Macro-moths of the Algarve

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Transcrição

Macro-moths of the Algarve
A Photographic Guide to
Macro-moths of the Algarve
BERT VAN DER AUWERMEULEN
Front cover:
Aspitates ochrearia; Moth trap (left); Xylocampa areola (middle); Cyclophora puppillaria (right)
© A Rocha
Contributors:
Esther Pawley
Paula Banza
Martin Corley
All photographers listed in Photo credits are gratefully acknowledged.
Editor:
Bert Van der Auwermeulen
A photographic guide to Macro-moths of the Algarve
Copyright © 2012 by A Rocha Associação Cristã de Estudos e Defesa do Ambiente. This publication may be
printed without permission of the authors, all copies distributed must be provided free of charge.
A Rocha was founded in 1983 to put into practice the biblical call to care for all creation. A field study centre
and bird observatory was established in south-west Portugal in 1986. Similar projects now exist in other
countries, coordinated by A Rocha International. For more information visit: www.arocha.org
A Rocha Portugal:
Marcial Felgueiras
Paula Banza
Isabel Soares
Guillaume Réthoré
Cruzinha, Apt. 41, 8501-903 Mexilhoeira Grande, Portugal.
Tel: + 351 282 968380. Email: [email protected]
International Office. office: A Rocha Trust, 3 Hooper Street, Cambridge. CB1 2NZ.
Tel +44 (0) 1387 710286. Email: [email protected]
Please contact Cruzinha for details of how to receive further copies of this guide and other A Rocha
publications.
This publication should be referenced as:
Macro-moths of the Algarve – a photographic guide. Associação A Rocha, Portimão, Portugal, (2012).
3
Contents
Introduction ................................................................................................................... 4
Cossidae ....................................................................................................................... 6
Sesiidae ........................................................................................................................ 6
Heterogynidae ............................................................................................................... 7
Limacodidae.................................................................................................................. 7
Zygaenidae ................................................................................................................... 7
Drepanidae ................................................................................................................... 8
Lasiocampidae .............................................................................................................. 8
Saturniidae .................................................................................................................... 9
Sphingidae .................................................................................................................... 9
Geometridae ............................................................................................................... 10
Notodontidae............................................................................................................... 17
Erebidae ..................................................................................................................... 18
Nolidae ........................................................................................................................ 21
Euteliidae .................................................................................................................... 22
Noctuidae .................................................................................................................... 22
INDEX ......................................................................................................................... 31
This publication may be reproduced without permission of the authors, all copies
distributed must be provided free of charge.
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4
Introduction
This photographic guide aims to illustrate 501 macro–moth species currently occurring in the Algarve,
Portugal (Corley, unpublished), in order to make moth identification more accessible. This work intends to
function as a basis for further studies, thereby contributing to greater knowledge of Portuguese Lepidoptera.
Moth Photographs
This first edition features 520 photographs of 492 macro-moth species belonging to the Cossidae, Sesiidae,
Heterogynidae, Limacodidae, Zygaenidae, Drepanidae, Lasiocampidae, Saturniidae, Sphingidae,
Geometridae, Notodontidae, Erebidae, Euteliidae, Nolidae and Noctuidae families. The taxonomical order
of this guide follows the online Fauna Europaea.
The majority of species are pictured at rest on a natural background. An additional photograph sometimes
illustrates a major variation in colour or pattern within a species, or the difference between sexes. When no
satisfactory images of this kind were available, individuals were photographed on an artificial background or
taken from collection specimens.
How to use this guide?
This guide is not intended as a complete guide to the identification of moth species. The photographs are not
to scale, and details regarding size, distinct features, ecology or distribution is missing. However, it aims to
include this information in the future. The following websites offer additional information about Lepidoptera.
-
www.lepidoptera.pl
www.ukmoths.org.uk
www.leps.it
www.lepiforum.de
www.lepinet.fr
http://pathpiva.wifeo.com
www.lusoborbuletas.org
www.faunaeur.org
(European Lepidoptera)
(British moths)
(Macro-Lepidoptera of Europe and North Africa)
(European Lepidoptera forum)
(Lepidoptera of France)
(Lepidoptera of Southern France and Corsica)
(Macro-Lepidoptera of Portugal, last update 2008)
(Taxonomic list of European fauna)
Many genera (e.g. Idaea, Eupithecia, Eilema, Caradrina...) cannot be identified to species level without the
use of specialised literature. To date there is no comprehensive guide to the macro moths of Portugal or the
Iberian Peninsula; however, the following books offer a good (if expensive) alternative:
-
Leraut, P.: Moths of Europe (Volume 1, 2, 3 – more volumes to be published)
Geometrid moths of Europe (Several authors, Volume 1,2, 4 – more volumes to be published)
Redondo, V.M. et al.: Geometridae Ibericae
Lastuvka Z. & A. Lastuvka: Sesiidae of Europe
Noctuidae Europaeae (Several authors, 12 volumes)
Naumann C.M. et al.: Western Palearctic Zygaenidae
Field guides to macro-moths which have a considerable overlap with the Portuguese fauna include:
-
Robineau, R. et al.: Guide des papillons nocturnes de France
Manley, C.: British moths and butterflies
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5
Observing moths
It takes relatively little effort to detect a good number of moths in your own backyard. The easiest way to do so
is by searching for day-active moths during daylight hours, or by using a torch in the evening and catching
flying individuals with a net. These and other techniques are fully described on www.butterfly-conservation.org
(see: discover more about moths), or in the literature referred to earlier.
Using a light trap is by far the most efficient technique to observe a large number of moths at once. The trap
can be lit throughout the night and then moths can be identified in the early morning. The trapping success
depends on the weather, the location, the trap type, the influence of the moon and artificial light sources, etc...
