEY & GRANDE, in press) to
nine extant families (COMPAGNO, 1999) in the order, which has sometimes been
treated as a suborder of Rajiformes (e.g., McEACHRAN & CARVALHO, 2002).
Dasyatis Rafinesque, 1810 is the largest myliobatiform genus represented by at
least 38 valid species, forming a varied assemblage that occurs worldwide in mostly
shallow tropical and warm temperate waters (NISHIDA & NAKAYA, 1990;
COMPAGNO, 1999; LAST & COMPAGNO, 2000; McEACHRAN & CARVALHO,
2002). Generic monophyly has yet to be convincingly demonstrated for Dasyatis,
however, and few preliminary studies addressing its species-level relationships
have been published (e.g., ROSENBERGER, 2001). Species of Dasyatis have been
discovered in recent years (NISHIDA & NAKAYA, 1988a, 1988b; GOMES, ROSA &
GADIG, 2000), even in fresh waters (ROBERTS & KARNASUTA, 1987), and some of
them still await description (NISHIDA & NAKAYA, 1990; LAST & STEVENS, 1994).
Six species of Dasyatis have been reported from the southwestern Atlantic Ocean off
the coast of Brazil: the southern stingray, D. americana Hildebrand & Schroeder, 1928;
the roughtail stingray, D. centroura (Mitchill, 1815); the wingfin stingray, D. geijskesi
Boeseman, 1948; the longnose stingray D. guttata (Bloch & Schneider, 1801); the
Brazilian large-eyed stingray, D. marianae Gomes, Rosa & Gadig, 2000; and the
bluntnose stingray, D. say (Lesueur, 1817). Other dasyatids known from Brazil are the
pelagic stingray Pteroplatytrygon violacea (Bonaparte, 1832), and the chupare stingray
Himantura schmardae (Werner, 1904) (FIGUEIREDO, 1977; CHARVET-ALMEIDA et al.,
2000; GOMES, ROSA & GADIG, 2000; GOMES & GADIG, 2003). We corroborate that
D. sabina (Lesueur, 1824) does not occur in the southwestern Atlantic off Brazil
(FIGUEIREDO, 1977). According to HILDEBRAND & SCHROEDER (1928), the Atlantic
stingray D. sabina is distributed from Chesapeake Bay, Virginia (USA) to Brazil (see
also GARMAN, 1913). BIGELOW & SCHROEDER (1953), however, following
BOESEMAN (1948), doubted the Brazilian record for this species (originally credited to
MÜLLER & HENLE, 1841), with which we fully agree because it has never been
encountered here in collections or in the field.
In this paper, we describe a new species of Dasyatis from Brazil that has been
previously misidentified by most authors as D. say. Our report is based on extensive
examinations of Western Atlantic species of Dasyatis, coupled with observations on
Eastern Atlantic and Indo-Pacific forms, and is part of a larger study encompassing the
comparative morphology and systematics of the Brazilian species of Dasyatis.
MATERIAL AND METHODS
Morphometric parameters, including snout angle, follow BIGELOW & SCHROEDER
(1953) and COMPAGNO & ROBERTS (1982, 1984). Counts of oral papillae follow
NISHIDA & NAKAYA (1990); other counts are according to COMPAGNO & ROBERTS
(1984). Terminology for clasper elements follows TANIUCHI & ISHIHARA (1990). DW
refers to disc width and TL to total length throughout. Institutional abbreviations
follow LEVITON et al. (1985), with the following additions or corrections: AC.UERJ,
Bol. Mus. Nac., N.S., Zool., Rio de Janeiro, n.516, p.1-24, abr.2004
NEW SPECIES OF DASYATIS FROM THE SOUTHWESTERN ATLANTIC OCEAN
3
Anatomical Collection, Universidade do Estado do Rio de Janeiro (Departamento de
Zoologia), Rio de Janeiro, Brazil; LIRP, Laboratório de Ictiologia de Ribeirão Preto,
Universidade de São Paulo, Ribeirão Preto, São Paulo, Brazil; MCP, Museu de
Ciências e Tecnologia, Pontifícia Universidade Católica do Rio Grande do Sul, Porto
Alegre, Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil; NUPEC, Núcleo de Pesquisa e Estudos em
Chondrichthyes, Santos, São Paulo, Brazil; UEFS, Universidade Estadual de Feira de
Santana, Feira de Santana, Bahia, Brazil; UFPB, Universidade Federal da Paraíba,
João Pessoa, Paraíba, Brazil. A list of compartive material of Western Atlantic
Dasyatis species examined is provided following the discussion.
Dasyatis hypostigma sp.nov.
(Figs.1-11)
Holotype – BRAZIL - PARANÁ: Paranaguá, MCP 35005, adult , 760mm TL,
455mm DW, 70-80m, trawl net, C.M.Cunha col., XI/2002 (Figs.1-2).
1
Dasyatis hypostigma sp.nov., holotype , MCP 35005, 480mm DW: fig.1- dorsal view.
Bol. Mus. Nac., N.S., Zool., Rio de Janeiro, n.516, p.1-24, abr.2004
4
H.R.S.SANTOS & M.R.CARVALHO
2
Dasyatis hypostigma sp.nov., holotype , MCP 35005, 480mm DW: fig.2- ventral view.
Paratypes (ten specimens) – BRAZIL - RIO DE JANEIRO: Búzios, UERJ 2008,
, 590mm TL, 301mm DW, UERJ staff, 20/III/2002; Macaé, LIRP 5076, ,
575mm TL, 185mm DW, UERJ staff, 27/IV/1993; Baía de Guanabara, UERJ
1898, , 285mm TL, 123mm DW, P.J.A.Rego col., 25/III/2001 (Fig.5); Pedra
de Guaratiba, UERJ 2007, , 390mm TL, 170mm DW, UERJ staff,
8/III/2003; Baía da Ilha Grande, MZUSP 9915, , 620mm TL, 281mm DW,
V/1966. SÃO PAULO: Cananéia, Ilha do Bom Abrigo, NUPEC 1831, ,
670mm TL, 370mm DW; NUPEC 1832, , 725mm TL, 357mm DW; NUPEC
1833, , 650mm TL, 340mm DW, C.M.Cunha col., VII/2002, 65-75m, shrimp
net. SANTA CATARINA: Porto Belo, MCP 4606, , 481mm TL, 250mm DW,
MCP staff, XI/1969. RIO GRANDE DO SUL: UFRGS 1549, , 310mm TL,
155mm DW, UFRGS staff, Praia do Cassino, 25/XII/1982.
