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nd
2 International Workshop -­‐ Symposium “Responsible Intervention in the Environment” Mining Activities, Refineries, Pollution Control and Remediation Strategies. Índice
1. Carta de Apresentação.........................................................................................03
2. Programação....... ................................................................................................04
2.1. Programa Simples..........................................................................................04
2.2. Programa Detalhado.......... ...........................................................................06
3. Resumos...............................................................................................................10
3.1. Convidados........... ........................................................................................10
3.1.1.
Resumo Abstract 014 .............................. .................................10
3.1.2.
Resumo Abstract 013 ........................................... ....................12
3.1.3.
Resumo Abstract 032 .......................................... .....................13
3.1.4.
Resumo Abstract 030 .......................................... .....................14
3.1.5.
Resumo Abstract 033 ........................................ .......................14
3.1.6.
Resumo Abstract 017 ....................................... ........................15
3.1.7.
Resumo Abstract 034 ..................................... ..........................21
3.1.8.
Resumo Abstract 015 ........................ .......................................22
3.1.9.
Resumo Abstract 016 ........................................ .......................23
3.2. Participantes....... ................................................. .........................................24
3.2.1.
Resumo Abstract 001 ................................... ............................24
3.2.2.
Resumo Abstract 002 .................................. .............................26
3.2.3.
Resumo Abstract 003 ................................... ............................27
3.2.4.
Resumo Abstract 004 ................................. ..............................30
3.2.5.
Resumo Abstract 005 ................................................ ...............31
3.2.6.
Resumo Abstract 006 ............................................ ...................33
3.2.7.
Resumo Abstract 007 ............................................ ...................35
3.2.8.
Resumo Abstract 008 ............................................ ...................37
3.2.9.
Resumo Abstract 009 ............................................ ...................40
3.2.10.
Resumo Abstract 010 ............................................ ...................42
3.2.11.
Resumo Abstract 011 ............................................. ..................45
3.2.12.
Resumo Abstract 012 ............................................. ..................47
3.2.13.
Resumo Abstract 018 ............................................. ..................48
3.2.14.
Resumo Abstract 019 ............................................. ..................51
3.2.15.
Resumo Abstract 020 ............................................ ...................54
3.2.16.
Resumo Abstract 021 ............................. ..................................56
3.2.17.
Resumo Abstract 022 ........................... ....................................59
3.2.18.
Resumo Abstract 023 ............................. ..................................61
3.2.19.
Resumo Abstract 024 ............................ ...................................63
3.2.20.
Resumo Abstract 025 ............................ ...................................65
3.2.21.
Resumo Abstract 026 ............................ ...................................66
3.2.22.
Resumo Abstract 027 .............................. .................................67
3.2.23.
Resumo Abstract 028 ............................... ................................68
3.2.24.
Resumo Abstract 029 ............................... ................................69
3.2.25.
Resumo Abstract 031 ................................ ...............................72
3.2.26.
Resumo Abstract 034 ................................. ..............................74
4. Lista de Autores .................................................................................................. 76
IFNMG – Pirapora – MG – Brazil – August 24th – 30th 2014
2 nd
2 International Workshop -­‐ Symposium “Responsible Intervention in the Environment” Mining Activities, Refineries, Pollution Control and Remediation Strategies. 3 1. Carta de Apresentação
Pirapora, 24.8.2014 Prezados participantes, O evento, 2nd International Workshop –Symposium -­‐ “Responsible Intervention in the Environment” a ser realizado em Pirapora no auditório do Instituto Federal de Norte de Minas objetiva alcançar vários propósitos: -­‐ i Informar na forma de apresentações sobre e estado de arte da mineração sustentável e a preservação do meio ambiente; -­‐ Suportar discussão frutífera com representantes de várias instituições nacional e internacionais como o estado de arte; -­‐ Definir e informar as possibilidades de contribuições mais efetivas para o desenvolvimento da interação entre mineração e sustentabilidade no nosso país e no mundo; -­‐ Criar um fórum parta a troca de informações de ponta entre profissionais e estudantes; -­‐ Permitir a apresentação de assuntos relacionados em pôsteres e de forma oral. Mostrar-­‐se-­‐á uma eficaz oportunidade na forma de mesa redonda, cursos de curta duração e discussão após as apresentações numa oportunidade única de trocar mutuamente entre profissionais, acadêmicos e alunos experiências, possibilidades e problemáticas dos assuntos relacionados a impactos e sustentabilidade. O evento conta com a participação de especialistas do Brasil, da França e da Holanda com apoio logístico e financeiro da FAPEMIG, da UFMG, da UNIMONTES e do IFNM. O grupo IRSIS e a rede GOAL-­‐Brasil, pretende realizar estes eventos a cada quatro anos convidando palestrantes altamente qualificados e ligados aos assuntos tratados nos eventos. Este atual encontro científico em Pirapora, após o primeiro em Belo Horizonte em 2011, focaliza a mineração sustentável, recuperação de metais, tratamento de rejeitos e recuperação de áreas degradas para avaliar as possibilidades de crescimento em equilíbrio com as necessidades humanas no sentido econômico e qualidade de vida. Acreditamos que as ciências da terra, a mineração, o beneficiamento e a indústria necessitam desenvolver de forma urgente tanto melhores métodos quanto um melhor entendimento e um entrosamento intenso com a sociedade para contrabalancear os efeitos ocorridos desde o início da exploração até hoje, os impactos dos processos da exploitação e chegar até uma recuperação ambiental completa após o encerramento de uma atividade mineraria. Esperamos que este evento contribua um pouco neste árduo e longo caminho de procura e pesquisa. Os Organizadores IFNMG – Pirapora – MG – Brazil – August 24th – 30th 2014
nd
2 International Workshop -­‐ Symposium “Responsible Intervention in the Environment” Mining Activities, Refineries, Pollution Control and Remediation Strategies. 2. Programação
2.1.
Programa Simples
2nd International Workshop -Symposium
Responsible Intervention in the Environment
Location:
Pirapora (MG) – Instituto Federal do Norte de Minas Gerais – IFNMG (Rua Dr. Humberto Malard, 1355, Santos
Dumont and Universidade Estadual de Montes Claros – UNIMONTES
24.8.2014 – Sunday
Arriving of the participants
Transfer from Montes Claros airport
Bus from Diamantina, Belo Horizonte and Montes Claros
19:00 - 22:00 - Welcome
Ice-Breaker Party - Restaurant "Kaka's Bar" - Avenida Salmeron, 572, Centro - Pirapora
25.8.2014 – Monday
8:00- 9:00 - Registration / Reception Coffee and Poster Exhibition
9:00- 10:00 - Official Opening Conference
Invited Speaker
10:00 - 11:00 - Prof. Dr. David Huguenot (UPE): Implementation of treatment processes for polluted soils
Invited Speaker
11:00 – 12:00 - MSc. Manivannan Sethurajan (UPE): Leaching and recovery of metals from metallic
industrial sludges, dusts and residues – A review
12:00 - 14:00 Lunch
Invited Speaker
14:00 – 15:40 - Prof. Dr. Piet Lens (UNESCO-IHE): Scarcity of metals and rare earth elements in global
market
15:40 - 16:00 - Coffee Break
Invited Speaker
16:00 - 18:00 - Prof. Dr. Piet Lens (UNESCO-IHE): Novel biological engineering processes for heavy metal
removal and recovery.
18:00 - 19:00 - Conference " GOAL Brazil Meeting: experiences and perspectives"
26.8.2014 - Tuesday
Invited Speaker
8:30 – 9:20h - Profa. Dra. Ana Rosa Passos Pereira (UFMG/UNI)- Óxidos de Ferro Aplicados à Catálise Ambiental.
Invited Speaker
9:20 - 10:00 h – M.Sc. Eduardo Paim Viglio (CPRM) - O Projeto Geoquimica MultiUso no Estado de Minas Gerais .
10:00 - 10:20 Coffee Break
Invited Speaker
10:20 - 11:00 - Prof. Dr. Alexandre Sylvio – Environmental problematic, use of residual matters in small
scale and extensive agriculture.
IFNMG – Pirapora – MG – Brazil – August 24th – 30th 2014
4 nd
2 International Workshop -­‐ Symposium “Responsible Intervention in the Environment” Mining Activities, Refineries, Pollution Control and Remediation Strategies. Invited Speaker
11:00 – 12:00 - Prof. Dr. Bernardo Gontijo – Análise ambiental e Geografia - elos desejáveis para o
entendimento da dimensão ambiental da ocupação humana do espaço.
12:00 - 14:00 Lunch
Invited Speaker
14:00 – 15:00 Prof. Dr. Luiz Arimura Figueiredo – Use of bioremediation for decontamination of degraded
industrial/mining areas.
Invited Speaker
15:00 -15:40 - Prof. Adolf Heinrich Horn - Use of mining waste in agriculture. Evaluation of nutrient
liberation and mineral-chemical transformation during the field test. Example from emerald mining
places in Minas Gerais, Brazil.
15:40 – 16:00 Coffee break – Oral session
16:00 - 18:00 - Conference I: “Responsible Intervention in the Environment:mining activities”
Chairman: Prof. M.Sc. Kátia Carvalho / Prof. Dr. Piet Lens
27.8.2014 – Wednesday
09:00 - 10:00 - Conference II: “Responsible Intervention in the Environment:remediation strategies”
Chairman: Prof. M.Sc. Wallace Magalhães Trindade / M.Sc. Manivannan Sethurajan
10:00 - 10:15 Coffee break – Oral session
10:15 - 12:00 - Conference III: “Responsible Intervention in the Environment:pollution control"
Chairman: M.Sc. Elizêne Veloso Ribeiro / Prof. Dr. David Huguenot
12:00 - 14:00 Lunch
14:00 - 15:30 - Conference IV: “Responsible Intervention in the Environment:soils and sediments”
Chairman: Dr. Juliana Alves dos Santos Oliveira / Prof. Dr. Luiz Arimura Figueiredo
15:30 - 15:45 Coffee Break - Oral session
15:45 - 17:00 - Conference IV: “Responsible Intervention in the Environment:soils and sediments”
Chairman: Dr. Juliana Alves dos Santos Oliveira / Prof. Dr. Luiz Arimura Figueiredo
17:00 – 19:00 Group Meetings - Meeting IRSES
28.8.2014 - Thursday
8:00
Excursion to Três Marias e Paracatu
Guided by: H. Baggio, Juliana A. S. Oliveira and A. H. Horn
Special activities in Três Marias of IRSIS Members
Others: Visit to points of morphological and geological interest
12:30 – 14:00 Lunch
14:00 Trip to Paracatu with several stops
29.8.2014 – Friday
8:00 – 12:00 - Visit at RPM Goldmine in Paracatu
12:00: 13:00 – Lunch
13:00 – 17:00 Return to Pirapora
30.8.2014 – Saturday
Tour on board of Steamship Benjamin Guimarães (morning; private) if possible due to water level of SFRiver
Transfer to Montes Claros airport and return of the participants (during the day)
IFNMG – Pirapora – MG – Brazil – August 24th – 30th 2014
5 nd
2 International Workshop -­‐ Symposium “Responsible Intervention in the Environment” Mining Activities, Refineries, Pollution Control and Remediation Strategies. 2.2.
Detailed Program
2nd International Workshop -Symposium
Responsible Intervention in the Environment
Location:
Pirapora (MG) – Instituto Federal do Norte de Minas Gerais – IFNMG (Rua Dr. Humberto Malard,
1355, Santos Dumont and Universidade Estadual de Montes Claros – UNIMONTES
Detailed program
24.8.2014 – Sunday
Arriving of the participants
Transfer from Montes Claros airport
Bus from Diamantina, Belo Horizonte and Montes Claros
19:00 - 22:00 - Welcome
Ice-Breaker Party - Restaurant "Kaka's Bar" - Avenida Salmeron, 572 Centro - Pirapora
25.8.2014 – Monday
8:00- 9:00 - Registration / Reception Coffee and Poster Exhibition.
9:00- 10:00 - Official Opening Conference
Prof. Dr. Adolf Heinrich Horn - (UFMG)
Prof. Julio Cesar Pereira Braga (IFNMG)
Prof. Dr. Luiz Arimura Figueiredo (UNIMONTES)
Prof. Dr. David Huguenot (UPE)
Prof. Dr. Piet Lens (UNESCO-IHE)
Dr. Juliana Alves dos Santos Oliveira (GOAL - UFMG)
Invited Speaker
10:00 - 11:00 - Prof. Dr. David Huguenot (UPE): Implementation of treatment processes for
polluted soils
Invited Speaker
11:00 – 12:00 - MSc. Manivannan Sethurajan (UPE): Leaching and recovery of metals from
metallic industrial sludges, dusts and residues – A review
12:00 - 14:00 Lunch
Invited Speaker
14:00 – 15:40 - Prof. Dr. Piet Lens (UNESCO-IHE): Scarcity of metals and rare earth elements in
global market
15:40 - 16:00 - Coffee Break
Invited Speaker
16:00 - 18:00 - Prof. Dr. Piet Lens (UNESCO-IHE): Novel biological engineering processes for
heavy metal removal and recovery.
18:00 - 19:00 - Conference " GOAL Brazil Meeting: experiences and perspectives"
Coordinator: Juliana Alves dos Santos Oliveira (GOAL - UFMG)
Elizêne Veloso Ribeiro - UFMG
Wallace Magalhães Trindade - UFMG
Ana Rosa Passos Pereira - UFMG/UNI
Hernando Baggio Filho - UFVJM
IFNMG – Pirapora – MG – Brazil – August 24th – 30th 2014
6 nd
2 International Workshop -­‐ Symposium “Responsible Intervention in the Environment” 7 Mining Activities, Refineries, Pollution Control and Remediation Strategies. 26.8.2014 - Tuesday
Invited Speaker
8:30 – 9:20h - Profa. Dra. Ana Rosa Passos Pereira (UFMG/UNI)- Óxidos de Ferro Aplicados à
Catálise Ambiental.
Invited Speaker
9:20 - 10:00 h – M.Sc. Eduardo Paim Viglio (CPRM) - O Projeto Geoquimica MultiUso no Estado
de Minas Gerais
10:00 - 10:20 Coffee Break
Invited Speaker
10:20 - 11:00 - Prof. Dr. Alexandre Sylvio – Environmental problematic, use of residual matters in
small scale and extensive agriculture.
Invited Speaker
11:00 – 12:00 - Prof. Dr. Bernardo Gontijo – Análise ambiental e Geografia - elos desejáveis para
o entendimento da dimensão ambiental da ocupação humana do espaço.
12:00 - 14:00 Lunch
Invited Speaker
14:00 – 15:00 Prof. Dr. Luiz Arimura Figueiredo – Use of bioremediation for decontamination of
degraded industrial/mining areas.
Invited Speaker
15:00 -15:40 - Prof. Adolf Heinrich Horn - Use of mining waste in agriculture. Evaluation of
nutrient liberation and mineral-chemical transformation during the field test. Example from
emerald mining places in Minas Gerais, Brazil.
15:40 – 16:00 Coffee break
16:00 - 18:00 - Conference I: “Responsible Intervention in the Environment:
Activities”
Chairman: Prof. M.Sc. Kátia Carvalho / Prof. Dr. Piet Lens
mining
ABSTRACT_ 001 - 16:00 - 16:15- “Physical chemistry Analysis of refractory green brick with filito”
ABSTRACT_ 002 - 16:15 - 16:30- “Hydrographic survey of Cuiabá River - except Santo Antônio do
Leverger / Barao de Melgaço-MT”
ABSTRACT_ 003 - 16:30 - 16:45- “The potter industry in the State of Mato Grosso: Current situation
and prospects”
ABSTRACT_ 004 - 16:45- 17:00- “Rocks and ornamental finishes in the State of Mato Grosso – a
study of potential”
ABSTRACT_ 005 - 17:00- 17:15- “Composting with agricultural use of kimberlitic rock. Project alto
k.(potassium)”
17:15 -18:00 - Final Discussions
27.8.2014 – Wednesday
IFNMG – Pirapora – MG – Brazil – August 24th – 30th 2014
nd
2 International Workshop -­‐ Symposium “Responsible Intervention in the Environment” 8 Mining Activities, Refineries, Pollution Control and Remediation Strategies. 09:00 - 10:00 - Conference II: “Responsible Intervention in the Environment:
remediation
Strategies”
Chairman: Prof. M.Sc. Wallace Magalhães Trindade / M.Sc. Manivannan Sethurajan
ABSTRACT_ 012 - 09:00 -09:15- “Chemical, mineralogical, toxicity and leaching characteristics of
Zn-metallurgical sludges and residues”
ABSTRACT_ 031 - 9:15 - 09:30- “análise geoquímica de superfície aplicada em áreas de
sepultamentos pré-históricos: sítio arqueológico cemitério da caixa d’água-Buritizeiro-MG ”
ABSTRACT_ 006 - 09:30 -09:45- “Penicillium brasilianum as an innovative agent to be used in the
bioremediation of metallic ions present as contaminants of aqueous matrixes”
09:45 -10:00 - Final Discussions
10:00 - 10:15 Coffee break
10:00 - 12:00 - Conference III: “Responsible Intervention in the Environment:
Control"
Chairman: M.Sc. Elizêne Veloso Ribeiro / Prof. Dr. David Huguenot
pollution
ABSTRACT_ 008 - 10:15- 10:30- “Circulation of atmospheric particles from industrial emissions in
Pirapora- MG: satellites images 1984 – 2011”
ABSTRACT_ 018- 10:30 - 10:45- “Metodologia de análise de partículas atmosféricas em micrografias
utilizando o program Quantikov: resultados preliminares”
ABSTRACT_ 022 - 10:45 - 11:00- “Evaluation of the evolution of degradation state of the spring of
Pau Preto stream located in Montes Claros- Minas Gerais”
ABSTRACT_ 010- 11:00 - 11:15 - Análise da qualidade geoquímica ambiental e biológica das águas
superficiais do Córrego da Prata no município de Diamantina-MG
ABSTRACT_ 025 - 11:15 - 11:30- “Avaliação da qualidade ambiental da água superficial do Córrego
Quatro Vinténs no município de Diamantina – MG.
ABSTRACT_ 020- 11:30 - 11:45 - Análise do clima da região do Norte de Minas: um estudo de caso
sobre a crise da água no município de Janaúba- MG”.
11:45 - 12:00 - Final Discussions
12:00 - 14:00 Lunch
14:00 - 17:00 - Conference IV: “Responsible Intervention in the Environment: soils and
sediments”
Chairman: Dr. Juliana Alves dos Santos Oliveira / Prof. Dr. Luiz Arimura Figueiredo
ABSTRACT_ 011 - 14:00 - 14:15 - “Analysis of mineralogical and chemical elements to assessing
the quality of bottom sediments in the buffer zone of the Caparaó National Park –MG”
ABSTRACT_ 019 - 14:15 - 14:30- “Genesis and classification of the red eutrophic soils of the north of
Minas Gerais under deciduous Forest”
ABSTRACT_ 021 - 14:30 - 14:45- “Evaluation of physical analysis as an indicator of pasture
degradation in soils of municipality of São João da Ponte-MG”
ABSTRACT_ 023 - 14:45- 15:00- “Quality evaluation of soil under grazing to 20 years based on the
chemical attributes in Janaúba- north of Minas Gerais”
ABSTRACT_ 024 - 15:00 - 15:15- “Chemical characterization as indicator of pasture degradation in
soils of São João da Ponte, susceptible to desertification”
15:15 - 15:30 - Final Discussions
15:30 - 15:45 Coffee Break
Conference IV: “Responsible Intervention in the Environment: soils and sediments”
Chairman: Dr. Juliana Alves dos Santos Oliveira / Prof. Dr. Luiz Arimura Figueiredo
IFNMG – Pirapora – MG – Brazil – August 24th – 30th 2014
nd
2 International Workshop -­‐ Symposium “Responsible Intervention in the Environment” Mining Activities, Refineries, Pollution Control and Remediation Strategies. ABSTRACT_ 026 - 15:45 - 16:00- “Soil fertility of Mato Verde MG”
ABSTRACT_ 027 - 16:00 - 16:15- “Differentiation of soils under Cerrado originating in Arcósia”
ABSTRACT_ 028 - 16:15- 16:30 - “Identification of plants occurring in the area PH9”
ABSTRACT_ 029- 16:30- 16:45 - “Agronomic characterization of soil in the area PH9”
ABSTRACT_ 007 - 17:30- 17:45- “Heavy metals and specimens of plant development at area ph9,
Votorantim Metais in Três Marias / MG”
16:45 - 17:00 - Final Discussions
17:00 – 19:00 Group Meetings - Meeting IRSES
28.8.2014 - Thursday
8:00
Excursion to Três Marias e Paracatu
Guided by: H. Baggio, Juliana A. S. Oliveira and A. H. Horn
Special activities in Três Marias of IRSIS Members
Others: Visit to points of morphological and geological interest
12:30 – 14:00 Lunch
14:00 Trip to Paracatu with several stops
29.8.2014 – Friday
8:00 – 12:00 - Visit at RPM Goldmine in Paracatu
12:00: 13:00 – Lunch
13:00 – 17:00 Return to Pirapora
30.8.2014 – Saturday
Tour on board of Steamship Benjamin Guimarães (morning; private) if possible due to water level of
SF-River
Transfer to Montes Claros airport and return of the participants (during the day)
3. Resumos
IFNMG – Pirapora – MG – Brazil – August 24th – 30th 2014
9 nd
2 International Workshop -­‐ Symposium “Responsible Intervention in the Environment” Mining Activities, Refineries, Pollution Control and Remediation Strategies. 3.1.
10 Resumos Convidados
3.1.1.
Resumo/Abstract 014
Treatment of co-contaminated soils by biological and chemical methods
,
David HUGUENOT*, Ana-Carolina AGNELLO* **, Emmanuel MOUSSET*, Eric D. van HULEBUSCH*, Mehmet A.
OTURAN*, Giovanni ESPOSITO**
* Université Paris-Est, Laboratoire Géomatériaux et Environnement (LGE), EA 4508, 5 bd Descartes, 77454 Marne-la-Vallée
Cedex 2, France.
** Università degli Studi di Cassino e del Lazio Meridionale, Dipartimento di Ingegneria Civile e Meccanica, Via Di Biasio 43, 03043
Cassino,( FR), Italia.
Keywords: Soil pollution, phytoremediation, soil washing, hydrocarbons, heavy metals,
The contamination of soils with heavy metals (HMs) and total petroleum hydrocarbons (TPHs) is a diffuse
environmental issue of significant relevance. The persistence of these compounds in soils is an issue of
significant public, scientific and regulatory concern because of their persistence in the environment,
potential toxicity, mutagenicity, carcinogenicity and ability to be bio accumulated and bio concentrated.
Phytoremediation can be defined as the use of plants to remove pollutants from the environment or to
make them harmless, and such strategy can be used to deal with HM and TPH contaminated soils (Salt et
al., 1998). For the remediation of HMs, plants have a central role through the immobilization, extraction
and/or volatilization of HMs (Salt et al., 1995). In contrast, despite the ability of plants to detoxify some
xenobiotics, compared to microorganisms they only play a secondary role in the direct degradation of
organic chemicals (Gerhardt et al., 2009). Plant promoted biodegradation is the main contribution of
remediation enhancement of soil TPHs in the presence of vegetation. For this reason, the role of the
rhizosphere is critical as root exudates may enhance the biodegradation of organic compounds by
stimulating microbial growth and activity at the root level (Kuiper et al., 2004). A key factor limiting the
phytoremediation efficiency of both HMs and TPHs is the low bioavailability of these contaminants (Semple
et al., 2004). To increase the ability of pollutants to be transferred from a soil compartment to plants and
microorganisms, different amendments can be used and as a consequence, it is possible to improve the
effectiveness of the phytoremediation process (Evangelou et al., 2007; Gao et al., 2007).
Since 2007, French policy on polluted sites is strongly oriented towards the use and operation of in situ
treatment methods. In situ treatment of TPH contaminated soils could be achieved by soil flushing (Lee et
al., 2005). However, this remediation approach is still being developed by companies as it does not require
soils excavation, allowing this technique still to be more cost-effective than ex situ processes. Surfactants
are chemical compounds frequently used for the extraction of hydrocarbons from soil. Their amphiphilic
properties are useful to promote the mobilization of hydrophobic compounds sorbed onto soil particles.
