On the Research on the Rhythmical Structures in

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Transcrição

On the Research on the Rhythmical Structures in
On the Research on the Rhythmical Structures
in the Music of Romani Peoples in
Southeastern Europe.
A Draft of a Sketch of a Metastudy
Paper for the Seminar Rhythmus, Mikrorhythmik und Groove, held by
Regine Allgayer-Kaufmann in the Summer Term 2009.
Institut für Musikwissenschaft, Universität Wien.
Timon Thalwitzer
Matrikel # 0103857
Studienkennzahl A 316
December 27, 2009
Thalwitzer: Research on Romani Rhythms in Southeastern Europe
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Contents
1 Introduction
3
2 What is there?
2.1 Institutions and Organizations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
2.1.1 Institutions and Organizations directly relevant to Romani music in Southeastern Europe . . . . . . . . . . .
2.1.2 Other Roma-related Institutions, Organizations, and
Projects . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
2.1.3 Other Enthnomusicological Institutions and Organizations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
2.2 Journals and Periodicals . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
2.3 Literature . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
2.3.1 Literature on Gypsies/Roma/Sinti . . . . . . . . . . .
2.3.2 Literature on Music . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
2.3.3 Literature concerned with the Ottoman history of Southeastern Europe . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
2.3.4 Literature on Specific Genres/Artists/Regions . . . . .
2.3.5 Miscellaneous Topics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
2.3.6 Metaliterature . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
5
5
3 What should there be?
3.1 How to choose the Subject suitably?
3.2 Rhythm-Theoretical Foundations . .
3.3 The aims and value of Research on
Southeastern Europe . . . . . . . . .
Bibliography
6
11
12
12
16
16
16
16
16
17
17
17
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19
Romani/Folk music in
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . 20
21
Thalwitzer: Research on Romani Rhythms in Southeastern Europe
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3
Introduction
When I started out with the preparations for this paper, my intention was to
present an overview of the rhythmical organization in the musical practices in
the music of the Romani peoples living in the areas of Southeastern Europe,
i.e. in roughly the territories of Former Yugoslavia (Slovenia, Croatia, Bosnia
and Herzegovina, Serbia, Montenegro, Kosovo, Republic of Macedonia), Albania, Romania, Bulgaria, and Greece. Herein, my particular interest are the
more recent genres of popular music that also spread across the rest of Europe during the last two decades. I wanted to present the rhythms commonly
utilized and give historical perspectives of how the rhythms found in today’s
popular “balkan” or “gypsy” music styles can be related to older traditions.
Also, I assumed that, due to the great variety (compared to Western Art
Music) of metrical and rhythmical organization that can be be observed in
the traditional music of Southeastern Europe, and which I find very interesting, there would be a huge body of thorough studies available (in English,
German, or other languages that would be accessible to me). In a second
step, microrhythmical considerations would have been greatly attractive.
I soon had to conclude that the task I had in mind needed more preparation, and would take more time than I had thought. After a rather extensive
research on material available, I came to the following findings:
• There are few analytical musicological works that directly address the
music of the Romani peoples in Southeastern Europe, and even a lot
fewer that are concerned with the rhythmical aspects of these musics.
Fewer still, are written in English.
• Most musicological works on Romani music that are analytical focus
on one of the three genres of Flamenco (as practiced mainly in Spain,
see e.g. [81], or [33]), Sinti-Jazz (first arising in France, [32]), and Hungarian Zigeunermusik (originally from Hungary, e.g. [98], [31]).1
1
For instance, Ursula Hemetek writes (in 1998):
“Die systematische Erfassung der weltweit vorhandenen Roma-Musik würde
eine genauere Kenntnis aller Musikstile voraussetzen. Bisher gibt es aber nur
wenige Länder, in denen sich die Ethnomusikologie überhaupt mit den RomaMusikstilen beschäftigt hat (z.B. Ungarn) [64, p.446].”
Or, in English (all translations in this paper are mine, unless noted otherwise):
“The Systematization of the Roma music worldwide would require a more
specific knowledge of all musical styles. But so far, there are only few countries, in which ethnomusicology has dealt with Roma music styles at all (e.g.
Hungary).”