Bol. Mus. Nac., N.S., Zool., Rio de Janeiro, n.516, p.1-24, abr.2004
NEW SPECIES OF DASYATIS FROM THE SOUTHWESTERN ATLANTIC OCEAN
5
Additional material (51 specimens) – BRAZIL - RIO DE JANEIRO: Macaé, MNRJ
uncatalogued (field number #0004650), , 1045mm TL, 580mm DW; Macaé,
MNRJ uncatalogued (field number #00004682), , 630mm TL, 315mm DW;
Macaé, MNRJ uncatalogued (field number #00004620), , 440mm TL, 240mm
DW; Macaé, MNRJ uncatalogued (field number #00004655), , 480mm TL,
335mm DW (Fig.3); Macaé, MNRJ uncatalogued (field number #00004691), ,
402mm TL, 247mm DW (Fig.4); Macaé, MNRJ uncatalogued (field number
#00004800), , 380mm DW; Macaé, MNRJ uncatalogued (field number
#00004626), , 680mm TL, 325mm DW; Cabo Frio, Praia do Forte, MNRJ
17717 (3), , 806mm TL, 502mm DW, , 701mm TL, 308mm DW, , 603mm
TL, 302mm DW; Búzios, MNRJ uncatalogued (field number #00004654), ,
730mm TL, 385mm DW; Búzios, MNRJ uncatalogued (field number
#00004705), , 690mm TL, 360mm DW; Búzios, MNRJ uncatalogued (field
number #00004701), , 420mm TL, 315mm DW; Búzios, MNRJ uncatalogued
(field number #00004752), , 610mm TL, 310mm DW; Macaé, UERJ 1181, ,
604mm TL, 281mm DW; Macaé, UERJ 1183, , 383mm TL, 172mm DW;
Búzios, UERJ 2011, , 440mm TL, 220mm DW; Cabo Frio, UERJ 2009, ,
425mm TL, 325mm DW; Cabo Frio, UERJ 2010, , 330mm DW; Rio de
Janeiro, UERJ 789, , 345mm TL, 162mm DW; Praia de Jaconé, UERJ 690, ,
321mm TL, 256mm DW; Angra dos Reis, Ilha Grande, UERJ 1667, , 349mm
TL, 165mm DW; Mangaratiba, Muriqui, UERJ 2012, , 440mm TL, 200mm
DW; Cabo Frio, AC.UERJ 1229-1, , 450mm TL, 280mm DW; Cabo Frio,
AC.UERJ 1229-2, , 460mm TL, 285mm DW; Cabo Frio, AC.UERJ 1229-3, ,
690mm TL, 305mm DW; Cabo Frio, AC.UERJ 1229-4, , 510mm TL, 225mm
DW; Cabo Frio, AC.UERJ 1229-5, , 680mm TL, 315mm DW; Arraial do Cabo,
AC.UERJ 531, , 640mm TL; 340mm DW; Urca, AC.UERJ 1228, , 280mm
TL, , 115mm DW; Barra de Guaratiba, AC.UERJ 1224, , 410mm DW; Barra
de Guaratiba, AC.UERJ 706, , 380mm DW; Barra de Guaratiba, AC.UERJ
705, , 340mm DW; Sepetiba, AC.UERJ 827, , 390mm DW; Ilha da Madeira,
AC.UERJ 821, , 160mm DW; Angra dos Reis, AC.UERJ 1229, , 320mm DW;
Atafona, MZUSP 9733, , 1080mm TL, 322mm DW, VII/1963. SÃO PAULO:
Ubatuba, MZUSP 9709, , 770mm TL, 232mm DW, R.P.Lambalot col.,
VII/1969. SANTA CATARINA: Cabo de Santa Marta Grande, MZUSP 10595 (3),
, 515mm TL, 267mm DW, , 709mm TL, 369mm DW, , 632mm TL, 345mm
DW, VIII/1970, RV “Prof. W. Besnard”; 29º52’S, 49º37’W, MZUSP 10601(2), ,
588mm TL, 320mm DW, , 582mm TL, 361mm DW (tail damaged),
08/IV/1972, RV “Prof. W. Besnard” (sta.1714); Porto Belo, MCP 4606, ,
476mm TL, 252mm DW; MCP 2292, , 252mm TL, 105mm DW; MCP 2293, ,
247mm TL, 101mm DW. RIO GRANDE DO SUL: 31º13’S, 50º35’W, MZUSP
10603 (1 of 2), , 741mm TL, 376mm DW, 11/IV/1972, RV “Prof. W. Besnard”
(sta.1726); Praia do Hermenegildo, UFRGS 3165, , 289mm TL, 135mm DW;
UFRGS 1586, , 77mm DW; UFRGS 1558, , 200mm DW; UFRGS 1584, ,
254mm TL, 75mm DW.
Bol. Mus. Nac., N.S., Zool., Rio de Janeiro, n.516, p.1-24, abr.2004
6
H.R.S.SANTOS & M.R.CARVALHO
3
4
Dasyatis hypostigma sp.nov., dorsal view: fig.3- subadult , MNRJ “field number #00004655”,
335mm DW; fig.4- adult , MNRJ “field number #00004691”, 247mm DW (note that anterior disc
and snout margins are slightly curled backward due to preservation).
Bol. Mus. Nac., N.S., Zool., Rio de Janeiro, n.516, p.1-24, abr.2004
NEW SPECIES OF DASYATIS FROM THE SOUTHWESTERN ATLANTIC OCEAN
7
5
Dasyatis hypostigma sp.nov., paratype, juvenile , UERJ 1898, 123mm DW: fig.5- dorsal view.
Diagnosis – A medium-sized species of Dasyatis (reaching 580mm in DW),
distinguished from all congeners, except the Japanese D. matsubarai Miyosi, 1939, by
the presence of a conspicuous w-shaped sinuous groove or furrow ventrally at about
middisc, just posterior to the last branchial openings (present in embryos, juveniles
and adults). Dasyatis hypostigma sp.nov. is distinguished from D. matsubarai in
having the dorsal surface of disc entirely naked even in adults, without a distinct
dorsal median series of enlarged denticles at middisc, anteriorly over snout, and over
tail midline (three to five dorsal middisc spines, enlarged denticles on snout, and
midrow of tail spines present in adults of D. matsubarai). Other characters that in
combination further distinguish the new species from Western Atlantic congeners are
the following: outer corners of disc subangular, not broadly rounded; snout angular,
not weakly convex; snout extremity not projecting significantly beyond anterior disc
margin; dorsal and ventral tailfolds approximately equal in height, or dorsal tailfold
slightly greater; ventral tailfold much longer than dorsal tailfold; dorsal disc surface
without enlarged denticles, spines or tubercles.