Non-ionic surfactants like Tween® 80 are particularly of interest when dealing with hydrocarbons.
The present work assessed the phytoremediation potential of alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.) in a multicontaminated soil as well as the effects of citric acid and Tween® 80 (polyethylene glycol sorbitan
monooleate), applied individually and in combination, on the phytoremediation process. It also aims at
implementing an innovative combination of soil column washing with Tween® 80 and EF treatment of the
collected leachates. The washing of TPH-contaminated soil with Tween® 80 has been studied using a soil
column experimental set up. The experimental configuration is close to what could be used on the site
where the contaminated soil was sampled. The collected leachates containing TPH were then studied for
their degradation features with EF as an advanced electrochemical technique. Finally, the biodegradability
of the treated leachates was also monitored.
IFNMG – Pirapora – MG – Brazil – August 24th – 30th 2014
nd
2 International Workshop -­‐ Symposium “Responsible Intervention in the Environment” 11 Mining Activities, Refineries, Pollution Control and Remediation Strategies. The results showed that alfalfa plants could tolerate and grow in the multi-contaminated soils. Over the 90day experimental time, shoot and root biomass increased and negligible plant mortality arose. Heavy
metals were uptaken by alfalfa to a limited extent, and mostly by plant roots. Heavy metal concentration in
plant tissues were in the following order: Zn > Cu > Pb > Ni. Alfalfa rhizosphere effect was manifest,
enhancing both microbial population (alkane degraders) and activity (lipase enzyme), with rhizosphere
effects of 28.11 and 2.04, respectively, after 90 days. Soil amendments did not significantly enhance plant
metal concentration or total uptake. By contrast, the combination of citric acid and Tween® 80 significantly
improved alkane degraders (5.3-fold increase) and lipase activity (1.0-fold increase) in the rhizosphere of
amended plants, after 30 days of experiment.
Regarding the soil washing strategy, the combination of soil washing and eluates treatment was
successfully achieved considering a quasi-complete mineralization of hydrocarbons present in the solution
after washing. The use of Tween® 80 clearly enhanced the extraction of diesel hydrocarbons and
particularly the heaviest fractions. Concentrations in eluates reached values higher than 900 mg L-1 with a
washing solution containing 5% of Tween® 80. Nevertheless, the global efficiency of the treatment process
was about of 1% as the total amount of exported hydrocarbons was of 936 mg. The complete
mineralization of the hydrocarbons in solution was not related to the toxicity of the solution which increased
throughout the degradation experiment. Meanwhile the biodegradability of the solution, which increased
during time reaching a maximum of 20% revealing further potential biodegradation features.
References
Evangelou, M.W.H., Ebel, M. & Schaeffer, A. (2007) Chelate assisted phytoextraction of heavy metals from soil. Effect, mechanism,
toxicity and fate of chelating agents. Chemosphere, 68, 989-1003.
Gao, Y., Ling, W., Zhu, L., Zhao, B. & Zheng, Q. (2007) Surfactant–Enhanced Phytoremediation of Soils Contaminated with
Hydrophobic Organic Contaminants: Potential and Assessment. Pedosphere, 17, 409-418.
Gerhardt, K.E., Huang, X.-D., Glick, B.R. & Greenberg, B.M. (2009) Phytoremediation and rhizoremediation of organic soil
contaminants: Potential and challenges. Plant Science, 176, 20-30.
Kuiper, I., Lagendijk, E.L., Bloemberg, G.V. & Lugtenberg, B.J.J. (2004) Rhizoremediation: A Beneficial Plant-Microbe Interaction.
Molecular Plant-Microbe Interaction, 17, 6-15.
Lee, M., Kang, H., Do, W., 2005. Application of non-ionic surfactant-enhanced in situ flushing to a diesel contaminated site. Water
Res. 39, 139–146.
Salt, D.E., Blaylock, M., Kumar, N.P.B.A., Dushenkov, V., Ensley, B.D., Chet, I. & Raskin, I. (1995) Phytoremediation: A novel
strategy for the removal of toxic metals from the environment using plants. Nature Biotechnology, 13, 468-474.
Salt, D.E., Smith, R.D. & Raskin, I. (1998) Phytoremediation. Annual Review of Plant Physiology and Plant Molecular Biology, 49,
643-668.
Semple, K.T., Doick, K.J., Jones, K.C., Burauel, P., Craven, A. & Harms, H. (2004) Defining bioavailability and bio accessibility of
contaminated soil and sediment is complicated. Environmental Science and Technology, 38, 228A-231A.
3.1.2.
Resumo/Abstract 013
Leaching and recovery of metals from metallic industrial sludges, dusts and
residues
1
2
3
4
1
M. Sethurajan , P.N.L. Lens , H. A. Horn , L. H. A. Figueiredo , E. D. van Hullebusch *
1
Université Paris-Est, Laboratoire Géomatériaux et Environnement (LGE), EA 4508, UPEM, 77454 Marne-la-Vallée, France
IFNMG – Pirapora – MG – Brazil – August 24th – 30th 2014
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2 International Workshop -­‐ Symposium “Responsible Intervention in the Environment” Mining Activities, Refineries, Pollution Control and Remediation Strategies. 2
3
4
12 UNESCO-IHE Institute for Water Education, Westvest 7, 2611 AX Delft, The Netherlands
Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais, NGqA-CPMTC, Instituto de Geociências, Av. Antônio Carlos, 6627, Pampulha, Belo
Horizonte - MG, 31270-901, Brazil
Universidade Estadual de Montes Claros, Solos e nutrição de plantas, Avenida Reinaldo Viana, 2630, Bico da Pedra - Janauba MG, 39440-000, Brazil
* E-mail: [email protected]
Key words: Metallurgical Wastes; Secondary resources; Bio-Hydrometallurgy; Metals recovery.
Sludges, dusts, residues and other wastes originating from ferrous and non-ferrous metallic industries
pose a serious environmental threat, if not disposed properly. Disposal of these wastes is expensive and
remediating is a necessary step to be implemented to control the adverse environmental effects if disposal
is done improperly. Since the past couple of decades, world’s high-grade metal reserves have been
depleted considerably, but the demand for metals in day-to-day life is growing rapidly, in this electronic era.
This depletion of the high-grade ores urges the “miners” to look for the alternative resources for metal
extraction. Sludges, dusts, and other wastes generated in the metallurgical industries are noble option as
they still contains significant amounts of valuable base and heavy metals (sometimes precious metals like
gold and silver and also rare earth elements), depending on the nature of the mining site and composition
of the primary ores used. This study overviews various hydrometallurgical and bio-hydrometallurgical
leaching processes for the extraction of the metals from these wastes. Different recycling processes and
strategies of metals recovery (solvent extraction, electro winning, (bio)sorption and (microbial) precipitation)
from the wastes generated by various ferrous and non-ferrous metallic industries are discussed. Future
prospects of using these metal bearing wastes as secondary resources for metals extraction for
commercial beneficiaries are proposed.
References:
Lee, J.C.; Pandey, B.D.; (2012).Bio-processing of solid wastes and secondary resources for metal extraction – a review. Waste
Manage., 32, 3-18.
Lewis, A.E. (2010). Review of metal sulphide precipitation, Hydrometallurgy, 104, 222-234.
Lottermoser, B.G. (2003). Mine Wastes: Characterization, Treatment, and Environmental Impacts, Springer, Verlag Berlin
Heidelberg New York.
3.1.3.
Resumo/Abstract 032
ENVIRONMENTAL BIOTECHNOLOGY IN SUPPORT OF PARADIGM SHIFTS REQUIRED FOR
SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT
Piet Lens
Prof. Environmental Biotechnology, Pollution Prevention and Control Core, UNESCO-IHE, Westvest 7,
2611 AX Delft, The Netherlands, [email protected]
IFNMG – Pirapora – MG – Brazil – August 24th – 30th 2014
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2 International Workshop -­‐ Symposium “Responsible Intervention in the Environment” 13 Mining Activities, Refineries, Pollution Control and Remediation Strategies. The world is facing formidable challenges in meeting the rising demands of potable water and
consumer products. The health and welfare of people are closely connected to the availability of
adequate, safe and affordable water supplies. Also cost-effective recovery methods of chemicals and
resources from waste and wastewater play an increasing role in sustaining human civilization on Earth.
Energy and feedstock materials for the industry are in increasing demand. With constraints related to
availability and use of oil, the energy and chemical industry is undergoing considerable changes. The
need for the use of cheaper and widely available feedstocks, and the development of sustainable and
environmentally friendly chemical processes is rapidly growing under both economical and public
pressure. Therefore, treatment of wastewaters, waste gas and solid waste need to be gradually
integrated into process design. Instead of discharging their waste into the environment, industries need
to become increasingly self-sufficient and recover compounds from their own waste streams or use
(upgraded) waste streams of neighboring industries as raw material. Many environmental
biotechnological processes can be support these developments.
Sustainable waste treatment concepts are under development with environmental biotechnology as
key component, and can lead to the recovery of useful by-products like chemicals in the form of e.g.
fertilizers (ammonia, phosphates), raw materials (elemental sulfur and selenium, sulfuric acid,...) or
energy (biogas, hydrogen or electricity). Obviously, adding value to waste by upgrading the recovered
compounds will only be a reality if it is demonstrated that there is a fundamental basis and a tangible
advantage in using these recovered compounds rather than buying raw materials and feedstock.
3.1.4.
Resumo/Abstract 030
ÓXIDOS DE FERRO APLICADOS À CATÁLISE AMBIENTAL
Ana Rosa Passos Pereira – UFMG
Os óxidos de ferro apresentam um papel de destaque na economia, condicionando a forma de uso do
solo, para a agricultura ou na exploração mineral [1], principalmente em países produtores de commodities
minerais. Esses óxidos possuem uma grande diversidade nas propriedades químicas, magnéticas,
elétricas, físico-químicas e morfológicas, que os tornam muito importantes no ponto de vista científico e
tecnológico. Uma das muitas aplicações dos óxidos de ferro é nos processos de adsorção e catálise
ambiental [2]. O uso dos óxidos de ferro como catalisadores nos processos de oxidativos avançados
(POA’s) representa uma significativa diminuição dos custos operacionais, já que os óxidos de ferro
possuem uma eficiência maior que os catalisadores comerciais em condições de temperatura e pressão
abaixo, além de gerar menos resíduos contribuindo para o desenvolvimento de processos baseados em
Química Verde.
[1] Fabris, J.D. & Coey, J.M.D. In: Alvarez V.,V.H.; Schaefer, C.E.G.R.; Barros, N.F. De; Mello,
J.W.V. De & Costa, L.M. da (eds). Tópicos em Ciências do Solo. Viçosa, Soc. Bras. de Ciência do
Solo (2) 47-102, 2002.
[2] Oliveira, L.C.A., Fabris, J.D., Pereira, M.C. Óxidos de ferro e suas aplicações em processos
catalíticos: uma revisão. Quím. Nova, vol. 36 (1), 123-130, 2013.
IFNMG – Pirapora – MG – Brazil – August 24th – 30th 2014
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2 International Workshop -­‐ Symposium “Responsible Intervention in the Environment” Mining Activities, Refineries, Pollution Control and Remediation Strategies. 3.1.5.
14 Resumo/Abstract 033
O PROJETO GEOQUÍMICA MULTIUSO NO ESTADO DE MINAS GERAIS
Eduardo Paim Viglio MSc Geoquímico – CPRM –Rio de Janeiro
A CPRM, Serviço Geológico do Brasil, vem realizando o Projeto Levantamento Geoquímico do Subsolo,
Sedimento e Águas - Geoquímica MultiUso desde 2008, com recursos oriundos do PAC do Governo
Federal. Cerca de 33% do Território nacional (3 milhões de Km²) já se encontra recoberto, tendo sido
coletadas cerca de 13 mil amostras de sedimento de corrente, 12 mil amostras de água de superfície, 5 mil
amostras de solo e 2400 amostras de água bruta de abastecimento em sedes municipais. Os estados de
Roraima, Pará, Ceará, Pernambuco, Paraíba, Alagoas, Bahia, Minas Gerais, Espírito Santo, Rio de
Janeiro, São Paulo, Paraná, Goiás e Mato Grosso do Sul já foram ou estão sendo trabalhados no
momento. O Projeto objetiva avaliar em todo o território nacional as composições químicas e padrões de
distribuição nos diversos meios visando disponibilizar a multiusuários dados e informações para a
pesquisa de novos depósitos minerais, fertilidade natural para a agricultura, fontes de contaminações
naturais e antropogênicas de elementos químicos nocivos à saúde humana, animal e ambiental, entre
outras. O trabalho tem cunho regional, onde as amostras de solo correspondem a uma malha aproximada
de 25 x 25 km, sendo coletado o material do topo do horizonte B. Nas bacias com 150 km² são coletadas
amostras de sedimento de forma composta e de água superficial com medição de parâmetros físicoquímicos de Condutividade, pH, Oxigênio Dissolvido e Temperatura. As amostras de água são
acondicionadas sob refrigeração em dois tubos de centrífuga de 50ml, filtradas em filtro milipore de 0,43
microns, sendo um acidificado com ácido nítrico sendo analisado para 27 elementos por ICP-EAS (Ag, Al,
As, B, Ba, Be, Ca, Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Fe, K, Li, Mg, Mn, Mo, Na, Ni, Pb, Se, Si, Sn, Sr, Ti, V, Zn), e o outro,
não acidificado, analisado por Cromatografia de Íons para 7 ânions (Fluoreto, Cloreto, Nitrito, Brometo,
Nitrato, Fosfato e Sulfato). As amostras de solo e sedimento são secas a temperatura de 45 graus,
peneiradas sendo a fração abaixo de 80# analisada para 53 elementos por ICP-EAS/MS - digestão com
água régia (Ag, Al, As, Au, B, Ba, Be, Bi, Ca, Cd, Ce, Co, Cr, Cs, Cu, Fe, Ga, Ge, Hf, Hg, In, K, La, Li, Mg,
Mn, Mo, Na, Nb, Ni, P, Pb, Pd, Pt, Rb, Re, S, Sb, Sc, Se, Sn, Sr, Ta, Te, Th, Ti, Tl, U, V, W, Y, Zn, Zr). O
Estado de Minas Gerais foi inicialmente dividido em 18 subbacias, incluindo algumas limítrofes com o
estado da Bahia, com o objetivo de gerar um Atlas Geoquímico para cada um deles, sendo o do Rio das
Velhas o primeiro e único complementado. Com os trabalhos de campo finalizados em 2012, estão sendo
montados os Atlas Geoquímicos da Bacia do Rio São Francisco no Estado de Minas Gerais e o Atlas
Geoquímico do Estado de Minas Gerais, com previsão de lançamento para o segundo semestre de 2014 e
primeiro de 2015 respectivamente. No Estado de Minas Gerais foram coletadas 4350 amostras de
sedimento de corrente, 4300 amostras de água superficial, 1150 amostras de solo e 888 amostras de água
de abastecimento bruta. Dentre as diversas ocorrências detectadas, destacam-se: a grande anomalia de
As em todos os meios, evidenciando as ocorrências auríferas de Morro do Ouro em Paracatu e do
Quadrilátero Ferrífero e contaminações antropogênicas após a confluência do Rio das Velhas; as
anomalias de Zn em Vazante (geogênica) e Juiz de Fora (antropogênica); a migração da escória
depositada nos anos 50 na base da represa de Três Marias por mais de 160 km a jusante, alcançando a
cidade de Ponto Chique; e a grande extensão da anomalia de Flúor ao longo de quase todo o Rio Verde
Grande (200 x 80km) em todos os meios amostrados.
IFNMG – Pirapora – MG – Brazil – August 24th – 30th 2014
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2 International Workshop -­‐ Symposium “Responsible Intervention in the Environment” 15 Mining Activities, Refineries, Pollution Control and Remediation Strategies. 3.1.6.
Resumo/Abstract 017
DIMENSION STONE CUT RESIDUAL AS FERTILIZER IN AGRICULTURE SOIL CORRECTION. AN
EXAMPLE FROM CACHOEIRO DE ITAPEMIRIM COUNTY, ESPIRITO SANTO STATE, BRAZIL.
Alexandre Sylvio Vieira DA COSTA1,3*, Adolf Heinrich HORN2
*
1 – ICET – UFVJM, Teófilo Otoni-MG, Rua do Cruzeiro, n.01, Jardim São Paulo. [email protected]
2 - NGqA-IGC-UFMG, Belo Horizonte-MG, Av. Antônio Carlos, 2766, [email protected]
3 - Postgraduation – UFMG-IGC, Belo Horizonte-MG, Av. Antônio Carlos, 2766,
Abstract Dimension stone production produce a huge amount of semiliquid waste which contaminates water, air and
produce also a visual impact. This fine material has high content of mineral salts and other nutrient. Greenhouse test
show that its application increases the nutrients of poor soil and permit to obtain better harvests.
Key words: Environmental impact, dimension stone production, lateritic soils, fertilizer, agriculture
1. Introduction
From literature is well known the use of industrial waste in different application to reduce environmental
impacts. One of these applications is “rochagem” in agriculture (Fontes, 2001). This work shows the
applicability of waste material from dimension stone production at Espírito Santo State. Espirito Santo,
Minas Gerais and Bahia are the most important producers of Dimension Stones of Brazil. The principal
produced materials can be observed from the map of Figure 1. The average annual production of dry
residual material by these units is about 165.000 t/y in Espirito Santo State (Brazil ~240.000 t/y; FLUXGEO,
verb. com.).
IFNMG – Pirapora – MG – Brazil – August 24th – 30th 2014
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2 International Workshop -­‐ Symposium “Responsible Intervention in the Environment” Mining Activities, Refineries, Pollution Control and Remediation Strategies. 16 Figure 1. Map of the South-Eastern region of Brazil showing Espirito Santo- and parts of Minas Gerais and Bahia
States. The arrow indicates de province capital and center of Dimension Stone Production. The shaded
area indicates the principal quarries occurrences.
These materials are principally composed of all type of intrusives (gabbro, granites s. l.),
metamorphic rocks like gneisses, migmatites, marbles and quartzites. In Table 1 are shown the
compositions of the explored rocks and their average compositions. The waste material represents 20 25Vol% of the whole worked dimension stones and is composed of rock powder, polishing material, quartz
sand, limestone, oil and lubrication products, metal powder and parts of the saws and polishing equipment
in a semiliquid stage (15-25% water). This water is separated during maturation of the piles and
contaminates the environment. Fine powder is liberated after drying and cause air pollution.
Table 1. Average values of elements concentration in the rock powder of the three investigated producers tested for
use in agriculture.
2. Environmental problems
IFNMG – Pirapora – MG – Brazil – August 24th – 30th 2014
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2 International Workshop -­‐ Symposium “Responsible Intervention in the Environment” Mining Activities, Refineries, Pollution Control and Remediation 17 Strategies. The waste material is always deposited in the surroundings of the saws and facilities, normally in active
river valleys and closed depressions, often without isolation from the groundwater levels. Therefore the
environmental problems consist in water contamination and air dust pollution.
3. Methods and materials
To be able to use this material for agriculture purposes, a specific grain size is very important (Table 2)
because influences the agro-specific chemical parameters, like pH, Fetot, nutrient content and percolation
velocity in the soil-waste system. The Table 3 shows the nutrient content and chemical parameters of the
used soil material.
Table 2. Grain size composition of an average sample of the discarded material from the three industries
Table 3 indicates different important chemical parameters of the waste to be used as probably corrective
materials.
Table 3.: Chemical and soil parameters of the used soil material.
After these preliminary analyses, field experiments were done with three typical Brazilian cultures (beans Phaseolus vulgaris L.; corn - Zea mays L.; grass - Brachiaria decumbens) with different root depths at the
experimental area of UNIVALLE at Governador Valadares.
4. Production process
After cutting the rocks in the quarries, the blocks are transported to the stone saws and afterwards to the
grinding and polishing tables (Figure 2).
IFNMG – Pirapora – MG – Brazil – August 24th – 30th 2014
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2 International Workshop -­‐ Symposium “Responsible Intervention in the Environment” 18 Mining Activities, Refineries, Pollution Control and Remediation Strategies. A B C D Figure 2. Pictures showing a typical quarry, saw and polishing place. In the places where the waste material is
deposited the water content lowers from 80% to 20%. A. Quarry; B. Deposit of blocks; C. Saw; D. Polishing
process.
5. Results
The results of filtration test are shown in Figure 3, respectively together with the soil-waste properties.
Figure 3 a, b, c, d and e: Diagrams representing all chemical parameters for the different soil – waste applications for
the investigated four industries for different quantities of waste application.
IFNMG – Pirapora – MG – Brazil – August 24th – 30th 2014
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2 International Workshop -­‐ Symposium “Responsible Intervention in the Environment” Mining Activities, Refineries, Pollution Control and Remediation Strategies. Quadrangles: Katugran; Triangles: Marbrasa polishing; Diamonds: Limagran cutting+polishing;
x: Marbrasa cutting;
19 All field tests show good results of physical properties for plants grown with the use of the waste material as
compared with samples grown without it (Figure 4).
Figure 4: Diagrams of plant evolution with application (dry material).
Left: Whole corn plant (without cobs)
Right: Only grains
Quadrangles: Limagran cutting+polishing; Triangles: Marbrasa polishing; Diamonds: Marbrasa cutting;
6. Conclusions and discussions
These results show that the waste material from stone saws and mill can be used due to its
composition as correctives and sometimes as fertilizer in agriculture. The example can serve for all
countries which have dimension stone production.
7. Acknowledgements
The authors thank the UFMG, UNIVALE and FAPEMIG for logistical and financial support. The Association
of dimension stone producers supported the fieldwork and gave important information.
8. Referencies
Fontes R.L.F., 2001. Avaliação da eficiência de material calcário de origem industrial (Usiminas) como corretivo da
acidez do solo para agricultura. Relatório Técnico. UFV, Viçosa, MG. 40p.
3.1.7.
Resumo/Abstract 034
IFNMG – Pirapora – MG – Brazil – August 24th – 30th 2014
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2 International Workshop -­‐ Symposium “Responsible Intervention in the Environment” 20 Mining Activities, Refineries, Pollution Control and Remediation Strategies. ORGANIC FERTILIZER ON SORGHUM AREA IN THE PRESENCE OF MICRO RELIEF OF
LITTLE HILLS "MURUNDUS" IN THE REGION OF JANAÚBA, NORTH OF MINAS GERAIS
Autores: Joseilton Faria Silva1, Renata Aparecida Neres Faria2, Bernardo Silveria Lobo3, Luiz
Henrique Arimura Figueiredo4
1.Mestre em Produção Vegetal no Semiárido – Unimontes, 2. Mestranda em Produção Vegetal no
Semiárido- Unimontes, 3. Mestre em Zootecnia – Unimontes, 4. Professor Doutor do curso de agronomia
da Unimontes.
There in the North of Minas Gerais, little hills resulting from natural formations of approximately conical
configuration commonly referred to as "murundus". One of the striking features in areas with mounds are
the changes of the chemical physical properties of soil in mounds. The sorghum fits very well the climatic
conditions of the region, does not produce detailed on the mound and the area is necessary to making
silage for milk production during the dry season. This study aimed to determine the production of sorghum
in mounds fertilized with increasing rates of manure in a red clay soil in the Janaúba region of Minas
Gerais. O experiment was conducted on a Ustalf. 0. 20, 40, 60 and 80 ton / ha 20 mounds, where the
following were added manure doses were chosen area. The cultivar was planted Agroceres Volumax. At
harvest was collected plant material and soil in mounds and sampling was carried out of the mound. The
panicle, stem and leaf separately, height and stem diameter at 3 cm of soil were collected. Analysis of soil
macro nutrients and matéria orgâanica. The experimental design was the DIC because the treatments were
distributed randomly throughout the area, and the means were compared by Tukey test at 5% probability.
The dose 80 presented the highest, and diametric e produce the green area, the dose of 60 ton presented
a similar behavior off the mound. The soil at 60 ton dose showed the best results while 80 had lower dose
levels affected by excess, hurting trading system. The higher profitability was achieved at a dose of 80 ton.
A Dose 60 ton of manure in mounds area showed better quality of feed, increased levels of nutrients
available for plants in the ground, approaching the productive potential of the area located off the mound.
The dose was 80 ton which showed higher yield and higher profitability.
3.1.8.