In the Algarve, trapping can take place all year round, with the highest number of moths caught in the spring
and autumn months.
If you are interested to making a moth trap, www.atropos.info (garden moths) offers a good outline plan to
build your own Skinner trap. To illuminate it, you need a 125W mercury vapour light bulb and the
accompanying light ballast. Both can be bought in a local electric store or purchased online.
By entering your moth records on websites such as www.biodiversity4all.org we can gain better insight into
the flight patterns, habitat preferences and range of moths in the Algarve. This website is linked to Observado
which records worldwide nature observations.
Acknowledgements
This work has been coordinated by A Rocha Portugal and it would not have been produced without the
enthusiasm of Paula Banza, and the hard work of many volunteers who assisted in the A Rocha study centre.
I’m very thankful for the kind contributions from all photographers listed in the Photo credits. Photographers
are credited using their initials underneath each photograph.
Grateful thanks to Martin Corley for his valuable data and for checking over the images for any identification
errors. I am also indebted to Esther Pawley for editing the text, this has been very much appreciated.
It is my hope that this guide can be as complete as possible, therefore I urge anyone who is willing to offer
additional information or photographs to please contact A Rocha Portugal. ([email protected])
Bert Van der Auwermeulen
Photo credits ©
AR:
AI:
AS:
DM:
DW:
EM:
FP:
FR:
IM:
JW:
LF:
MD:
MG:
A Rocha Portugal
Andres Ivorra
(www.almerinatura.com)
Albano Soares
Daniel Morel
Dave Wilton
Eduardo Marabuto (www.lusoborboletas.org)
Franz Pühringer (www.sesiidae.net/sesiidae.htm)
Fernando Romão
Isidro Martínez
Jaroslaw Wenta
Luke Faluke
Mike Dale
Matthew Gandy (www.lepidopteragallery.org)
MiR:
MoR
MM:
NM:
Pa:
PP:
RP:
RW:
TF:
VJ:
YML:
WS:
WW:
Mick Richardson
Monika Reinhardt
Marek Miłkowski
Nick Montegriffo
Pathpiva
(http://pathpiva.wifeo.com)
Pedro Pires
(www.lusoborboletas.org)
Raniero Panfili
Robert Woods
Teresa Farino
Valter Jacinto
Yeray Monasterio León (Asociación Zerynthia)
Walter Schön
Wolfgang Wagner (www.pyrgus.de)
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Cossidae
Cossus cossus ©PP
Dyspessa ulula ©VJ
Zeuzera pyrina ©PP
Tinthia tineiformis ©AR
Paranthrene tabaniformis ©EM
Synanthedon stomoxiformis ©MM
Synanthedon codeti ©DM
Synanthedon theryi ©DM
Synanthedon myopaeformis ©MG
Bembecia ichneumoniformis ©VJ
Bembecia iberica ©NM
Bembecia sirphiformis ©DM
Pyropteron chrysidiformis ©AR
Pyropteron koschwitzi ©FP
Pyropteron muscaeformis ©JW
Pyropteron hispanica ©VJ
Pyropteron leucomelaena ©EM
Pyropteron doryliformis ©AR
Chamaesphecia mysiniformis ©DM
Sesiidae
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Chamaesphecia maurusia ©FP
Heterogynidae
Heterogynis penella ©EM
Chamaesphecia aerifrons ©VJ
Limacodidae
Hoyosia codeti ©DM
Zygaenidae
Zygaena sarpedon ©MG
Zygaena hilaris ©Pa
Zygaena fausta ©EM
Zygaena occitanica ©WW
Zygaena rhadamanthus ©EM
Zygaena lavandulae ©Pa
Zygaena trifolii ©PP
Aglaope infausta ©MG
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Drepanidae
Watsonalla uncinula ©Pa
Cilix hispanica ©MG
Cilix algirica ©AR
Thyatira batis ©WW
Malacosoma neustria ©WW
Lasiocampa trifolii ©MG
Macrothylacia digramma ©PP
Trichiura ilicis ©EM
Streblote panda ♀ ©MoR
Streblote panda ♂ ©WS
Psilogaster loti ♂ ©YML
Psilogaster loti ♀ ©VJ
Phyllodesma kermesifolia ©YML
Phyllodesma suberifolia ©PP
Phyllodesma suberifolia ©Pa
Tethea ocularis ©MG
Lasiocampidae
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Saturniidae
Saturnia pyri ©PP
Sphingidae
Marumba quercus ©PP
Mimas tiliae ©PP
Smerinthus ocellata ©PP
Laothoe populi ©EM
Agrius convolvuli ©DW
Acherontia atropos ©AR
Hemaris fuciformis ©MG
Macroglossum stellatarum ©Pa
Proserpinus proserpina ©PP
Hyles livornica ©AR
Hippotion celerio ©AR
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Geometridae
Myinodes interpunctaria ©TF
Abraxas pantaria ©PP
Aspitates ochrearia ©AR
Dyscia penulataria ©AR
Dyscia distinctaria ©VJ
Aleucis distinctata ©EM
Lycia hirtaria ©PP
Chemerina caliginearia ©Pa
Nychiodes andalusiaria ©EM
Menophra abruptaria ©FR
Menophra japygiaria ©PP
Menophra nycthemeraria ©PP
Afriberina tenietaria ©AR
Calamodes occitanaria ©VJ
Peribatodes rhomboidaria ©PP
Peribatodes umbraria
Peribatodes ilicaria ©EM
Selidosema pyrenaearia
Selidosema taeniolaria ©DM
Hypomecis punctinalis ©AR
Ekboarmia atlanticaria ©AR
Adactylotis gesticularia ©FR
Tephronia sepiaria ©DW
Tephronia codetaria ©DM
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Cabera pusaria ©MG
Cabera exanthemata ©MG
Stegania trimaculata ©AR
Stegania trimaculata ©AR
Gerinia honoraria ©PP
Ennomos alniaria ©EM
Ennomos fuscantaria ©Pa
Ennomos quercaria ©DM
Selenia lunularia ©PP
Opisthograptis luteolata ©PP Pseudopanthera macularia ©PP
Toulgoetia cauteriata ©EM
Gnophos perspersata ©AR
Charissa obscurata ©WW
Charissa mucidaria ©PP
Crocallis tusciaria ©PP
Crocallis dardoinaria ©EM
Crocallis auberti ©VJ
Pachycnemia hippocastanaria ©PP
Pachycnemia tibiaria ©DM
Petrophora chlorosata ©AR
Petrophora convergata ©VJ
Petrophora narbonea ©MG
Chiasmia clathrata ©Pa
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Chiasmia aestimaria ©DM
Isturgia famula ©EM
Isturgia miniosaria ©EM
Isturgia miniosaria ©EM
Isturgia pulinda ©AR
Acanthovalva inconspicuaria ©EM
Itame vincularia ©AR
Gnopharmia stevenaria ©AR
Rhoptria asperaria ©AR
Onychora agaritharia ©EM
Compsoptera opacaria ©PP
Hemistola chrysoprasaria ©Pa
Xenochlorodes olympiaria ©Pa Phaiogramma etruscaria ©EM Phaiogramma faustinata ©EM
Microloxia herbaria ©PP
Aplasta ononaria ©AR
Pseudoterpna coronillaria ©PP
Bustilloxia saturata ©FR
Amygdaloptera testaria ©EM
Aplocera efformata ©PP
Chesias legatella ©MG
Chesias rufata ©AR
Chesias isabella ©VJ
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Nebula ibericata ©MG
Chloroclysta siterata ©EM
Thera cupressata ©EM
Colostygia multistrigaria ©EM
Epirrhoe sandosaria