Description – Proportional dimensions as percentages of DW and tooth row counts
are given separately in tables 1-2, respectively.
Maximum size known ca. 455mm DW for males (holotype) and 580mm DW for
females. Disc rhomboidal or diamond-shaped; disc length approximately equal to disc
width (disc length 81-97% of DW). Snout angular and only slightly projecting as a
distinct protuberance (Fig.6), with more or less straight anterolateral margins;
Bol. Mus. Nac., N.S., Zool., Rio de Janeiro, n.516, p.1-24, abr.2004
8
H.R.S.SANTOS & M.R.CARVALHO
preorbital snout length 12-21% of DW (adults represent the greater value); preoral
snout length length 17-22% of DW; prenasal snout length 13-18% of DW. Outer
corners of disc narrowly rounded or subangular; posterolateral disc margins faintly
convex; posterior extremities of pectoral fins broadly subangular. Snout angle 117-121°
(n=29). Pupils relatively large, their length 33-48% of interorbital length, and 3-4% of
DW. Eyes protrude well above level of disc. Spiracles rhomboidal and very large.
6
Dasyatis hypostigma sp.nov., holotype , MCP 35005, 480mm DW: fig.6- detail of anterior
dorsal snout region.
Nostrils elongate, slitlike, positioned slightly obliquely to midline. Posterolateral
corners of nasal curtain broadly rounded; internasal curtain with fringed, faintly
trilobate posterior margin (Fig.7). Mouth small, arched, midline of lower jaw with
a prominent indentation; upper jaw with a distinct central lobe; mouth width
ranging from 7-12% of DW and more or less equal to internarial width (mouth
width 83-113% of internarial width). Palate with a strongly rugose texture and
distinct central keel posterior to digitiform maxillary valve. Mouth floor with six
oral papillae in embryos, and three, five or seven oral papillae in larger
specimens; specimens with oral papillae always with three central papillae in
transverse series on mouth floor (0-3-0), frequently with one or two extra pairs on
each side of central series (either 1-3-1 or 2-3-2). Teeth arranged in quincunx
pavement; teeth of juveniles and adult females with rounded, rhomboidal crowns;
sexually mature males with heterodonty in lower jaws: teeth in first 10-12 lateral
rows on each side of central tooth series rounded as in juveniles and females, but
Bol. Mus. Nac., N.S., Zool., Rio de Janeiro, n.516, p.1-24, abr.2004
NEW SPECIES OF DASYATIS FROM THE SOUTHWESTERN ATLANTIC OCEAN
9
central rows with elongate, sharp, posteriorly projecting cusps; upper jaw of
mature males with many rows, even laterally, of sharp, elongate cusps (dignathic
heterodonty). Dental formula for juveniles (above 300mm DW) and adults: 3746/43-50 (n=33; table 2). Gill apertures sinuous. Distance between first pair of
gill slits 10-22% of DW; distance between first and fifth gill slits 12-15% of DW.
Sinuous, w-shaped groove or furrow present ventrally at level of coracoid bar
posterior to fifth branchial slits; coracoid groove present in all specimens, from
embryos to adults of both sexes (Fig.8).
7
8
Dasyatis hypostigma sp.nov., morphological details: fig.7- nasoral region of holotype , MCP
35005, 480mm DW; fig.8- midventral region showing its diagnostic w-shaped coracoid
furrow, paratype, juvenile , UERJ 2008, 301mm DW.
Bol. Mus. Nac., N.S., Zool., Rio de Janeiro, n.516, p.1-24, abr.2004
10
H.R.S.SANTOS & M.R.CARVALHO
Table 1. Measurements of D. hypostigma sp.nov. (in mm and as % of disc width, DW).
HOLOTYPE
MORPHOMETRIC PARAMETERS
mm
RANGE
% DW
% DW
MEAN
SD
total length
760
167
130-229
150
–
disc width
455
100
100
100
0
disc length
406
89
81-98
88
4,9
internal disc length
363
79
73-97
80
6,9
precloacal length
333
73
67-88
75
5,7
tail length
378
83
56-154
77
–
height of dorsal tailfold
2
length of dorsal tailfold
90
0,4
19
0,4
0,1-0,9
10-21
height of ventral tailfold
2
length of ventral tailfold
185
40
horizontal eye diameter
16
3
3-4
interorbital width
44
9
8-11
spiracle length
27
5
5-8
interspiracular length
69
15
preoral length
85
18
preorbital length
82
18
distance betw. 1st and 5st gill slits slitsslit
58
distance betw. 1st gill slits
0,3-0,9
21-41
0,3
10
0,3
22
0,3
8,8
0,3
–
3
0,5
10
0,8
6
0,8
19-8
15
2,4
16-22
18
1,4
12-20
12
9,1
12
12-15
13
1,0
83
18
10-22
18
2,6
mouth width
40
8
7-12
8
1,0
internasal width
40
8
8-10
8
0,8
pelvic fin length
49
17
10-18
14
4,8
clasper inner length
185
40
7-40
10
14,1
clasper outer length
70
15
3-22
5
8,3
155
115
100-137
85
54,0
65
14
13-18
15
1,3
snout-sting length
prenasal length
(SD) standard deviation. Number of specimens=32. Note that SD is not given for tail length as
many specimens had lost the tail extremity (due to predation or mutilation when captured).
The elevated SD for preorbital snout length and snout-sting length is due to the fact that
neonates, juveniles and adults are lumped together for simplicity, and snout length
proportions vary significantly among size-classes (also true for measurements pertaining to
the clasper). Holotype is MCP 35005.
Bol. Mus. Nac., N.S., Zool., Rio de Janeiro, n.516, p.1-24, abr.2004
NEW SPECIES OF DASYATIS FROM THE SOUTHWESTERN ATLANTIC OCEAN
Table 2. Tooth-row counts of Dasyatis hypostigma sp.nov.