Resumo/Abstract 015
Use of emerald mining waste as fertilizers in agriculture. Evaluation of results
of nutrient liberation in laboratory and during greenhouse- and open field
tests.
1
2
Amando Aguiar , Heinrich Adolf Horn and Alexandre Sylvio
3
1 - Post - Graduation Geology - UFMG
2 – NGqA - IGC-UFMG, Belo Horizonte-MG, Av. Antônio Carlos, 6627, Brazil, ++553134094446, [email protected]
3 - UFVJM-Campus Avançado, Teófilo Otoni - MG, Brazil
IFNMG – Pirapora – MG – Brazil – August 24th – 30th 2014
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2 International Workshop -­‐ Symposium “Responsible Intervention in the Environment” 21 Mining Activities, Refineries, Pollution Control and Remediation Strategies. The aim of this work is to evaluate the use of emerald mining piles as cheap and quality alternative fertilizer
in regional agriculture. The tests were done in laboratory, greenhouse and field.
The tailing material, emerald-picotite-phlogopite-amphibole quartz schist with amphibolite- and quartz
lenses was mixed in different quantities with a typical soil from the Central Eastern Minas Gerais State
(Laterite s.l.).
The chemical properties of the tailing material were determined by ICP-OES, ICP-MS and XRF. After it was
crashed down to a fraction of <0.500mm (35 mesh) to obtain better and faster mineral reactions.
The soil was characterized by the method described in the Brazilian Agriculture Research.
Samples were incubated in laboratory with quantities relative to 0, 1, 2, 4, 8, 12, 16, 20, 40t/ha of rock
powder with soil for a period of 60 days at four repetitions.
In greenhouse four maize grains was planted in 50l pots plain of the mixed material.
In the field maize were planted in rows for each mixture.
Initial treatment was done by addition of nitrogen and regular irrigation.
Photos of the different stages of the experiments were taken every month and at the end the plant
evolution, the soil quality and chemical composition were determined.
The results of all test show a promising disponibilization of Mg+2, K+, a significant reduction of Al
saturation, lowering of pH in the soil.
Plants show increasing of total dry matter and up to 60% more grains/plant in relation to testimony without
addition.
The use of the tailing material with low toxic elements may provide a reduction of environmental impact at
the mining side and the disponibilization of low cost high K fertilizers, decreasing in this way production
costs.
Keywords: emerald residues, agriculture, environmental impact, mineral nutrient, fertilizer
3.1.9.
Resumo Abstract 016
Emerald mining waste as a fertilizer in agriculture. Results of laboratory,
greenhouse- and open field tests.
1
2
Amando Aguiar , Heinrich Adolf Horn and Alexandre Sylvio
3
1 - Post - Graduation Geology - UFMG
IFNMG – Pirapora – MG – Brazil – August 24th – 30th 2014
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2 International Workshop -­‐ Symposium “Responsible Intervention in the Environment” Mining Activities, Refineries, Pollution Control and Remediation Strategies. 22 2 – NGqA - IGC-UFMG, Belo Horizonte-MG, Av. Antônio Carlos, 6627, Brazil, ++553134094446, [email protected]
3 - UFVJM-Campus Avançado, Teófilo Otoni - MG, Brazil
The aim of this work is to evaluate the use of emerald mining piles as cheap and quality alternative fertilizer
in regional agriculture. The tests were done in laboratory, greenhouse and field.
The tailing material, emerald-picotite-phlogopite-amphibole quartz schist with amphibolite- and quartz
lenses was mixed in different quantities with a typical soil from the Central Eastern Minas Gerais State
(Laterite s.l.).
The chemical properties of the tailing material were determined by ICP-OES, ICP-MS and XRF. After it was
crashed down to a fraction of <0.500mm (35 mesh) to obtain better and faster mineral reactions.
The soil was characterized by the method described in the Brazilian Agriculture Research.
Samples were incubated in laboratory with quantities relative to 0, 1, 2, 4, 8, 12, 16, 20, 40t/ha of rock
powder with soil for a period of 60 days at four repetitions.
In greenhouse four maize grains was planted in 50l pots plain of the mixed material.
In the field maize were planted in rows for each mixture.
Initial treatment was done by addition of nitrogen and regular irrigation.
Photos of the different stages of the experiments were taken every month and at the end the plant
evolution, the soil quality and chemical composition were determined.
The results of all test show a promising disponibilization of Mg+2, K+, a significant reduction of Al
saturation, lowering of pH in the soil.
Plants show increasing of total dry matter and up to 60% more grains/plant in relation to testimony without
addition.
The use of the tailing material with low toxic elements may provide a reduction of environmental impact at
the mining side and the disponibilization of low cost high K fertilizers, decreasing in this way production
costs.
Keywords: emerald residues, agriculture, environmental impact, mineral nutrient, fertilizer
3.2.
Resumo/Abstract Participantes
3.2.1.
Resumo Abstract 001
Análise Físico-Química do Tijolo Ecológico Refratário com Filito
IFNMG – Pirapora – MG – Brazil – August 24th – 30th 2014
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2 International Workshop -­‐ Symposium “Responsible Intervention in the Environment” Mining Activities, Refineries, Pollution Control and Remediation Strategies. 23 Physical Chemistry Analysis of Refractory Green Brick with Filito
Autores: *J. P. O. Ferreira. **A. A. P. Correa, ***C. Calachibete, ****M. V. P. de Barros, *****G. A. Battilani.
* [email protected] ** [email protected]
*** [email protected] **** [email protected]
***** [email protected]
Palavras chaves: Filito; Tijolo; Ecológico; Refratário; Conforto-Térmico.
Key Words: Filito; Brick; Green; Conchy; Thermal-comfort.
Resumo
A grande preocupação ambiental que abarca pesquisadores de forma geral e a população como
um todo, os quais almejam um meio ambiente limpo e sustentável.
A realidade da região central do Brasil (Cuiabá-MT), à mais quente da América do Sul, e o grande
desmatamento da mesma, traz grandes preocupações. Com base nestes fatos, procuramos desenvolver
um tijolo alternativo a base de um material não tóxico, de extração sustentável, de fácil acesso e que não
precisa ser queimado, o qual apresenta resistência e atende as normas estabelecidas pela NBR.
A partir de análises e testes, pôde-se desenvolver estudos para todas as propriedades do tijolo
ecológico refratário á base de filito (rocha predominante na baixada cuiabana) mas, a princípio, pôde-se
fazer algumas afirmações, tais como: o tijolo desenvolvido á base de filito apresenta tarefa ambiental
muito importante, pois diminui o impacto com queima de carvão, reduzindo desmate e a poluição a partir
da queima da madeira, além de reduzir o consumo de energia com o resfriamento de ambientes. Este
tijolo também apresenta papel social, pois tem custo menor que o convencional e ajuda no conforto de
famílias de baixa renda.
Abstract
The major environmental concern encompassing researchers in general and the population as a
whole, which aim through a clean and sustainable environment.
The reality of central Brazil (Cuiabá-MT), the hottest in South America, and the deforestation of the
same large, has major concerns. Based on these facts, we develop an alternative brick base of a non-toxic
material, sustainable extraction, easily accessible and does not need to be burned, which is resistant and
meets the standards established by the NBR.
From analysis and testing, we could develop studies for all properties of the refractory brick ecological
base will phyllite (predominant rock in cuiabanan countryside) but, in principle, we could make some
statements, such as the brick will be developed phyllite base has very important environmental task
because it reduces the impact with burning coal, reducing deforestation and pollution from the burning of
wood and reduce energy consumption with cooling environments. This brick also features social role, as it
has lower cost than the conventional aid and comfort in low-income families.
Tijolo Ecológico Refratário com Filito
IFNMG – Pirapora – MG – Brazil – August 24th – 30th 2014
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2 International Workshop -­‐ Symposium “Responsible Intervention in the Environment” Mining Activities, Refineries, Pollution Control and Remediation Strategies. 24 Amostras de Filito
Referencies
BIONDI, J.C; MARCZYNSKI E. S, Cerâmica 50 (2004) 21-32. Caracterização física e química dos filitos Açungui (PR) visando sua
utilização pela indústria de cerâmica.
CÔRREA A.A.R; TEIXEIRA V.H; LOPES S.P; OLIVEIRA M.S, Ciênc. agrotec., Lavras, v. 30, n 3, p 503-515, maio/jun.,(2006)
Avaliação das Propriedades Físicas e Mecânicas do ADOBE (Tijolo de Terra Crua).
JUNIOR D.J.A. Controle da Qualidade no uso do Concreto: Linha 2 – Metro de São Paulo (2009).
MEDEIROS M.F; LIMA M.A.B; SILVA R.J, Revista de Geologia, VOL. nº 1, 49-62 (2003) Filitos Cerâmicos de Martinópole (CE) –
Potencialidade e Aplicações Tecnológicas.
MELO, L.G.A, Síntese e Caracterização de Geopolímeros contendo Filitos. Dissertação de Mestrado (2001) Rio de Janeiro.
ABNT- Associação de Normas Técnicas. NBR 6136/2007
ABNT- Associação de Normas Técnicas. NBR 12118/2011
3.2.2.
Resumo Abstract 002
Hydrographic Survey of Rio Cuiabá - Excerpt Santo Antônio do Leverger /
Baron Melgaço-MT
Authors: * M. V. P. de Barros. ** A. A. P. Correa, ***C. Calachibete, **** J. P. O. Ferreira, *****G. A. Battilani.
* [email protected] ** [email protected] *** [email protected]
**** [email protected] ***** [email protected]
Key Words: Bathymetric-survey; hydrodynamics; Snood-Cuiabana; Rio-Cuiabá; echobathymeter \ odom-cum.
ABSTRACT
IFNMG – Pirapora – MG – Brazil – August 24th – 30th 2014
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2 International Workshop -­‐ Symposium “Responsible Intervention in the Environment” Mining Activities, Refineries, Pollution Control and Remediation Strategies. 25 The Cuiabá River in the stretch in the execution of this work is economic, tourism and leisure, which
are complementary to a potential significant environmental aspect, since it is one of the leading trainers in
the Pantanal basin factor being the complementary nature of the municipalities of Chapada Baixada dos
Guimarães and Cuiabana. One of the factors of this research is to facilitate the study of diagnosis of
economic and environmental impacts in the production of basic materials (sand, gravel, crushed stone and
clay) for the construction sector as the result of the demands set for the World Cup FIFA2014.
The morphological, hydrodynamic characteristics allow it fits like a river of plain water with
significant contribution by the left bank tributaries whose sources come from the sandstones of the
escarpment "Guimarães".
In order to meet its current dynamics, in order to allow projects to use for tourism, recreation and as
a source of basic raw materials for the construction industry, there were bathymetric surveys, the use of
echo sounder and Odom Cum 210KHz rate acquisition of 20 Hz, and georeferencing using DGPS
NOVATEL FLEX 6 to acquisition rate of 10Hz, in a stretch of 120 Km
The result was to obtain cross-section 50-50 meters and longitudinal 94 km, allowing to identify the
depths, shoals, rocks lines and other obstructions to navigation, areas of erosion and siltation of the
channel between other aspects of significant importance for planning its use, as well as more favorable
areas for extracting inputs cited.
Referencies
Baisch, P. (2000b). Estudos dos Hidrocaarbonetos Aromáticos Policíclicos. Caracterização da Qualidade dos Sedimentos da Área
de Dragagem do Porto da Cidade de Rio Grande. Porto Novo, Canal de Acesso,
Super Porto e Molhes.
Blumberg, A.F. and Mellor, G.L. (1978), A coastal ocean numerical model, in Mathematical Modelling of
Estuarine Physics, Proc. Int. Symp., Hamburg, Aug. 1978, edited by J. Sunderman and K.-P. Holtz, pp.203- 214, Springer-Verlag,
Berlin,1980.
Calliari, L.J. (1980). Aspectos Sedimentológicos e Ambientais na Região Estuarial da Lagoa dos Patos. Porto Alegre. 190p.
(Dissertação de Mestrado, UFRGS).
3.2.3.
Resumo Abstract 003
The Potter Industry in the State of Mato Grosso. Current Situation and
Prospects
Authors: * M. V. P. de Barros. **A. A. P. Correa, ***C. Calachibete, **** J. P. O. Ferreira, *****G. A.
Battilani.
* [email protected] ** [email protected]
*** [email protected] ****[email protected]
***** [email protected]
Key Words: In natura; lowland; semi-pores; floodplain; gypsum.
ABSTRACT
IFNMG – Pirapora – MG – Brazil – August 24th – 30th 2014
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2 International Workshop -­‐ Symposium “Responsible Intervention in the Environment” Mining Activities, Refineries, Pollution Control and Remediation Strategies. 26 The minerals of immediate use in construction, so called clays used in the manufacture of the
ceramic, gravels, sand and gravel, are important inputs for the construction industry, being used as basic
materials both "in natura" (sand gravel, crushed stone) and as aggregates (concrete and mortar) and
processed products (tiles, bricks, blocks and tiles).
At its economic importance assembles important social role, they represent human development,
employment generation and income factor. In fact, because of its extensive geographical distribution, low
added value and great shipping weight factor are explored preferably near to the consumer center.
Thus, in almost all districts of the country we can find a small pottery or ceramic, a dredge sand, a
plant or a gravel pit crushing, resulting in the local production of materials needed for construction, housing
(townhouses), seneamento basic systems (sewage or storm water), infrastructure (asphalt, bridges).
On the other hand, represent a source of conflict for all environmental policy, mineral ownership,
etc.., Depending on their farm near urban areas. Thus, the exploitation of sand extracted by dredging along
river channels, floodplain clays and floodplain areas, result in environmental impacts of significant
importance.
In this work we will deal specifically the study of ceramics in the state of Mato Grosso, since this sector of
the higher value in the universe for basic construction inputs, as well as generating significant
environmental impacts.
Currently, the regions that have a greater potential for raw materials for the production of ceramics
are the regions north, east, west and northwest and the regions with the largest industrial development
south and central regions. Close to 98 companies, and over small potteries operating in the ceramic sector
in the State of Mato Grosso, primarily in the production of red ceramics (tiles, bricks, blocks, slabs,
shackles, cast members, etc..).
Although its mineral potential has potential uses in the ceramic floors and coatings industries,
semiporos, white ceramic, tableware, etc., The absence of information about the raw materials and the
consumer market has prevented the development of the sector.
A characteristic of raw materials, used in the production of red pottery in the state and its
predominant source in floodplains (lowland clays), which confer, in most cases, a compositional fault, the
result of intercalation of silts and sands the alluvial package.
This composition causes problems in the production process, resulting in lower quality product in
conformation and mechanical strength as well as higher water absorption, and losses caused by cracks
and other defects, other aspects such as the presence of much organic matter and harmful because
causes deformations and firing shrinkage as the formational clays, the presence of montmorillonites in
larger proportions, being refractory, producing cracks in the pieces. Chlorites swell to fire, turn dolomite,
gypsum and its soluble cause rashes. In the kaolinites, the presence of high iron is undesirable for
production of white ware.
The extraction process is done, in most cases, by loaders or backhoes in troughs or benches, with
the raw material transported to the stockyard industries through basculhantes trucks. Like most areas of
extraction is developed on flood plains, commonly the removal of the raw material is seasonal, being
paralyzed during the rainy season.
IFNMG – Pirapora – MG – Brazil – August 24th – 30th 2014
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2 International Workshop -­‐ Symposium “Responsible Intervention in the Environment” Mining Activities, Refineries, Pollution Control and Remediation Strategies. 27 The biggest environmental damage are observed with the removal of vegetation, removal of soil
layer and armhole opening, which may be abandoned after completion of the work without having proper
disposal.
During the extraction of clay some care can be adopted, called "mitigation measures", including the
controlled advancement of plowing, maintenance of green areas around curtains, spraying in the areas of
vehicle traffic, etc.. The recovery of degraded areas provides the rubble or not armhole to its use for
disposal of solid waste from construction or fish farming, or recreational activities after the restoration of the
soil layer, replanting of deforested areas, etc. According with the Plan of Rehabilitation of degraded areas
approved by the competent Environmental Authority.
Referencies
ÀVILA, V.M. DE, MAGALHÃES, M DE C; SANTANA, M.B. DE (1979) – Diagnósticos Setorial da Construção Civil em Cuiabá,
CEBRAE/CEAG/MT,Cuiabá, 189 p.
CONCEIÇÃO FILHO, V.M. E MOREIRA, M.D. (2001) – Depósito de Argila do Recôncavo Baiano – Geologia e Potencialidade
Econômica. – In Série Arquivos Abertos;15, CBPM, Salvador, 46 p.
FERNANDES C. J. , VIANA, R.R. (2006) – Coletânea Geológica do Estado de Mato-Grosso, Vol.4. EDUFMT, Vol.4. CUIABÁ.139
p.
LACERDA FILHO, J.V. DE; ABREU FILHO W; VALENTE C. R.; OLIVEIRA, C.C DE; ALBUQUERQUE, M.C. DE (2004)- Geologia
e Recursos Minerais do Estado de Mato-Grosso. CPRM/SICME, Cuiabá.200 p.
QUADROS, A.P; LEITE, J.A.D, NERY,C., RUIZ, A.S., SALOMÃO, F.X.T, VECCHIATO, A.B., (1999) – Caracterização Tecnológica
de Filitos do Grupo Cuiabá, uma provável alternativa Ambiental ao uso de Argilas no Rio Cuiabá,MT- FUFMAT/FAPEMAT/BASA,
Cuiabá, 30 p.
MONTEIRO, C.M. DE O.L; FRANCO, M.N.; PINATTI, A.A.;BARBOSA.F.C.;SOUZA, R.B DE; CARVALHO, F.C. DE (2007) –
Noções Básicas do Processo Produtivo de Cerâmica Vermelha CTC/SENAI-PI, Teresina.88 p.
MOREIRA, M.D. (1994) Aplicações dos Minerais e Rochas Industriais – Sociedade Brasileira de Geologia SBG – Núcleo Bahia –
Sergipe, Salvador; 86 p.
MOTTA, J.F.M. (1980) – Projeto Pesquisa para Argila (Relatório Conjunto Preliminar) – CPRM, Cuiabá, 37 p.
MOTTA, J.F.M., CABRAL JUNIOR, M; SILVA, R.W.S. (2003) – Cerâmica da Bahia – Catálogo de Matérias-Primas – CBPM/IPT,
Salvador. 97 p.
SOUZA SANTOS, P. DE (1975) – Tecnologia de Argilas 1ª Edição. Editora Edgard Bluchen, São Paulo. 2v.800 p.
3.2.4.
Resumo Abstract 004
Rocks and ornamental finishes in the State of Mato-Grosso - a study of
potential.
Authors: * M. V. P. de Barros. **A. A. P. Correa, ***C. Calachibete, **** J. P. O. Ferreira, *****G. A.
Battilani.
* [email protected] ** [email protected]
*** [email protected] **** [email protected]
IFNMG – Pirapora – MG – Brazil – August 24th – 30th 2014
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2 International Workshop -­‐ Symposium “Responsible Intervention in the Environment” Mining Activities, Refineries, Pollution Control and Remediation Strategies. 28 ***** [email protected]
Key Words: Ornamental; limestone; Formation-Araras; Group-High-Paraguai; METAMAT.
ABSTRACT
In Mato Grosso, the region of Upper Forest has crafted a large area of rocks of varied
composition of the granitic rock types of sedimentary covering great potential as ornamental rocks
and coating.
The attention about this band matogrossense territory, was awakened from work done by
the bell Grosso Mining (METAMAT) during the years 2010 to 2011. In this work, we implemented
a partnership with other institutions, in partnership with other industry, develops in that region the
project Using Stone Artifacts in the construction industry, in line with the activities of the
Cooperative Community Production Artifact Stone for Construction and Building Construction,
foundation for promoting the nucleation of ventures extraction of ornamental and coating.
The occurring rocks of northern Mato Grosso region comprise a very varied lithological
diversity among traditional and exotic materials. In all traditional, all granites in the sense "lato"
are: granite pink, red, gray, multicolor, cream, brown, and white granite and absolute black granite.
These rocks are related, individually or grouped manner to the various geological units found in
the region, an extensive record in this sector geodiversity.
Completes the set of selected rocks one marble / limestone formation of Macaws (Alto
Paraguay Group) as the potential for these rocks in this range and that the state geological
environment record. The rock, called Crema Brazil, has greyish cream and fine texture with some
similar to Travertine Romano, produced in Italy targeted vesicular structures.
The approach used in this research beyond the economic factor, targets the social and
environmental aspects, thus giving a sustainable contribution to the application of public policies
for the region.
Referencies
Mello I. (2011). Atlas de Rochas Ornamentais da Amazônia Brasileira.
CHIODI FILHO, C. RODRIGUES, E. de P. Guia de aplicação de rochas em revestimentos. São Paulo: Abirochas, 2009. 160 p.
FRASCÁ, Maria Heloísa Barros de Oliveira. Rocha como material de construção. In: ISAIA. G. C. ed. Materiais de construção civil
e princípios de ciência e engenharia de materiais. São Paulo: Ibracon, 2007. 2v. v.1, Parte III, Capítulo 15.
3.2.5.
Resumo Abstract 005
IFNMG – Pirapora – MG – Brazil – August 24th – 30th 2014
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2 International Workshop -­‐ Symposium “Responsible Intervention in the Environment” Mining Activities, Refineries, Pollution Control and Remediation Strategies. 29 Composting with agricultural use of kimberlitic rock. Project Alto K
(Potassium)
Authors: *A. A. P. Correa, **C. Calachibete, *** J. P. O. Ferreira, ****M. V. P. de Barros. *****G. A.
Battilani.
* [email protected] ** [email protected]
***[email protected] **** [email protected]
***** [email protected]
Key Words: Rocks-kimberlite; potassium; Agriculture; magnesium; Heavy-metals.
ABSTRACT
As noted in recent years, the state of Mato-Grosso in the agricultural context is markedly growing
rapidly and thus become dependent on purchases of fertilizers in the international market, in which only the
large farmer has facilities for these purposes, because the prices rise to stratospheric values that
compromise the balance in the industry.
Mineral Provinces of Guiratinga and Juína state of considerable volume of kimberlite. Why use
Kimberlite? Studies have shown that the natural vegetation as well as in agriculture may be used as a
criterion in the identification of high-K rocks and other nutrients. The soils composed of these rocks are
more fertile due to the strong presence of elements such as potassium, calcium and magnesium.
In this situation, the plant species found proximal to these rocks are healthier compared to the
surroundings.
The medium and long term, it is expected with the actual practice of the use of stonemeal: The recovery of
degraded areas; recovery of pastures; decline of manufacturing inputs; reducing the dispersion of heavy
metals originating from industrial fertilizers; map new reserves; create self-sufficiency in the proximal to the
occurrence of this rock municipalities.
IFNMG – Pirapora – MG – Brazil – August 24th – 30th 2014
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2 International Workshop -­‐ Symposium “Responsible Intervention in the Environment” 30 Mining Activities, Refineries, Pollution Control and Remediation Strategies. Figure 1.1 Rocha Kimberlítica
Referencies
ERNANI, P. R.; ALMEIDA, J. A.; SANTOS, F. C. Potássio. In: NOVAIS, R. F. et al. (Ed.). Fertilidade do solo. Viçosa, MG:
Sociedade Brasileira de Ciência do Solo, 2007. p. 552-594.
FAQUIN, V. Nutrição mineral de plantas. Lavras: UFLA/FAEPE, 2005. 183 p.
FERREIRA, D. F. SISVAR: a computer statistical analysis system. Ciência e Agrotecnologia, Lavras, v. 35, n. 6, p. 1039-1042,
nov./dez. 2011.
FYFE, W. S.; LEONARDOS, O. H.; THEODORO, S. H. Sustainable farming with native rocks: the transition without revolution.
Anais da Academia Brasileira de Ciências, Rio de Janeiro, v. 78, n. 4, p. 715-720, 2006.
HARLEY, A.; GILKES, R. J. Factors influencing the release of plant nutrient elements from silicate rock powders: a geochemical
overview. Nutrient Cycling.
3.2.6.
Resumo Abstract 006
Penicillium brasilianum as an innovative agent to be used in the
bioremediation of metallic ions present as contaminants of aqueous matrixes
1
2
1
Fernanda Henrique Lyra , Leonardo Ribeiro Martins , Amanda Cristina Soares Coelho , Mirthes Midori Hirono
1
1
Rugani , Jacqueline Aparecida Takahashi , F.H.L., L.R.M., A.C.S.C., M.M.H.R., J.A.T.