Thalwitzer: Research on Romani Rhythms in Southeastern Europe
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• Most musicological works on Romani music in Southeastern Europe
address social or historical issues like for example the following: “Otherness”, “Gypsy” vs. “Rom”, prejudices and discriminations against
Roma, gender-related studies, conditions of post-socialist music production, the Ottoman heritage . . .
• Most analytic musicological works on Southeastern Europe do not explicitly address Romani music, but folk music traditions in general.
• A relatively large part (when compared to other ethnomusicological
fields) of the academic literature available is written in the national
languages of the respective countries whose folk music is surveyed.
This last point seems to be a consequence of the fact that most of the scientific
work in question was carried out by, as well as addressed to, citizens of the
respective regions. As Svanibor Pettan sees it,
“Ethnomusicologists on the soil of what was Yugoslavia were
involved—almost as a rule—in studying folk music in their own
territory. Due to ideological constraints and personal views, some
thought of this territory as wide as Yugoslavia, yet the majority for the most part preferred to limit their scholarly efforts to
their own territorial-political unit within Yugoslavia (a republic
or province), and to their own ethnic and/or linguistic group [88,
p.170].”
Ethnomusicologist Wouter Swets speaks of “the very limited knowledge that
Balkan and Turkish ethnomusicologists—specialized in the music of their own
nations—usually have of the musical folklore of each others’ countries [109,
p.3].” Of the proceedings of the conference of the International Council for
Traditional Music (ICTM), Ursula Hemetek says:
“To do it in English is extremely important, because a common
language is needed to communicate and obviously, the Balkan’s
[sic] only common language in ethnomusicology nowadays is English. The tradition of publications only in national languages—
and there are many different ones in the Balkans—seems to be declining, which certainly contributes to mutual understanding and
to the “empowerment” of colleagues within the scientific community [65, p.14].”
As mentioned before, my findings were rather limited. The works that I
discovered that I would consider directly relevant for my initial question,
Thalwitzer: Research on Romani Rhythms in Southeastern Europe
5
the rhythms of Southeast European Gypsy and/or Folk music, are listed in
Section 2.3.2, under “Southeast European Rhythms”. The (not particularly
impressive) list consists of a mere six articles from different decades (ranging
from 1974–2007) and—I dare say—of varying quality. None of them is very
comprehensive and most suffer from the lack of a solid theoretical foundation as far as terms like meter or rhythm is concerned. In my opinion, a
classification of rhythms/meters where it is has not even been clarified what
is actually meant by these terms necessarily lacks clarity and validity up
to a certain degree. Moreover, usually not even examples are provided (or
only to a very limited extent) which also could have helped clarifying things.
Apart from those six articles, I found a few more, mainly older ones, that I
did not include, because I am still only hoping to find (English or German)
translations of them.
However, I decided that for the moment the most useful approach, also
regarding possible future, more in-depth, research, would be to first give a
rather general overview on materials available that are somehow connected
with the original research goals. I included a lot of material, also such material only loosely related to the rhythms of Southeast European Gypsy/Folk
music, because I wanted to make sure not to miss too many possible resources
that might prove important later on.
2
What is there? An overview of literature
available, research that has been done, and
people, institutions, and organizations relevant to Romani music and rhythms in Southeastern Europe
As a starting point for further investigations, I had a look at what materials
are available and at which topics have been addressed so far in the literature. I gathered together different kind of sources which I think might prove
useful in trying to develop a more comprehensive and systematic theoretic
description of the folk/Romani music traditions in Southeastern Europe and
their particular rhythmic features.
2.1
Institutions and Organizations
Institutions and organizations, both musicological and non-musicological ones,
provide forums for all sorts of publications and events that might be sources
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of information essential for our research goals. This list is all but comprehensive, which in fact applies to all the lists in Section 2. Most of the following
institutions and organizations because I used some publication(s) of theirs,
or because they came up naturally in another way during my research.