Eupithecia pulchellata ©PP
Eupithecia laquaearia ©EM
Eupithecia liguriata ©DM
Eupithecia irriguata ©AR
Eupithecia extremata ©Pa
Eupithecia venosata ©AR
Eupithecia centaureata ©MG
Eupithecia gratiosata ©EM
Eupithecia breviculata ©PP
Eupithecia innotata ©MG
Eupithecia dodoneata ©AR
Eupithecia cocciferata ©Pa
Eupithecia massiliata ©Pa
Eupithecia phoeniceata ©Pa
Eupithecia scopariata ©PP
Eupithecia oxycedrata ©EM
Eupithecia ultimaria ©EM
Gymnoscelis rufifasciata ©VJ
Lythria sanguinaria ©VJ
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Larentia malvata ©AR
Larentia malvata ©VJ
Horisme scorteata ©MD
Hospitalia flavolineata ©VJ
Acasis viretata ©Pa
Scotopteryx peribolata ©PP
Nycterosea obstipata ♂ ©AR
Nycterosea obstipata ♀ ©AR
Xanthorhoe ferrugata ©PP
Xanthorhoe fluctuata ©PP
Catarhoe basochesiata ©EM
Costaconvexa polygrammata ©AR
Camptogramma bilineata ©AR
Cyclophora puppillaria ©AR
Cyclophora puppillaria ©AR
Cyclophora hyponoea ©AR
Idaea litigiosaria ©Pa
Idaea sardoniata ©VJ
Idaea lusohispanica ©MG
Idaea mediaria ©MG
Idaea consanguiberica ©IM
Idaea antiquaria ©IM
Idaea ochrata ©EM
Idaea mustelata ©MG
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Idaea efflorata ©DM
Idaea alyssumata ©MG
Idaea circuitaria ©PP
Idaea incisaria ©DW
Idaea calunetaria ©AR
Idaea belemiata ©PP
Idaea belemiata ©PP
Idaea elongaria ©MG
Idaea obsoletaria ©Pa
Idaea biselata ©Pa
Idaea inquinata ©MG
Idaea blaesii ©AR
Idaea fuscovenosa ©MG
Idaea lutulentaria ©EM
Idaea bigladiata ©AI
Idaea longaria ©EM
Idaea joannisiata ©LF
Idaea minuscularia ©AR
Idaea carvalhoi ©MG
Idaea subsaturata ©Pa
Idaea dimidiata ©MG
Idaea fractilineata ©MG
Idaea subsericeata ©PP
Idaea cervantaria ©VJ
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Idaea infirmaria ©VJ
Idaea infirmaria ©MG
Idaea eugeniata ©AR
Idaea eugeniata ©AR
Idaea predotaria ©DM
Idaea exilaria ©DM
Idaea ostrinaria ©MG
Idaea aversata ©PP
Idaea degeneraria ©AR
Idaea straminata ©MG
Cleta ramosaria ♂ ©AR
Cleta ramosaria ♀ ©EM
Brachyglossina hispanaria ©AR
Rhodostrophia calabra ©EM
Rhodometra sacraria ©EM
Rhodometra sacraria ©MG
Scopula ornata ©WW
Scopula submutata ©PP
Scopula decorata ©EM
Scopula rubiginata ©Pa
Scopula turbidaria ©VJ
Scopula decolor
Scopula marginepunctata ©AR
Scopula imitaria ©PP
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Scopula minorata ©AR
Scopula rufomixtaria ©MG
Scopula asellaria ©EM
Thaumetopoea pityocampa ©PP
Thaumetopoea herculeana ©FR
Notodonta ziczac ©PP
Drymonia querna ©PP
Pterostoma palpina ©EM
Cerura iberica ©PP
Furcula bifida ©PP
Phalera bucephala ©PP
Peridea anceps ©PP
Harpyia milhauseri ©FR
Scopula emutaria ©PP
Timandra comae ©PP
Notodontidae
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Erebidae
Lymantria dispar ♂ ©PP
Lymantria dispar ♀ ©WW
Ocneria atlantica ©AR
Ocneria rubea ©PP
Orgyia antiqua ♂ ©PP
Orgyia trigotephras ©Pa
Euproctis chrysorrhoea ©MG
Euproctis similis ©DM
Paidia rica ©PP
Apaidia mesogona ©EM
Miltochrista miniata ©EM
Lithosia quadra ©PP
Lithosia quadra ©AR
Eilema caniola ©PP
Eilema marcida ©AR
Eilema predotae ©AR
Eilema uniola ©PP
Eilema rungsi
Eilema bipuncta
Phragmatobia fuliginosa ©AR
Cymbalophora pudica ©PP
Spilosoma lutea ©PP
Diaphora mendica ♂ ©MG
Diaphora mendica ♀ ©AR
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Arctia villica ©PP
Euplagia quadripunctaria ©AS
Tyria jacobaeae ©Pa
Coscinia cribraria ©AR
Utetheisa pulchella ©AR
Nodaria nodosalis ©NM
Pechipogo plumigeralis ©DW
Hypena obsitalis ©AS
Hypena lividalis ©Pa
Zebeeba falsalis ©MG
Scoliopteryx libatrix ©PP
Schrankia costaestrigalis ©AR
Parascotia nisseni ©PP
Odice pergrata ©PP
Odice pergrata ©VJ
Odice jucunda ©EM
Eublemma cochylioides
Eublemma ostrina
Eublemma candidana ©Pa
Eublemma cochylioides ©NM
Eublemma ostrina ©AR
Eublemma ostrina ©NM
Eublemma parva ©PP
Eublemma pura ©NM
Eublemma polygramma ©Pa
Eublemma scitula ©EM
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Rhypagla lacernaria ©Pa
Metachrostis velox ©EM
Phytometra viridaria ©FR
Lygephila craccae ©AR
Tathorhynchus exsiccata ©AR
Drasteria cailino ©PP
Euclidia glyphica ©EM
Catephia alchymista ©EM
Zethes insularis ©EM
Pandesma robusta ©EM
Cerocala scapulosa ©EM
Ophiusa tirhaca ©Pa
Minucia lunaris ©EM
Clytie illunaris ©AR
Grammodes bifasciata ©EM
Dysgonia algira ©Pa
Dysgonia torrida ©VJ
Catocala dilecta ©AR
Catocala dilecta ©Pa
Catocala elocata ©AR
Catocala optata ©EM
Catocala promissa ©MG
Catocala coniuncta ©PP
Catocala conversa ©PP
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Catocala nymphagoga ©MG
Catocala nymphaea ©EM
Catocala mariana ©AR
Meganola togatulalis ©PP
Meganola strigula ©PP
Meganola albula ©PP
Nola tutulella ©NM
Nola cicatricalis ©Pa
Nola squalida ©AR
Nola squalida ©NM
Nola subchlamydula ©Pa
Nola chlamitulalis ©PP
Bena bicolorana ©PP
Pseudoips prasinana ©EM
Nycteola columbana ©NM
Nycteola siculana ©Pa
Earias insulana ©MG
Nolidae
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Euteliidae
Eutelia adulatrix ©DW
Noctuidae
Abrostola triplasia ©AR
Trichoplusia ni ©MG
Thysanoplusia orichalcea ©EM
Thysanoplusia daubei ©DM
Ctenoplusia accentifera ©AR
Ctenoplusia limbirena ©MD
Chrysodeixis chalcites ©EM
Diachrysia chrysitis ©MG
Autographa gamma ©PP
Pseudozarba bipartita ©NM
Acontia lucida ©VJ
Acontia trabealis ©AR
Aedia leucomelas ©MG
Colocasia coryli ©MG
Raphia hybris ©PP
Acronicta psi ©EM
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Acronicta aceris ©MG
Acronicta leporina ©PP
Acronicta auricoma ©Pa
Acronicta euphorbiae ©PP
Acronicta rumicis ©AR
Craniophora pontica ©Pa
Aegle vespertinalis ©IM
Synthimia fixa ©AR
Tyta luctuosa ©MG
Cucullia calendulae ©DM
Cucullia chamomillae ©MG
Cucullia caninae ©DM
Cucullia scrophulariphila ©EM
Cucullia verbasci ©AR
Amphipyra effusa ©Pa
Bryonycta pineti ©PP
Allophyes alfaroi ©MG
Calophasia platyptera ©WS
Omphalophana serrata ©AR
Lophoterges millierei ©EM
Cleonymia baetica ©EM
Cleonymia diffluens ©EM
Cleonymia yvanii ©Pa
Amephana aurita ©Pa
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Recoropha canteneri ©VJ
Metopoceras felicina ©Pa
Xylocampa areola ©AR
Stilbia andalusiaca ©MiR