1
Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais, Av. Antonio Carlos n° 6627, Belo Horizonte, MG, Brazil.
IFNMG – Pirapora – MG – Brazil – August 24th – 30th 2014
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2 International Workshop -­‐ Symposium “Responsible Intervention in the Environment” 2
Mining Activities, Refineries, Pollution Control and Remediation Strategies. 31 Universidade Federal da Grande Dourados, Rodovia Dourados-Itahum, km 12, CEP 79.804-970, Cx. Postal 533, Dourados, MS,
Brazil.
Keywords: Fungi, Penicillium, metallic ions, bioremediation, water
The industrial and agricultural activities as well as domestic discarding cause the accumulation of
high metal levels in rivers and lakes, reaching the organisms that live in these environments. In this
scenario, the necessity to search for new technologies for water treatment is of utmost importance, due to
the toxicity of the discarded metals that can accumulate in the alimentary chain and also due to their
persistence in the nature. The development such technologies demand processes that use that are
residues-free and environment friendly.
The bioremediation is a new technology used to treat contaminated environments that consists of
the removal of pollutants from areas where they are deposited and its conversion in less harmful products.
This natural process occurs in nature with the help of microorganisms and can be scaled up or tailored for
application in places where pollutants deposition is superior to natural bioremediation capacity. In this
work, the bioremediation of aqueous matrixes contaminated with metallic ions was conducted using the
following fungal species isolated from soil: Penicillium minioluteum, Penicillium citrinum, Penicillium
janczewskii, Penicillium funiculosum, Penicillium pinophilum, Penicillium sclerotiorum, Penicillium
janthinellum and Penicillium brasilianum.
The fungi were cultivated on an orbital shaker (150 rpm) at 25 oC during 48 h and, after that, mycelia
were individually filtered and washed with ultrapure water for complete removal of the culture medium.
Then, the mycelia were transferred to conical flasks containing solutions of mixtures of metallic ions in
water (200 mL). Final concentration of each ion in the solutions was 100 µg.mL-1. The mixtures used
contained Cu+2 + Ni+2, Cd+2 + Li+, and Co+2 + Pb+2. The concentrations of metals present in the solutions,
prior and after bioremediation, were determined by FAAS.
The results obtained were very interesting. In the mixture that contained the ions lead and cobalt, all
fungal species presented bigger affinity by removal lead than cobalt. The higher level of Co+2
bioremediation by the tested Penicillium species was not superior 25.9%, while all bioremediation rates of
lead were superior to this value. After 2 hours of experiment, some species were capable to remove about
40 % of Pb+2. The results obtained for the bioremediation of mixtures of ions cooper and nickel,
demonstrated that the Penicillium species used in the experiment have potential for the removal of these
ions (~ 30% removal rate on a 2 h long process). In relation to the experiment containing a mixture of
lithium and cadmium, the fungal species P. minioluteum presented selectivity for cadmium removal,
however, the maximum removal rate was only 23.9%.
All the eight Penicillium species investigated in this work offered potential for the removal of at least
one of metallic ion present in the aqueous matrixes. The species P. brasilianum presented distinguished
bioremediation rates varying from 22 to 41.5% for cadmium and lead after 2 h of experiment. Therefore, a
new set of experiments were conducted with this species, this time using mixtures of Cd+2 + Pb+2, Cu+2 +
Pb+2, Ni+2 + Pb+2, Li+ + Pb+2, e Cu+2 + Ni+2 + Cd+2 + Li+ + Pb+2. The results showed that at time 0 (i.e., just
after adding fungal biomass to the solution containing the metal), P. brasilianum was able to remove almost
60% of lead in the mixture containing Ni+2 + Pb+2. A better result for lead removal was found when the
mixture Pb+2 + Li+ was used, since 74.4% of lead bioremediation was reached after 2 h of fungal activity.
IFNMG – Pirapora – MG – Brazil – August 24th – 30th 2014
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2 International Workshop -­‐ Symposium “Responsible Intervention in the Environment” Mining Activities, Refineries, Pollution Control and Remediation Strategies. 32 In order to understand the role of biomass amount in the process, bioremediation of Pb+2 as the sole
metallic ion present in solution was also carried out using higher amount of fungal biomass. Under this
condition, 68.1% of metal removal was achieved after 2 h of experiment.
Bioremediation is a low cost technology, very efficient but its utilization to clean industrial aqueous
rejects is still under-exploited. The results show a good horizon for utilizing Penicillium species as
bioremediation agents to selectively remove some metallic ions from aqueous matrixes. In special, P.
brasilianum has been highlighted as a green and innovative alternative for lead removal in industrial
aqueous environments contaminated with lead.
Acknowledgements. We thank the Brazilian institutions FAPEMIG, Vale, CNPq and CAPES for financial
help, grants and fellowships.
Reference
Joshi, P.K.; Swarup, A.; Maheshwari,S.; Kumar, R; Singh, N. (2011). Bioremediation of heavy metals in liquid media through fungi
isolated from contaminated sources. Indian J. Microbiol., 51, 482-487.
3.2.7.
Resumo Abstract 007
HEAVY METALS AND SPECIMENS OF PLANT DEVELOPMENT AT AREA PH9,
VOTORANTIM METAIS IN TRÊS MARIAS / MG.
K. V. Silva Carvalho (IGC / UFMG)
A. H. Horn (IGC / UFMG)
L. H. Arimura Figueiredo (UNIMONTES)
Key words: Heavy metals, mining, Cerrado, contamination, soil.
This abstract is part of the doctorate research, which will utilize bioremediation techniques in the
recovery of old tailings deposits mining and beneficiation by means of inorganic-organic materials and
regional micro-organisms to resolve an environmental problem.
The place was mining waste of Votorantim (CMM) area, called the pH9, in Três Marias/MG (Figure
1). According to Votorantim, the company processes zinc (ingots, zamac oxide, zinc powder and special
alloys) and concentrated silver and lead, copper sulfate, sulfuric acid and sulfur dioxide. OLIVEIRA (2007)
IFNMG – Pirapora – MG – Brazil – August 24th – 30th 2014
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2 International Workshop -­‐ Symposium “Responsible Intervention in the Environment” 33 Mining Activities, Refineries, Pollution Control and Remediation Strategies. refer to the place had historical high concentrations of metals in water and sediments in the dam region and
the area of influence of the CMM, in the São Francisco River.
The pH9 is the most problematic areas of metallurgy (Figure 2). This is an old waste deposit, which
was all removed and relocated elsewhere previously prepared, as required by the environmental agency
(CONAMA 356/2005). After removal of the waste, the soil was prepared using railing, chemical correction,
bulk fertilizers and composted cattle manure (October/November 2003). Then planting grass Bleachery
decumes and several arboreal specimens, typical of the Cerrado occurred. After 3 months, was born all
over the grass area. Past a few months, after the rainy season, the zinc sulfide enriched in Pb, Cd and
other metals began to precipitate by capillarity occurring death of planted grass and appearing several
areas denuded of vegetation, called "flashes". This is a serious problem because these "flashes" are
scattered throughout pH9, not accepting any vegetation over them (Figure 3).
Figure 1: Location of Votorantim
Metais. (Source: Oliveira & Horn,
2006).
Figure 2: The rectangle (in black) delimits the
area of pH9.
Figure 3: "Flashes" pH9 in the
area where is seen white crusts
of salts.
According to the company technician, tree growth did not occur as expected. In 90% of the pH9
area has the branquearea grass native trees of the shrub and others specimens brought by animals
(pollination and feces), as Tiriricas, among others. The site has a high content of heavy metals in the soil
despite of the attempted recovery.
PESSOA (2010) worked at pH9 using different soils and tree specimens for environmental
remediation of the site. Results showed a significant difference between control soil and contaminated soil
because of higher pH, lower microbial biomass and reduced concentration of organic matter, phosphorus
and nitrogen. Some species are very sensitive to contaminated soil (high plant mortality); other, even
though high survival, have not developed properly in the contaminated soil, and others species observed
high survival and good development when used organic substrate. The author recommended the planting
of some specimens as Ipê, Tamboril and Tamarindo, associated with additional organic matter and
inoculation with mycorrhizal spores to recover degraded areas studied this and similar areas, with changes
in physic-chemical and biological soil.
This study correlated the heavy metals in soil and plant roots from pH9 with the evolution of
arborous species, planted after the removal of rejects, aiming to assess, quantify and analyze the heavy
metals contamination in sediments (soils) with growth local plant, providing the basis for adoption of
mitigation measures to be applied to the soil in the future to correct them, allowing better development of
tree
specimens
(figures
4,
5
and
6).
The survey involved steps bibliography review, fieldwork and laboratory. With reaches will to expect
to get results that minimize the environmental impacts originating from unsuitable management that
IFNMG – Pirapora – MG – Brazil – August 24th – 30th 2014
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2 International Workshop -­‐ Symposium “Responsible Intervention in the Environment” 34 Mining Activities, Refineries, Pollution Control and Remediation Strategies. resulted in contamination of the environment by heavy metals. The research will form the basis of the
adoption of safe remediation techniques for contaminated sites. In general, the techniques used in
contaminated soil aimed at the removal of contaminants from them. Bioremediation aims at to fix the
pollutants in soils, so as not to make it available and so reach the groundwater.
Bioremediation will be used to remediate degraded environment where micro-organisms will act in
precipitation and sealing of metal compounds, creating a protective film around the particles with potentially
hazardous materials, encapsulating heavy metals to prevent their availability for means (HULLEBUSCH,?).
Figure 4: The satellite image show the points (in
yellow) of the pH9 where he conducted a soil
sampling (surface and profile) and a detailed
survey of the vegetation, collecting plant samples
area.
Figure 5: Collecting
samples (sediment and
vegetation) on small
dams.
Figure 6: plant
Gomphrena celosioides
in a place outcropping of
salts, but on top of the
manure.
Bibliographical reference:
Conselho Nacional do Meio Ambiente – Conama (2005). Resolução nº 356 (CONAMA 356/2005). Available in:
http://www.mma.gov.br/conama.
Hullebusch, E. van,. Optimization of anaerobic granular sludge reactors: speciation, bioavailability and dosing strategies of trace
metals. Site: www.ist-world.org/ProjectDetails.aspx?ProjectId=5aa22b...
Hullebusch, E. van,. Biodeteriogens: characteristics and involvement in biodeterioration, mechanisms of building materials.
Laboratoire Géomatériaux et Environnement. University Paris-Est Marne-la-vallée (France). (slides presentation).
Hullebusch, E. van,. Overview of extrinsic factors: responsible of outdoor material, responsible of outdoor material, weathering.
Laboratoire Géomatériaux et Environnement. University Paris-Est Marne-la-vallée (France). (slides presentation).
Oliveira, M. R. de (2007). Investigação da contaminação por metais pesados da água e do sedimento de corrente nas margens do
rio São Francisco e tributários, a jusante da represa da Cemig, no município de Três Marias, Minas Gerais. Phd thesis, Depto
Geology, IGC, UFMG, Belo Horizonte.
Pessoa, Y. M. de P. (2010). Crescimento inicial de vegetação arbórea em substrato impactado por resíduo industrial alcalino rico
em zinco. M.Sc thesis, Depto Botany, ICB, UFMG, Belo Horizonte.
http://www.votorantim.com.br
IFNMG – Pirapora – MG – Brazil – August 24th – 30th 2014
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2 International Workshop -­‐ Symposium “Responsible Intervention in the Environment” Mining Activities, Refineries, Pollution Control and Remediation Strategies. 3.2.8.
35 Resumo Abstract 008
Circulation of atmospheric particles from industrial emissions in Pirapora MG: satellites images 1984 - 2011
Ribeiro, E.V.*, Trindade, W. M.*, Carvalho, V. L. M.*, Horn, A. H.*, Ferreira, M. A.**
*UFMG- Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais- Avenida Presidente Antônio Carlos, 6627 - Pampulha, Belo Horizonte – MG.
[email protected], [email protected], Vilma Lúcia Macagnan Carvalho [email protected],
[email protected]
** UNIMONTES - Rua Francisco Martins, s/n° - Bairro Industrial - CEP 39270-000 – Pirapora – MG [email protected]
Keywords: Dispersion, Wind direction, Geomorphology.
The pollution of the atmosphere is presented as an important topic in the context of environmental
problems today. Two important points should be highlighted: the contribution of urban and industrial areas.
The last one, despite the greater size and intensity of problems, has as a mitigating factor of being point
sources which enable studies and direct intervention. Although the point source of pollution in industries,
the emission of the compounds and the entry of polluting materials into the environment allow distribution
and interaction of these in different environmental compartments, especially in soils, vegetation, water and
sediment.
In the atmosphere, a number of gases (Co ₂, NOₓ etc..) stand out due its toxic effects and are
intensely studied. Atmospheric particulates, though little known by the environmental media are important
markers of the degradation of environmental quality for their chemical composition or adsorbed
compounds. Two aspects are crucial about the atmospheric particulate, transport and deposition, since
they are related to the size and characteristics of the affected area. From the deposition, the particulate
materials interact with the surface of deposition, where they can accumulate and compromise the quality of
water, soil, sediment and plants. Moreover, during transport, the presence of these particles in the
atmosphere compromise the air quality and can affect the biosphere, compromising even human health.
The knowledge of the dynamics of transport and deposition of particulates is fundamental to
understand, preliminarily, the scope of the problems. In this context, this paper presents an analysis of the
behavior of atmospheric particles, emitted in the industrial district of Pirapora, by studying the preferential
direction, dispersion and extension of the emission. The particulate emissions in the city of Pirapora
industrial district has drawn much attention of the local population and also of the researchers, this is due to
constant and visible particulate emissions in the northern portion of the municipal seat. The concern refers
to both the risk associated with particulates emitted and the very scope of the deposition of materials.
From the satellite images, in 10.1 Arcgis software, analyzes of direction and measured the
distances reached by the plume was performed. Satellite images are often used to identify plumes of
smoke / particulates, especially in studies of fires. In Brazil this type of work has been developed by
(National Institute for Space Research) INPE in the Cerrado and Amazonia biomes (PEREIRA & SETZER
2009; Almeida-Filho 2003). For this study, Landsat 5 TM images obtained between the years 1984 and
2011 in the RGB-413 color composition were used. According to INPE (2014) band 1 (0.45 to 0.52) shows
sensitivity to plumes of smoke coming from fires or industrial activity; band 3 (0.63 to 0.69) for good
contrast between occupied with vegetation and used to delimit the urban area; and finally, the Band 4 (0.76
to 0.90) with sensitivity to the morphology of the terrain, allowing to obtain information on Geomorphology,
Soils and Geology.
IFNMG – Pirapora – MG – Brazil – August 24th – 30th 2014
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2 International Workshop -­‐ Symposium “Responsible Intervention in the Environment” Mining Activities, Refineries, Pollution Control and Remediation Strategies. 36 On climatic aspects, we worked with the data of speed and direction of winds. These were obtained
from the INMET for PIRAPORA station - MG (WMO: 83483) in the period from 01/01/1961 to 04/10/2014.
From the monthly data was constructed a graph of speed and direction of winds.
The results show that the winds preferentially flow from Northeast - NE (31.7%) defining an axis of
movement Northeast - Southwest (NE-SW) with predominant speed between 1 to 1.99 km / h.
Meteorological data corroborate the results obtained by satellite images, it was found a general direction of
particulates west (W) in 85% of the images analyzed. The preferential directions of movement of the
particulate: 40.1% Southwest; 29.9% West; 6.9% North (N), 5.3% South-Southwest (SSW) and westsouthwest (WSW); 4.2% North West (NW) and 8.02% divided between South (S), East (E), northeast,
north-northeast (NNE) and Southeast (SE). In addition to this main direction, the higher density of particles
dispersion patterns in 22.4% of samples with predominantly direction to north and west were observed. The
presence of particulates in other directions can be associated with variable winds, so despite having a main
direction the image shows particles in another portion of the surface due plume move.
On the dimension, the average distance from the main flow of 24.85 km was obtained. The
maximum distance was 128.5 km to west and the minimum 2km westward. It is noteworthy that the density
of the plume has higher density in an average distance of 15 km.
The great distance reached by the plume and its preferential direction indicate areas that may
present environmental risks related to deposition of particulates. Moreover, the bigger distance observed
indicates the regional dimension of the dispersion of particles in the atmosphere.
The knowledge of
the preferential direction, extension and deposition of atmospheric particulates provide information that
could be used in studies of affected environmental compartments, directing, for example, the choice of
sampling locations. Detailed studies of the conditions of the atmosphere associated with the data of
emission sources and specific images of the period may provide more detailed information about the
circulation of the particles.
Figure 01 - Satellite Image, wind direction and plume circulation.
Referencies
Almeida-Filho, R.(2003) “Um Sistema Brasileiro de Sensoriamento Remoto Orbital Dedicado à Questão das Queimadas?” Anais
XI SBSR, Belo Horizonte, Brasil, 05 - 10 de Abril , INPE, 2409-2414.
Pereira, M. C., e A. W. Setzer. (1986) Detecção de queimadas e plumas de fumaça na Amazônia através de imagens de satélites
NOAA. In: SIMPÓSIO BRASILEIRO DE SENSORIAMENTO REMOTO, 4. (SBSR), Gramado. Resumos. São José dos Campos:
INPE,
Jun,
1986,
51p.,
v.
1,
p.
206.
Printed,
On-line.
ISBN
978-85-17-00048-5.
Disponível
em:
<http://urlib.net/3ERPFQRTRW/34Q3DC5>. Acesso em: 15 jul. 2014. de 1986.
IFNMG – Pirapora – MG – Brazil – August 24th – 30th 2014
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2 International Workshop -­‐ Symposium “Responsible Intervention in the Environment” Mining Activities, Refineries, Pollution Control and Remediation Strategies. 3.2.9.
37 Resumo Abstract 009
The mining of Topaz and Water and Sediment Quality in the region of Ouro
Preto - MG
Mendes, I.A.S.,* Ribeiro, E.V.*
* *UFMG- Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais- Avenida Presidente Antônio Carlos, 6627 - Pampulha, Belo Horizonte – MG.
[email protected], *[email protected]
Keywords: mining, water and sediment quality, Ecotoxicology.
Mining is one of the main economic activities in the state of Minas Gerais. In return pollution
stemmed from this type of activity is concerning on environmental issues as has been currently discussed,
because this activity can change the explored region and the surrounding areas, widely used as tailings
deposit.
The city of Ouro Preto, well known for large farm gold in colonial times, stands out today for the
architectural beauties that promote tourism and exploitation of the mineral Topaz, an important source of
income for many miners and stores that buy and sell jewelry in the region.
In this context, this paper presents an analysis of Degradation Index of Water1 and Eco toxicological
assay of water and sediment at two points in the upper reaches of the stream Tripuí Basin, located in Ouro
Preto, Minas Gerais.
The choice of points was based on the objective of assessing the change in environmental quality
due to the change of land use. In this sense, the first refers to the spring area located next to a unit of
environmental conservation, Ecological Station Tripuí, and the second downstream of the mined area and a
containment dam currently disabled. The results of this work are described comparing the two sampling
points analyzed, one on the upper reaches of the basin upstream (P1) and one downstream (P2) of
potentially polluting activities.
A B C D Figure 1: Study area. (A) basin upstream (P1). (B and C) Tripuí Stream (P2). (D) Mining
1
The Degradation Index was calculated with reference to the limits established by resolution CONAMA/357, depending on the joint
analysis of Turbidity, Electrical Conductivity and Total Dissolved Solids parameters. The choice of these parameters is justified by
the limits that allow the calculation.
IFNMG – Pirapora – MG – Brazil – August 24th – 30th 2014
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2 International Workshop -­‐ Symposium “Responsible Intervention in the Environment” 38 Mining Activities, Refineries, Pollution Control and Remediation Strategies. Physical and chemical water analyzes were performed. The acute and chronic toxicity assays of
water and sediment were also made, using as test organisms cladocerans and chironomids, which were:
Daphnia similis, Ceriodaphnia silvestrii and Chironomus xanthus (MENDES, 2014).
According to the physical and chemical parameters and Degradation index is observed that
according to the variation in the use and occupation of land in the basin increases the degradation of water
quality, ie, the source (P1) has the lowest values while the downstream extraction topaz (P2) has higher
values (MENDES RIBEIRO & 2013).
For acute toxicity assays in water, an effect of immobility in more than 50% of the species of
Daphnia similis sampled for the point P2, for water samples collected on weekends and signs of acute
toxicity for samples collected during week were observed. These results indicate that possibly happen next
point P2 dumps waste on weekends, which explains the effect of acute toxicity at this point only in samples
collected on weekends (Table 1).
For sediments collected no effect of acute and chronic toxicity in any of the sampled points was
observed. An important factor observed in the sediment found at collection points is its sandy character and
the presence of gravels, which hinder the adsorption of substances characteristic required for the sediment
be able to act as a reservoir of substances (Table 1).
Parameters Physical and Chemical Analysis and Degradation Index Water
Dry season
Rainy Season
Parameter Analyzed
pH
Turbidity
Electrical Conductivity
Total Dissolved Solids
Temperature
Degradation Index
Point 1
6.44
0.97
0.0
0.0
15.2
0.0097
Point 2
7.58
11.37
133.0
72.0
18.0
1.5877
Point 1
5.48
0.38
4.0
2.0
18.6
0.0473
Point 2
7.65
46.0
116.0
63.0
19.8
1.746
Assays for Acute & Chronic Toxicity of Water and Sediment
st
Sampled points
Assay Toxicity acute Water
Specie: Daphnia similis
Assay Toxicity chronic Water
Specie: Ceriodaphnia silvestrii
Assay Toxicity acute Sediment
Specie: Chironomus xanthus
1 Assay
4
CL
P1
00
03
20
20
5
NE NE
00
10
NE
00
10
NE
2
nd
P2
19
20
----
2 Assay
CL
P1
00
04
20
20
NE
NE
00
10
NE
00
10
NE
00
10
NE
3
rd
P2
09
20
---00
10
NE
3 Assay
CL P1
00
---20
---- -------
----
2
P2
20
20
-------
Assay Toxicity chronic Sediment
---- ---- ---Specie: Ceriodaphnia silvestrii
Table 1. Physico-Chemical Analysis of Degradation Index and Testing Acute Toxicity and Chronic.
2
3
4
Assay samples collected over the weekend. Assay samples collected during the week. CL – Control Laboratory.
Effect.
5
NE – No
The physical and chemical parameters and the acute and chronic toxicity assays indicate some
deterioration in water quality due to changes in the use and occupation of land found in the basin.
It is worth noting the presence of the tailings dam, which lies within the profile under study, should
be the subject of investigations. Thus emphasizes the need to conduct studies downstream of the dam,
because even disabled it remains a reservoir of chemicals. Furthermore, it is important to identify the origin
of degradation identified in section 2, in order to define responsibilities and remedial actions.
IFNMG – Pirapora – MG – Brazil – August 24th – 30th 2014
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2 International Workshop -­‐ Symposium “Responsible Intervention in the Environment” Mining Activities, Refineries, Pollution Control and Remediation Strategies. 39 Actions that directly influence or not in water quality are evidence of how important the existence of
a constant monitoring to maintain and preserve the quality of water use, thus ensuring conservation of the
ecosystem in the aquatic biota.
The repetition of these analyzes and assays at different sampling periods (dry and rainy season)
and the development of more specific studies such as analyzes of metals and water hardness may provide
more detailed information on the impact of mining on water quality and sediment in basin Stream Tripuí.
Referencies
CONAMA 357 (2005). Diário Oficial da União, Conselho Nacional do Meio Ambiente Ministério do Meio Ambiente, Brasil.
MENDES, I. A. S.; RIBEIRO, E. V. A influência da cidade de Ouro Preto na degradação da qualidade da água na Bacia do
Córrego Tripuí. XX Simpósio Brasileiro de Recursos Hídricos, Bento Gonçalves: Rio Grande do Sul. 1-8. Nov. 2013.
MENDES, I. A. S. Avaliação Eco toxicológica da Qualidade da Água e do Sedimento na Bacia do Córrego Tripuí, Ouro Preto –
MG. Monografia (Especialização). Gerenciamento de Recursos Hídricos. Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais, UFMG – Belo
Horizonte. 62 f. 2014.