2.1.1
Institutions and Organizations directly relevant to Romani
music in Southeastern Europe
• Gypsy Lore Society
– Foundation: 1888
– Address: Great Britain (1888–1989), U.S.A. (since 1989)
– Website: http://www.gypsyloresociety.org/
– Activities: publications, annual meetings, sponsoring of programs and conferences, Victor Weybright Archives of Gypsy Studies (specializing in recent scholarly work on Gypsy, Traveler and
related studies)
– Publications:
∗ Journal of the Gypsy Lore Society: 1888–1982; published july
1888–april 1892 (first, or “old”, series 1–3), july 1907–1916
(second or, “new”, series 1–9), 1922–1973 (third series 1–52);
1974–1982 (fourth series 1–2), and since 1991 (fifth series;
renamed Romani Studies in 2000); mainly English
∗ Romani Studies: since 2000; published twice a year; mainly
English; according to [23], “Romani Studies features articles
on the cultures of groups traditionally known as Gypsies as
well as Travellers and other peripatetic groups. These groups
include, among others, those referring to themselves as Rom,
Roma, Romanichels, Sinti and Travellers. The journal publishes articles in history, anthropology, sociology, linguistics,
art, literature, folklore and music, as well as reviews of books
and audiovisual materials.”
∗ a quaterly Newsletter of the Gypsy Lore Society: since 1978;
three issues make up volume one, all subsequent volumes comprise four issues; English; including information on the annual
meetings, a list of recent Roma-related publications, etc.
∗ proceedings from the annual meetings
∗ other books
Thalwitzer: Research on Romani Rhythms in Southeastern Europe
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– Working areas: “goals include promotion of the study of Gypsy,
Traveler, and analogous peripatetic cultures worldwide; dissemination of accurate information aimed at increasing understanding
of these cultures in their diverse forms; and establishment of closer
contacts among scholars studying any aspects of these cultures”
[20]; special focus on Gypsies and Travelers in North America
• Rom e.V.
– Foundation: 1988
– Address: Köln, Germany
– Website: http://www.romev.de/
– Activities: social projects, publications, research projects; also,
they maintain an archive and library (since 1999), which contain
the by now biggest collections in Europe (according to [21]) concerning history and culture of Roma
– Publications: various publications on the culture and history
of Roma; among others the, according to [110] world-wide first,
bibliography of “Zigeuner im Film”2 : [40]
– Working areas: family and integration support, social work,
culture and history of Roma
• Romano Centro—Verein für Roma
– Foundation: 1991
– Address: Vienna, Austria
– Website: http://www.romano-centro.org/
– Activities: publications, cultural events, radio station, library,
social work, advisory/legal services, educational school programs
– Publications:
∗ the Journal Romano Centro: since june 1993; quaterly; bilingual in German and Romanes; covers national (Austrian)
and international events, Roma-Literature, Reviews, eventannouncements,. . .
∗ various other Roma-related book publications
– Working areas: Romani culture, language history, and rights
2
Gypsies in Films
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• Slavic & East European Folklore Association (SEEFA)
– Foundation: 1993
– Address: U.S.A.
– Website: http://www.crees.ku.edu/SEEFA/
– Activities: publications, conferences
– Publications: SEEFA news (vol. I, 1996)/SEEFA Journal (vol.
II–VII, 1997–2002)/Folklorica (since vol. VII, 2003): originally
published twice a year (1996–2005), now once a year (since 2006);
English
– Working areas: “SEEFA is devoted to an exchange of knowledge
among scholars interested in Slavic and East European Folklore.
SEEFA seeks to promote instruction in Slavic and East European
folklore, organizes panels on the subject at national and international conferences, encourages the preparation of teaching materials and translations, and fosters exchanges. SEEFA also seeks to
promote joint research, scholarly exchanges and conferences, expeditions, and publications with scholars in Slavic and other East
European countries.” (taken from [24])
• Dom Research Center (DRC)
– Foundation: 1998
– Address: McComb, Mississippi, U.S.A.
– Website: http://www.domresearchcenter.com/
– Activities: publications, maintaining a physical and virtual research library, developing language study resources for Domari
(aka ‘Middle Eastern Romani’), engaging in field research throughout the Middle East and North Africa; social/community enhancement activities: DRC Relief Fund to meet emergency, short-term
food, clothing and medical needs, DRC Scholarship Fund to provide scholarships to Dom young people who desire to further their
education through university studies or vocational training programs, collaborations with Dom leaders as they address issues
relevant to their communities and seek long-term, sustainable solutions
– Publications:
Thalwitzer: Research on Romani Rhythms in Southeastern Europe
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∗ KURI Journal of the Dom Research Center; originally published online twice a year (january 2000–fall/winter 2006),
from 2009, articles will be posted online as they are contributed; English
∗ various Dom-relatd books, CD-ROMs, DVDs,. . .
