Magdalena Pokrzyńska, Anna Zielińska Portret antropologiczny

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Magdalena Pokrzyńska, Anna Zielińska Portret antropologiczny
Sprawy Narodowościowe. Seria nowa, 39 – Abstracts
Magdalena Pokrzyńska, Anna Zielińska
Portret antropologiczny rdzennych mieszkańców
pogranicza polsko-niemieckiego urodzonych p rzed 1945 rokiem
An Anthropological Portrayal of the Native Inhabitants
of the Polish-German Borderland Born Before 1945
The article presents the results of field research carried out among the native
inhabitants of the Lubusz Voivodship who were born in the former eastern territory
of the then German state before 1945. Between 2009 and 2011, the authors conducted in-depth anthropological interviews with 28 informants in 17 localities in the
Voivodship. These informants are the last remaining representatives of the former
populace in this area, since the majority of the local inhabitants left Poland: some
were evacuated or fled in the face of the advancing Red Army in 1945, some were
victims of the so-called “wild” expulsions, as well as resettlements and a policy of
bringing families together. One more factor was an economic emigration, which has
continued up to the present day. Thus, those inhabitants who remained are the last
witnesses to the history of life experiences which began here already in pre-World
War II times. This makes them special and their status has a unique sense of rootedness in the region, unlike other inhabitants, who are newcomers here.
The external identity of the interviewees, that is the identity given to them by
others, is often different from their internal, subjective identity, which is felt and expressed in narratives. In the period following World War II the native populace was
termed “autochtons.” The category of “autochton” was constructed from the outside,
taking into consideration only elements of Polish culture, and completely ignored
any ties with German culture. The presence of the “autochtons” officially served the
purpose of legitimizing the so-called “recovered territories,” that is the territories
incorporated into Poland in 1945. On the other hand, the autochtons were ascribed
a German identity by new settlers who arrived in the Lubusz land from different
regions of Poland, and who labeled the locals “Germans,” “Nazis,” “Germany.” The
internal identity of the interviewees is characterized by Polish-German cultural biwalence, which shows most of all in their active bilingualism and often in denominational conversions or bivalent (catholic-evangelical) faith as well as a lack of a
univocal acceptance of just one national option.
Keywords: native inhabitants, the Polish-German borderland, internal identity, external identity
Sprawy Narodowościowe. Seria nowa, 39 – Abstracts
Piotr Eberhardt
Problematyka narodowościowa Rusi Zakarpackiej
Nationality Problems of Transcarpathia
The article discusses ethnic diversity and the changes which took place in Transcarpathia in the 20th century. First, the author presents the historical background
for a statistical-demographical analysis. He points to the peripheral location of the
region and the fact that it often changed its political affiliation. Thus, for a period of
almost a thousand years the province was included within the borders of Hungary;
between 1919 and 1939 it became part of Czechoslovakia, and after a four-day long
period of independence (14-18 March, 1939) it was again incorporated into Hungary
between 1939 and 1945. After World War II it was part of a Soviet republic, and since
1991 it has been included in the independent state of Ukraine.
Each of these periods brought far-reaching demographic and ethnic consequences. The population of Transcarpathia consisted of Slavic people of Ruthenian
origin, mostly Greek Catholics. The inhabitants of the province were subjected to
Hungarian, Ukrainian, and Russian influences and believed in different options,
such as pro-Ukrainian, pro-Russian, or separatist, i.e. Ruthenian. These issues are
discussed in detail in the article and thoroughly interpreted by the author. He also
points to the fact that the territory of Transcarpathia was inhabited by numerous
ethnic minorities. The Hungarian minority has always been the most important,
both in the past and in the present; today it is concentrated in the south of the province. In the past, Jews and Germans also constituted sizeable minorities, while Romanians and Slovaks were always of marginal significance here. The final part of the
article presents the scale of the separatist tendencies which may have dangerous political consequences in the future.
Keywords: Trancarpathia, Rus, Ukrainians, minorities
Sprawy Narodowościowe. Seria nowa, 39 – Abstracts
Valentin Mihaylov
Zasady etnopolitycznej i terytorialno–politycznej organizacji Jugosławii.