3.2.10.
Resumo Abstract 010
Análise da qualidade geoquímica ambiental e biológica das águas superficiais
do Córrego da Prata no município de Diamantina-MG
N. Benini Silva*, H. Baggio Filho*
*[email protected] ; **[email protected]
Keywords: Recursos hídricos, saneamento, poluição
INTRODUÇÃO
A área de estudo, Córrego da Prata, está inserida na Serra do Espinhaço Meridional, localizada no
nordeste do estado de Minas Gerais, mais especificamente, no município de Diamantina (Figura 1.1),
coordenadas geográficas 18º14’58”S e 43º36’01”O. A microbacia drena uma importante província
geológica e geomorfológica, de intenso uso da terra e está diretamente relacionada com o abastecimento
de água do município.
A Serra do Espinhaço, definida recentemente como Reserva da Biosfera (GONTIJO, 2008),
apresenta geoambientes frágeis e de grande biodiversidade. Sua porção Meridional, apresenta pesquisas
principiantes no que se refere à análise geoquímica ambiental de águas superficiais da bacia hidrográfica
do rio Jequitinhonha. Diante deste cenário, esta pesquisa objetiva analisar a condição atual, geoquímica
ambiental e biológica, em que se encontra a água superficial na microbacia hidrográfica do Córrego da
Prata.
IFNMG – Pirapora – MG – Brazil – August 24th – 30th 2014
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2 International Workshop -­‐ Symposium “Responsible Intervention in the Environment” Mining Activities, Refineries, Pollution Control and Remediation Strategies. 40 Figura 1.1. Mapa de localização da área de estudo Microbacia do Córrego da Prata inserido dentro dos limites do município de
Diamantina. Fonte: Elaborado por SOUZA, C. H. S
METODOLOGIA:
Analisou-se a qualidade da água e comparou-se com o que preconiza a legislação ambiental,
Resolução CONAMA, n° 357/05, 274/00 e 430/11 e Portaria MS nº 2.914/11. Utilizando-se para isso, doze
parâmetros relevantes para a caracterização da qualidade da água. Sendo estes parâmetros físicos (Cor
Aparente, Temperatura, Turbidez), químicos (Condutividade Elétrica, Oxigênio Dissolvido, pH, e
Salinidade), físico-químicos (Potencial Óxido-Redução, Total de Sólidos Dissolvidos) e biológicos
(Coliformes totais, Coliformes termo tolerantes e Escherichia coli).
Coletou-se dez amostras d’água em dois períodos climáticos (chuvoso e seco). Utilizou-se, para
análise dos parâmetros físico-químicos, a sonda multiparâmetros HANNA HI9828, o Medidor de Cor
Aparente Microprocessador (ALFAKIT) e Turbidímetro (HANNA HI 98703), no Laboratório de Geoquímica
Ambiental/UFVJM. Os parâmetros biológicos foram analisados em parceria com o Laboratório de
Microbiologia do DCBio/UFVJM, através da técnica de tubos múltiplos, que permite a quantificação por
“número mais provável” (NMP) de microrganismos.
RESULTADOS:
Comparando os resultados dos doze parâmetros com as legislações ambientais, constatou-se que
os níveis dos parâmetros biológicos estão acima do permitido para enquadramentos do tipo classe 2 da
Resolução CONAMA nº357/05. A água, ao longo de todo o Córrego da Prata, apresentou confirmação de
presença de bactérias E. coli, estando inadequada para o uso, e tornando-se um risco à saúde pública.
Considerando o enquadramento atual do Córrego da Prata como sendo do tipo Classe 2 pela
Resolução CONAMA nº357/05, os níveis de OD estão, em sua maioria, abaixo do limite permitido.
Assumindo na estação seca, condição de anaerobiose e na estação úmida níveis abaixo do padrão
mínimo para a sobrevivência dos peixes mais exigentes, apesar de estes serem encontrados. Os níveis
de pH, turbidez e salinidade estão dentro do padrão, mas turbidez extrapola o limite estabelecido para
potabilidade pela Portaria MS 2.914/11. Os níveis de cor aparente estão muito acima do permitido,
principalmente nos pontos P7 ao P9, sugerindo não somente a presença de material detrítico em
suspensão como resultado do inadequado lançamento de efluentes urbanos e rurais. E os parâmetros CE,
temperatura, ORP e TSD não possuem padrões estabelecidos pela legislação ambiental. Sendo estes
IFNMG – Pirapora – MG – Brazil – August 24th – 30th 2014
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2 International Workshop -­‐ Symposium “Responsible Intervention in the Environment” 41 Mining Activities, Refineries, Pollution Control and Remediation Strategies. capazes de caracterizar a microbacia, quanto às inter-relações fisiográficas, hidrográficas, geológicas,
geomorfológicas, vegetacionais e atividades antrópicas pelo uso e ocupação da terra.
Diante dos resultados dos parâmetros físico, químicos, físico-químicos e biológicos, a qualidade
geoquímica e biológica do Córrego da Prata apresentou-se satisfatória na estação úmida e degradada na
estação seca. A qualidade do curso principal sofre influência direta de seus afluentes. Contribuindo, no
médio curso, para a redução da qualidade da água, por estes drenarem a zona urbana de Diamantina, em
quanto que no baixo curso, os tributários drenam principalmente áreas preservadas, contribuindo assim,
para a melhora da qualidade da água da microbacia Córrego da Prata.
Conclui-se que a microbacia encontra-se com alta degradação de seus recursos hídricos e meio
ambiente aquático, devido, principalmente, ao lançamento ilegal de esgoto in natura no corpo d’água. Os
resultados também sugerem contaminação generalizada de efluentes sanitários e domésticos indicando
um grave risco à saúde da população. As evidencias de altas taxas de CE, turbidez e cor aparente, no
médio curso do Córrego da Prata, associadas com a redução dos níveis de OD, tornam o meio adverso à
sobrevivência da fauna aquática. Consequentemente gera impactos negativos ao ecossistema do Córrego
da Prata
Diante dos resultados obtidos torna-se necessário o desenvolvimento de projetos de intervenção na
microbacia objetivando a sua melhoria visto que se trata de uma região frágil e de grande biodiversidade.
Referências
BRASIL. Ministério da Saúde. Portaria nº 2914, de 12 de janeiro de 2011. Diário Oficial da República Federativa do Brasil, Poder
Executivo, Brasília, DF, 12 dez. 2011. Seção 1, p. 39-46.
BRASIL. Resolução CONAMA n° 357, de 17 de março de 2005. Diário Oficial da República Federativa do Brasil, Poder Executivo,
Brasília, DF, 18 mar. 2005.
BRASIL. Resolução CONAMA n° 430, de 13 de maio de 2011. Diário Oficial da República Federativa do Brasil, Brasília, DF, n.92
de 16 abr. 2011, p.89.
BRASIL. Resolução CONAMA n ° 274, 29 de novembro de 2000. Diário Oficial da República Federativa do Brasil, Poder Executivo
Brasília, DF, 2001.
GONTIJO, B. M. Uma geografia para a Cadeia do Espinhaço. Megadiversidade. v 4, 2008.
3.2.11.
Resumo Abstract 011
Analysis of mineralogical and chemical elements to
assessing the quality of bottom sediments in the buffer zone of Caparaó the
National Park -MG
William Fortes Rodrigues*, Adolf Heinrich Horn*, Juliana A. S. Oliveira*
*UFMG- Federal University of Minas Gerais- Avenue Presidente Antônio Carlos, 6627 - Pampulha, Belo Horizonte –
MG;*[email protected], [email protected]
[email protected]
Keywords: Sediment quality; Potentially toxic elements; Buffer Zone,
The creation of protected areas is currently becoming a major form of government intervention, to
reduce the damage to biodiversity in the face of environmental degradation caused by society. Therefore,
the Caparaó National Park can be as a territorial unit appropriate for a study of the current situation of
natural conditions and human activities is appropriate because it may compromise the environmental
quality of the park, especially in the buffer zone.
Human activities in land use in the natural environment is subject to changes that may compromise
the quality of the courses of water and sediment, and thus a monitoring of its quality, it is important in order
IFNMG – Pirapora – MG – Brazil – August 24th – 30th 2014
nd
2 International Workshop -­‐ Symposium “Responsible Intervention in the Environment” 42 Mining Activities, Refineries, Pollution Control and Remediation Strategies. to allow an assessment actual conditions and met the requirements for the Park and ensure its uses
planned within an environmental planning.
The study of environmental quality through chemical and physical composition of the sediments
have occurred more frequently since the review by analytical methods used to analyse the geochemical
signature of specific locations in the scales of historical and geological time, which makes it possible to
identify the anthropogenic conditions since the sediments also fulfil a role in the regulation of water quality
for its ability to retain and release the pollutant. (Golterman, 1982).
The importance of assessing the quality of sediments as an indicator of environmental quality, the
present study aimed to analyse the concentration of potentially toxic elements in bottom sediments in the
buffer zone of the Caparaó National Park (MG) in order to understand the correlation with the geoenvironmental characteristics and anthropogenic factors.
This paper presents preliminary results of the evaluation of the presence and concentration levels of
toxic elements (Pb, Cr, Cu, Ni and Zn) in bottom sediments collected western part (MG) of the buffer zone
of the Parna Caparaó. To evaluate the six sediment sampling sites sampled in the wet season were
established. Determination of concentrations of selected elements was obtained by optical emission
spectrometry ICP-OES, diffraction and X-ray fluorescence
The characterization of the samples by X-Ray Diffraction, in general, the main mineral in the six
sampling points is quartz, and other minerals at every point there is a uniformity, except in some Muscovite
containing as P1 and P2, and nacrite in P6 as well as the presence of the clay mineral Kaolinite
(Al2H4O9Si2) also in most of the points with the exception of P1.
The chemical composition of sediments identified by X-ray fluorescence (Figure 1), the potentially
toxic metals as Cr, Cu e Zn. The higher concentrations of Cu is in P6 (1133,30 ppm), Cr in sample P2
(976, 51 ppm) and Zn in sample P6( 759,26).
Figure 1: Chemical composition: trace elements in the bottom sediments in the buffer zone of the National Park
Caparáo-MG.
The analysis of ICP-OES, (Figure 2) the sampled points present high concentrations of Cu in P2
(301.95 mg/kg) and P6 (300.06 mg/kg), Cr in P7 (191.40 mg/kg), and Zn in the P1 (125, 80 mg/kg) and P2
(125.30 mg/kg).
IFNMG – Pirapora – MG – Brazil – August 24th – 30th 2014
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2 International Workshop -­‐ Symposium “Responsible Intervention in the Environment” 43 Mining Activities, Refineries, Pollution Control and Remediation Strategies. Figure 2: Toxic elements concentration in the bottom sediments of Buffer Zone Caparaó National Caparaó.
The results presented, attention is drawn to the mineralogical composition since it was a higher
percentage of quartz, this means that there is an increased fixation of toxic elements by kaolinite mode. It is
noteworthy that high levels are associated with coffee growing areas where there is intensive use of
pesticides and fertilizers. These results call for a greater control and observation suggest the
implementation of a further study to attempt to define background values for this area and thus facilitate
evaluation of the impact.
References
Golterman, H.L., Sly, P.G. and Thomas, R.L. 1983 Study of the Relationship Between Water Quality and Sediment
Transport: A Guide for the Collection and Interpretation of Sediment Quality Data. United Nations Educational
Scientific and Cultural Organization, Paris, 231p.
3.2.12.
Resumo Abstract 012
Chemical, mineralogical, toxicity and leaching characteristics of Znmetallurgical sludges and residues
1
2
3
4
1
M. Sethurajan , P.N.L. Lens , H. A. Horn , L. H. A. Figueiredo , E. D. van Hullebusch *,
1
Université Paris-Est, Laboratoire Géomatériaux et Environnement (LGE), EA 4508, UPEM, 77454 Marne-la-Vallée, France
2
3
4
UNESCO-IHE Institute for Water Education, Westvest 7, 2611 AX Delft, The Netherlands
Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais, NGqA-CPMTC, Instituto de Geociências, Av. Antônio Carlos, 6627, Pampulha, Belo
Horizonte - MG, 31270-901, Brazil
Universidade Estadual de Montes Claros,Solos e nutrição de plantas, Avenida Reinaldo Viana, 2630, Bico da Pedra - Janauba MG, 39440-000, Brazil
* E-mail: [email protected]
IFNMG – Pirapora – MG – Brazil – August 24th – 30th 2014
nd
2 International Workshop -­‐ Symposium “Responsible Intervention in the Environment” Mining Activities, Refineries, Pollution Control and Remediation Strategies. 44 Key words: Metallurgical wastes, Metals recovery, Secondary resources, Bio hydrometallurgy, Metal sulfide precipitation
Introduction- In this electronic era, absolutely everything humans depend on is either made of
minerals or metals and so their demand in the day-to-day life is increasing. Considering the fact that the
gradual depletion of worldwide reserves for high grade ores has resulted in the urge to look for alternative
resources to recover metals. The wastes generated in the metallurgical industries can be used as a
secondary resource as it contains high concentration of metals. From the economic point of view,
conventional pyro-metallurgical approach will not be a better tool for the extraction of metals from the
wastes as it requires high capital investment. Recently, the use of micro-organisms (bio hydrometallurgy) to
facilitate the extraction and recovery of base and precious metals from fly ash, wastes, dusts, has
developed into a successful and expanding area of biotechnology. This technology holds the promise of
reducing the fixed capital costs dramatically, and also offers the opportunity to reduce environmental
pollution.
Objective(s) -The ultimate aim of this research project is to recover the valuable metals from the
metallurgical wastes. In order to achieve this objective, the research plan has several sub-objectives (i) To
understand about the various physico-chemical, and mineralogical characteristics, (ii) To investigate in
detail about the leachability (chemical and biological) of the heavy metals from the muds and (iii) To study
about the selective recovery of the metals from the leachates.
Methodology -Samples were dried and ground to ensure that the particle size is below 1mm in
diameter. Mineralogy of the samples were studied by X-Ray diffraction. Presence and determination of
Total solids, volatile and fixed solids (US EPA 1684) and carbonate content in the metallurgical wastes
were calculated. Hotplate aqua regia acid digestion was performed to know about the total metal
concentrations of the samples. Toxicity characteristics leaching procedure (TCLP) of the metal wastes were
also investigated by US EPA 1311 procedure. Ultrasound accelerated Sequential extraction procedure
(Perez-Cid et al. 1998) was done to understand about the amounts of acid extractable, oxidisable,
reducible and residual fractions of the metals. Effect of pH on the leaching behaviour was studied by US
EPA 1313 procedure. Metals concentrations in the leachates were determined by ICP-OES.
Results – Our initial results reveal that the sludges contain significant concentration of Zinc (2.5% to
5%), Lead (1.7% to 2.3%) and metals such as Manganese, Copper, and Aluminium in detectable fractions.
The residues contain high concentration of Cu (47%), Zn (28%), Cd (9%) and Pb (5%). Both the sludges
and residues are “Hazardous” wastes, releasing higher concentration of Pb and Cd into the environment,
than the permissible concentration suggested by EPA. Sequential extraction analytes contain Cd (99%), Cu
and Zn morethan 50% in acid exchangeable fractions, Mn> Zn ≈ Cu > Fe > Al >Pb in the reducible fraction
and Pb> Cu > Zn > Al > Cd >Mn in the oxidisable fraction. Metals such as Fe, Pb and Al were mostly
observed in the residual fractions. Leaching of metals is high at low pH and the release of metals
decreased with increase in pH
Conclusions and Future directions – The results suggested that these wastes are “hazardous”
wastes and significant concentration of Zn can be leached from these wastes. Currently, a study to recover
the heavy metals by biologically produced hydrogen sulphides from sulphuric acid based heap leachates is
on-going. Future directions will include optimizing the parameters for the maximum leaching of metals and
finding suitable conditions to achieve the selective recovery of metals from the leachates.
References:
Lee, J.C.; Pandey, B.D.; (2012). Bio-processing of solid wastes and secondary resources for metal extraction – a review. Waste
Manage., 32, 3-18.
IFNMG – Pirapora – MG – Brazil – August 24th – 30th 2014
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2 International Workshop -­‐ Symposium “Responsible Intervention in the Environment” 45 Mining Activities, Refineries, Pollution Control and Remediation Strategies. Lewis, A.E. (2010). Review of metal sulphide precipitation, Hydrometallurgy, 104, 222-234.
Lottermoser, B.G. (2003). Mine Wastes: Characterization, Treatment, and Environmental Impacts, Springer, Verlag Berlin
Heidelberg New York.
Pérez-Cid, B.; Lavilla, I.; Bendicho, C. (1998). Speeding up of a three-stage sequential extraction method for metal speciation using
focused ultrasound, Anal. Chim. Acta., 360, 35-41.
United States Environmental Protection Agency (1992).Toxicity Characteristic Leaching Procedure (TCLP), Test Method 1311TCLP, Washington, DC.
United states environmental protection agency (2012). Liquid-Solid Partitioning As A Function Of Extract pH Using A Parallel Batch
Extraction Procedure, 1–30.
United States environmental protection agency (2001).Total, Fixed, and Volatile Solids in Water, Solids, and Bio solids. 1-13
3.2.13.
Resumo Abstract 018
Metodologia de análise de partículas atmosféricas em microfotografias
utilizando o Programa Quantikov: resultados preliminares
B. N. Oliveira*, E. V. Ribeiro*, A. H. Horn. *
*UFMG- Federal University of Minas Gerais- Avenue Presidente Antônio Carlos, 6627 - Pampulha, Belo Horizonte – MG
[email protected], [email protected], [email protected] - IGC/UFMG
.
Palavras-chave: imagens, partículas e área total.
Este trabalho apresenta os primeiros resultados do uso do programa Quantikov na análise de
imagens de material particulado atmosférico. Foram utilizadas microfotografias do material sedimentado
em películas adesivas expostas durante um mês. As amostras correspondem a três pontos de
amostragem localizados nas cidades de Pirapora (P1 - Distrito Industrial e P2 Unimontes) e Buritizeiro (P3
- SAAE Buritizeiro) no norte de Minas Gerais. As fotos foram obtidas em aumentos de 2.5x e 5x em
microscópio petrográfico.
A D B E C F Figura 1: Fotografias películas adesivas. (A) Distrito Industrial; (B)Unimontes e (C) SAAE - Buritizeiro
aumento 2,5x e D, E, F aumento 5x.
IFNMG – Pirapora – MG – Brazil – August 24th – 30th 2014
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2 International Workshop -­‐ Symposium “Responsible Intervention in the Environment” Mining Activities, Refineries, Pollution Control and Remediation Strategies. 46 Criado com o objetivo de facilitar a análise e o processo de quantificação de micropartículas (como
partículas e poros), a partir de imagens digitalizadas ou câmeras de vídeo (PINTO, 1996), o programa tem
compatibilidade com o Windows e está disponível para uso de forma gratuita.
O programa inclui módulos de processamento digital de imagens, quantificação de parâmetros
geométricos, morfologia matemática e geração automática de gráficos e tabelas. (CAMPELLO, 2006. p.
94)
O programa utiliza medidas diferenciais, que anteriormente à introdução de microcomputadores
eram trabalhosas de serem utilizadas manualmente, tornando o processo de estatística e verificação de
imagens consideravelmente mais prático e acurado (PINTO, 1996)
O Quantikov classifica e diferencia os diversos elementos em cada imagem de acordo com seus
tons de cinza, sob um fundo normalmente branco ou esbranquiçado. De forma a padronizar o trabalho,
foi escolhido um "tom de cinza de corte", em que somente os elementos abaixo desse tom sejam
diferenciados do "fundo". Foi escolhido o corte de cinza em 130, pois depois de exaustivos testes,
demonstrou os melhores resultados na individualização de partículas em contraste com a matriz. A partir
das fotos das películas escolheu-se uma foto que possuía a distribuição mais uniforme e que não
apresentava ruídos que pudessem atrapalhar a análise.
Feita a binarização todas as partículas escuras da imagem foram selecionados e analisadas quanto
a Área, o Diâmetro, o Comprimento, o Perímetro e a Esfericidade. Foi também realizada uma comparação
entre a quantidade total de partículas em cada imagem, nos dois aumentos. Como o objetivo eram
somente para fins de comparação entre as imagens (tamanho e comprimento), não foram usados valores
reais, mas a escala padrão do programa (micrômetro).
A seguir, foram realizadas as análises levando-se em conta somente o número de partículas com
alto grau de esfericidade, e para isso utilizou-se, após o corte no nível de cinza 130, uma ferramenta do
programa para apagar da imagem todos os partículas com grau de esfericidade < 0,999, onde o valor
máximo é 1 para uma partícula considerada esférica.
Para cada uma das fotos trabalhadas, foi obtido um histograma mostrando a quantidade de
partículas que estavam distribuída para cada Tom de Cinza.
Os resultados das análises indicam que partículas de maior área, perímetro e diâmetro nas
amostras do Distrito Industrial (D.I.). Os valores das películas próximas à Unimontes são geralmente
intermediários, enquanto as películas em Buritizeiro (SAAE) mostram a menor quantidade de material
particulado. Esses dados indicam uma relação entre a quantidade do material particulado com a
distância do Distrito Industrial.
IFNMG – Pirapora – MG – Brazil – August 24th – 30th 2014
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2 International Workshop -­‐ Symposium “Responsible Intervention in the Environment” 47 Mining Activities, Refineries, Pollution Control and Remediation Strategies. 250000 200000 150000 100000 50000 0 D.I. Uni. 2500 2000 1500 1000 500 0 D.I. Uni. SAAE Área Total -­‐ aumento 2.5x SAAE Número de ParHculas -­‐ aumento 2.5x Gráfico 1. Exemplos: área total (esquerda) e número total de particulas (direita), no aumento 2.5x
Os resultados acima são consistentes tanto nos aumentos de 2.5x quanto nos aumentos de 5x,
porém são irregulares quando analisadas somente as partículas com alto grau de esfericidade ou somente
o número total de partículas, do que se pode concluir que por vezes o tamanho das partículas nas
amostras do D.I. é tão grande que o número de partículas individuais presentes na mesma área de lâmina
se torna menor que nas de Buritizeiro e Unimontes (que por vezes possuem muitas partículas, mas de
tamanho/área menores).
A quantificação do material particulado obtida nos testes até o presente momento indicam que o
programa pode ser usado na metodologia de análise de particulados em amostras coletadas por
sedimentação em películas adesivas.
Bibliografia
CAMPELLO, M. S. Técnicas de processamento digital de imagens com aplicação no setor de rochas ornamentais. 2006.215 f.
Belo Horizonte: Tese (Doutorado em Geologia) - Instituto de Geociências, Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais., 2006.
PINTO, L. C. M. QUANTIKOV Um analisador microestrutural para o ambiente Windows. 1996. 160 f.São Paulo: Tese (Doutorado
em Tecnologia Núclear) - Instituto de Pesquisas Energéticas e Núcleares, Universidade de São Paulo. 1996., 1996.
3.2.14.
Resumo Abstract 019
Genesis and Classification of the Red Eutrophic Soils of the North of Minas
Gerais under Deciduous Forest
FERREIRA, L. B.*, MORAIS, H, G. S.*, ALVES, V. S. B.*, FIGUEIREDO, L. H. A.*, BRITO, F. H. F.*, FIGUEIREDO,
M. A. P.*, MATRANGOLO, C. A. R.*
* UNIMONTES – State University of Montes Claros - 2630, Reinaldo Viana Avenue, Bico da Pedra, Janaúba–MG,
[email protected], [email protected], [email protected],
[email protected], [email protected], [email protected], [email protected]
Keywords: Geology, deciduous forest, fertility, soil, Minas Gerais.
1 - Introduction
IFNMG – Pirapora – MG – Brazil – August 24th – 30th 2014
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2 International Workshop -­‐ Symposium “Responsible Intervention in the Environment” Mining Activities, Refineries, Pollution Control and Remediation Strategies. 48 Eutrophic soils are usually under deciduous forest in northern Minas Gerais, including droughts and
Savana forests in the Cerrado regions. There are few studies on the origin of eutrophic soils and its
correlation with native vegetation and geology in the northern region of Minas Gerais. Such studies are of
great importance to the establishment of appropriate management strategies for this environment. The
great responsible for the high eutrophic characteristic of the soils are limestone, which begin to appear in
the region in Sete Lagoas and goes until the border of Minas Gerais with the state of Bahia, in the São
Francisco River Basin. The classes of eutrophic soils that occur in northern Minas Gerais second (CETEC
2009) are: Latosol, Nitosol, Ultisol, Cambisol, Vertisol and Neossolo. There are several plant formations in
northern Minas Gerais, standing among them, the savanna, the deciduous forest and the Cerrado. The
soils of these forests are fertile by the presence of limestone, and in them preferential species of fertile soils
occur, but also generalist species that occur in other vegetation (FELFILI et al., 2007).This study aimed to
verify the origin of eutrophic soils in northern Minas Gerais.