– Working areas: Middle East and North African Gypsy Studies,
the Dom people (Domi)
• Center for Stateless Cultures
– Foundation: 1999, at the Vilnius University
– Address: Vilnius, Lithuania
– Website: http://www.statelesscultures.lt/
– Activities: university courses, library, conferences, visiting lectureships
– Working areas: “The Center is dedicated to establishing serious
programs of academic study, research and training.” (taken from
[10]); Keraimic, Old Believer, Roma, Tatar, and Yiddish/Judaic
Studies
• International Association for Southeast European Anthropology (InASEA)
– Foundation: 2000 (as the successor of the first international association for the anthropology of Southeast Europe, the Association
of Balkan Anthropology (ABA), founded in 1996)
– Address: International
– Website: http://www-gewi.kfunigraz.ac.at/inasea/
– Activities: publications, conferences, seminars, workshops, and
other pedagogical activities
– Publications:
– Ethnologia Balkanica: published once a year, since 1997, in English, French, and German
– Working areas: According to [5], “the Association is an interdisciplinary organisation of scholars studying present and past social
and cultural processes manifest in the practices and beliefs of the
people of south-eastern Europe. Its members deal with Southeast
European ethnology, cultural and social anthropology, folklore,
Thalwitzer: Research on Romani Rhythms in Southeastern Europe
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ethnography, historical anthropology and cognate fields and disciplines.”
• Roma-Service
– Address: Burgenland, Austria
– Website: http://www.roma-service.at/
– Activities: publications, courses in schools, social projects
– Publications:
∗ d|ROM|a: since 2004; published quaterly; bilingual in German
and Roman (Burgenland-Romani); contains (non-scientific)
articles on culture, history, and present of Roma in Burgenland, Austria, and all of Europe
∗ children’s magazine Mri nevi Mini Multi
∗ d|ROM|a-Blog, [16]
– Working areas: Roman (Burgenland-Romani), culture and history of Roma
• Forum Tsiganologische Forschung (FTF)
– Foundation: 2005, at the Institut für Ethnologie an der Universität Leipzig3
– Address: Leipzig, Germany
– Website: http://www.uni-leipzig.de/~ftf/
– Activities: publications, research projects, university courses
and seminars, congresses, workshops, excursions, exhibitions, Tsiganological Library, Tsiganological Archive
– Publications:
∗ the newsletter FTF—Blickpunkte: Tsiganologische Mitteilungen4 : since 2009; several times a year; mainly German
∗ series Tsiganologie5 ; since 2008; 2 volumes so far
∗ master and doctoral thesis
∗ diverse books and other publications
3
Institute for Ethnology of the University Leipzig
FTF visual foci/aspects
5
Tsiganology
4
Thalwitzer: Research on Romani Rhythms in Southeastern Europe
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– Working areas: according to [19], “The FTF’s two main objectives are an ethnologic-tsiganological education of students on the
one hand and an intensive national and international interconnection of (also second generation) scholars on the other hand.”
2.1.2
Other Roma-related Institutions, Organizations, and Projects
• Human/Civil Rights-related:
– European Roma and Travellers Forum (ERTF): Strasbourg, France;
[11]
– Roma National Congress—Umbrella of of the Roma Civil and Human Rights Movement: International; Central European Office:
Kumanovo, Republic of Macedonia; [15]
– Roma Initiatives at the Open Society Institute: Budapest, Hungary; [22]
– European Roma Rights Centre (ERRC): Budapest, Hungary; [13]
– Romani CRISS : Romania; [17]
– EURoma—European Network on Social Inclusion and Roma under the Structural Funds: EU; [2]
• Cultural/Social:
– Kulturverein Österreichischer Roma: Vienna, Austria; [7]
– Amaro Drom e.v.: Berlin, Germany; [25]
– Dokumentations- und Kulturzentrum Deutscher Sinti und Roma:
Heidelberg, Germany; [18]
– Zentralrat Deutscher Sinti und Roma: Heidelberg, Germany; [28]
– Verein Roma Oberwart: Oberwart, Burgenland, Austria; [27]
– Verein Ketani (für Sinti und Roma): Linz, Austria; [26]
• Language/Literature-related:
– International Romani Writer’s Association (IRWA): Helsinki, Finland; [6]
– Romani Project—Romani Linguistics and Romani Language Projects:
Manchester, UK; [8]
– Romani-Projekt am Institut für Sprachwissenschaft der Karl-FranzensUniversitt Graz: Graz, Austria; [14]
Thalwitzer: Research on Romani Rhythms in Southeastern Europe
2.1.3
12
Other Enthnomusicological Institutions and Organizations
• International Music Council (IMC): International; [12]
• Society for Ethnomusicology (SEM): U.S.A.; [9]
• British Forum for Ethnomusicology (BFE): formerly kown as the ICTM,
UK Chapter; UK; [4]
2.2
Journals and Periodicals
Journals and other periodicals provided the main source of information that
I found useful. Although ultimately, it would be desirable to summarize the
research on the rhythmic structures of Romani music in Southeastern Europe
in monographical form, until a volume of that kind is available, Journals will
remain the first address to look for information.