Geneza, ewolucja, współczesne konsekwencje
Principles of ethnopolitical and territorial-political organization of
Yugoslavia. Genesis, evolution and contemporary consequences
The subject of the article is the principles of ethnopolitical and territorial-political organization of the Yugoslavian state. The genesis and evolution of mentioned question in the Kingdom of Serbs, Croats and Slovenians (1918-1941) and
in Socialist Federation of Yugoslavia (1945-1991) are presented. One of the most
important and controversial problems in Yugoslavian ethnopolitics – the relations
between its ethnopolitical and territorial-political subsystems are considered. Dynamic changes and a lack of sequence in Yugoslav’s ethnopolitics are emphasized
in the paper. Attention has been paid to the question of territorial-political reorganization of the federation at the beginning of 1990s. The groups engaged in the
struggle of division of Yugoslavia applied for various principles of delimitation
of contentious areas. Susan Woodward brought out four main principles which the
antagonist groups use as arguments for their “property right” over the given territory – historical, democratical, principle of the inviolability of borders and realistic
one. After the civil war during the 1990s, the Yugoslavian federation was reorganized into the sovereign states by recognizing the old internal administrative borders between the Yugoslav republics as international ones. The author discusses also
contemporary problems of the ethnopolitical and territorial-political organization
of post-Yugoslav countries and close relations between state-building and nationbuilding processes. Major current problems in the field of ethnopolitics, as a direct
consequence of the influence of accumulated during the 70-year period of existence
of a common state, has also been considered in the paper.
Keywords: South Slavs, Yugoslavia, ethnopolitical organization, territorial-political
organization, ethnopolitics, national self-identification, sovereignty
Sprawy Narodowościowe. Seria nowa, 39 – Abstracts
Nartsiss Shukuralieva
Narodowe w formie, autorytarne w treści.
Budowanie państwa w Azji Centralnej
National in form, Authoritarian in content:
state building in Central Asia
After the collapse of the Soviet Union the new states of Central Asia faced a
challenging task of building a new country, its symbols, relations between institutional power and the sovereign and imaginary geopolitical landscape. The grass
root processes of national awakening were coupled with the deliberate activities of
the dominant political actors striving to shape them in a way conducive to their
power claims. Thus the monuments of great ancestors and the billboards presenting
the image of incumbent presidents became very common element of the symbolic landscape of Central Asia’s new republics. The official speeches of the governing
presidents have frequently referred to great historical figures, constructed historical
analogies, praised the thousand years old traditions of the fatherland and adduced
historical evidence testifying ancient roots of the countries.
This article is focused on the mechanisms of ethnocentric reinterpretation of
the past. For the newly constituted Republics of Central Asia either the evidence of
the past power status and glorious moments or of the past tragedies have been equally strong legitimizing factors both internally and externally. No matter, whether invented or constructed, propagated national values have played a key role in justifying
the power claims and international position of the new countries. Additionally, the
paper’s objective is to analyze how state structures and institutions implement national solutions and how the authoritarian logic of the state institutions performed
its power under the guise of national forms.
Keywords: Central Asia, Kyrgyzstan, Kazakhstan, Uzbekistan, Tajikistan, Turkmenistan, authoritarianism, nationalism, legitimization
Sprawy Narodowościowe. Seria nowa, 39 – Abstracts
Joanna Książek
Od tradycji do kreacji – wymiary i losy tożsamości centralnoazjatyckich
From tradition to creation: Central Asian identities and their fates
After the collapse of the USSR, Central Asian states together with their independence got the opportunity of reconsidering and redefinition of the vision of national
identity that until this time was created through the foreign power. This article considers diverse levels and kinds of local identities in Central Asia and tries to show in
what way the contemporary states create a new national and state identity. In new
circumstances, a new identity has to be build but it is very often done with old tools,
originating from the former system.
To understand these countries today one has to discover the meaning of the Soviet rule in this area, the power of the tradition and a particular fusion between these
two factors, which lasted through the long time of the Soviet domination. Especially
important in the traditional way of living is a framework of a solidarity group. The
analysis of the identity dimensions confirms the special role of tribal ties which are a
fundamental element of social life and political movements in the past and present.
Keywords: Central Asia, Soviet politics, identities, independence, tradition
Sprawy Narodowościowe. Seria nowa, 39 – Abstracts
Piotr Majewski
Cuius Regio, Eius Historia –
macedońska historiografia i narracje tożsamościowe w latach 1944-2011
Cuius regio, eius historia –
macedonian historiography and identity narratives, 1944-2011
Macedonian historians, by calling upon certain past events perceived as traumatic and mobilizing deep-rooted stereotypes and prejudices against the neighboring countries, sought to manipulate the public opinion. It seems that also today many representatives of the Macedonian elite still see the fight for position in
the historical culture as a primary aim of their existence in the public sphere. They
linked the current political and social situation to the so-called historical traditions
and saw Macedonian national identity threatened by Albanian, Bulgarian, Greek,
and Serbian nationalists. Past and current events are explained in such a way that
they became part of a mythological narrations.