SIZE AND SEX
TOOTH FORMULA
NEONATES AND JUVENILES
77mm DW, (fetus)
27/28
155mm DW, 36/39
170mm DW 37/43
200mm DW, 37/43
206mm DW, 38/43
220mm DW, 37/43
225mm DW, 38/43
240mm DW, 38/42
250mm DW, 37/50
280mm DW, 40/46
281mm DW, 39/41
285mm DW, 38/48
301mm DW, 41/45
305mm DW, 40/45
310mm DW, 38/48
315mm DW, 39/43
315mm DW, 37/43
315mm DW, 41/46
320mm DW, 41/46
325mm DW, 42/46
325mm DW, 40/50
335mm DW, 41/44
340mm DW, 42/44
360mm DW, 37/43
390mm DW, 41/43
380mm DW, 42/46
385mm DW, 41/45
390mm DW 43/47
ADULTS
455mm DW, (holotype)
44/46
580mm DW, 46/48
Bol. Mus. Nac., N.S., Zool., Rio de Janeiro, n.516, p.1-24, abr.2004
11
12
H.R.S.SANTOS & M.R.CARVALHO
Pelvic fins protrude slightly from posterior disc margins (more apparent in freshly
preserved specimens); pelvic fin length 10-18% of DW; pelvic fins with greater
anterolateral margin, angular outer corners, and slightly convex posterior margins.
Claspers very slender, elongate in holotype and adult males (males sexually mature
as of ca. 400mm in DW), reaching caudally to just anterior to origin of caudal
stings; clasper glans approximately one-half of clasper length in adult specimens;
ventral pseudosiphon very elongate, about as long as clasper glans; small,
subtriangular flap present at top of glans (Fig.9); dorsal pseudosiphon absent.
Dorsal and ventral tailfolds present, just posterior to caudal stings, moderately
developed, not flaplike (Figs.10,11H); dorsal tailfold usually about equal in height
as ventral tailfold, but taller in some specimens; dorsal tailfold short in length,
ranging from 29-42% of ventral tailfold length; dorsal tailfold more substantial,
fleshy and rigid than ventral tailfold, and therefore better maintains original
proportions in preserved material. Occasionally two caudal stings present, but
most specimens with a single sting; pre-sting length (from tip of snout to sting
origin) 100-137% of DW; sting(s) located just posterior to one-third of tail length.
Total pre-sting vertebral centra (n=3, two males, one female) range from 99-106 in
specimens 280-340mm DW; specimen with 99 total vertebrae with 39 mono- and
60 diplospondylic centra (320mm DW male); transition between mono- and
diplospondylic vertebrae at about 38th centrum in 380mm DW female. A hundred
and seventeen pectoral radials on right side and 115 on left in female, and 103
pectoral radials in 280mm DW male. Pelvic radials 24/19 (right/left) in 380mm DW
female, 21 pelvic radials in both sides in 320mm DW male, and 19 radials in
280mm DW male.
Dorsal surface of disc entirely smooth in all specimens, except for a single fully
grown female (1045mm TL, 580mm DW, MNRJ uncatalogued, field number
#0004650), which has very sparse, small but sharp spines with a somewhat
random distribution on lateroposterior dorsal surface of disc and over anterior tail
region (however, anterior and middle of dorsal disc entirely naked in this specimen,
and spines over tail do not form a discrete midrow). Tailfolds, pelvic fins, claspers,
and ventral surface of disc entirely smooth.
Color in life brown, brownish-olive or yellowish-brown dorsally on disc, slightly
darker over middisc, interorbital region and midtail, fading to a reddish-brown over
posterolateral disc margins in freshly caught specimens. Ventral surface mostly
white, but some specimens with sparse and very faint dark blotches at branchial
region between and on gill slits, and with irregular greyish blotches at ventral
middisc; ventral margins of disc and posterior margins of pelvic fins with a
distinctly darker band. Caudal tailfolds black in living and freshly caught
specimens. Color in preservative a light greyish-brown dorsally and white ventrally;
tailfolds retain their black color in preserved specimens.
Etymology – The specific name is a combination of the Greek hypo, meaning
“ventral”, and stigma, meaning “mark”, in reference to the diagnostic coracoid
furrow of this species.
Geographical distribution – Dasyatis hypostigma sp.nov. has been recorded thus far
from the southeastern and southern coasts of Brazil, ranging from the states of
Espírito Santo to Rio Grande do Sul. Its northernmost limit may extend to the coast of
Bol. Mus. Nac., N.S., Zool., Rio de Janeiro, n.516, p.1-24, abr.2004
NEW SPECIES OF DASYATIS FROM THE SOUTHWESTERN ATLANTIC OCEAN
13
Bahia, but verifiable records are lacking. Literature accounts that mention Dasyatis
species from northern and northeastern Brazil fail to register D. say, the name usually
under which D. hypostigma sp.nov. has been recorded (QUEIROZ, SOUZA FILHO &
SIMÕES, 1993; CASTRO, 1997; LESSA, 1997; LESSA et al., 1999; FEITOSA, PIMENTA
& ARAÚJO, 2002). To the south, D. hypostigma sp.nov. ranges into Uruguay and
Argentina as far as Mar del Plata, where it has been usually misidentified either as D.
pastinaca or D. say (reviews in REFI, 1975; MENNI & STEHMANN, 2000). This species
has been captured in mostly shallow water in depths of up to 80m (more common from
5-40m), and may also occur in estuarine regions.
9
10
Dasyatis hypostigma sp.nov., morphological details: fig.9- external morphology of left clasper
in dorsal view, holotype , MCP 35005, 480mm DW: (ap) apopyle, (cg) clasper groove, (fl) flap,
(gl) clasper glans, (pf) pelvic fin, (vps) ventral pseudosiphon; fig.10- dorsal and ventral tailfolds
of specimen, juvenile , MNRJ “field number #00004626”, 325mm DW.
Bol. Mus. Nac., N.S., Zool., Rio de Janeiro, n.516, p.1-24, abr.2004
14
H.R.S.SANTOS & M.R.CARVALHO
DISCUSSION
The w-shaped coracoid groove (Fig.8) is absent from all other Western and Eastern
Atlantic Dasyatis species, and has not been reported among stingrays with the
exception of D. matsubarai (NISHIDA & NAKAYA, 1990). Dasyatis brevicaudata
(Hutton, 1875) has a “transverse furrow present on belly behind gill slits” (LAST &
COMPAGNO, 2000), which may be the coracoid groove but it is not described or
figured (this species is compared to D. hypostigma sp.nov. below). The coracoid
groove may represent the abdominal canal of the ventral lateral line complex (also
J.D.McEACHRAN, Texas A & M University, pers.comm.), but it is not enclosed in a
sensory canal nor does it contain pores or pitorgans (free neuromasts). The
subpleural loop, formed by the infraorbital and hyomandibular canals, is adjacent to
the coracoid groove in D. hypostigma sp.nov., but is clearly separated from it and
runs the typical path described for other Dasyatis species (GARMAN, 1888; CHU &
WEN, 1979; LOVEJOY, 1996). The abdominal canal has been found in “rhinobatoids”
(except Rhina Bloch & Schneider, 1801 and Aptychotrema Norman, 1926),
platyrhinids and Zanobatus Garman, 1913, and certain species of the rajid genus
Dipturus Rafinesque, 1810 (McEACHRAN, DUNN & MIYAKE, 1996), in addition to the
species of Dasyatis mentioned here; its loss was considered a stingray synapomorphy
by McEACHRAN, DUNN & MIYAKE (1996). Whether the groove actually represents
the abdominal canal will only be corroborated after more detailed study, but it is
clearly a diagnostic character for D. hypostigma sp.nov.