Condica viscosa ©NM
Heliothis peltigera ©AR
Heliothis nubigera ©AR
Heliothis incarnata ©EM
Helicoverpa armigera ©PP
Callopistria juventina ©EM
Callopistria latreillei ©EM
Cryphia pallida ©Pa
Cryphia algae ©MG
Cryphia algae ©DW
Bryophila ravula ©Pa
Bryophila vandalusiae ©DM
Bryophila petrea ©AR
Bryophila microglossa ©MD
Nyctobrya muralis ©EM
Spodoptera exigua ©AR
Spodoptera cilium ©EM
Spodoptera littoralis ©EM
Caradrina aspersa ©EM
Caradrina proxima ©EM
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Caradrina germainii ©AR
Caradrina clavipalpis ©MG
Caradrina noctivaga ©Pa
Caradrina flavirena ©FR
Hoplodrina hesperica ©Pa
Hoplodrina ambigua ©PP
Chilodes maritima ©PP
Athetis hospes ©DM
Mormo maura ©PP
Polyphaenis sericata ©FR
Thalpophila vitalba ©FR
Chloantha hyperici ©EM
Phlogophora meticulosa ©PP
Pseudenargia ulicis ©AR
Gortyna xanthenes ©DM
Gortyna puengeleri
Gortyna borelii ©DM
Luperina testacea ©MG
Luperina nickerlii ©EM
Luperina dumerilii ©VJ
Rhizedra lutosa ©WW
Nonagria typhae ©EM
Coenobia rufa ©PP
Oria musculosa ©VS
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Unchelea myodea
Denticucullus mabillei ©AR
Apamea arabs ©EM
Mesapamea secalis ©AR
Mesoligia furuncula ©PP
Sesamia nonagrioides ©DW
Episema grueneri ©EM
Leucochlaena oditis ©VJ
Eremopola orana ©AR
Agrochola lychnidis ©EM
Agrochola helvola ©PP
Agrochola blidaensis ©PP
Agrochola haematidea ©PP
Omphaloscelis lunosa ©AR
Conistra staudingeri ©PP
Spudaea ruticilla ©AR
Spudaea ruticilla ©EM
Lithophane semibrunnea ©Pa
Lithophane leautieri ©DM
Xylena exsoleta ©Pa
Atethmia algirica ©AR
Dryobota labecula ©VJ
Dryobotodes monochroma ©Pa
Dryobotodes roboris ©VJ
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27
Dryobotodes tenebrosa ©VJ
Ammopolia witzenmanni ©EM
Trigonophora flammea ©EM
Aporophyla chioleuca ©EM
Aporophyla lueneburgensis ©EM
Aporophyla nigra ©VJ
Polymixis xanthomista ©PP
Polymixis argillaceago ©EM
Polymixis lichenea ©PP
Polymixis dubia ©PP
Mniotype occidentalis ©VJ
Orthosia incerta ©Pa
Orthosia gothica ©EM
Orthosia cruda ©Pa
Orthosia cerasi ©PP
Anarta trifolii ©VJ
Anarta pugnax ©Pa
Anarta sodae ©EM
Anarta myrtilli ©PP
Cardepia sociabilis ©Pa
Lacanobia oleracea ©Pa
Mamestra brassicae ©WW
Conisania andalusica ©EM
Hecatera dysodea ©Pa
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28
Hecatera weissi ©MG
Hadena bicruris ©Pa
Hadena magnolii ©EM
Hadena confusa ©AR
Hadena albimacula ©Pa
Hadena perplexa ©EM
Hadena sancta ©EM
Mythimna vitellina ©AR
Mythimna ferrago ©AR
Mythimna albipuncta ©EM
Mythimna litoralis ©EM
Mythimna l-album ©Pa
Mythimna sicula ©AR
Mythimna prominens ©RP
Mythimna unipuncta ©PP
Mythimna languida ©DW
Mythimna riparia ©Pa
Leucania zeae ©Pa
Leucania punctosa ©Pa
Leucania putrescens ©Pa
Leucania joannisi ♂ ©Pa
Leucania joannisi ♀ ©WW
Leucania loreyi ©PP
Peridroma saucia ©DW
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29
Eucoptocnemis optabilis ©VJ
Euxoa temera ©Pa
Euxoa oranaria ©AR
Agrotis lata ©EM
Agrotis bigramma ©PP
Agrotis catalaunensis ©EM
Agrotis puta ♂ ©PP
Agrotis puta ♀ ©Pa
Agrotis alexandriensis ©EM
Agrotis herzogi ©AR
Agrotis ipsilon ©MG
Agrotis ipsilon ©AR
Agrotis trux ©EM
Agrotis exclamationis ©MG
Agrotis segetum ©AR
Agrotis spinifera ©EM
Agrotis sabulosa ©AR
Agrotis graslini
Agrotis boetica ©AR
Cerastis faceta ©EM
Ochropleura plecta ©MG
Ochropleura leucogaster ©AR
Lycophotia erythrina ©PP
Lycophotia molothina ©PP
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30
Paradiarsia glareosa ©EM
Noctua pronuba ©PP
Noctua pronuba ©AR
Noctua comes ©Pa
Noctua comes ©AR
Noctua fimbriata ©EM
Noctua fimbriata ©AR
Noctua janthe ©Pa
Noctua janthe ©AR
Xestia xanthographa ©PP
Xestia kermesina ©PP
Xestia agathina ©PP
Xestia c-nigrum ©PP
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31
INDEX
A
Abraxas pantaria ............................. 10
Abrostola triplasia ............................ 22
Acanthovalva inconspicuaria ........... 12
Acasis viretata ................................. 14
Acherontia atropos ............................ 9
Acontia
lucida .......................................... 22
trabealis ...................................... 22
Acronicta
aceris.......................................... 23
auricoma..................................... 23
euphorbiae ................................. 23
leporina....................................... 23
psi 22
rumicis ........................................ 23
Adactylotis gesticularia .................... 10
Aedia leucomelas ............................ 22
Aegle vespertinalis .......................... 23
Afriberina tenietaria ......................... 10
Aglaope infausta ................................ 7
Agrius convolvuli................................ 9
Agrochola
blidaensis ................................... 26
haematidea................................. 26
helvola ........................................ 26
lychnidis...................................... 26
Agrotis
alexandriensis............................. 29
bigramma ................................... 29
boetica........................................ 29
catalaunensis.............................. 29
exclamationis .............................. 29
graslini ........................................ 29
herzogi ....................................... 29
ipsilon ......................................... 29
lata ............................................. 29
puta ............................................ 29
sabulosa ..................................... 29
segetum...................................... 29
spinifera ...................................... 29
trux ............................................. 29
Aleucis distinctata ............................ 10
Allophyes alfaroi .............................. 23
Amephana aurita ............................. 23
Ammopolia witzenmanni .................. 27
Amphipyra effusa............................. 23
Amygdaloptera testaria .................... 12
Anarta
myrtilli ......................................... 27
pugnax ....................................... 27
sodae ......................................... 27