Keywords: historiography, nationalism, Ancient Macedonia, Republic of Macedonia, political myths, discourse
Sprawy Narodowościowe. Seria nowa, 39 – Abstracts
Ewa Szczecińska –Musielak
Społeczne i kulturowe uwarunkowania
i ograniczenia procesu pokojowego w Irlandii Północnej
Social and cultural conditions and limitations
of the Northern Ireland’s peace process
The conflict in Northern Ireland, sometimes called “The Troubles” (by British
government), sometimes called “war” (by nationalists), has lasted since 1921. The article presents historical, structural and cultural background of Ulster’s conflict. Two
main communities – catholic and protestant – are divided because of lots of reasons:
one of them is different interpretation of history (“imagined histories”). On the social level the dominant position of the protestant community was supported by a
system of discrimination. Two conflicted communities are integrated around different sets of values, symbols, norms. Feeling of belonging and group membership is
connected with different ethnic identities.
The peace process started in 1998 (Good Friday Agreement). Since then lots of
changes have been put into execution in order to end political, social and cultural
discrimination of the minority catholic community. Changes (reforms) at governmental level, like establishing new Northern Ireland Assembly or Northern Ireland
Police Service, are very important. But equally important are changes on cultural and symbolic levels because they create space to re-defining ethnic identities. A
good example of this could be The Re-imaging Community Programme, an initiative launched in 2006 by the Arts Council of Northern Ireland. The idea of the programme is to change – in cooperation with local people and artists – sectarian and
fighting murals into neutral and create more friendly public space.
Keywords: Ulster’s conflict, loyalists, nationalists, discrimination, “Britishness” and
“Irishness”, murals
Sprawy Narodowościowe. Seria nowa, 39 – Abstracts
Barbara Patlewicz
Oblicza ormiańsko-azerbejdżańskiego konfliktu o Górski Karabach
Faces of The Armenia-Azerbaijan conflict in Nagorno-Karabakh
The territory of Nagorno-Karabakh had become the matter of Armenian-Azerbaijani disputes long before the establishment of the Soviet power in the Caucasus.
The colonization of Armenian citizens at the Muslim territories had been rising after every conflict which the Russian Empire was involved in. Especially after the
Crimean War and Russian War which took place between 1876-1878. After the conflicts which took place between 1905-1907 and 1918-1920 Karabakh became a part of
Armenian national myth. The establishment of the Soviet power in November 1920
resulted in recognition of Karabakh as a part of one Republic. The fact that during
the times of the Soviet Union the conflict didn’t exist can be only related to the military state. The begining of the current phase took place in 1987 the Armeni Supreme
Council’s decision from 10th January 1990 about covering the Nagorno-Karabakh
in the budget and granting the citizens the right to vote in general elections was another step leading to escalation of the conflict. The authorities in Baku maintain that
the essential condition is the principal of territorial integrity. It says that the resolution which would assume the integration of Azerbaijan and Nagorno-Karabakh to
be the only one and proper. On the other hand the Armenians relate to the law of nations, and aspire to self-determination. According to them the declaration of independence became effective. The dispute is still one of the key problems destabilizing
the situation in the furthest part of the Caucasus.
Keywords: Nagorno-Karabakh, Armenia, Azerbaijan, the Caucasus, conflict
Sprawy Narodowościowe. Seria nowa, 39 – Abstracts
Wojciech Stankiewicz
Prawa imigrantów a wysiedlanie Romów we Francji
i reakcja Unii Europejskiej
Immigrant rights vs. expulsions of the Roma people in France
in light of the European Union’s reaction
The article first presents how immigration policies determine the norms which
European Union countries apply in their law towards immigrants. Next the author
deals with the Roma as a national minority living in France where it is not yet recognised as equal to other national or ethnic communities. Even though Romany
people are protected by law, yet, due to their cultural dissimilarity, their legal status
is unstable. Numerous dilemmas arise, thus making it difficult to accept any official
recognition of the Roma as a supranational or national minority.
Relations between France and the European Union have deteriorated, since the
incident connected with the Roma deportations in 2010. There have been many accusations aimed at the French authorities, and also a threat of bringing proceedings
against France before the Court of Justice. The EU strongly condemned France and
its immigration policy. This, however, did not change French attitudes towards the
Roma. The reaction of the EU did not result in a sudden change in French legislation
which aims at preventing an influx of immigrants. In addition, France has introduced special acts to protect the country from a return influx of the Roma minority.
The Directive on the free movement of citizens between EU countries has not been
fully enforced in France. In the ensuing situation, the ratification of this document
will occur in 2011.
Keywords: France, French Roma, deportations, immigration rights
Sprawy Narodowościowe. Seria nowa, 39 – Abstracts
Andrzej Krawiec
Dzieje pewnej eksplozji, czyli krótka historia nacjonalizmu
A history of a certain Explosion, or a short History of Nationalism
The article is a survey of some of numerous paradoxes connected with the history of the notion “nation.” In its contemporary meaning, this notion transferred, in a
relatively short time, from a vague idea known to some eccentric thinkers into an indispensible component of the identity of each and every inhabitant of our continent.