Western Atlantic Dasyatis comprise seven valid species, and some eight more
Eastern Atlantic forms are known (COMPAGNO & ROBERTS, 1984; SÉRET, 1990;
CAPAPÉ & DESOUTTER, 1990; COWLEY & COMPAGNO, 1993). We have
compared D. hypostigma sp.nov. with specimens of most of these, as well as with
specimens of various Indo-Pacific species, in addition to literature accounts
treating the identification and distribution of Dasyatis worldwide (BIGELOW &
SCHROEDER, 1953; STEHMANN, 1981; COMPAGNO & ROBERTS, 1984;
MONKOLPRASIT, 1984; McEACHRAN & CAPAPÉ, 1989; NISHIDA & NAKAYA,
1990; SÉRET, 1990; COWLEY & COMPAGNO, 1993; LAST & STEVENS, 1994;
COMPAGNO, 1995; McEACHRAN, 1995; GROVE & LAVENBERG, 1997;
McEACHRAN & FECHHELM, 1999; LAST & COMPAGNO, 2000; McEACHRAN &
CARVALHO, 2002; CARVALHO, SÉRET & McEACHRAN, in press). We have also
compared D. hypostigma sp.nov. to a new species of Dasyatis from northern South
America which has been submitted for publication elsewhere.
Dasyatis hipostigma sp.nov. agrees with the Western Atlantic species D. say, D.
americana, D. marianae, D. centroura, D. guttata, and D. sabina in having a diamondshaped or rhomboidal disc, but it is readily distinguished from them by the w-shaped
coracoid groove. Of these, the new species more closely resembles D. americana and D.
say in general proportions and overall appearance. Additional characters useful in
differentiating D. hypostigma sp.nov. from Western and Eastern Atlantic Dasyatis are
discussed below. Our observations indicate that D. guttata and D. hypostigma sp.nov.
are the most common species of Dasyatis in the southwestern Atlantic.
Dasyatis say, the species with which D. hypostigma sp.nov. has usually been
misidentified in the literature (e.g. MIRANDA RIBEIRO, 1907, 1923; FIGUEIREDO,
1977), further differs from it in presenting a median dorsal and scapular rows of
Bol. Mus. Nac., N.S., Zool., Rio de Janeiro, n.516, p.1-24, abr.2004
NEW SPECIES OF DASYATIS FROM THE SOUTHWESTERN ATLANTIC OCEAN
15
enlarged spines (absent in D. hypostigma sp.nov.), a preorbital length about equal
or just greater than interspiracular distance (preorbital length much greater than
interspiracular length in D. hypostigma sp.nov.), shape of snout (anterior disc
margins broadly convex and blunt in D. say, but more straight and pointed in D.
hypostigma sp.nov.), and ventral tailfold conspicuously flaplike (Fig.11G), always
broader than dorsal tailfold (ventral tailfold equal in height or more slender than
dorsal tailfold in D. hypostigma sp.nov., and these never as well developed;
Fig.11H). These differences are easily observed even in very small juveniles.
Even though the largest specimen of D. hypostigma sp.nov. (an adult female 580mm
in DW) bears scattered denticles over dorsal tail and posterior disc surfaces, this
species cannot be confused with D. say due to the clearly distinct, posteriorly
projecting, enlarged spines in a single row over middisc and scapular region in the
latter species (both are present even in small juveniles of D. say ). It is feasible that D.
hypostigma sp.nov. only develops spination at a very large size, at least over 510mm
in DW, but this seems highly improbable because the development of spination
occurs at a much earlier stage in stingrays (and batoids in general), and is usually
already present in small juveniles; we interpret the faint spination of the largest
specimen as abnormal for D. hypostigma sp.nov. because it is the only specimen with
any dermal denticles encountered thus far (another large female of 502mm DW and a
male of 455mm DW are completely devoid of denticles).
The confusion between D. say and D. hypostigma sp.nov. is due, at least in part, to
MIRANDA RIBEIRO (1907, 1923) and to the otherwise excellent account of BIGELOW
& SCHROEDER (1953). The latter authors included numerous southwestern Atlantic
specimens in their detailed descriptions of D. say, setting the stage for subsequent
misidentifications. Their material of “D. say” from the southwestern Atlantic may
have also included specimens of D. americana, according to their description of a
large male from Rio de Janeiro (615mm DW) with numerous enlarged denticles on
middisc and tail (BIGELOW & SCHROEDER, 1953). The enlarged denticles in this
specimen continue over the tail base to close to the caudal stings, which agrees more
with typical D. americana than with typical D. say. MIRANDA RIBEIRO’s (1907,
1923) descriptions of “D. say” are puzzling, as he credits this species as having a
better developed ventral tailfold compared to the dorsal one, which is certainly not
the case in D. hypostigma sp.nov. The dorsal tailfold always appears more prominent
in this species, even in poorly preserved material, due to its fleshier texture (even
though it is usually as tall as the ventral tailfold). His description, however, could
have been partially compiled from accounts based on North Atlantic material.
Dasyatis americana is promptly differentiated from D. hypostigma sp.nov. by
presenting a median dorsal and scapular rows (one on each side) of larger spinelike
denticles, in addition to smaller denticles in interorbital region and elsewhere (for
details, see BIGELOW & SCHROEDER, 1953), as well as a dorsal tailfold always
much smaller in height than ventral tailfold (Fig.11A), itself conspicuously well
developed. Furthermore, males of D. americana become sexually mature at only
about 500mm DW according to our material, whereas D. hypostigma sp.nov. males
have fully calcified claspers by 400mm DW. Tailless specimens of both species,
including small juveniles, can be distinguished on the basis of their dermal covering.