trifolii ........................................... 27
Apaidia mesogona ........................... 18
Apamea arabs ................................. 26
Aplasta ononaria.............................. 12
Aplocera efformata .......................... 12
Aporophyla
chioleuca .................................... 27
lueneburgensis ........................... 27
nigra ........................................... 27
Arctia villica ..................................... 19
Aspitates ochrearia ......................... 10
Atethmia algirica ............................. 26
Athetis hospes ................................ 25
Autographa gamma......................... 22
B
Bembecia
iberica .......................................... 6
ichneumoniformis ......................... 6
sirphiformis................................... 6
Bena bicolorana .............................. 21
Brachyglossina hispanaria .............. 16
Bryonycta pineti .............................. 23
Bryophila
microglossa ................................ 24
petrea......................................... 24
ravula ......................................... 24
vandalusiae ................................ 24
Bustilloxia saturata .......................... 12
C
Cabera
exanthemata .............................. 11
pusaria ....................................... 11
Calamodes occitanaria .................... 10
Callopistria
juventina..................................... 24
latreillei ....................................... 24
Calophasia platyptera ..................... 23
Camptogramma bilineata ................ 14
Caradrina
aspersa ...................................... 24
clavipalpis .................................. 25
flavirena ..................................... 25
germainii .................................... 25
noctivaga.................................... 25
proxima ...................................... 24
Cardepia sociabilis .......................... 27
Catarhoe basochesiata ................... 14
Catephia alchymista ........................ 20
Catocala
coniuncta.................................... 20
conversa .................................... 20
dilecta ........................................ 20
elocata ....................................... 20
mariana ...................................... 21
nymphaea .................................. 21
nymphagoga .............................. 21
optata ......................................... 20
promissa .................................... 20
Cerastis faceta ................................ 29
Cerocala scapulosa......................... 20
Cerura iberica ................................. 17
Chamaesphecia
aerifrons ....................................... 7
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maurusia .......................................7
mysiniformis ..................................6
Charissa
mucidaria ....................................11
obscurata ....................................11
Chemerina caliginearia ....................10
Chesias
isabella .......................................12
legatella ......................................12
rufata ..........................................12
Chiasmia
aestimaria ...................................12
clathrata ......................................11
Chilodes maritima ............................25
Chloantha hyperici ...........................25
Chloroclysta siterata ........................13
Chrysodeixis chalcites .....................22
Cilix
algirica ..........................................8
hispanica ......................................8
Cleonymia
baetica ........................................23
diffluens ......................................23
yvanii ..........................................23
Cleta ramosaria ...............................16
Clytie illunaris ..................................20
Coenobia rufa ..................................25
Colocasia coryli ...............................22
Colostygia multistrigaria ...................13
Compsoptera opacaria.....................12
Condica viscosa...............................24
Conisania andalusica .......................27
Conistra staudingeri .........................26
Coscinia cribraria .............................19
Cossidae ..........................................6
Cossus cossus ..................................6
Costaconvexa polygrammata...........14
Craniophora pontica ........................23
Crocallis
auberti ........................................11
dardoinaria ..................................11
tusciaria ......................................11
Cryphia
algae...........................................24
pallida .........................................24
Ctenoplusia
accentifera ..................................22
limbirena .....................................22
Cucullia
calendulae ..................................23
caninae .......................................23
chamomillae................................23
scrophulariphila...........................23
verbasci ......................................23
Cyclophora
hyponoea ....................................14
puppillaria ...................................14
Cymbalophora pudica ......................18
32
D
Denticucullus mabillei ...................... 26
Diachrysia chrysitis .......................... 22
Diaphora mendica ........................... 18
Drasteria cailino ............................... 20
Drepanidae ....................................... 8
Drymonia querna ............................. 17
Dryobota labecula............................ 26
Dryobotodes
monochroma............................... 26
roboris ........................................ 26
tenebrosa ................................... 27
Dyscia
distinctaria .................................. 10
penulataria.................................. 10
Dysgonia
algira .......................................... 20
torrida ......................................... 20
Dyspessa ulula .................................. 6
E
Earias insulana ................................ 21