2 - Materials and Methods
This study was carried in North of Minas Gerais, in the regions of Montes Claros - Janaúba - Jaíba, where
there is a great presence of eutrophic soils, in all the regions usually under tall deciduous forest. The
selection of the study areas were made based on soil maps, geology, knowledge of technicians of the
regions and popular knowledge. In each area was identified the soil class by Brazilian system of soil
classification (EMBRAPA, 2013), through the description of the soil profile. Were opened several trenches
(one per sample), where was determined for each horizon the type and size of structure, color of wet soil
(made by Munsell color chart), cerosity of the soil and stony, being collected single soil samples deformed
for each horizon. Also determined the type of vegetation, local relief, parent material, geographical
coordinates (GPS) and rocky outcrops. Soil samples were taken to the Laboratory of Routine Analysis of
Soil of the State University of Montes Claros and of the EPAMIG, where were made the chemical and
physical analysis. Were made analysis of pH in H2O, Ca2+ and Mg2+ exchangeable, K+ and Na+,
extracted by Mehlich-l and measured by flame photometry; P extracted by Mehlich-l and determined by
molecular absorption spectrometry in the presence of ascorbic acid; Al3+ and H+ + Al3+, and organic
matter and texture by the pipette method (EMBRAPA, 2013).
3 - Results and Conclusion
On the mountain top in Montes Claros occurs formation of deciduous forest on rocky outcrop of limestone,
in altitude around 900m. At the base of the mountain occurs the forming of a soft wavy relief to plan in
altitude around 600m, favoring the formation of red eutrophic Nitosol. The Nitosol (Table 1) present in the
foothills is characterized by being a clay soil with the presence of serosity, indicating the translocation of
clay from horizon A to B, but don't have a textural gradient to be Ultisol. It can be seen in table 1 high levels
of Calcium and Magnesium in this soil, to the detriment of low levels of Potassium and Phosphorus, ranked
by 5ª approximation (Ribeiro et al., 1999).
Going from Montes Claros to Jaíba, after a 30 km the relief is flat, with around 550m altitude, allowing the
formation of red eutrophic latosol on limestone. The values of pH, calcium and magnesium are on suitable
levels in soil. It is observed that the clay content does not increase in depth in the latosol, keeping next of
50 dag kg-1. Occurs an increase of the silt content and decrease in clay content, it is common in the region.
Base saturation above 50%, featuring an eutrophic soil, but the activity of the clay in this soil is classified as
low, despite being an eutrophic soil. It also indicated a rise of salts, because the Ca, Mg and K content
should be low, but due to biological action of forests, seeking nutrients at great depths, we observe such
values.
IFNMG – Pirapora – MG – Brazil – August 24th – 30th 2014
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2 International Workshop -­‐ Symposium “Responsible Intervention in the Environment” 49 Mining Activities, Refineries, Pollution Control and Remediation Strategies. Therefore the red soils of the North of Minas Gerais evaluated in the present study are originate from
limestone in most areas.
Table 1: Result of analysis and characteristics of the soils from the region of Montes Claros, Janaúba and Jaíba. SB (sum of
bases); t (effective CEC); T (CEC pH 7); V (base saturation); TFSA (fine soil dried on the air); YR (yellow red); Ta (high activity
3
clay> 25 cmolc / dm3); Tb (low activity clay <25 cmolc / dm ); G (granular); M (medium); P (small); L (large); B (blocks); Bs (sub
angular blocks); SE (without structure).
Variables
Latossolo
Nitossolo
A
B
A
B
Depth
0-10
10-200
0-28
28-200
pH
5,8
6,5
5,7
6,7
-
0
0
0
0
Al
cmolc dm ³
H+Al
cmolc dm ³
-
3,85
1,41
4
1,4
K
mg dm ³
-
196
24
57,6
25,2
P
mg dm ³
-
2,33
0,8
1
0,9
MO
dag dm ³
-
4,98
0,1
4
2,34
Ca
cmolc dm ³
-
6,1
5,3
13,2
8,3
Mg
cmolc dm ³
-
1,7
1,8
1,6
1
SB
cmolc dm ³
-
8,3
7,16
15
9,4
t
cmolc dm ³
-
8,3
7,16
15
9,4
T
cmolc dm ³
-
12,15
8,57
19
10,8
3,59
2,94
8,25
8,3
Ca/Mg
V
%
68
84
79
87
TFSA
<2mm
100
100
100
100
Clay
dag kg
-1
48
50
31
58
Silt
dag kg
-1
27
34
40
19
Sand
dag kg
-1
25
16
18
13
Color
Hue
2,5YR
2,5YR
5YR2/2
2,5YR3/6
0,6
0,7
1,29
0,33
Silt/Clay
Clay activity
Clay
cmolc dm ³
25
17
61
22
Type of clay
Symbol
Tb
Tb
Ta
Tb
-
IFNMG – Pirapora – MG – Brazil – August 24th – 30th 2014
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2 International Workshop -­‐ Symposium “Responsible Intervention in the Environment” 50 Mining Activities, Refineries, Pollution Control and Remediation Strategies. Structure
Shape / size
G/P
G/P
B/P
Coordinates
S 10°40'03''
W 45°54'03''
S 15° 39'09''
Relief
Plan
B/P
W 43°24'00''
Soft undulated
4 - Referencies
CETEC, Mapa de solos do Estado de Minas Gerais. 2009.
EMBRAPA. Centro Nacional de Pesquisa de solo. Sistema brasileiro de classificação de solos. 2. ed. Rio de Janeiro:
Embrapa solos, 2013, 306p.
FELFILI, J. M.; CARVALHO, F. A.; FAGG, C. W. Recuperação de matas secas e vegetação associadas no Vale do Paraná,
GO. Brasília: Universidade de Brasília. Departamento de Engenharia Florestal, 2007, 32p.
RIBEIRO, A. C.; GUIMARÃES, P. T. G.; ALVAREZ V., V. H. (Ed.). Recomendação para o uso de corretivos e fertilizantes em
Minas Gerais: 5ª. Aproximação. Viçosa: Comissão de Fertilidade do Solo do Estado de Minas Gerais, 1999.359p.
3.2.15.
Resumo Abstract 020
Análise do clima da região do Norte de Minas: um estudo de caso sobre a
crise da água no município de Janaúba- MG
A. H. G. COSTA*, V. M. HERMANO**
* [email protected]; ** [email protected]
Este trabalho adota uma metodologia estruturada na revisão bibliográfica de autores da climatologia
regional, além da analise de dados disponibilizados em diferentes órgãos. Em relação à descrição da área
de estudo busca-se apresentar uma analise geosistemica da área municipal, na qual a base estrutural do
município se insere e estabelece diversas relações. Destaca aspectos da paisagem que podem ser
considerados imutáveis, mas que a partir da intensificação e adensamento humano se transformam.
Entende-se que sob qualquer ponto de vista, estes fatores interferem na disponibilidade de água. Por fim
buscou-se por meio da analise interpretativa, correlacionar as condições climáticas à demanda social local,
a fim de compreender quais são os possíveis fatores, além dos climáticos, que determinam a crise da
água na região.
A área de estudo é formada por três conjuntos paisagísticos: as áreas urbanas compostas por JanaúbaMG e Nova Porteirinha-MG, o projeto de irrigação do Gorutuba com predominância da bananicultura, e o
conjunto Barragem Bico da Pedra e Serra do Espinhaço, com a função de reservatório estratégico de
água. Hermano (2006) afirma que após a instalação do Projeto de Irrigação do Gorutuba o processo de
urbanização se intensificou, economicamente a região passou a experimentar a elevação da produtividade
baseada na especialização produtiva. A constituição geomorfológica dupla (numa porção a Serra como
possibilidade de reservatório hídrico e na outra a depressão do São Francisco e seus aluviões
promovendo solos favoráveis a agricultura e a urbanização) foram fatores fundamentais na escolha da
IFNMG – Pirapora – MG – Brazil – August 24th – 30th 2014
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2 International Workshop -­‐ Symposium “Responsible Intervention in the Environment” 51 Mining Activities, Refineries, Pollution Control and Remediation Strategies. localização do projeto de irrigação, fato marcante no processo de evolução de Janaúba-MG. Para analise
do fator climático, utilizou - se os dados da estação agroclimatologica de Janaúba-MG dos últimos 22
anos. A seguir apresentam-se os resultados:
2012 2011 2010 2009 2008 2007 2006 2005 2004 2003 2002 2001 2000 1999 1998 1997 1996 1995 1994 1993 1400 1200 1000 800 600 400 200 0 1992 Milimetros Pluviosidade anual de Janaúba -­‐MG(INMET) 1992 a 2012 Gráfico: Pluviosidade
anual de Janaúba-MG 1992 a 2012. Fonte INMET, 2013.
Se tomarmos como base a média aritmética simples de 600 mm de chuva/ano, verifica-se um índice
elevado do desvio padrão, logo, existe uma grande oscilação tanto acima quanto abaixo da média.
Segundo os dados, o ultimo triênio não foi o pior em estiagem, os pontos críticos foram 1993, 1996 e 2003.
Por outro lado, registra-se pontos de ápice como 1992, 1995, 2002 e 2004 onde a chuva esteve bem
acima da média. Assim pode-se afirmar que não estamos vivenciando o pior período e que provavelmente
ocorrerão bons anos de chuva.
Do ponto de vista do consumo, em relação à questão rural considera-se a demanda da fruticultura, em
especial a bananicultura. Os dados foram coletados no sistema SIDRA do IBGE de produção agrícola e se
referem à área colhida, apontando os seguintes resultados: em 2008 a cidade Janaúba tinha uma área de
cultivo 1.750 e Nova Porteirinha 1.485, já em 2011 2.455 e 1.847 respectivamente. Quanto ao aspecto
urbano considerou-se, o crescimento demográfico da maior cidade que 1990 contávamos com uma
população total 58.525 e em 2012 68.823. Todos os dados analisados apontam para um aumento
expressivo do consumo da água no local.
Após a análise dos trabalhos a respeito do clima na região e o estudo de caso de Janaúba-MG não é
possível explicitar uma definição exata da dinâmica do clima regional. A área possui um clima seco, de
transição, e composto por ciclos, apresentando na maior parte do ano clima seco e um período chuvoso
com início e duração indefinidos, que sofrem com a ação de características que se diferem de acordo com
cada localidade.
Porém, há de se observar a forma que é gerida os recursos hídricos na região, políticas de exploração dos
rios e seus principais afluentes, a ocupação regional e o uso dos recursos hídricos para abastecer o
consumo doméstico e a agricultura, destaca-se o quanto essas atividades impactam a manutenção e
gestão dos recursos hídricos. A pesquisa prévia indica que o clima e suas variáveis ainda não estão
devidamente evidenciados e que em relação a cidade de Janaúba-MG, a crise da água que vivenciados
nos últimos anos não se deu exclusivamente pelos fatores climáticos. Tais evidencias indicam que a
pesquisa sobre a dinâmica climática regional e suas interrelações devem ser melhor observadas.
IFNMG – Pirapora – MG – Brazil – August 24th – 30th 2014
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Revista Geonomos, Belo Horizonte, v. 6, n. 2, p. 17-22. 1998. Disponível em http://zip.net/bxpcG3. Acesso em 03 ago.2014.
ALMEIDA, José Antonio Pacheco. Aplicação da metodologia sistêmica ao estudo do sítio urbano de
Feira
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BA.
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Sitientubus,
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jan/jul,
p9-26,2000.
D i s p o n i v e l : http://www2.uefs.br/sitientibus/pdf/22/aplicacao_da_metodologia_sistemica.pdf.Acessado: 02/04/2014.
BARROS, K. O. Índice de aridez como indicador da susceptibilidade à desertificação na mesorregião Norte de Minas.
2010. 89 f. Monografia (Bacharelado em Geografia), Universidade Federal de Viçosa / Viçosa, 2010.
BELÉM, Ronaldo Alves. Conceitos básicos da geologia e geomorfologia no contexto dos aspectos fisiograficos de Montes
Claros e Norte de Minas Gerias. IN: Revista Cerrados, vol 10,n° 1,2012. pg 154-176.
CODEVASF. Relatório do Grupo de Trabalho instituído pela decisão N° 102/88, 1988.
INMET – Instituto Nacional de Meteorologia.http://www.inmet.gov.br/portal/index.php?r=bdmep/bdmep.
Acesso em 10 ago.2014.
MACIEL, S. A. et al. A análise da influência da altitude na temperatura e na precipitação da Mesorregião Norte de Minas – Minas
Gerais. Revista Geonorte, Uberlândia, v. 1, n. 5, p. 250-261. 2012.
MINUZZI, R.B. et al. Estudo Climático do Comportamento do período Chuvoso no estado de Minas Gerais. Revista Ceres, Viçosa,
v. 53, n. 306, p. 266-275. Março/Abril 2006.
SINDA – Sistema Nacional de Dados Ambientais. http://sinda.crn2.inpe.br/PCD/pcd.jsp?uf=12. Acesso em 10 ago.2014.
SOUZA JUNIOR, Raimundo.
Caracterização hidrológica do reservatório Bico da Pedra e sua
influencia nos municípios de Janaúba e Nova Porteirinha-MG . (Mono) UFMG, 2008.
3.2.16.
Resumo Abstract 021
Evaluation of Physical Analysis as an Indicator of Pasture Degradation in
Soils of Municipality of São João da Ponte-MG
DUARTE, A. B.*, NOGUEIRA, E. L.*, SANTOS, E. F.*, FIGUEIREDO, L. H. A.*, FERREIRA, L. B.*, FIGUEIREDO,
M. A. P.*, MORAIS, H. G. S.*
*UNIMONTES – State University of Montes Claros, 2630, Reinaldo Viana Avenue, Bico da Pedra, Janaúba–MG,
[email protected], [email protected], [email protected], [email protected],
[email protected], [email protected], [email protected]
Keywords: Soil fertility; forage production, soil deterioration; pasture
1 - Introduction
The north region of Minas Gerais has as main rural activity beef cattle characterized by the presence of
acid soils with low fertility, predominantly red-yellow latosol and red latosol. The clearing made over time
resulting in the replacement of most of the native (Caatinga/Savannah) by cultured species. According to
Zimmer & Correa (1993) Brazilian beef cattle is mainly based on the exploitation of pastures. However,
draw attention to the carelessness of the producer to the correct management of soil and pasture, which
can affect the persistence of this activity of great economic importance and compromise the levels of
livestock production. The physical properties of the most studied with respect to soil degradation are
density and penetration resistance. These estimates are usually concentrated in the upper soil layer, since
the effect of treading of the animals can reach up to 15 cm depth (Pinzón & Amesquita, 1991). The aim of
this study was to evaluate the physical attributes of the soil, as indicator of the soil degradation in the
North of Minas Gerais.
2 - Material and Methods
This work was developed in São João da Ponte. The soil of area was red-yellow latosol, with an
average stocking rate for the pasture of 3.8 animal unit per hectare, with the following environments: semi
deciduous forest remnant (FOREST); Brachiaria degraded (DP): formed by Brachiaria deployed to 10
years; Brachiaria Very Degraded (VDP): formed by Brachiaria Brizantha deployed to 10 years; pastures
Brachiaria Very Degraded (VDP): formed by Brachiaria Brizantha deployed to 11 years; pastures Buffel
handled well (BUFFEL): formed by Cenchrus ciliaris cv. aridus implanted 15 years; pastures Brachiaria well
IFNMG – Pirapora – MG – Brazil – August 24th – 30th 2014
nd
2 International Workshop -­‐ Symposium “Responsible Intervention in the Environment” 53 Mining Activities, Refineries, Pollution Control and Remediation Strategies. managed (WMP): formed by Brachiaria Brizantha implemented in 2004.
The selected areas for evaluation were divided into four portions, each one constituted one repetition.
Disturbed and undisturbed soil samples were collected at 0-5, 5-10 and 10-20 cm depth, to be analyzed in
the laboratory of the State University of Montes Claros. The Physical analyzes were: texture by the pipette
method, soil density and the volumetric density of ring particles by volumetric flask (EMBRAPA, 1997). Was
also analyzed the resistance to penetration in each area (Stolf, 1983).
The experimental outline was completely randomized and averages were compared by the Scott-Knott
test at 5%. All statistical analyzes were performed using Software SAEG.
3 - Results and conclusion
Levels of penetration resistance did not differ between treatments: pasture very little degraded and
degraded pasture, also did not vary between treatments: pasture Buffel and forest, being the lowest level of
resistance obtained in well managed pastures, however the changes were significant among all treatments
over the same depth (Table 1). Moraes & Lustosa (1997) and Muller et al. (2001) highlights the physical
deteriorating condition of soils under pasture was attributed to trampling cattle, causing compaction,
expressed by increased density, micro porosity and resistance to penetration, and reducing the total pore
space, macro porosity and the values of hydraulic properties, which led to lower capacity of water infiltration
into the soil and increased susceptibility to erosion.
Table 1: Results of the permeation of the Yellow Red
Latosol conducted in environments, well managed pastures
(WMP), forest (FOREST), Very Degraded pastures (VDP),
Pastures Degraded (DP), and well-managed pastures of
Buffel (BUFFEL) in the 0 to 20 cm. Average of five replicates.
Environment
0-20 cm
WMP
FOREST
VDP
DP
BUFFEL
Resistence to penetration
8,0c
12,6b
14,4a
14,9a
11,9b
VDP
DP
BUFFEL
WMP
FOREST
VDP
DP
BUFFEL
75,9b 2,9b
79,6 1,6b
78,7a 4,5a
10-20cm
73,5c 4,5a
72,8c 2,3b
75,9b 2,9b
79,6a 1,6b
78,7a 4,5a
Table 2: Textural characterization of the Red yellow latosol
collected in environments, well managed pastures (WMP),
forest (FOREST), Very Degraded pastures (VDP), degraded
pastures (DP), and well-managed pastures Buffel (BUFFEL)
at three depths. Average of five replicates.
WMP
FOREST
VDP
DP
BUFFEL
WMP
FOREST
Texture
¼¼..%....
sand
silt
clay
0-5cm
72,9b 4,1a
23,0a
76,2a 4,9a
18,9a
76,2a 4,0a
19,8b
77,5a 3,7a
18,8a
79,3a 5,9a
15,8c
5-10cm
73,5c 4,5a
22,0b
72,8c 2,3b
24,9a
IFNMG – Pirapora – MG – Brazil – August 24th – 30th 2014
22,0b
24,9a
21,2b
18,8c
16,8c
Means in column followed by the same letter do not differ
statistically by SCOTT - Knott test at 5% probability.
Means in column followed by the same letter do not differ
statistically by SCOTT - Knott test at 5% probability.
Environment
21,2b
18,8c
16,8c
nd
2 International Workshop -­‐ Symposium “Responsible Intervention in the Environment” 54 Mining Activities, Refineries, Pollution Control and Remediation The soil in question was framed as aStrategies. soil with sandy texture by have a high sand concentration (greater
than 70%) and low levels of clay. At all depths analyzed this characteristic has remained constant, with no
difference between treatments (Table 2). The Red-Yellow Latosol (São João da Ponte) despite a good
fertility has its degraded pastures, and usage time elucidates the trampling of animals great compaction
caused these soils causing a reduction in productivity and consequently degradation. The penetration
resistance and productivity are also good indicators of degradation.
4 - Referencies
EMPRESA BRASILEIRA DE PESQUISA E AGROPECUÁRIA – EMBRAPA – Centro Nacional de Pesquisa de Solos. Manual
de métodos de analises do solo. 2. ed. Rio de Janeiro: Ministério da Agricultura. 1997. 212p.
MORAES, A.; LUSTOSA, S. B. C. Efeito do animal sobre as características do solo e a produção da pastagem. In:
SIMPÓSIO SOBRE AVALIAÇÃO DE PASTAGENS COM ANIMAIS. 1997. Anais... Maringá: Universidade Estadual de Maringá,
1997. p.129-149.
MULLER, M. M. L. et al. Degradação de pastagens na Região Amazônica: propriedades físicas do solo e crescimento de
raízes. Pesquisa Agropecuária Brasileira, 36, 1409-1418, 2001.
PINZÓN, A.; AMESQUITA, E. Compactación de suelos por el pisoteo en el piedemonte amazônico de Colombia. Pasturas
Tropicales, v.13, n. 2, p.21-26, 1991.
SAEG Sistema para Análises Estatísticas, Versão 9.1: Fundação Arthur Bernardes - UFV - Viçosa, 2007.
STOLF, R. Operação de penetrômetro de impacto e modelo IAA/Planalsucar-Stolf. Piracicaba: IAA/PLANALSUCAR, 1983. 8
p. (Serie Penetrômetro de Impacto. Boletim, 2).
ZIMMER, A. H., CORREA, E. S. A pecuária nacional, uma pecuária de pasto? In: ENCONTRO SOBRE RECUPERAÇÃO DE
PASTAGENS, 1., Nova Odessa, 1993. Anais... Nova Odessa, Instituto de Zootecnia, 1993. p.1-25.
3.2.17.
Resumo Abstract 022
EVALUATION OF THE EVOLUTION OF DEGRADATION STATE OF THE SPRING OF PAU PRETO
STREAM LOCATED IN MONTES CLAROS- MINAS GERAIS
1
2
2
2
2
1
SANTOS, E.F ; SOUZA, V.O ; TEIXEIRA, A.C.F ; ANDRADE, A.V.A ; PEIXOTO, K.F.V ; OLIVEIRA JR, J.L ;
2
OLIVEIRA P.N .
1
UNIMONTES – State University of Montes Claros, 2630, Reinaldo Viana Avenue, Bico da Pedra, Janaúba–MG, fagner2
[email protected] Faculdade Santo Agostinho, 937, Av. Osmane Barbosa, JK Montes Claros- MG
[email protected]
Keywords: desertification; water polluted; Minas Gerais
1 - Introduction
Brazil stands out as the world's largest freshwater power, but with the increase of the population and
uncontrolled urbanization, natural resources are being increasingly degraded, this is occurring because of
several incorrect attitudes of man on the environment , for example: garbage, fires, deforestation,
emissions of pollutants in the atmosphere; all of which directly or indirectly affects water resources in view
of the importance of spring in this scenario, as it's the cradle of water of our planet. The spring in urban
areas have been targeted by large degradations because to anthropogenic activities, as the rapid and
unplanned growth of cities, unduly occupying the catchments, launching domestic and industries effluents
and solid wastes, deforestation of riparian forests, embankment and springs compaction and lack of proper
monitoring in the headwaters, causing impacts on water resources. The aim of this study was evaluated the
state and degradation evolution of the spring of Pau Preto stream located in Montes Claros – MG
2 - Materials and Methods
The city of Montes Claros is located in the north of Minas Gerais. According to IBGE (2010) The city
covers an area of 3,568,941 km2 with biome Cerrado and the tropical climate, being located in geographic
coordinates: latitude 16 º 43 '41'', longitude 43 º 51' 54'' and altitude 638 m. The study was conducted in the
vicinity of the spring of the Pau Preto stream located in the urban area in the southeastern region of
Montes Claros - MG, its length is approximately 1000 m and its mouth is water course Melancias. In point
IFNMG – Pirapora – MG – Brazil – August 24th – 30th 2014
nd
2 International Workshop -­‐ Symposium 55 “Responsible Intervention in the Environment” Mining Activities, Refineries, Pollution Control and Remediation Strategies. analysis found that the total degradation
of the spring due to various anthropogenic factors being
determinant points to the results which were: proximity to residence and establishment, place use by
humans, near the highway, so getting bad results to the characterization and assessment of the
degradation state. The Index of Environmental Impact in the spring was assessed as follows: For each
characteristic evaluated (Table 1) was assigned grades 1-3 where 1 refers to very high amounts of pollution
and 3 very low values at the end of the reviews the total sum was used to characterize the spring with
respect to the level of preservation: Class A between 37 -39 (Best); Class B 34-36 (Good); Class C 31-33
(Average); Class D 28-30 (Poor); Class E below 28 points (Terrible). The analyzed characteristics are
shown in Table 1.
