Online Appendix - Deutsches Institut für Entwicklungspolitik

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Online Appendix - Deutsches Institut für Entwicklungspolitik
Online Appendix
Briefing Paper 11/2016:
Building peace after war: The knowns and unknowns of external support to post-conflict societies
Fiedler, Charlotte / Karina Mroß / Jörn Grävingholt
Security promotion
Bakrania, S. (2014). Safety, security and justice. Topic guide. Birminghan: GSDRC University of Birmingham.
Banholzer, L. (2014). When do disarmament, demobilisation, and reintegration programmes succeed? (Discussion
Paper 8/2014). Bonn: German Development Institute / Deutsches Institut für Entwicklungspolitik (DIE).
Colletta, N.J., & Muggah, R. (2009). Context matters: Interim stabilisation and second generation approaches
to security promotion. Conflict, Security & Development, 9(4), 425–453. doi:
10.1080/14678800903345762
Collier, P., Hoeffler, A., & Söderbom, M. (2008). Post-conflict risks. Journal of Peace Research, 45(4), 461–478.
doi: 10.1177/0022343308091356
De Vries, H., & Van Veen, E. (2010). Living apart together? On the difficult linkage between DDR and SSR in postconflict environments (Vol. 15). The Hague: The Netherlands Institute of International Relations Clingendael.
Doyle, M.W., & Sambanis, N. (2000). International peacebuilding: A theoretical and quantitative analysis
American Political Science Review, 94(4), 779–801.
Dudouet, V., Giessmann, H.J., & Planta, K. (Eds.). (2012). Post-war security transitions: Participatory
peacebuilding after asymmetric conflicts. London / New York: Routledge.
Fortna, V.P. (2004). Does peacekeeping keep peace? International intervention and the duration of peace
after civil war. International Studies Quarterly, 48, 269–292.
Glassmyer, K., & Sambanis, N. (2008). Rebel-military integration and civil war termination. Journal of Peace
Research, 45(3), 365–384.
Grävingholt, J., Bendfeldt, L., Berk, L., Blos, Y., Fiedler, C., & Mroß, K. (2013). Struggling for stability:
International support for peace and democracy in post-civil war Nepal (Discussion Paper 27/2013). Bonn:
German Development Institute / Deutsches Institut für Entwicklungspolitik (DIE).
Hänggi, H., & Scherrer, V. (Eds.). (2008). Security sector reform and un integrated missions: Experience from
Burundi, the Democratic Republic of Congo, Haiti and Kosovo. Berlin / London: Lit Global.
Hegre, H., Hultman, L., & Nygard, H.M. (2015). Peacekeeping works: An assessment of the effectiveness of UN
peacekeeping operations. Oslo: PRIO (Peace Research Institute Oslo).
Hoeffler, A. (2014). Can international interventions secure the peace? International Area Studies Review, 17(1),
75–94. doi: 10.1177/2233865914525380
Kurtenbach, S., & Wulf, H. (2012). Violence and security concerns in post-conflict situations. Duisburg: INEF
(Institute for Development and Peace).
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Briefing Paper 11/2016: Building peace after war
Online Appendix
Leininger, J. (2006). Democracy and UN-peace-keeping: Conflict resolution through state-building and
democracy promotion in Haiti. In R. Wolfrum & A. Bogdandy (Eds.), Max Planck yearbook of the United
Nations law (Vol. 10, pp. 465–530). Heidelberg: Martinus Nijhoff Publishers.
Mason, D.T., Gurses, M., Brandt, P.T., & Quinn, J.M. (2011). When civil wars recur: Conditions for durable
peace after civil wars. International Studies Perspectives, 12(2), 171–189. doi: 10.1111/j.15283585.2011.00426.x
Muggah, R. (2010). Innovations in disarmament, demobilization and reintegration policy and research: Reflections
on the last decade. Oslo: Norwegian Institute of International Affairs.
Muggah, R. (2012). Disarmament, demobilization and reintegration. In G. Brown & A. Langer (Eds.), Elgar
handbook of civil war and fragile states (pp. 273–283). Cheltenham: Edward Elgar Publishing Limited.
Muggah, R., & Krause, K. (2009). Closing the gap between peace operations and post-conflict insecurity:
Towards a violence reduction agenda. International Peacekeeping, 16(1), 136–150.
Ottaway, M., & Mair, S. (2004). States at risk and failed states: Putting security first. Washington, DC: Carnegie
Endowment for International Peace.