I included some non-scientific journals that sometimes contain articles on
our topic, as well as some Journals in which I have not found any helpful
articles so far, but which might serve as future forums for relevant research
due to their overall conception.
• Journal of the Gypsy Lore Society:
– Established: 1888
– Release Periods: july 1888–april 1892 (first, or “old”, series
1–3), july 1907–1916 (second or, “new”, series 1–9), 1922–1973
(third series 1–52); 1974–1982 (fourth series 1–2), and since 1991
(fifth series; renamed Romani Studies in 2000)
– Language: mainly English; contains also contributions in Romanes and other languages
– Publisher: Gypsy Lore Society
– Country: UK
– Subject areas: art, language, literature, culture, and history of
groups traditionally known as Gypsies or Travellers
• Newsletter of the Gypsy Lore Society:
– Established: 1978
– Issues per Year: 4 (3 issues make up volume one, all subsequent
volumes comprise 4 issues)
– Language: English
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– Publisher: Gypsy Lore Society
– Country: UK respectively U.S.A.
– Subject areas: information on the annual meetings of the Gypsy
Lore Society, a list of recent Roma-related publications, etc.
• Romano Centro
– Established: 1993
– Issues per Year: 4
– Languages: German, Romanes
– Publisher: Romano Centro—Verein für Roma
– Country: Austria
– Subject areas: national (Austrian) and international events,
Roma-Literature, Reviews, event-announcements,. . .
• SEEFA news / SEEFA Journal / Folklorica:
– Established: 1996
– Release Periods: SEEFA news (vol. I, 1996)/SEEFA Journal
(vol. II–VII, 1997–2002)/Folklorica (since vol. VII, 2003)
– Issues per Year: 1996–2005: 2; since 2006: 1
– Language: English
– Publisher: Slavic & East European Folklore Association (SEEFA)
– Country: U.S.A.
– Subject areas: Slavic and East European Folklore
• Ethnologia Balkanica—Journal for Southeast European Anthropology:
– Established: 1997
– Issues per Year: 1
– Language: mainly English; also contains articles in French and
German
– Publisher: International Association for Southeast European Anthropology (InASEA)
– Country: Germany
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– Subject areas: Southeast European Anthropology; ”With the
rise of ethnic tensions an nationalism in some Balkan countires,
Ethnologia Balkanica is an attempt to establish an international
network of scholars and a forum for discourse. After decades
of ideological restriction and scholarly isolation of the discipline
in many Balkan countries, an open dialogue is needed in order
to facilitate discourse among native folklorists and ethnographers
and those of Western ethnologists, folklorists and anthropologists
by overcoming disciplinary divisions among European Ethnology,
modern Volkskunde, folkloristics, ethnography, and cultural and
social anthropology.” (cited after the New Journal Of American
Folklore)
• KURI Journal of the Dom Research Center:
– Established: 1998
– Issues per Year: january 2000–fall/winter 2006: 2; since 2009:
articles will be posted online as they are contributed
– Language: English
– Publisher: Dom Research Center (DRC)
– Country: U.S.A.
– Subject areas: the Dom people in the Middle East and in North
Africa
• Romani Patrin:
– Established: 1998
– Issues per Year: 4
– Languages: German, Roman (Burgenland-Romani)
– Publisher: Verein Roma, Oberwart
– Country: Austria
– Subject areas: history, language, and culture of the Roma
• Romani Studies:
– Established: 2000
– Issues per Year: 2
– Language: mainly English
– Publisher: Gypsy Lore Society
Thalwitzer: Research on Romani Rhythms in Southeastern Europe
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– Country: U.S.A.