In addition to presenting a median dorsal and scapular rows of enlarged denticles
and both tailfolds well developed and terminating on same vertical on tail (Fig.11D),
Bol. Mus. Nac., N.S., Zool., Rio de Janeiro, n.516, p.1-24, abr.2004
16
H.R.S.SANTOS & M.R.CARVALHO
the highly distinctive D. marianae is distinguished from D. hypostigma sp.nov. by
having a reduced interorbital length due to its greater eye diameter (about equal to
interorbital distance, vs. eye diameter 33-48% of interorbital distance in D.
hypostigma sp.nov.). Dorsal and ventral coloration easily separates both species as
well. Dasyatis marianae has dark interspiracular, scapular and precaudal marks
dorsally, along with dark longitudinal bands on disc (these may fade in
preservative). Ventrally, this species is unique in having symmetrical dark blotches
at middisc, sometimes with a large central blotch (GOMES, ROSA & GADIG, 2000),
all of which are absent from D. hypostigma sp.nov.
The very unique D. centroura lacks a developed dorsal tailfold (a low dermal crest is
sometimes present; Fig.11B), and is endowed with a dense covering of small
denticles as well as enlarged tubercles and prominent spines on the dorsal surface
of disc and tail; it also has proportionally smaller eyes than other Western Atlantic
Dasyatis (e.g. BIGELOW & SCHROEDER, 1953). This species reaches over
2000mm in DW (McEACHRAN & FECHHELM, 1999; McEACHRAN & CARVALHO,
2002), whereas the maximum DW registered for D. hypostigma sp.nov. is 580mm,
and sexually matures at a much greater size than D. hypostigma sp.nov., at about
1300-1600mm in DW (both males and females).
The other Western Atlantic species of Dasyatis (D. sabina, D. guttata and D.
geijskesi ) are relatively long-snouted forms, especially the latter (preorbital snout
length over 35% of DW, vs. some 20% in adults of D. hypostigma sp.nov.). Dasyatis
sabina and D. geijskesi also have broadly rounded disc corners (subangular in D.
hypostigma sp.nov.). Dasyatis geijskesi is unique among Dasyatis species in
possessing extremely wide and anteroposteriorly short pelvic fins with acute corners,
sometimes visible in dorsal view projecting laterally beyond the disc; it shares with D.
acutirostra Nishida & Nakaya, 1988 from the East China Sea strongly concave
anterolateral disc margins and very small eyes [disc outline is slightly similar in the
Indo-Pacific D. zugei (Müller & Henle, 1841), a species lacking oral papillae]. Dasyatis
sabina, D. guttata, and D. geijskesi have a definite median row of enlarged dorsal
spines along midline and numerous interorbital denticles, and both D. guttata and D.
geijskesi have a broad median band of low, closely packed denticles on dorsal disc
(more developed in D. guttata). Dasyatis guttata and D. geijskesi also have very low
dorsal tailfolds or keels, and in D. sabina the ventral tailfold is distinctly more
developed than the dorsal one (Fig.11C, F and E, respectively).
The eight Eastern Atlantic species of Dasyatis (not counting D. centroura and D.
americana, both recorded from West Africa; COMPAGNO & ROBERTS, 1984; cf.
SÉRET, 1990) are readily distinguished from D. hypostigma sp.nov. Dasyatis
ukpam (Smith, 1863) is a thick-bodied, fresh water species with a rudimentary
caudal sting (when present), a somewhat oval disc with broadly rounded corners,
and an intense covering of enlarged spinelike denticles over entire dorsal disc area.
This species is sometimes placed in Urogymnus (COMPAGNO, 1999) due to its
similarity with the marine Urogymnus africanus (Bloch & Schneider, 1801, =? Raja
asperrimus Bloch & Schneider, 1801), which also has an intense shagreen of large
conical spines. Dasyatis margarita (Günther, 1870), D. garouaensis Stauch &
Blanc, 1962, and D. margaritella Compagno & Roberts, 1984 have numerous
denticles over middorsal region, forming a more or less demarcated band on disc
(especially D. margarita and D. margaritella). All three species present a pearl-spine
Bol. Mus. Nac., N.S., Zool., Rio de Janeiro, n.516, p.1-24, abr.2004
NEW SPECIES OF DASYATIS FROM THE SOUTHWESTERN ATLANTIC OCEAN
17
dorsally at disc center (sometimes absent in D. garouaensis, more developed in D.
margarita; also present in D. ukpam), as well as a faintly oval (not rhomboidal) disc
with broadly rounded corners and a protruding snout. Dasyatis garouaensis also
has flattened midscapular spines, and is restricted to fresh waters of western
Central Africa. Moreover, D. garouaensis, D. margarita, and D. margaritella have
only a low dorsal keel on tail (entirely absent in D. ukpam), whereas D. hypostigma
sp.nov. has a conspicuous dorsal tailfold (for a more detailed description of these
species, see GÜNTHER, 1870; COMPAGNO & ROBERTS, 1984; SÉRET, 1990;
CARVALHO, SÉRET & McEACHRAN, in press).
The Eastern Atlantic D. chrysonota (Smith, 1828) and D. marmorata (Steindachner,
1892) may represent only clinal extremes (COWLEY & COMPAGNO,1993), but are
nevertheless easily separated from D. hypostigma sp.nov. by their dorsal color
pattern, composed of irregular reticulate blue markings and blotches on a light
brown background, unique among Dasyatis species (see also KREFFT, 1968). In D.
rudis (Günther, 1870), the dorsal disc and most of tail are covered with small
denticles (larger ones also dorsally on tail), adults have over 100 tooth rows in each
jaw, and the dorsal tailfold is reduced to a small keel (GÜNTHER, 1870; FOWLER,
1936; SÉRET, 1990). D. pastinaca (Linnaeus, 1758) (including D. tortonesei
Capapé, 1977 as a junior synonym; SÉRET & McEACHRAN, 1986) is mostly devoid
of a dermal covering as in D. hypostigma sp.nov., but a midrow of enlarged
denticles with narrow bases occurs at disc midline, over scapular region, and over
tail anterior to caudal stings, as well as small, closely-set denticles posterior to
caudal stings; this species also has a proportionally longer dorsal tailfold and
shorter ventral tailfold compared to D. hypostigma sp.nov. (TORTONESE, 1956;
SÉRET, 1990; NOTARBARTOLO-DI-SCIARA & BIANCHI, 1998).
The tail region is distinctly thorny in D. brevicaudata and especially in D. thetidis
Ogilby, 1899, both very large Indo-Pacific species (ca. 2m in DW) present off South
Africa but so far unrecorded in the Eastern Atlantic (both species are described in
detail and illustrated in LAST & STEVENS, 1994). Dasyatis brevicaudata, as
mentioned above, may also have the coracoid furrow, but in addition to its thorny
tail, it is separated from D. hypostigma sp.nov. by presenting minute white spots
laterally on disc, a rudimentary dorsal tailfold, and a short tail that is broad at
base and tapers posteriorly as of level of stings (see also GARRICK, 1954;
WALLACE, 1967). The widespread Indo-Pacific D. kuhlii (Müller & Henle, 1841),
also known from eastern South Africa, has a reddish-brown dorsal background
with blue ocelli and scattered black spots, in addition to vertical bands on tail
(COMPAGNO & HEEMSTRA, 1984). Further characters that differentiate South
African Dasyatis from D. hypostigma sp.nov. are described in WALLACE (1967),
COMPAGNO, EBERT & SMALE (1989), COWLEY & COMPAGNO (1993), and
COMPAGNO (1995).