Quinn, J.M., Mason, T.D., & Gurses, M. (2007). Sustaining the peace: Determinants of civil war recurrence.
International Interactions: Empirical and Theoretical Research in International Relations, 33(2), 167–193.
Toft, M.D. (2009). Securing the peace: The durable settlement of civil wars. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University
Press.
Valters, C., Van Veen, E., & Denney, L. (2015). Security progress in post-conflict contexts: Between liberal
peacebuilding and elite interests. London: Overseas Development Institute
van Veen, E., & Derks, M. (2012). The deaf, the blind and the politician: The troubles of justice and security
interventions in fragile states. Hague Journal of the Rule of Law, 4, 76–97. doi:
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Support to socio-economic development
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New York: Oxford University Press.
Collier, P. (2009). Post-conflict recovery: How should strategies be distinctive? Journal of African Economies,
18(1), 99–131. doi: 10.1093/jae/ejp006
Collier, P., Elliott, L., Hegre, H., Hoeffler, A., Reynal-Querol, M., & Sambanis, N. (2003). Breaking the conflict
trap: Civil war and development policy. Washington, DC: World Bank / Oxford University Press.
Collier, P., & Hoeffler, A. (2004a). Aid, policy and growth in post-conflict societies. European Economic Review,
48(5), 1125–1145.
Collier, P., & Hoeffler, A. (2004b). Greed and grievance in civil war. Oxford Economic Papers, 56(4), 563–595.
doi: 10.1093/oep/gpf064
Collier, P., Hoeffler, A., & Söderbom, M. (2008). Post-conflict risks. Journal of Peace Research, 45(4), 461–478.
doi: 10.1177/0022343308091356
Cramer, C. (2010). Unemployment and participation in violence. World Development Report 2011: Background
Paper. World Bank.
Demekas, D.G., Herderschee, J., & Jacobs, D.F. (2002). Kosovo: Institutions and policies for reconstruction and
growth. Washington, DC: IMF (International Monetary Fund)
Duponchel, M. (2008b). Can aid break the conflict trap?
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Fearon, J.D., & Laitin, D.D. (2003). Ethnicity, insurgency, and civil war. American Political Science Review,
97(1), 75–90.
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Online Appendix
Hartzell, C., Hoddie, M., & Bauer, M. (2010). Economic liberalization via IMF structural adjustment: Sowing
the seeds of civil war? International Organization, 64(2), 339–356.
Hoeffler, A. (2014). Can international interventions secure the peace? International Area Studies Review, 17(1),
75–94. doi: 10.1177/2233865914525380
Hoeffler, A., Ijaz, S.S., & von Billerbeck, S. (2010). Post-conflict recovery and peacebuilding. Washington, DC:
World Bank.
Holtermann, H. (2012). Explaining the development–civil war relationship. Conflict Management and Peace
Science, 29(1), 56–78.
McCandless, E. (2012). Peace dividends and beyond: Contributions of administrative and social services to
peacebuilding. New York: United Nations Peacebuilding Support Office.
McCandless, E., & Rogan, J. (2013). Bringing peace closer to the people: The role of social services in
peacebuilding. Journal of Peacebuilding & Development, 8(3), 1–6. doi: 10.1080/15423166.2013.866877
Paris, R. (2004). At war's end: Building peace after civil conflict. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Quinn, J.M., Mason, T.D., & Gurses, M. (2007). Sustaining the peace: Determinants of civil war recurrence.
International Interactions: Empirical and Theoretical Research in International Relations, 33(2), 167–193.
Ree, J. de, & Nillesen, E. (2009). Aiding violence or peace? The impact of foreign aid on the risk of civil conflict
in
sub-Saharan
Africa.
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of
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301–313.
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Development, 3(2), 233–250. doi: 10.1080/1467880032000126930
Specht, I. (2003). Jobs for rebels and soldiers. In E. Date-Bah (Ed.), Jobs after war: A critical challenge in the peace
and reconstruction puzzle. Geneva: InFocus Programme on Crisis Response and Reconstruction,
International Labour Office.
Staveteig, S. (2005). The young and the restless: Population age structure and civil war. Environmental
Change and Security Program Report, 12–19.
Urdal, H. (2004). The devil in the demographics: The effect of youth bulges on domestic armed conflict, 1950-2000
(Vol. 14/2004). Washington, DC: The World Bank.
Woodward, S.L. (2002). Economic priorities for peace implementation. New York: International Peace Academy.