– Subject areas: according to [23], “Romani Studies features articles on the cultures of groups traditionally known as Gypsies as
well as Travellers and other peripatetic groups. These groups include, among others, those referring to themselves as Rom, Roma,
Romanichels, Sinti and Travellers. The journal publishes articles in history, anthropology, sociology, linguistics, art, literature,
folklore and music, as well as reviews of books and audiovisual
materials.”
• d|ROM|a:
– Established: 2004
– Issues per Year: 4
– Languages: German, Roman (Burgenland-Romani)
– Publisher: Roma-Service
– Country: Austria
– Subject areas: (non-scientific) articles on culture, history, and
present of Roma in Burgenland, Austria, and all of Europe
• Romano Kipo:
– Established: 2005
– Issues per Year: 4
– Language: German
– Publisher: Kulturverein Österreichischer Roma
– Country: Austria
– Subject areas: annoncements, current topics, interviews, history, language, and culture of the Roma (mainly in Austria)
• FTF—Blickpunkte: Tsiganologische Mitteilungen6 :
– Established: 2009
– Issues per Year: several
– Language: mainly German
– Publisher: Forum Tsiganologische Forschung (FTF)
6
FTF visual foci/aspects
Thalwitzer: Research on Romani Rhythms in Southeastern Europe
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– Country: Germany
– Subject areas: Newsletter of the FTF; current topics concerning
the FTF; book reviews; articles covering several research areas
2.3
People
Svanibor Pettan: Croatia; Gypsies in Kosovo
Carol Silverman: ; Gender studies
Irén Kértesz-Wilkinson: Hungary; Hungarian Vlach Gypsies
Ursula Hemetek: Austria; language
Max Peter Baumann: Germany;
Donna A. Buchanan: ;Bulgaria
Timothy Rice: ; Bulgaria
Nice Fracile: Serbia; Vojvodina, Aksak rhythm
2.4
2.4.1
Literature
Literature on Gypsies/Roma/Sinti
• General: [38], [57], [58], [61], [64], [77], [80], [102], [115]
• Their Music: [38], [62], [63], [64],[70], [107], [39], [37]
• Their Music in Southeastern Europe: [47], [50], [66], [80], [84]
2.4.2
Literature on Music
• In Southeastern Europe: [44], [47], [65], [54], [89], [100], [101], [109],
[97], [34]
• Relevant Literature on Rhythm Research: [48], [74], [79], [90]
• Southeast European Rhythms: [49], [52], [53], [54], [105], [112]
2.4.3
Literature concerned with the Ottoman history of Southeastern Europe
[29], [44], [45], [55], [93]
Thalwitzer: Research on Romani Rhythms in Southeastern Europe
2.4.4
17
Literature on Specific Genres/Artists/Regions
• Regions
– Bosnia-Herzegovina: [111]
– Bulgaria: [42], [43], [45], [52], [67], [72], [71], [83], [94], [95], [96],
[104], [112]
– Croatia: [87]
– Hungary: [68], [69]
– Republic of Macedonia: [105], [108]
– Romania: [30], [53], [55], [56], [108], [113]
– Serbia: [53], [60]
• Genres
– Hungarian Zigeunermusik : [31], [98], [114], [99]
– Hungarian Gypsy Nóta: [75]
– Sinti-Jazz : [32]
– Spanish Flamenco: [33], [81], [114], [86]
– Bulgarian Chalga/Ethnopop: [45], [106], [73]
– Romanian Manele/Folk-Pop: [113]
– Yugoslav Newly Composed Folk Music: [91], [92]
• Artists
– Goran Bregović: [82], [85], [1]
– Žabe i Babe: [3], [76]
2.4.5
Miscellaneous Topics
• Gender Studies: [103], [104]
• Roma/Balkan (music) outside Southeastern Europe: [47], [51], [61],
[62], [65]
2.4.6
Metaliterature
• Music Research on and in Southeastern Europe: [36], [41], [60], [65],
[84], [88], [89], [108], [111], [69]
• Bibliographies: [35], [40], [41], [78], [110]
Thalwitzer: Research on Romani Rhythms in Southeastern Europe
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18
What should there be? Overview of desirable research goals and questions that
might be fruitful trying to answer
In this section, I try to outline a possible way in which I would carry on the
studies from this point. Ultimately, I would find it desirable to collect the
findings on rhythmic structure in the Romani/Folk music in Southeastern
Europe in a comprehensive monograph, that summarizes the research that
has been carried out until now, rests on a solid basis of a consistent and
clear theory of musical rhythm and meter, and provides as many examples
as possible
3.1
How to choose the Subject suitably?