Eilema
bipuncta ...................................... 18
caniola ........................................ 18
marcida....................................... 18
predotae ..................................... 18
rungsi ......................................... 18
uniola.......................................... 18
Ekboarmia atlanticaria ..................... 10
Ennomos
alniaria ........................................ 11
fuscantaria .................................. 11
quercaria .................................... 11
Epirrhoe sandosaria ........................ 13
Episema grueneri ............................ 26
Erebidae ......................................... 18
Eremopola orana ............................. 26
Eublemma
candidana ................................... 19
cochylioides ................................ 19
ostrina ........................................ 19
parva .......................................... 19
polygramma................................ 19
pura ............................................ 19
scitula ......................................... 19
Euclidia glyphica .............................. 20
Eucoptocnemis optabilis .................. 29
Eupithecia
breviculata .................................. 13
centaureata ................................ 13
cocciferata .................................. 13
dodoneata .................................. 13
extremata ................................... 13
gratiosata.................................... 13
innotata....................................... 13
irriguata ...................................... 13
laquaearia................................... 13
liguriata ....................................... 13
massiliata ................................... 13
oxycedrata .................................. 13
phoeniceata ................................ 13
pulchellata .................................. 13
scopariata .................................. 13
ultimaria ..................................... 13
venosata .................................... 13
Euplagia quadripunctaria................. 19
Euproctis
chrysorrhoea .............................. 18
similis ......................................... 18
Eutelia adulatrix .............................. 22
Euteliidae ....................................... 22
Euxoa
oranaria ...................................... 29
temera........................................ 29
F
Furcula bifida .................................. 17
G
Geometridae .................................. 10
Gerinia honoraria ............................ 11
Gnopharmia stevenaria ................... 12
Gnophos perspersata ...................... 11
Gortyna
borelii ......................................... 25
puengeleri .................................. 25
xanthenes .................................. 25
Grammodes bifasciata .................... 20
Gymnoscelis rufifasciata ................. 13
H
Hadena
albimacula .................................. 28
bicruris ....................................... 28
confusa ...................................... 28
magnolii...................................... 28
perplexa ..................................... 28
sancta ........................................ 28
Harpyia milhauseri .......................... 17
Hecatera
dysodea ..................................... 27
weissi ......................................... 28
Helicoverpa armigera ...................... 24
Heliothis
incarnata .................................... 24
nubigera ..................................... 24
peltigera ..................................... 24
Hemaris fuciformis ............................ 9
Hemistola chrysoprasaria ................ 12
Heterogynidae ................................. 7
Heterogynis penella .......................... 7
Hippotion celerio ............................... 9
Hoplodrina
ambigua ..................................... 25
hesperica ................................... 25
Horisme scorteata ........................... 14
Hospitalia flavolineata ..................... 14
Hoyosia codeti .................................. 7
Hyles livornica ................................... 9
Hypena
lividalis ....................................... 19
obsitalis ...................................... 19
Hypomecis punctinalis..................... 10
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I
Idaea
alyssumata .................................15
antiquaria ....................................14
aversata ......................................16
belemiata ....................................15
bigladiata ....................................15
biselata .......................................15
blaesii .........................................15
calunetaria ..................................15
carvalhoi .....................................15
cervantaria ..................................15
circuitaria ....................................15
consanguiberica ..........................14
degeneraria ................................16
dimidiata .....................................15
efflorata.......................................15
elongaria .....................................15
eugeniata ....................................16
exilaria ........................................16
fractilineata .................................15
fuscovenosa................................15
incisaria ......................................15
infirmaria .....................................16
inquinata .....................................15
joannisiata ..................................15
litigiosaria....................................14
longaria .......................................15
lusohispanica ..............................14
lutulentaria ..................................15
mediaria ......................................14
minuscularia................................15
mustelata ....................................14
obsoletaria ..................................15
ochrata........................................14
ostrinaria .....................................16