The dorsal tailfold of D. hypostigma sp.nov. superficially resembles that of D.
leylandi Last, 1987 from Australia and New Guinea in being relatively short
compared to the ventral tailfold, and in having steeply inclined anterior and
posterior margins. Both species are easily distinguished by color and spination: D.
leylandi has a reticulate dorsal aspect with a dark band across eyes and spiracles
and vertical dark bars on tail, and is endowed with closely packed nuchal
denticles. All Australian, southeast Asian, Western Pacific, and Indian Ocean
Bol. Mus. Nac., N.S., Zool., Rio de Janeiro, n.516, p.1-24, abr.2004
18
H.R.S.SANTOS & M.R.CARVALHO
species of Dasyatis are variously covered with denticles and spines over tail,
nuchal, scapular and middisc regions (with the exception of D. izuensis Nishida &
Nakaya, 1988), either have low dorsal tailfolds resembling keels or dorsal tailfolds
that are not as developed as ventral tailfolds, and present distinctive color patterns
on disc, snout and tail posterior to stings (NISHIDA & NAKAYA, 1990; LAST &
STEVENS, 1994; LAST & COMPAGNO, 2000).
Fig.11- Tailfolds of Western Atlantic species of Dasyatis, in lateral view. (A) D. americana, (B)
D. centroura, (C) D. guttata, (D) D. marianae, (E) D. sabina, (F) D. geisjkesi, (G) D. say, (H) D.
hypostigma sp.nov. (see also figure 10). (A-C) and (E-G) modified from BIGELOW &
SCHROEDER (1953), (D) and (H) original. Not to scale.
Bol. Mus. Nac., N.S., Zool., Rio de Janeiro, n.516, p.1-24, abr.2004
NEW SPECIES OF DASYATIS FROM THE SOUTHWESTERN ATLANTIC OCEAN
19
ADDITIONAL DASYATIS SPECIMENS EXAMINED
(only Western Atlantic material is listed)
Dasyatis americana (17 specimens) – USA - MARYLAND: Crisfield, USNM 88378
(holotype), , 931mm TL, 436mm DW. LOUSIANA: 28°39’N, 95°45’W, Gulf of
Mexico, MCZ 40776, 213mm DW (photograph of midventral disc only); 29°24’N,
94°25’W, Gulf of Mexico, MCZ 40772, 220mm DW (photograph of midventral disc
only). FLORIDA: Palmetto Key, AMNH 44086 (2), , 520mm TL, 179mm DW,
446mm TL, 160mm DW; AMNH uncatalogued, , 611mm TL, 235mm DW.
BAHAMAS - NORTH BIMINI: East side of North Lagoon, AMNH 74722, , 895mm
TL, 378mm DW. BRAZIL - RIO GRANDE DO NORTE: Atol das Rocas, MZUSP 9925,
, 667mm TL, 411mm DW. ALAGOAS: Maceió, Lagoa Mundaí, MZUSP 28734, ,
615mm TL, 178mm DW. RIO DE JANEIRO: Búzios, Praia de Manguinhos, MNRJ
11232, , 715mm TL, 358mm DW; Angra dos Reis, MZUSP 9916, , 856mm TL,
343mm DW; MZUSP 12757, , 690mm TL, 190mm DW; MZUSP uncatalogued, ,
630mm TL, 194mm DW. SÃO PAULO: Canal de São Sebastião: LIRP 1554, ,
650mm DW, F.Z.Gibran; LIRP 1555, , 595mm DW; LIRP 1556, , 540mm DW;
LIRP 1557, , 500mm DW.
Dasyatis centroura (15 specimens) – USA - NORTH CAROLINA: 35o23’N, 76o26’W,
AMNH 49556 (4), , 801mm TL, 282mm DW, , 815mm TL, 360mm DW, 789mm
TL, 298mm DW, 775mm TL, 283mm DW. SOUTH CAROLINA: 33o32’N, 77o59’W,
AMNH 49555 (2), , 889mm TL, 308mm DW, 864mm TL, 350mm DW. FLORIDA:
29o36’-29o33’N, 81o06’-81o05’W, AMNH 76592, , 727mm TL, 233mm DW.
BRAZIL - RIO DE JANEIRO: UERJ 785, , 574mm TL, 184mm DW. SÃO PAULO:
Santos: NUPEC 1775, , 1300mm TL, 560mm DW; NUPEC 1776, , 950mm TL,
380mm DW; NUPEC 1777, , 1145mm TL, 460mm DW; NUPEC 1778 (2), ,
1133mm TL, 560mm DW, 880mm TL, 360mm DW; NUPEC 1780, , 1180mm TL,
515mm DW; NUPEC 1781, , 133mm TL, 560mm DW.
Dasyatis geijskesi (eight specimens) – SURINAM: NNM 20487 (holotype), ,
340mm DW. BRAZIL - AMAPÁ: 02o32’N, 49o17’W, USNM uncatalogued, ,
1109mm TL, 294mm DW. PARÁ: Baía de Marajó: MPEG 3400, , 580mm TL,
296mm DW; MPEG 3401, , 995mm TL, 204mm DW; MPEG 3402, , 1420mm
TL, 326mm DW; MPEG 3404, , 950mm TL, 243mm DW; NUPEC 1814, ,
2230mm TL, 570mm DW; UERJ 1980, , 2166mm TL, 550mm DW.