Democracy support
Brancati, D., & Snyder, J.L. (2012). Time to kill: The impact of election timing on postconflict stability. Journal
of Conflict Resolution, 57(5), 822–853.
Call, C.T. (2012). Why peace fails: The causes and prevention of civil war recurrence. Washington, DC:
Georgetown University Press.
Call, C.T., & Cousens, E.M. (2007). Ending wars and building peace (Coping with Crisis Working Paper Series).
New York: International Peace Academy.
Carothers, T. (2007). The "sequencing" fallacy. Journal of Democracy, 18(1), 12–27.
Cederman, L.E., Gleditsch, K., & Hug, S. (2012). Elections and ethnic civil war. Comparative Political Studies,
46(3), 387–417.
Collier, P., Hoeffler, A., & Söderbom, M. (2008). Post-conflict risks. Journal of Peace Research, 45(4), 461–478.
doi: 10.1177/0022343308091356
Di John, J., & Putzel, J. (2009). Political settlements: Issues paper. Birmingham: International Development
Department, University of Birmingham.
German Development Institute / Deutsches Institut für Entwicklungspolitik (DIE)
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Online Appendix
Fiedler, C. (2015). Towers of strength in turbulent times? Assessing the effectiveness of international support to
peace and democracy in Kenya and Kyrgyzstan in the aftermath of interethnic violence (Discussion Paper
6/2015). Bonn: German Development Institute / Deutsches Institut für Entwicklungspolitik (DIE).
Finkel, S.E., Pérez-Liñán, A., & Seligson, M.A. (2007). The effects of US foreign assistance on democracy
building, 1990–2003. World Politics, 59, 404–439.
Hartzell, C.A., & Hoddie, M. (2003). Institutionalizing peace: Power sharing and post-civil war conflict
management. American Journal of Political Science, 47(2), 318–332.
Hegre, H. (2014). Democracy and armed conflict. Journal of Peace Research, 51(2), 159–172. doi:
10.1177/0022343313512852
Hegre, H., Ellingsen, T., Gates, S., & Gleditsch, N. (2001). Toward a democratic civil peace? Democracy,
political change, and civil war, 1816-1992. The American Political Science Review, 95(1), 33–48.
Hegre, H., & Fjelde, H. (2010). Democratization and post-conflict transitions. In J. J. Hewitt, J. Wilkenfeld & T.
R. Gurr (Eds.), Peace and conflict 2010 (pp. 79–90). University of Maryland.
Kalyvitis, S., & Vlachaki, I. (2010). Democratic aid and the democratization of recipients. Contemporary
Economic Policy, 28(2), 188–218.
Khan, M. (2010). Political settlements and the governance of growth-enhancing institutions. London: SOAS.
Leininger, J., Grimm, S., & Freyburg, T. (2014). Conflicting objectives in democracy promotion: Do all good things
go together? New York: Routledge.
Lijphart, A. (2004). Constitutional design for divided societies. Journal of Democracy, 15(2), 96–109.
Mansfield, E., & Snyder, J. (2005). Electing to fight: Why emerging democracies go to war. Cambridge: MIT Press.
Mansfield, E.D., & Snyder, J. (2008). Democratization and civil war. Saltzman Working Paper. Retrieved from
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Mansfield, E.D., & Snyder, J.L. (1995). Democratization and the danger of war. International Security, 20(1), 5–38.
Mansfield, E.D., & Snyder, J.L. (2007). The sequencing "fallacy". Journal of Democracy, 18(3), 5–9.
Mattes, M., & Savun, B. (2009). Fostering peace after civil war: Commitment problems and agreement
design. International Studies Quarterly, 53(3), 737–759. doi: 10.1111/j.1468-2478.2009.00554.x
Mroß, K. (2015). Fragile steps towards peace and democracy: Insights on the effectiveness of international support
to post-conflict Burundi (Discussion Paper 3/2015). Bonn: German Development Institute / Deutsches
Institut für Entwicklungspolitik (DIE).
Mukherjee, B. (2006). Does third-party enforcement or domestic institutions promote enduring peace after
civil wars? Policy lessons from an empirical test. Foreign Policy Analysis, 2, 405–430.
Paris, R. (2004). At war's end: Building peace after civil conflict. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Savun, B., & Tirone, D. (2011). Foreign aid, democratization, and civil conflict: How does democracy aid affect
civil conflict? American Journal of Political Science, 55(2), 233–246.
Stedman, S., Rothchild, D., & Cousens, E. (Eds.). (2002). Ending civil wars: The implementation of peace
agreements. Boulder, Colorado: Lynne Rienner.