3-Ressults and conclusions
According to Domingos Jr (2012) a year ago when it held its research showed the water was dark,
odorless and no foaming and oil on the surface. Floatables (trash in the water) were not found, however,
small amount of garbage (solid waste) was found in the surroundings, such as plastic and paper. There
was use by animals (tracks and feces), the vegetation was native (predominance of grasses and Typha
domingensis), and was slightly altered by the construction of trails and especially by the presence of solid
waste. But the results found in this period (august/2013) when the present study was conducted the water
continued dark, however with odor and foams due to effluent discharge throughout the course of the water
released by a box of sewage and plumbing found burst, lots of garbage (solid waste) in the environment as
plastic and paper. It is also observed that there was numerically an increased rate of degradation since
increased from 26 in 2012 to 20 in 2013. There is much use by animals (tracks and feces), the vegetation is
native and is in total disrepair with multiple paths trails and the amount of solid waste and wastewater.
Therefore the condition found is considered high environmental degradation. There degradation due to
environmental impacts found negative factors such as effluent discharge in large quantity, below 28 points
the presence of solid waste, illegal occupation and a lack of enclosure and preservation from the spring. It
was not possible to calculate the flow of the stream, because with the lack of protection there is a large
release of effluent at this place, possibly coming from households and establishments of a lower radius of
50 m. As mentioned earlier, this analysis shows that the spring of the Pau Preto stream is in high
degradation degree.
Table 1 - Comparison of the environmental characterization and deterioration evolution of the rising of Pau
Preto stream October/2013 period with June / 2012 period (made by Domingo Jr.)
October/2013
- Color of water
1
- Odor
3
- Garbage around
2
- Floating materials
3
(waste water)
Foams
3
Óils
3
Seawedge
2
Vegetation (preservation) 2
Use by animals
2
For Human use
1
Protection of site
1
Residence or proximity
2
to stores
Type insertion area
1
Sum of the sample
26
analyzed point
Rating
Terrible
June/2012
1
1
1
3
2
3
1
1
2
2
1
1
1
20
Terrible
Referencies
IFNMG – Pirapora – MG – Brazil – August 24th – 30th 2014
nd
2 International Workshop -­‐ Symposium 56 “Responsible Intervention in the Environment” Mining Activities, Refineries, Pollution Control and Remediation Strategies. OLIVEIRA, W. B. S.; VARGAS, R.; CAIADO,
D. L.; FERRARI, J. L. Caracterização ambiental das
nascentes do Instituto Federal Espírito Santo – Campus de Alegre. XIV Encontro Latino Americano de
Iniciação Científica e X Encontro Latino Americano de Pós-Graduação – Universidade do Vale do Paraíba,
2010. p. 1 – 5.
INSTITUTO BRASILEIRO DE GEOGRAFIA E ESTATÍSTICA – IBGE. Disponível
em:<<http://cidades.ibge.gov.br/painel/painel.php?lang=&codmun=314330&search=minas-gerais|montesclaros|infograficos:-dados-gerais-do-municipio>>. Acesso em: 25 de out. de 2013.
3.2.18.
Resumo Abstract 023
QUALITY EVALUATION OF SOIL UNDER GRAZING TO 20 YEARS BASED ON
THE CHEMICAL ATTRIBUTES IN JANAÚBA- NORTH OF MINAS GERAIS
1
2
2
2
2
1
SANTOS, E.F ; SOUZA, V.O ; TEIXEIRA, A.C.F ; ANDRADE, A.V.A ; PEIXOTO, K.F.V ; OLIVEIRA JR, J.L ;
2
OLIVEIRA P.N .
1
UNIMONTES – State University of Montes Claros, 2630, Reinaldo Viana Avenue, Bico da Pedra, Janaúba–MG, fagner2
[email protected]; Faculdade Santo Agostinho, 937, Av. Osmane Barbosa, JK Montes Claros- MG
[email protected]
1-Introduction
To classify a soil, Brazilian System of Soil Classification uses morphological, physical, chemical and
mineralogical properties. The analysis of soil pH levels, sulfur, sodium and aluminum among others and
checks the actual need for soil fertilizing. The scientific study of the soil, the acquisition and dissemination
of information on the role that it plays, and its importance in human life, are essential conditions for their
protection and conservation, and ensuring the maintenance of a healthy environment and sustainable. As
main requirements to establish the best use of a soil derived from a set of interpretations of the soil itself
and the environment in which it develops (BELLINAZZI et al., 1983). Management practices and soil
conservation should be planned and executed seeking to maintain or even improve their attributes, in order
to increase its capacity to sustain biological productivity (Araujo, 2007). In addition, the management
system should contribute to the maintenance or improvement of soil quality and the environment as well as
to obtain adequate crop yields in the long term (COSTA, 2003). The aim of this study was to evaluate soil
quality with 20 years under grazing, based on the chemical attributes in the region of Janaúba-MG.
2-Materials and Methods
This study was developed in the New World farm in the municipality of Janaúba - MG which had
area with Brachiaria Brizantha used as pasture for cattle to 20 years. The soil in the area is classified as
red Latosol. Soil samples from the area were extracted in 0-10 cm depth for later analysis and verify the
state of degradation based on soil chemical attributes. The samples were sent to Agricultural Research
Company of Minas Gerais- EPAMIG, located in Nova Porteirinha to be analyzed. To obtain analytical
results were analyzed: PH, MO (organic matter), P (phosphorus), K (potassium), Ca (calcium), Mg
(magnesium), Al (aluminum), H + Al. After the results obtained we proceeded to soil evaluation based on
chemical properties.
3-Results and conclusion
Analytical results of the soil
IFNMG – Pirapora – MG – Brazil – August 24th – 30th 2014
nd
2 International Workshop -­‐ Symposium pH(H2o)
6,2
“Responsible Intervention in the Environment” Mo
dag/kg
2,4
Mining Activities, Refineries, Pollution Control and Remediation P
K Strategies. Ca
Mg
Al
mg/dm³
mg/dm³
3,2
420
cmol/
dm3
5,8
cmol/
dm3
2,2
cmol/
dm³
0
57 H+Al
cmol/
dm³
1,8
The pH of the soil in question was found unsuitable for pastures (6.2) since ideally 5.5 to 5.6 where on this
pH most of the macro and micronutrients are available to the plants of the grazing and for correctness is
required apply liming. The organic matter of the analyzed soil is with suboptimal level that is 4dag / kg
showing that the soil is unprotected and with little aggregation in view of the deficit MO, 2.4 dag / kg
observed in this study. Organic matter is also a regulator of soil cation exchange capacity thus permits a
better supply of nutrients to the cultures. For the P was noted that the area is with low levels of this nutrient
which allows to infer that is the nutrient with smaller reserves in the soil. This probably due to inadequate
soil management, and provides reduced levels of phosphorus leaving with little presence in the soil. MO,
Phosphorus (P), Potassium (K), Calcium (Ca) and Magnesium (Mg). Are some of the most important
nutrients for the plant. Besides the required amount of each is also very important that stay available in the
soil for the plant can absorb them. When these values are below the needs of the plant it will not show
good development, and in this study, these values are not appropriate and can thus infer that the
management is occurring inappropriately causing serious damage to solo. The soil in question has
characteristics unfavorable chemical with low levels of nutrients that would be important for the
development of plants so that could consider a solo in perfect use and conservation.
References
ARAUJO, R .; GOEDERT, WJ & LACERDA, M.P.C. Soil quality under different land uses and native
Cerrado. R. Bras. Ci Solo., 31: 1099-1108, 2007.
BELLINAZZI, R .; BERTOLINI, D .; ESPÍNDOLA, C. R .; LEPSCH, I.F. Manual for land classification in the
ability to use system utility survey and the physical environment. Campinas: Brazilian Society of Soil
Science, 1983. 175 p.
COSTA, F. S; ALBUQUERQUE, J.; BAYER C; Fontoura, S. & M. V WOBETO, C. Physical properties of an
Oxisol affected by tillage and preparation conventional. Rev. Bras. Hist. Soil. 2003, vol.27, n.3, p. 527-535.
ISSN 0100- 0683.
BRAZILIAN COMPANY OF AGRICULTURAL RESEARCH. Soybean production technologies - Paraná
2007 Londrina, PR, 2006
3.2.19.
Resumo Abstract 024
Chemical characterization as indicator of pasture degradation in soils of São
João da Ponte, susceptible to desertification
ALVES, V. S. B.*, NOGUEIRA, E. L.*, FERREIRA, L. B.*, FIGUEIREDO, L. H. A.*, BRITO, F. H. F.*, FIGUEIREDO,
M. A. P.*, MATRANGOLO, C. A. R.*
IFNMG – Pirapora – MG – Brazil – August 24th – 30th 2014
nd
2 International Workshop -­‐ Symposium “Responsible Intervention in the Environment” 58 Mining Activities, Refineries, Pollution Control and Remediation * UNIMONTES – State University of Montes
Claros - 2630, Reinaldo Viana Avenue, Bico da Pedra, Janaúba–MG,
Strategies. [email protected], [email protected], [email protected],
[email protected], [email protected], [email protected], [email protected]
Keywords: Soil fertility; forage production, desertification; pasture; Minas Gerais.
1 – Introduction
The North of Minas Gerais has as main rural activity the beef cattle, with the great majority
constituted by small and medium producer with few technical information on animal management.
According to Zimmer & Correa (1993) the Brazilian beef cattle is mainly based on the pastures
exploitation. The pasture areas have been presenting fast and accentuated decline in its productive
capacity due to the degradation processes that limits and make unfeasible the meat production and/or milk
in a lot of regions of the country. According to Macedo e Zimmer (1993) the inadequate pasture
management can result in advanced degradation of natural resources, compromising the sustainability of
economic exploitation. The degradation pastures process takes to the of desertification of the region,
mainly on the poor soils; it is observed several places where the pastures regrow no more, nor in the rainy
period, being the soil exposed the whole year. This work was carried out seeking a better knowledge
about degradation process, the cause and level in which it is. This work aimed to evaluate the
chemical attributes of the soil, as indicator of the soil and pastures degradation in the North of Minas
Gerais.
2 - Materials and Methods
São João da Ponte is a town localized in the north of Minas Gerais - Brazil, this town was selected
for this study because it is inside an area susceptible to desertification and it present as main economic
activity the beef cattle. Was chosen a class of dystrophic soil or alic, and inside the class, five areas were
selected with approximately one hectare each, with the following gradients of vegetation cover
degradation: remaining forest, pastures: well managed, degraded and very degraded. The study areas
were on an Red Yellow Latosol, with an average stocking rate for the pasture of 3.8 animal unit per hectare
and had the following environments: Forest (FRT), degraded Brachiaria's pasture (DP), very degraded
Brachiaria's pasture (VD), Buffel's pasture well managed (BUFFEL), Brachiaria's pasture well managed
(BWM).
The soil samples were collected during the raining period, each area was divided on 4 portions, each
one being a replicate. The samples were collected at 0-5, 5-10 e 10-20cm to be analyzed in the
laboratories of the State University of Montes Claros. It was realized the following chemistry analysis: pH
( H2O a n d KCl), H++Al3+, K+, Al3+, Ca+2 and Mg+2 exchangeable, P extracted by Mehlich-1 and determined
by molecular absorption spectrometry in the presence of ascorbic acid.
The experimental outline was completely randomized and means were compared by the Scott-Knott
test at 5%. All statistical analyzes were performed with the Software SAEG.
3 - Results and Conclusion
When quantified using KCl it presented more significant differences, indicating a greater variation of
pH, reducing with the depth and level of soil degradation and forest, which tends to have lower pH values.
The calcium content presented a great variation between areas, in this environment the amount of
calcium varied with the level of pasture degradation and so for all other depths. The magnesium content
also showed a large variation in depth of 0 to 5 cm, this variation also followed the levels of degradation,
significantly reducing the levels in depth of 5 to 10 and 10 to 20 cm, particularly in very degraded pasture.
The amounts of organic matter in the soil at depth 0-5 cm were generally low for all the pastures and
good for the forest, had the levels reduced, for all treatments, with the increase of the depth.
The nutrients calcium and magnesium and the potential acidity were the attributes that more
varied with the pasture degradation, and the pasture degradation already begins when takes place an
implantation in a wrong way.
IFNMG – Pirapora – MG – Brazil – August 24th – 30th 2014
nd
2 International Workshop -­‐ Symposium 59 “Responsible Intervention in the Environment” Mining Activities, Refineries, Pollution Control and Remediation Table 1: Chemical characterization of Strategies. the Yellow Red Latosol collected in environments: forest (FRT),
degraded Brachiaria's pasture (DP), very degraded Brachiaria's pasture (VD), Buffel's pasture well
managed (BUFFEL), Brachiaria's pasture well managed (BWM) at 3 depths. Average of five replicates. P,
K extracted with Mehlich-1, and Ca, Mg and Al extracted KCl 1mol L-1. H + Al calcium acetate. Means in
column followed by the same letter do not differ statistically by SCOTT - Knott test at 5% probability. ns: not
significant.
Enviroments
pH
pH
P
mg dm
H 2O
KCl
3
BWM
FRT
VD
DP
BUFFEL
6,6a
6,1a
6,0a
6,4a
6,5a
5,9a
5,0b
4,7b
5,7a
5,5a
13,2a
6,9a
11,4a
10,0a
12,5a
BWM
FRT
VD
DP
BUFFEL
6,5a
5,8b
5,5b
6,2a
6,3a
5,7a
4,6c
4,1c
5,2b
5,1b
10,6a
3,1b
9,0a
5,4b
7,5a
BWM
FRT
VD
DP
BUFFEL
6,4a
5,6c
5,0d
6,0b
6,1b
5,4a
4,4c
3,9d
4,9b
4,9b
5,8a
2,1b
8,1a
3,3b
5,0a
Ca
Mg
-3
cmolc dm
0-5cm
3,9a 1,2b
4,4a 1,1b
1,0d 0,5c
2,4c 1,6a
2,9b 0,8c
5-10cm
3,7a 0,9a
3,3a 0,8a
0,8a 0,2b
2,2b 0,9a
3,2a 0,6a
10-20cm
3,3a 0,7a
2,6b 0,7a
0,7c 0,1a
2,1b 0,6b
3,4a 0,5b
K
mg dm
3
Al
H + Al
cmolc dm
-3
M.O.
dag Kg
237,8a
113,3a
203,3a
120,1a
242,1a
0,0a
0,0a
0,0a
0,0a
0,0a
1,9c
4,2a
2,7b
3,0b
3,0b
2,7a
3,4a
1,2b
2,3a
1,8b
184,4a
69,0b
112,4b
90,2b
188,6a
0,0a
0,0a
0,0a
0,0a
0,0a
2,3d
4,0a
3,3b
2,9c
3,2b
2,1a
2,6a
0,9b
1,6b
1,7b
177,7a
36,2c
77,1b
45,2c
147,4a
0,0a
0,0a
0,0a
0,0a
0,0a
3,8a
4,0a
3,7a
3,3a
2,8a
1,6a
1,6a
0,8b
1,4a
1,4a
-1
4 – Referencies
Zimmer, A. H., Correa, E. S. A pecuária nacional, uma pecuária de pasto. In: ENCONTRO SOBRE RECUPERAÇÃO DE
PASTAGENS, 1., Nova Odessa, 1993. Anais... Nova Odessa, Instituto de Zootecnia, 1993. p.1-25.
Macedo, M. C. M.; Zimmer, A. H. Sistema pasto-lavoura e seus efeitos na produtividade agropecuária. In: SIMPÓSIO SOBRE
ECOSSISTEMA DE PASTAGENS, 2. 1991. Jaboticabal. Anais... Jaboticabal: FUNEP, UNESP, 1993 p. 226-245.
SAEG Sistema para Análises Estatísticas, Versão 9.1: Fundação Arthur Bernardes - UFV - Viçosa, 2007.
3.2.20.
Resumo Abstract 025
Avaliação da Qualidade Ambiental da Água Superficial do Córrego Quatro
Vinténs no Município de Diamantina – MG
ARAUJO, A. D *; BAGGIO, H *
*
*[email protected]; **[email protected]
Keywords: Quatro Vinténs, Turbidez, Cor da Água, Diamantina, Contaminação.
IFNMG – Pirapora – MG – Brazil – August 24th – 30th 2014
nd
2 International Workshop -­‐ Symposium 60 “Responsible Intervention in the Environment” Mining Activities, Refineries, Pollution Control and Remediation Strategies. O Córrego Quatro Vinténs é um importante
afluente da bacia hidrográfica do rio Jequitinhonha, que,
localizado no município de Diamantina, geograficamente, faz parte da Serra do Espinhaço Meridional.
Neste trabalho avaliou-se a qualidade geoquímica ambiental das águas superficiais deste córrego através
da mensura de dois parâmetros físico-químicos in-situ: cor da água e turbidez. Recolhendo amostras ao
longo do canal do córrego foi possível relacionar aos ambientes naturais e às interferências
antropogênicas, englobando as características geoambientais da área, como os aspectos climáticos,
vegetacionais, hidrográficos, geológicos, geomorfológicos, além do uso e ocupação do solo. Foram
amostrados 12 pontos considerando a variação sazonal em duas campanhas de amostragem (nas
estações seca e chuvosa), totalizando 24 amostras de água. Os equipamentos utilizados são portáteis e
do tipo multiparâmetros: Portable Turbidimeter HANNA HI 98703 para medir turbidez, e o Fotocolorímetro
ALFAKIT NCM/SH 90275020, para a cor da água. As amostras de água foram analisadas no Laboratório
de Geoquímica Ambiental – LGA/UFVJM e os resultados, comparados com os valores estabelecidos pela
Resolução CONAMA 357/05 e Portaria do Ministério da Saúde nº 518/2004. O estudo revelou que, em
alguns pontos os níveis de turbidez (UNT) se encontram alterados sendo eles, três pontos na estação
chuvosa, e para a estação seca os valores se encontram dentro do limite. Todos os valores comparados
para cor da água (mg/L) estão acima do recomendado pela legislação vigente. Os valores de turbidez
(UNT) e cor da água (mg/L) apresentados nas coletas mostram uma distribuição de valores heterogênea
entre as estações chuvosa e seca. Mesmo assim, tanto numa estação quanto noutra esses valores se
apresentaram elevados, haja vista que a área está totalmente inserida em locais de uso intensivo do solo e
áreas urbanas. Por fim, o trabalho avaliou, as condições geoquímicas em que se encontram as águas
superficiais do Córrego Quatro Vinténs, agredido pelas atividades de agropecuárias e de esgoto da região.
Referencies
BAGGIO, H. Contribuições naturais e antropogênicas para a concentração e distribuição de metais pesados em água superficial e
sedimento de corrente na Bacia do Rio do Formoso, município de Buritizeiro, MG. Tese (Doutorado em Geologia) - Instituto de
Geociências, Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais, Belo Horizonte, 2008.
CONAMA (Conselho Nacional do Meio Ambiente). 2005. Resolução CONAMA nº 357, 17 de março de 2005. Disponível em:
<http://www. mma.gov.br/Conama>. Acesso em 21 Mar. 2013
CONAMA (Conselho Nacional do Meio Ambiente). 2000. Resolução CONAMA nº274, 29 de novembro de 2000. Diário Oficial da
República Federativa do Brasil, Brasília, DF. Disponível em: <http://www.mma.gov.br/port/conama/res/res00/res27400.html>.
Acesso em 21 Mar. 2013
3.2.21.
Resumo Abstract 026
Soil fertility of Mato Verde MG
1
1
1
Higor Gabriel dos Santos Morais , Fernando Henrique Freitas Brito , Veranice Silviane Borges Alves , Luiz
2
2
3
Henrique Arimura Figueiredo , Carlos Augusto Rodrigues Matrangolo , Maria Auxiliadora Pereira Figueiredo
1
2
Agronomy student at the State University of Montes Claros - (UNIMONTES). Av Reinaldo Viana, 2630. Beak Stone. 39440-000 Janauba - MG. higor.gabrielmg @ hotmail.com.
Professor, State University of Montes Claros - (UNIMONTES). Av Reinaldo Viana, 2630. Beak Stone. 39440-000 - Janauba - MG.
3
Professor at the Federal University of Minas Gerais (UFMG). University Av, 1000. University. 39400-000 - Montes Claros - MG.
IFNMG – Pirapora – MG – Brazil – August 24th – 30th 2014
nd
2 International Workshop -­‐ Symposium “Responsible Intervention in the Environment” 61 Mining Activities, Refineries, Pollution Control and Remediation The north of Minas Gerais is one ofStrategies. mesoregions the state of Minas Gerais where the largest area of
SUDENE, has an area of significant amount of eutrophic due to climate (low rainfall and high temperature)
and material origin (rich in nutrients), influencing vegetation (deciduous forest) in the region. The region is
going to Portsmouth Espinosa, were major producers of cotton in the 70s and 80s, currently the mayor of
Mato Verde are trying to re-produce new cotton. The objective was to verify the origin of the high natural
fertility of soils in the region of Mato Verde - MG. In region 3 eutrophic soil profiles were described, one
Cambissolo, a Argissolo and an Latossolo. pH, Ca2+, Mg2+, K+, Na+, P, Al3+, H+ + Al3+, organic matter,
texture, color, structure, all soils were under vegetation of deciduous forest in water: the following analyzes
were performed. Rock samples were also collected near the ground for his visual identification and their
chemical composition determined by X-ray inflorescence In Mato Verde in the foothills of the Serra do
Espinhaço, in strongly undulated relief, formation occurs Cambissolo Haplic eutrophic tb, with a soil with
high contents of Ca and B horizon and in the middle, good values of Mg in both horizons, with base
saturation of 61 and 67 in a and B horizons, presents clayey. In undulated relief, a bit farther from the ridge
saw the formation of Cambissolo eutrophic high content occurs, with high levels of calcium in both
horizons, the Mg content was good at both horizons, introducing high amounts of potassium, organic matter
in the A horizon, with base saturation of 91 and 84% in the respective horizons a and B. The Latossolo
eutrophic occurs in the flat region and be more weathered showed good levels for Calcium, Magnesium
and Potassium, base saturation 64 and 66% horizons A and B respectively. The rock was identified in the
region is the main gneiss, and amphibolites bodies intrusion occurs, the rocks found nearby soil profiles
were greenish, not shown the typical black and white gneiss banding in the region, indicating that it was a
body of amphibolitic rocks. In the analysis of the chemical composition of the rocks, the green rocks
showed on average 15-20% of Calcio and 5-10% magnesium. We conclude that soil fertility in the region of
Mato
Verde
is
related
to
the
intrusion
of
the
amphibolites
gneiss
bodies.
Keywords: amphibole, red soils, eutrophic.
Financial support: Codevasf and MMA
3.2.22.
Resumo Abstract 027
Differentiation of soils under Cerrado originating in Arkose
1
2
Higor Gabriel dos Santos Morais , Fernando Henrique Freitas Brito , Veranice Silviane Borges Alves, Luiz
2
2
3
Henrique Arimura Figueiredo , Carlos Augusto Rodrigues Matrangolo , Maria Auxiliadora Pereira Figueiredo .
1
Course agronomy student at the State University of Montes Claros - (UNIMONTES). Av Reinaldo Viana, 2630. Beak Stone.
39440-000 - Janauba - MG. higor.gabrielmg @ hotmail.com.
2
Professor, State University of Montes Claros -. (UNIMONTES). Av Reinaldo Viana, 2630. Beak Stone. 39440-000 - Janauba MG.
3
Professor at the Federal University of Minas Gerais (UFMG). University Av, 1000. University. 39400-000 - Montes Claros - MG.