Dasyatis guttata (31 specimens) – GUATEMALA - PUERTO BARRAS: Baía de
Amatique, AMNH uncatalogued, , 828mm TL, 228mm DW. BRAZIL MARANHÃO: Pagé, Ilha São Luis, Estreito de Coqueiro, MZUSP 72816, , 1298mm
TL, 500mm DW. PARÁ: Baía de Marajó: MPEG 2274, , 1227mm TL, 419mm DW;
MPEG 2275, , 1719mm TL, 428mm DW; MPEG 2325, , 821mm TL, 269mm
DW; MPEG 3406, , 1117mm TL, 270mm DW; MPEG 3407, , 596mm TL,
343mm DW. SERGIPE: Aracajú, MZUSP 72817, , 951mm TL, 250mm DW;
Pirambú: UERJ 1086, , 1130mm TL, 328mm DW; UERJ 1087, , 1300mm TL,
391mm DW. BAHIA: Baía de Todos os Santos, MZUSP 72815, , 785mm TL,
246mm DW; Município de Maragogipe, Barra do Paraguaçu, MZUSP 72820 (4), ,
Bol. Mus. Nac., N.S., Zool., Rio de Janeiro, n.516, p.1-24, abr.2004
20
H.R.S.SANTOS & M.R.CARVALHO
775mm TL, 233mm DW, 646mm TL, 190mm DW, 701mm TL, 195mm DW, ,
722mm TL, 221mm DW; Caravelas, Praia do Couraço, UERJ 738, , 848mm TL,
285mm DW; Município de Prado, UERJ 1088 (2), , 845mm TL, 256mm DW, ,
852mm TL, 229mm DW. RIO DE JANEIRO: Angra dos Reis, MZUSP 3669, ,
553mm TL, 190mm DW; MNRJ 571, , 1174mm TL, 387mm DW, “BRAZIL”, no
further data; MNRJ 600 (2), , 621mm TL, 226mm DW, 734mm TL, 230mm DW,
no data; Mangaratiba, Muriqui: AC.UERJ 1220, , 1125mm TL, 415mm DW;
AC.UERJ 1221, , 800mm DW (damaged tail); AC.UERJ 1222, , 1000mm TL,
350mm DW; AC.UERJ 1223, , 1170mm TL, 405mm DW. SÃO PAULO: Santos,
MNRJ 602, , 862mm TL, 261mm DW; MNRJ 5712, , 699mm TL, 205mm DW,
“BRAZIL”, no further data; MNRJ 15162, , 1199mm TL, 232mm DW, no data;
MNRJ 15162, , 769mm TL, 295mm DW, no data; Canal de São Sebastião, LIRP
1558, , 291mm DW, F.Z.Gibran.
Dasyatis marianae (nine specimens) – BRAZIL - CEARÁ: Fortaleza, Mucuripe,
MNRJ 13454 (paratype), , 223mm TL, 110mm DW, IV/1945. RIO GRANDE DO
NORTE: Natal, AMNH 3882 (paratype), , 520mm TL, 264mm DW, E.C.Starks col.,
1911. PARAÍBA: Cabedelo, UFPB 663 (paratype), , 264mm TL, 143mm DW,
G.Cannella col., 24/VII/1980; João Pessoa, Manaíra: UFPB 2661 (paratype), ,
294mm TL, 151mm DW, R.S.Rosa and C.Murilo cols., 23/XI/1988; UERJ 1700
(paratype), , 484mm TL, 247mm DW. PERNAMBUCO: Recife, Município de
Conde, Praia de Tabatinga, MNRJ 7967 (holotype), , 433mm TL, 235mm DW,
H.Berla col., 13/X/1944; MNRJ 7418 (paratype), , 442mm TL, 236mm DW, same
data as MNRJ 7967, but collected on 14/VIII/1944; Itamaracá, Praia de Jaguaribe,
UEFS 472 (paratype), , 233mm TL, 125mm DW, B.G.A.Albuquerque and
P.R.D.Lopes cols., 7/XII/1991. BAHIA: Município de Vera Cruz, Ilha de Itaparica,
Praia de Aratuba, UEFS 106, , 246mm TL, 149mm DW, N.A.Coelho col.,
11/XII/1988.
Dasyatis sabina (five specimens) – USA - TEXAS: Port Aransas, Corpus Christi Bay,
AMNH 96784 (3), , 252mm TL, 189mm DW, , 557mm TL, 230mm DW, 372mm
TL, 170mm DW. ALABAMA: Gulf of Mexico, vicinity of Dauphin Island, AMNH
98229, , 628mm TL, 251mm DW. FLORIDA: Gulf of Mexico, Pine Island, CAS
35485, , 235mm TL, 87mm DW.
Dasyatis say (five specimens) – USA - VIRGINIA: 37o18’N, 75o40’W, AMNH 75717,
, 491mm TL, 121mm DW; VIMS uncatalogued, , 172mm TL, 73mm DW, no
data; AMNH uncatalogued, , 900mm DW, no data. FLORIDA: Volusia, MCZ
36402, 275mm DW (photograph of midventral disc only); 28°14’N, 80°31’W, MCZ
49018, 210mm DW (photograph of midventral disc only).
ACKNOWLEDGMENTS
Numerous collection managers and curators provided material, work space or
assistance in various ways related to this project, and are sincerely thanked for their
hospitality: S.A.Schaefer, M.L.J.Stiassny, B.Brown, and R.Arrindell (AMNH); B.Séret,
P.Pruvost, and G.Duhamel (MNHN); G.W.Nunan, D.F.Moraes Jr., L.R.G.Rodrigues,
Bol. Mus. Nac., N.S., Zool., Rio de Janeiro, n.516, p.1-24, abr.2004
NEW SPECIES OF DASYATIS FROM THE SOUTHWESTERN ATLANTIC OCEAN
21
and C.Amorim (MNRJ); M.Parrent (MRAC), J.L.Figueiredo and O.Oyakawa
(MZUSP); A.C.Gill, D.J.Siebert, O.Crimmen, and P.Campbell (NHM); M.Oijen (NNH),
L.R.Malabarba, C.Lucena, and Z.M.Lucena (MCP); M.M.Gonzalez and C.M.Cunha
(NUPEC); J.D.McEachran (TCWC); P.Lopes (UEFS); U.L.Gomes, V.Gallo, P.J.A.Rego,
and L.F.L.Fonseca (UERJ); L.R.Parenti, L.Palmer, L.Knapp, and J.Finan (USNM);
and H.Wilkens and G.Schulze (ZMH). K.Hartel and C.Kenaley (MCZ) kindly
provided information on North American D. say and D. americana. U.L.Gomes is
thanked for discussions concerning the identification of Dasyatis species in
general, and for generously sharing data. M.R.Carvalho is particularly grateful to
J.D.McEachran for his input and incentive. F.A.Bockmann, R.Benine, and Murilo
de Carvalho (LIRP) are thanked for assistance in various ways. Financial support to
M.R.Carvalho was provided by the Fundação de Amparo à Pesquisa do Estado de
São Paulo (FAPESP Proc. 02/06459-0).
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MUSEU NACIONAL
Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro
Quinta da Boa Vista, São Cristóvão
20940-040 – Rio de Janeiro, RJ, Brasil
Impresso com apoio da
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