predotaria ...................................16
sardoniata ...................................14
straminata ...................................16
subsaturata .................................15
subsericeata ...............................15
Isturgia
famula.........................................12
miniosaria ...................................12
pulinda ........................................12
Itame vincularia ...............................12
L
Lacanobia oleracea .........................27
Laothoe populi ...................................9
Larentia malvata ..............................14
Lasiocampa trifolii ..............................8
Lasiocampidae.................................8
Leucania
joannisi .......................................28
loreyi ...........................................28
punctosa .....................................28
putrescens ..................................28
zeae............................................28
Leucochlaena oditis .........................26
Limacodidae.....................................7
Lithophane
leautieri .......................................26
33
semibrunnea ............................... 26
Lithosia quadra ................................ 18
Lophoterges millierei ....................... 23
Luperina
dumerilii ...................................... 25
nickerlii ....................................... 25
testacea ...................................... 25
Lycia hirtaria .................................... 10
Lycophotia
erythrina ..................................... 29
molothina .................................... 29
Lygephila craccae............................ 20
Lymantria dispar .............................. 18
Lythria sanguinaria .......................... 13
cicatricalis .................................. 21
squalida...................................... 21
subchlamydula ........................... 21
tutulella ...................................... 21
Nolidae ........................................... 21
Nonagria typhae .............................. 25
Notodonta ziczac............................. 17
Notodontidae ................................. 17
Nychiodes andalusiaria ................... 10
Nycteola
columbana ................................. 21
siculana ...................................... 21
Nycterosea obstipata ...................... 14
Nyctobrya muralis ........................... 24
M
O
Macroglossum stellatarum ................. 9
Macrothylacia digramma.................... 8
Malacosoma neustria ........................ 8
Mamestra brassicae ........................ 27
Marumba quercus.............................. 9
Meganola
albula.......................................... 21
strigula ........................................ 21
togatulalis ................................... 21
Menophra
abruptaria ................................... 10
japygiaria .................................... 10
nycthemeraria ............................. 10
Mesapamea secalis ......................... 26
Mesoligia furuncula.......................... 26
Metachrostis velox ........................... 20
Metopoceras felicina ........................ 24
Microloxia herbaria .......................... 12
Miltochrista miniata .......................... 18
Mimas tiliae ....................................... 9
Minucia lunaris ................................ 20
Mniotype occidentalis ...................... 27
Mormo maura .................................. 25
Myinodes interpunctaria................... 10
Mythimna
albipuncta ................................... 28
ferrago ........................................ 28
l-album ....................................... 28
languida ...................................... 28
litoralis ........................................ 28
prominens................................... 28
riparia ......................................... 28
sicula .......................................... 28
unipuncta .................................... 28
vitellina ....................................... 28
Ochropleura
leucogaster ................................ 29
plecta ......................................... 29
Ocneria
atlantica...................................... 18
rubea.......................................... 18
Odice
jucunda ...................................... 19
pergrata...................................... 19
Omphalophana serrata.................... 23
Omphaloscelis lunosa ..................... 26
Onychora agaritharia ....................... 12
Ophiusa tirhaca ............................... 20
Opisthograptis luteolata................... 11
Orgyia
antiqua ....................................... 18
trigotephras ................................ 18
Oria musculosa ............................... 25
Orthosia
cerasi ......................................... 27
cruda .......................................... 27
gothica ....................................... 27
incerta ........................................ 27
N
Nebula ibericata .............................. 13
Noctua
comes ......................................... 30
fimbriata...................................... 30
janthe ......................................... 30
pronuba ...................................... 30
Noctuidae ....................................... 22
Nodaria nodosalis ............................ 19
Nola
chlamitulalis ................................ 21
P
Pachycnemia
hippocastanaria .......................... 11
tibiaria ........................................ 11
Paidia rica ....................................... 18
Pandesma robusta .......................... 20
Paradiarsia glareosa ....................... 30
Paranthrene tabaniformis .................. 6
Parascotia nisseni ........................... 19
Pechipogo plumigeralis ................... 19
Peribatodes
ilicaria......................................... 10
rhomboidaria .............................. 10
umbraria ..................................... 10
Peridea anceps ............................... 17
Peridroma saucia ............................ 28
Petrophora