The Cerrado is characterized by presenting vegetation that ranges from dense forests to fields with
IFNMG – Pirapora – MG – Brazil – August 24th – 30th 2014
nd
2 International Workshop -­‐ Symposium 62 “Responsible Intervention in the Environment” Mining Activities, Refineries, Pollution Control and Remediation Strategies. twisted appearance and peculiar structures
that allow you to stay in this environment, often considered
unsuitable for agriculture, owing to the peculiarities of climate and soil. The drought in the open formations
that dominate the biome matrix kills seasonal forests are worth mentioning occupied by about 30% of its
land area, and constitute the most threatened vegetation type by human action in the biome. The wide
distribution of these formations, the various units of land in the Cerrado biome under different regimes of
temperature, precipitation and drought and also under different soil and topographical features, provide
floristic and structural variations of the tree component. The study aimed to characterize both soils
originating from both arcósio Cerrado and dry forest. The study was conducted in the micro Pirapora in the
North of Minas Gerais, in the municipality of Buritizeiro. The selection of study areas was taken as the
Cerrado vegetation and dry forest. Being both areas on arcósio training three Marys. In each area we
identified the class of the soil through the soil profile description. For this, a trench was opened, which was
determined for each horizon structure, color, texture, consistency, waxy, stoniness, slope, parent material,
determination of geographical coordinates. We conducted the following analyzes: pH, Ca2+, Mg2+, K+, Na+,
P, Al3+, Al3+ H+, organic matter. Two rocks to determine the chemical composition were collected through
the inflorescence radius X. In dry forest soil was forming Cambissolo eutrophic ta, with waxy lot and block
structure; the soil alone (A + B) has only 35 cm depth, whereas the C horizon reaches 55 cm. The soil is
eutrophic with high activity, with high levels of Ca and Mg K. Despite the low sand content and high silt, the
soil should have a higher percentage of sand, because arcósio is a special type of sandstone, in this case
presenting 7% Ca and 2% of K. It also presents high levels of organic matter. In the Cerrado soil was
identified as Neossolo litolic, where this horizon just below the C. presenting very high concentrations of
rockfragments s.l. The soil has low fertility, little effective depth. The Rock returned 3% Ca and 1% K. The
soil fertility, wealth Rock and its depth are responsible for the appearance of dry forest.
Keywords: dry forest, fertility, Cerrado.
Financial support: Codevasf and MMA
3.2.23.
Resumo Abstract 028
IDENTIFICATION OF PLANTS OCCURRING IN THE AREA PH9
1
1
1
Érika Vanessa Cardoso Mendes , Veranice Silviane Borges Alves , Fernando Henrique Freitas Brito , Thiago Vieira
1
1
2
2
Rodrigues , Hewsley Her Baleeiro Silva , Luiz Henrique Arimura Figueiredo , Carlos Augusto Rodrigues Matrangolo ,
2
3
Virgilio Mesquita Gomes , Maria Auxiliadora Pereira Figueiredo .
1. Estudante do curso de agronomia da Universidade Estadual de Montes Claros - (UNIMONTES). Av. Reinaldo Viana, 2630. Bico
da Pedra. 39440-000 – Janauba – MG. [email protected] 2. Professor da Universidade Estadual de Montes Claros (UNIMONTES). Av. Reinaldo Viana, 2630. Bico da Pedra. 39440-000 – Janauba – MG. 3. Professora da Universidade Federal de
Minas Gerais (UFMG). Av. Universitária, 1000. Universitário. 39400-000 – Montes Claros – MG.
IFNMG – Pirapora – MG – Brazil – August 24th – 30th 2014
nd
2 International Workshop -­‐ Symposium 63 “Responsible Intervention in the Environment” Mining Activities, Refineries, Pollution Control and Remediation Strategies. The Cerrado is characterized by presenting
vegetation that ranges from dense forests to fields with twisted
appearance and peculiar structures that allow them to stay in this environment, often considered unsuitable
for agriculture, owing to the peculiarities of climate and soil. The Zn Mining in the State of Minas Gerais
(Brazil) is one of the activities with the greatest impact on the environment, pollute surface waters,
sediments and soils. This is a major drawback of this important economic activity. The study aimed to
characterize the shrubby plants present in PH9 area of Votorantim Metais. The study was conducted in
PH9 area, a former waste deposit of the Votorantim Metais company in Três Marias. An exploratory survey
was conducted of shrub species occurring in the area, using the methodology of random walks, and
collected samples of the vegetative part and if possible with flower, for making herbarium specimens. Three
trips to collect plant material were performed for one year. The plants were identified by the researchers:
Maria Auxiliadora Pereira Figueiredo, Carlos Augusto Rodrigues Matrangolo, Virgilio Mesquita Gomes. In
the PH9 area nine different shrub species (Table 1) were identified, being the Taboa and Lagartixa aquatic
plants. Only Braquiarinha was planted by the company for over 20 years. Of the nine, six are used to
deploy pastures. Six families were identified, the most common family Gramineae. With identification of
plants, we found the low diversity of species, due to high heavy metal contamination and also was able to
verify that most of the plants present were taken by animals to PH9 area.
Acknowledgment: Votorantim Metais
Table 1. Shrubby plants found in the area PH9
Scientific Name
Common Name
Family
Brachiaria decumbens
Braquiarinha
Gramineae
Macroptilium atropurpureum
Siratro
Leguminosa
Echinochloa polystachya
Capim Navalha
Ciperaceae
Paspalum notatum
Grama batatais
Gramineae
Panicum maximum
Capim colonião
Gramineae
Cynodon dactylon
Grama Bermuda
Gramineae
Senna obtusifolia
Fedegoso
Leguminosa
Typha augustifolia
Taboa
Typhaceae
Sagittaria guianensis
Largatixa
Alismataceae
3.2.24.
Resumo Abstract 029
AGRONIMIC CHARACTERIZATION OF SOIL IN THIS AREA PH9
IFNMG – Pirapora – MG – Brazil – August 24th – 30th 2014
nd
2 International Workshop -­‐ Symposium “Responsible Intervention in the Environment” 64 Mining Activities, Refineries, Pollution Control and Remediation 1
1
1
Érika Vanessa Cardoso Mendes , Veranice Strategies. Silviane Borges Alves , Fernando Henrique Freitas Brito , Thiago Vieira
1
2
2
2
Rodrigues , Luiz Henrique Arimura Figueiredo , Carlos Augusto Rodrigues Matrangolo , Virgilio Mesquita Gomes , Maria
3
Auxiliadora Pereira Figueiredo .
1. Estudante do curso de agronomia da Universidade Estadual de Montes Claros - (UNIMONTES). Av. Reinaldo Viana, 2630. Bico
da Pedra. 39440-000 – Janauba – MG. [email protected] 2. Professor da Universidade Estadual de Montes Claros (UNIMONTES). Av. Reinaldo Viana, 2630. Bico da Pedra. 39440-000 – Janauba – MG. 3. Professora da Universidade Federal de
Minas Gerais (UFMG). Av. Universitária, 1000. Universitário. 39400-000 – Montes Claros – MG.
The mining and industrialization of Zn are activities with a greater impact on the environment, pollute
surface waters, sediments and soils. This is a great disadvantage of this important economic activity. The
study aimed to characterize the chemical properties of soil present in PH9 area of Votorantim Metais. The
study was conducted in PH9 area, a former waste deposit of the Votorantim Metais company in Três
Marias. 32 points of the soil samples were collected at a depth of 0-5 cm. After collection, the soils were air
dried, part of the samples to be finely crushed in organic C were collected at each point the rest were
sieved (2 mm ) to allow the determination chemical properties. The following tests were performed: pH in
water, Ca2+, Mg2+, K+, Na+, P, H+ + Al3 and organic matter. Samples showed a great heterogeneity in the
results (Table 1) in all the parameters analyzed. As in the former deposit large amounts of magnesium
sulfate was added, this fact has changed very little soil pH remained 2 points only above pH 7, which would
be harmful to plants, and only 7 points stayed at a pH below 5, which would be harmful plants. In most pH
presents good for plant growth. With respect to organic matter only 2 points were above 2, the rest showed
very low values. The match introduced at every point low levels in the soil. Potassium showed good values
to high, only 4 points had values above reality, extremely high values. Calcium above 4 is considered high
in the soil, all samples are above 4, presented extremely high values. The magnesium above 2 is
considered high in soil, all samples are above 4, presented extremely high values. The Ca: Mg should be
2:1, but there are no more calcium than magnesium in the soil, hindered the absorption of both elements by
the plant. From the micronutrients only Zn have extremely high values in soil. The plants are struggling to
develop in Ph9 area due to high levels of Zn, Mg and Ca, causing a nutritional imbalance in the soil.
Acknowledgment: Votorantim Metais
Table 1. Chemical analysis of sample points made in PH9 area
Ponto
pH
MO
dag/kg
P
K
mg/dm3
Na
Ca
Mg
-- cmol/dm3 --
Cu
Fe
Mn
Zn
-------- mg/dm3 --------
P1
3,7
2,06
6
126
0,07
17
39
6,3
379
11
320
P2
6,2
0,15
14
445
0,71
38
1862
2,9
71
11
300
P3
7,8
0,14
5
800
0,50
52
2338
1,7
63
51
27
P4
5,2
0,32
1
715
0,64
27
2425
1,7
47
66
29
P5
5,5
0,43
2
353
0,17
34
2506
1,5
56
59
35
IFNMG – Pirapora – MG – Brazil – August 24th – 30th 2014
nd
2 International Workshop -­‐ Symposium P6
“Responsible Intervention in the Environment” 65 4,3
Mining Activities, Refineries, Pollution Control and Remediation Strategies. 0,21
3
138 0,09
13
101
5,2
325
29
77
P7
6,6
0,85
2
130
0,90
28
4238
2,1
49
25
50
P8
6,0
0,22
2
222
0,66
13
200
1,8
49
76
53
P9
5,5
0,15
1
183
0,22
10
100
1,9
68
29
77
P10
5,7
0,40
4
106
0,09
8
48
1,6
73
76
48
P11
4,4
0,89
5
140
0,04
67
782
2,7
174
6
104
P12
5,6
0,59
4
355
0,58
71
335
1,4
86
41
70
P13
5,4
0,64
6
266
0,16
55
294
0,9
34
38
108
P14
6,1
1,49
10
307
0,17
81
104
0,6
24
107
74
P15
6,3
0,16
5
187
0,14
374
453
1,2
42
34
151
P16
8,8
0,10
0
209
0,28
12
66
8,3
32
125
158
P17
5,9
0,23
2
132
0,09
57
34
1,7
48
37
24
P18
3,7
0,07
2
59
0,09
9
43
0,2
18
34
49
P19
5,4
4,23
3
940
0,29
57
34
1,6
177
336
17
P20
5,4
0,01
15
109
0,05
37
1992
3,7
66
70
195
P21
4,0
0,10
3
96
0,45
119
231
1,1
75
395
27
P22
5,1
0,62
25
139
0,83
44
621
4,1
70
77
32
P23
4,2
0,29
11
173
0,41
34
200
1,4
29
42
151
P24
4,9
0,75
3
104
0,10
8
36
0,7
41
34
158
P25
4,6
0,74
4
137
0,05
28
85
1
44
62
34
P26
5,3
0,37
8
161
0,61
109
103
2,5
49
48
47
P27
5,3
0,43
1
123
0,17
14
11
2,4
51
113
242
P28
5,8
0,19
5
139
0,39
23
112
4
99
147
46
P29
5,9
0,65
35
226
0,91
58
1810
2,9
88
84
10
P30
6,5
0,78
7
163
0,81
189
81
2,1
143
102
10
P31
5,8
0,31
12
118
0,11
36
103
8,6
73
252
224
P32
4,1
1,44
2
113
0,19
4
27
1,7
82
55
242
IFNMG – Pirapora – MG – Brazil – August 24th – 30th 2014
nd
2 International Workshop -­‐ Symposium “Responsible Intervention in the Environment” 3.2.25.
66 Mining Activities, Refineries, Pollution Control and Remediation Strategies. Resumo Abstract
031
ANÁLISE GEOQUÍMICA DE SUPERFÍCIE APLICADA EM ÁREAS DE
SEPULTAMENTOS PRÉ-HISTÓRICOS: SÍTIO ARQUEOLÓGICO CEMITÉRIO DA
CAIXA D’ÁGUA-BURITIZEIRO-MG
Costa,T.M.*, Baggio, H.**
*[email protected]
**[email protected]
Keywords: geochemistry; soils; archaeological site.
Esta pesquisa teve como proposta principal a análise geoquímica de superfície para os solos do
sitio arqueológico cemitério Caixa d’agua, localizado no Município de Buritizeiro – Norte do Estado de
Minas Gerais -, além de uma caracterização dos aspectos do meio físico e paleoecológicos. Os elementos
químicos selecionados Al, Fe, P, Ca, Cu e Zn foram analisados a partir de amostras de solos coletadas em
áreas de sepultamento pré-histórico, a leitura foi feita através de Florescência de Raios X. Os elementos
analisados representam uma assinatura geoquímica típica associada à atividade antrópica pré-histórica.
A geoquímica é uma ferramenta fundamental para o entendimento dos processos superficiais e
subsuperficiais que governam a distribuição dos elementos químicos e da sua mineralogia. Geologicamente o estudo
da composição química dos solos possibilita obter informações sobre as características da área de origem ou das
rochas-fonte e das condições químicas, intempéricas, climáticas e tectônicas dominantes.
O material pedológico, por si, é um indicador da ocupação humana, pois, os solos são excelentes
marcadores geoquímicos, capazes de preservar ao longo do tempo uma série de características resultantes da
interação entre populações humanas e o geoambiente na qual estão vivendo.
O Sítio Cemitério Caixa d’ Água, encontra-se localizado no município de Buritizeiro – MG, norte do Estado de
Minas Gerais. O sítio é classificado como sendo um sítio a céu-aberto, sendo um dos mais bem conservados no
Estado de Minas Gerais e do país. O sítio foi descoberto em 1987, quando teve inicio uma obra para a construção do
SAAE - Sistema de Abastecimento de Água e Esgoto de Buritizeiro. Em uma iniciativa da Missão Arqueológica
Francesa de Minas Gerais, da qual participa o Setor de Arqueologia da UFMG, a partir daí, foram realizadas três
campanhas sistemáticas de escavações nos anos de 2005, 2006 e 2007, contemplando uma área de
2
aproximadamente 30m . Além, das ossadas, vários outros tipos de artefatos foram descobertos nas escavações:
rochas lascadas ou polidas para confecção de artefatos, ponta de seta, facas, machados, bigornas e batedores,
ossos de animais, resíduos alimentares, além, de objetos utilizados em rituais funerários. Estas evidências serviram
como base para uma investigação geoarqueológicas e geoquímica (PROUS; BAGGIO; RODET, 2007). Em 2005, a
14
datação por C apontou uma idade aproximada de (6.000 mil anos A.P.). Abaixo dos sepultamentos (entre 20 cm e
80 cm de profundidade), encontram-se camadas arqueológicas mais profundas, com vestígio de pelo menos três
momentos da presença humana. Estudos posteriores forneceram outras datações, indicando um período de
ocupação entre 5.500 e 10.500 A.P (PROUS, 1992). As características geoambientais regionais (clima, litologia,
topografia, solos e vegetação etc.) se mostraram extremamente favoráveis no que, diz respeito ao estabelecimento
de populações Pré-históricas. Apesar das mudanças climáticas ocorridas durante o Quaternário, a região pesquisada
não foi afetada de forma rigorosa como as observados nas áreas de altas latitudes, decorrente das glaciações. Além
disso, as condições climáticas e do meio físico proporcionaram a preservação do material arqueológico.
Conclui-se que a atividade antropogênica pretérita, registrada no sítio arqueológico pelo “Homem de
Buritizeiro”, deixou evidências nos atributos físicos do solo, tais como: variação de cor e profundidade entre as
camadas. As análises químicas para os elementos selecionados apontaram teores significativos de MOS, P, Ca, Fe e
Al, além, dos elementos traços Zn e Cu, representando uma assinatura geoquímica típica, associada à atividade
IFNMG – Pirapora – MG – Brazil – August 24th – 30th 2014
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2 International Workshop -­‐ Symposium “Responsible Intervention in the Environment” 67 Mining Activities, Refineries, Pollution Control and Remediation antrópica pré-histórica, como apresentado nos
mapas de isoteores. É importe que se proponha um diálogo junto às
Strategies. autoridades municipais e estaduais e a sociedade civil, visando incrementar o turismo, ecoturismo e o turismo
científico na região, com o propósito de preservar os geoambientes, arrecadar receitas e talvez, o mais importante,
incentivar a educação patrimonial, além disso, a pesquisa poderá ser utilizada como um instrumento de auxílio no
Planejamento Ambiental, Sociocultural e Econômico do município.
Referencies
ANA – Agência Nacional de Águas, (2005) Superintendência de Informações Hidrogeológicas, (SIH). Águas
Subterrâneas.
Brasília.
BAGGIO, H., & TRINDADE, W.M. (2012) Aspectos Geoarqueológicos do Sítio Cemitério Caixa D’Água: Vale do São Francisco Minas Gerais / Brasil. Geonomos, v.20, n°.1,
42-48p.
COLLINS, M.E & SHAPIRO, G. Comparation of human influenced and natural soil at the San Luis.
Archeological
Site.
Florida. Soil Science Society of America Journal,
Madison, v.51, p.171176, 1987.
EMBRAPA - Empresa Brasileira de Pesquisa Agropecuária. Manual de métodos de análise de solo.
2. Ed. Rio de Janeiro: Centro Nacional de Pesquisa de Solos. 209 p, 1997.
EMBRAPA. Centro Nacional de Pesquisa de Solos. Manual de Análises Químicas de
Solos, Plantas e Fertilizantes. (1997)
SILVA, F. C. da coord. Campinas: Embrapa Informática
Agropecuária;
Rio de Janeiro: Embrapa Solos, 370p.
KÄMPF, N. & KERN, D.C. (2005) O solo como registro da ocupação humana Pré-Histórica
na
Amazônia. Tópicos em
Ciências do Solo. Viçosa, MG: Sociedade Brasileira de
Ciência do
Solo, vol.4, 207-320p.
LIMBREY, S. (1975) Soil Science and Archaeology. London. Mykura, W. British,.
LIMA, H.N.,SCHAEFER, C.E.G.R., MELLO, J.W.V., GILKES, R.J., KER, J.C. (2012) Pedogenesis and pre-Colombian land use
“Terra Preta Anthrosol” (“Indian Black
earth”) of Western
Amazonia. Geoderma, v.100,17p.
MUNSELL, A. H.(1981) Soil Color Charts. Baltimore: Macbeth.
PROUS, A. (1992). Arqueologia Brasileira. Brasília: Editora da UNB, 613p.
PROUS, A.; BAGGIO. H; RODET M.J. (2007) O Homem de Buritizeiro. In: Revista Minas Faz
Ciência, Belo Horizonte, n°. 31,
p.26-29.
RUIZ, H.A. (2005) Incremento da exatidão da análise granulométrica do solo por meio da
coleta da suspensão (silte +
argila). Revista Brasileira de Ciência do Solo, v.29, p.297-300.
SOKOLOFF, V. P; CARTER, G. F. (1952) Time and trace metals in archaeological sites.
Science, v.116, p.1–5.
WALKLEY, A. & BLACK, I. A. (1934). An examination of the Degtjareff method for determining soil
organic matter, and a
proposed modification of the chromic acid titration method. Soil
Science, Baltimore, v. 37, p. 29-38,.
WOODS, W. I. (1984). Soil Chemical Investigations in Illinois Archaeology: Two Example
Studies.
In
Archaeological
Chemistry - III, Advances in Chemistry Series No. 205, edited by
Joseph B. Lambert, p. 67-77. American Chemical Society,
Washington, D.C.
3.2.26.
Resumo Abstract 034
Parâmetros físico-químicos da qualidade geoquímica ambiental da água superficial do
baixo curso do Rio das Velhas entre o segmento da cidade de Várzea da Palma e o distrito
de Barra do Guaicuí/MG ate a foz com Rio São Francisco.
SANTOS, M.S¹; BAGGIO FILHO, Hernando¹; Martins, T¹; HORN, Adolf Heinrich²
¹ Universidade Federal dos Vales do Jequitinhonha e Mucuri; ² Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais
Este trabalho tem como objetivo analisar as condições geoquímicas em que se encontra a água e
os sedimentos, correlacionando-os com a identificação das ações humanas concentradas,
denominadas como "anomalias antropogênicas", sendo contrastadas com valores de referência
estabelecidos pelas Resoluções: Resolução do Conselho Nacional de Meio Ambiente (CONAMA)
nº 357/2004, que define as condições e padrões de lançamento de efluentes em corpos de água
e as diretrizes ambientais para o seu enquadramento, a Portaria do Ministério da Saúde nº
518/2004, que estabelece os padrões de potabilidade da água e os procedimentos de controle da
IFNMG – Pirapora – MG – Brazil – August 24th – 30th 2014
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2 International Workshop -­‐ Symposium “Responsible Intervention in the Environment” Mining Activities, Refineries, Pollution Control and Remediation Strategies. água para consumo humano
e a Resolução CONAMA
68 qualidade da
nº344/2005, que estabelece
as diretrizes gerais e os procedimentos mínimos para a avaliação do material a ser dragado em
águas jurisdicionais brasileiras e Resolução CETESB n° 195/2005. A área da pesquisa encontrase regionalmente inserida na bacia hidrográfica do Rio São Francisco, no município de Várzea da
Palma, possui uma área de 1.569,45 km² e encontra-se inserida na microrregião - Médio Rio das
Velhas (CETEC, 1983), entre a margem direita do segmento Alto/médio curso do São Francisco e
o segmento Baixo curso do Rio das Velhas. Os procedimentos metodológicos incluíram três fases
principais, atividades em gabinete, Trabalhos de campo e análises laboratoriais. As atividades
realizadas em gabinete foram levantamento bibliográfico e cartográfico, tabulação de dados,
geração e confecção de mapas. Foram realizados trabalhos de campo para caracterizar o meio
físico, coletar de amostras para análises laboratoriais de parâmetros físico-químicos da água
como; Potencial Hidrogênionico, Condutividade Elétrica, Temperatura e Oxigênio Dissolvido. Os
parâmetros físico-químicos analisados representam um importante grupo de dados na
caracterização da qualidade da água. Permitem analisar os aspectos naturais bem como,
identificar fontes de poluição. O quadro da qualidade da água pode ser descrito por processos de
contaminação que foram evidenciados em fontes pontuais e difusas. Nos parâmetros físicoquímicos corroboraram as duas fontes de poluição agrícolas e urbano/industrial. Verificou-se
nesses pontos (áreas agrícolas) um pH mais ácido (aplicação de insumos químicos e a presença
de matéria orgânica), valores de condutividade elétrica acima de 100 NS/cm (atividades
antrópicas), constatou-se que o aumento da temperatura implica, de certa forma, a diminuição da
concentração de oxigênio dissolvido; entretanto, as características climáticas e da morfologia do
canal fluvial influenciam diretamente nessa relação.
IFNMG – Pirapora – MG – Brazil – August 24th – 30th 2014
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2 International Workshop -­‐ Symposium “Responsible Intervention in the Environment” Mining Activities, Refineries, Pollution Control and Remediation Strategies. 4.
Lista de Autores
ADOLF HEINRICH HORN
ALEXANDRE SÍLVIO
ALVARO HENRIQUE GOMES DA COSTA
AMANDA CRISTINA SOARES COELHO
AMANDA DIAS ARAUJO
ANA ROSA PASSOS PEREIRA
ANGELA AUGUSTA PASSOS CORRÊA
ANUNCIENE BARBOSA DUARTE
BERNARDO GONTIJO
BRUNO NEVES OLIVEIRA
EDSON FAGNE DOS SANTOS
ELIZENE VELOSO RIBEIRO
ERIKA VANESSA CARDOSO MENDES
FERNANDA HENRIQUE LYRA
FERNANDO HENRIQUE FREITAS BRITO
HELOISA MARCIA FERNANDES HORN
HERNANDO BAGGIO FILHO
HUGUENOT DAVID
JESSICA DE PAULA OLIVEIRA FERREIRA
JULIANA ALVES DOS SANTOS OLIVEIRA
KÁTIA VALÉRIA SILVA CARVALHO
LUCAS BORGES FERREIRA
LUIZ HENRIQUE ARIMURA FIGUEIREDO
MANIVANNAN SETHURAJAN
MARCELO ALVES FERREIRA
MARCELO GOMES SPEZIALI
MARCOS VINICIUS PAES DE BARROS
NATÁLIA BENINI SILVA
PIET LENS
VERANICE SILVIANE BORGES ALVES
WALLACE MAGALHÃESTRINDADE
WILLIAM FORTES RODRIGUES
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