Walter, B.F. (2002). Commiting to peace Princeton: Princeton University Press.
Walter, B.F. (2004). Does conflict beget conflict? Explaining recurring civil war. Journal of Peace Research,
41(3), 371–388. doi: 10. 1177/0022343304043775
Walter, B.F. (2014). Why bad governance leads to repeat civil war. Journal of Conflict Resolution, 58(2), 1–31.
Zürcher, C., Manning, C., Evenson, K.D., Hayman, R., Riese, S., & Roehner, N. (2013). Costly democracy.
Stanford: Stanford University Press.
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Transitional justice support
Arenhövel, M. (2008). Democratization and transitional justice. Democratization, 15(3), 570–587. doi:
10.1080/13510340801991114
Arnould, V., & Raimundo, F. (2013). Studying the impact of transitional justice on democracy: Conceptual and
methodological challenges. Paper presented at the 7th ECPR General Conference Bordeaux/France.
Backer, D. (2003). Civil society and transitional justice: Possibilities, patterns and prospects. Journal of Human
Rights 2(3), 297–313. doi: 10.1080/1475483032000132999
Bloomfield, D., Barnes, T., & Huyse, L. (2003). Reconciliation after violent conflict: A handbook. Stockholm:
International Institute for Democracy and Electoral Assistance.
Bonacker, T., & Buckley-Zistel, S. (2013). Introduction: Transitions from violence – analyzing the effects of
transitional justice. International Journal of Conflict and Violence, 7(1), 4–9.
Clark, P. (2013). Transitional justice in post-conflict societies In G. K. Brown & A. Langer (Eds.), Elgar handbook
of civil war and fragile states. Cheltenham: Edward Elgar Publishing.
Duthie, R. (2009). Building trust and capacity: Civil society and transitional justice from a development perspective.
New York: International Center for Transitional Justice.
Findley, M., & Rudloff, P. (2012). Combatant fragmentation and the dynamics of civil war. British Journal of
Political Science, 42(4), 879–901.
Fischer, M. (2011). Transitional justice and reconciliation: Theory and practice. In B. Austin, M. Fischer & H. J.
Giessmann (Eds.), Advancing conflict transformation: The Berghof handbook II (pp. 406–430). Opladen /
Framington Hills: Barbara Budrich Publishers.
Fletcher, L.E., Weinstein, H.M., & Rowen, J. (2009). Context, timing and the dynamics of transitional justice: A
historical perspective. Human Rights Quarterly, 31, 163–220.
Lie, T.G., Binningsbø, H.M., & Gates, S. (2007). Post-conflict justice and sustainable peace (Vol. 5/4191).
Washington, DC: World Bank.
Mendeloff, D. (2004). Truth-seeking, truth-telling, and postconflict peacebuilding: Curb the enthusiasm?
International Studies Review, 6(3), 355–380. doi: 10.1111/j.1521-9488.2004.00421.x
Mobekk, E. (2005). Transitional justice in post-conflict societies: Approaches to reconciliation. In A. H.
Ebnother & P. Fluri (Eds.), After intervention: Public security management in post-conflict societies: From
intervention to sustainable local ownership (pp. 261–292). Geneva: Geneva Centre for the Democratic
Control of Armed Forces.
Olsen, T.D., Payne, L.A., & Reiter, A.G. (2010). The justice balance: When transitional justice improves human
rights and democracy. Human Rights Quarterly, 32, 980–1007.
Olsen, T.D., Payne, L.A., Reiter, A.G., & Wiebelhaus-Brahm, E. (2010). When truth commissions improve
human rights. International Journal of Transitional Justice, 4, 457–476. doi: 10.1093/ijtj/ijq021
Roper, S., & Barria, L. (2007). Gatekeeping versus allocating in foreign assistance: Donor motivations and
contributions to war crimes tribunals. Journal of Conflict Resolution, 51(2), 285–304.
Skaar, E., Gianella, C., & Eide, T. (2012). Reconciliation in a transitional justice perspective. Transitional Justice
Review, 1(51). doi: 10.5206/tjr.2012.1.1.4
Skaar, E., Gianella, C., & Eide, T. (2015). After violence: Transitional justice, peace, and democracy. New York:
Routledge.
Thoms, O., Ron, J., & Paris, R. (2008). The effects of transitional justice mechanisms: A summary of empirical
research findings and implications for analysts and practitioners Ottawa: Centre for International Policy
Studies.
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