chlorosata .................................. 11
convergata ................................. 11
narbonea .................................... 11
Phaiogramma
etruscaria ................................... 12
faustinata ................................... 12
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Phalera bucephala ...........................17
Phlogophora meticulosa ..................25
Phragmatobia fuliginosa ..................18
Phyllodesma
kermesifolia ..................................8
suberifolia .....................................8
Phytometra viridaria .........................20
Polymixis
argillaceago ................................27
dubia...........................................27
lichenea ......................................27
xanthomista ................................27
Polyphaenis sericata ........................25
Proserpinus proserpina ......................9
Pseudenargia ulicis ..........................25
Pseudoips prasinana .......................21
Pseudopanthera macularia ..............11
Pseudoterpna coronillaria ................12
Pseudozarba bipartita ......................22
Psilogaster loti ...................................8
Pterostoma palpina ..........................17
Pyropteron
chrysidiformis ................................6
doryliformis ...................................6
hispanica ......................................6
koschwitzi .....................................6
leucomelaena ...............................6
muscaeformis ...............................6
R
Raphia hybris ...................................22
Recoropha canteneri .......................24
Rhizedra lutosa ................................25
Rhodometra sacraria .......................16
Rhodostrophia calabra .....................16
Rhoptria asperaria ...........................12
Rhypagla lacernaria .........................20
S
Saturnia pyri ......................................9
Saturniidae .......................................9
Schrankia costaestrigalis .................19
Scoliopteryx libatrix ..........................19
Scopula
asellaria ......................................17
decolor ........................................16
decorata......................................16
emutaria......................................17
imitaria ........................................16
marginepunctata .........................16
minorata......................................17
ornata .........................................16
rubiginata ....................................16
rufomixtaria .................................17
submutata ...................................16
turbidaria.....................................16
Scotopteryx peribolata .....................14
Selenia lunularia ..............................11
Selidosema
pyrenaearia .................................10
taeniolaria ...................................10
Sesamia nonagrioides .....................26
Sesiidae ............................................6
34
Smerinthus ocellata ........................... 9
Sphingidae ....................................... 9
Spilosoma lutea ............................... 18
Spodoptera
cilium .......................................... 24
exigua ......................................... 24
littoralis ....................................... 24
Spudaea ruticilla .............................. 26
Stegania trimaculata ........................ 11
Stilbia andalusiaca........................... 24
Streblote panda ................................. 8
Synanthedon
codeti............................................ 6
myopaeformis ............................... 6
stomoxiformis ............................... 6
theryi ............................................ 6
Synthimia fixa .................................. 23
pityocampa................................. 17
Thera cupressata ............................ 13
Thyatira batis .................................... 8
Thysanoplusia
daubei ........................................ 22
orichalcea................................... 22
Timandra comae ............................. 17
Tinthia tineiformis .............................. 6
Toulgoetia cauteriata....................... 11
Trichiura ilicis .................................... 8
Trichoplusia ni ................................. 22
Trigonophora flammea .................... 27
Tyria jacobaeae .............................. 19
Tyta luctuosa................................... 23
U
Unchelea myodea ........................... 26
Utetheisa pulchella .......................... 19
T
Tathorhynchus exsiccata ................. 20
Tephronia
lhommearia................................. 10
sepiaria ....................................... 10
Tethea ocularis .................................. 8
Thalpophila vitalba........................... 25
Thaumetopoea
herculeana.................................. 17
W
Watsonalla uncinula .......................... 8
X
Xanthorhoe
ferrugata..................................... 14
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fluctuata ......................................14
Xenochlorodes olympiaria ................12
Xestia
agathina ......................................30
c-nigrum......................................30
kermesina ...................................30
xanthographa ..............................30
Xylena exsoleta ...............................26
Xylocampa areola ............................24
Z
Zebeeba falsalis ..............................19
Zethes insularis ...............................20
Zeuzera pyrina ...................................6
Zygaena
fausta............................................7
hilaris ............................................7
lavandulae ....................................7
occitanica......................................7
rhadamanthus ...............................7
sarpedon.......................................7
trifolii .............................................7
Zygaenidae .......................................7

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