In a relatively short period the people inhabiting Europe were first classified according to many flexible criteria (such as residence, belonging to particular social strata,
confessed religion, respected authority, language spoken, etc.), and later divided into
multimillion national communities, apparently existing from time immemorial and
separated by eternal barriers of contradictory national interests. Attempts to cross
these barriers made by a human being – i.e., transferring from one community to
another – are now treated as a rejection and betrayal of one’s own identity.
The article tries to present how such a violent change could have happened, to
what extent national ideology was a by-product of economic and social processes initiated in Europe as early as the Middle Ages, and to what degree this ideology was a
stimulus for these processes, and, last but not least, to what extent this ideology contributed to the creation of the contemporary shape of the world, in which western
civilization managed to win primacy and maintain it till the present day, and, moreover, impose its standards on other cultures – among them the dogma about a necessary division into rival nations, which is apparently an effect of human nature itself.
Keywords: nation, nationalism, civilization, Europe
Sprawy Narodowościowe. Seria nowa, 39 – Abstracts
Agnieszka Gucka
Krakowski dziennik „Czas” o chorwackich roszczeniach do Bośni
i Hercegowiny w dobie „wielkiego kryzysu wschodniego” (1875-1878)
Cracow’s journal Czas on Croatian territorial claims to Bosnia
and Herzegovina in the time of Great Eastern Crisis, 1875-1878
The conservative journal Czas [Time], which appeared in Cracow, covered the
course of a political, and later also military, crisis in the Balkans in 1875-1878. The
conflict focused on Austria, Turkey and Serbia’s disputes over the future status of
Bosnia and Herzegovina. One of the intriguing and less known aspects associated
with these events were Croatia’s aspirations to the Bosnian territory. This demand
grew stronger and stronger and was openly articulated by political and intellectual
circles in Zagreb. The article aims to show how Czas, the most important Polish language journal in this region, approached the topic of Croatia’s ambitions towards
Bosnia’s territory and how these events were commented on and what parallels were
found between the course of events in the Balkans and the contemporaneous situation in the Polish lands. The present review enables us to understand better the attitudes of eminent representatives of Cracow’s elite as well as the opinion of the popular strata of the local community on the issue of independence and the territorial
ambitions of the fellow nation of Croatia.
Keywords: Cracow’s journal Czas, Croatia, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Great Eastern
Crisis, 1875-1878
Sprawy Narodowościowe. Seria nowa, 39 – Abstracts
Zuzanna Grüner
Japonia i zachód – spotkania w globalnej wiosce
Japan and the West – meetings in the Global Village
Japan is one of the most fascinating economic powers in the world. Over the
whole of its history, even in the strong isolationist periods, it has been importing foreign ideas which were later adjusted to suit its own needs and developed in compliance with its own opinions. At the beginning, Japan’s main mentor was China, often
through the countries of the Korean Peninsula, but the West started to take China`s
place as the culturally dominant Alien, the basic supplier of goods. The Japanese
became aware that they would probably be unable to chase away the western barbarians and, under the circumstances, they should start to learn from them. “Japan
would pass away, turn empty, waste, colourless; it would turn cunning and rich.” But
will it indeed be so? “The world is a global village” – the sentence that was once a
daring statement now ended as a cliche, and it is no longer amazing that we get into
contact with people from the other hemisphere or that so many students enroll in
programs connected with distant civilisations. Japan is among the countries whose
names frequently appear in the surrounding reality and sounds less and less exotic.
Keywords: Japan, the West, global village
Sprawy Narodowościowe. Seria nowa, 39 – Abstracts
Konrad Sebastian Morawski
Proces kształtowania się narodu macedońskiego
wobec skomplikowanej sytuacji geopolitycznej
The process of stabilisation of the Macedonian Nation
in a complex geopolitical situation
The analysis has taken into account two main stages of developing national identity of the Mace­donians which were the basis for obtaining their own independent
state. The first stage of developing national identity of the Macedonian Nation, which
took place at the turn of the 20th century, was connected with activities of Macedonian intellectuals and the Internal Macedonian Revolutionary ­Organization. However, in the second stage of developing national identity of the Macedonians, which
took place in the second half of the 20th century (when Macedonia was part of the
Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia), the authorities of the Yugoslavian federation paradoxically played an important role as they were maintaining a sense of national autonomy among the people of Macedonia. After gaining independence by
Macedonia in November 1991, destabilising moods developed in the state. Those
moods were influenced primarily by the countries neighbouring with Macedonia
and by Albanian minorities in Macedonia. The complex geopolitical situation of the
independent Macedonia had a stimulating influence on consolidation of national
identity of the Macedonians and contributed to increasing the importance of national factions in the state.
Keywords: Macedonia, Macedonian Nation, Socialist Federal Republic of
Yugoslavia