Due to the evidence and materials I found during my literature research, I
now think that, as a consequence of the historical and cultural development in
these regions, the most natural and satisfying subject area for a more in-depth
study might be the “Balkan-Anatolian folk music”, as Wouter Swets puts it
in [109]. Also see [29] or [44], in particular [45], for thourough discusions.
This is, because firstly it is often hard to distinguish between Ottoman, or
Turkish, or Anatolian features of the music traditions in Southeastern Europe
on the one hand, and “Balkan” features (whatever all these notions mean).
A lot of the characteristic phenomena observable in the music are found in
Turkish or Ottoman music traditions as well as in the music of Bulgaria,
Republic of Macedonia, Romania, etc. Ursula Glaeser and Michael Wogg
mention in this regard: “Typisch für die Balkanregion sind beispielsweise
lange Melodielinien, die auf türkischen Einfluss verweisen [59, p.8–9]”.7 In
Wouter Swets’ opinion,
“In fact, all peoples living in the Balkan-Anatolian area have
influenced each other at a time, thus steadily creating a multitude
of subtle variations within a coherent musical entirety. Moreover,
at first the Byzantine Empire and later the Ottoman Sultanate
functioned, musically as well, for 1500 years as unifying factors
[109, p.3].”
He even thinks that it is the “unity that the folk music of the Balkans and
Anatolia represents [. . . ] that has a real world-wide importance, while the too
7
“Typical for the Balkans are for example long melody lines, which hint at Turkish
influence.” [My translation]
Thalwitzer: Research on Romani Rhythms in Southeastern Europe
19
biased music of each of the Balkan-Anatolian countries seperately tends to get
attention from exotic and tourist-minded freaks [109, p.3]”. As questionable
as this last remark might appear, and although one could easily negate the
first by stating that just about every people has influenced just about every
other people at some stage in one way or another (and, sure enough, it still
makes sense to not always consider ALL music at the same time), I still think
that the Turkish/Anatolian/Ottoman music traditions and the ones found
in the Balkans might share characteristics that could make it worthwhile
studying the different traditions using comparative methods. My impression
is that this holds true in particular for research on rhythmic structures of
the musics of the areas in question, which bear some features (first and
foremost the asymmetries, widespread on various musical levels, which also
lead to a great diversity of common meters) that for example distinguish
them relatively clearly from Western music traditions.
Secondly, a similar problem arises when trying to separate what is “Gypsy”
from what stems from the “host” cultures. For Example, Irén KérteszWilkinson writes that:
“A widely-noted and valued aspect of Gypsy musical practices is
the preservation of the traditional musical materials and customs
of the dominant society in both their own group reportories and
their activities as professional musicians [70, p.614].”
She proceeds by listing a few instances where Gypsy musicians in Southeastern Europe have been the only ones to keep disappearing musical traditions
of their respective ‘host cultures’ alive Donna A. Buchanan remarks in this
context:
“Whether we consider new stylistic mergers, covers of one artist’s
work by another across state bounds, or collaborative projects,
trans-Balkan musical conversations mushroomed during the 1990s
and remain a major feature of the soundscape in the first decade
of the new millennium. The evidence for this is pervasive and
overwhelming. This interchange has been greatly facilitated by
Romani musicians now as in the past [. . . ] [46, p.xxv]”.
I think, a simple description of the folk musics found in the mentioned areas,
without interpreting or segregating too much in terms of ethnicity or supposed origin, would probably be most helpful and satisfying. Instead, one
could focus on describing and systematizing the acoustic (in particular, the
rhythmical) features of the musics in question.
Thalwitzer: Research on Romani Rhythms in Southeastern Europe
3.2
20
Rhythm-Theoretical Foundations
As I see it, any descriptions and analyses of rhythm in music should build
upon considerations on a coherent theory of rhythms and meter. This is excellently exemplified by books like [48] by Martin Clayton (on Indian music)
or [90] by Martin Pfleiderer (on various Popular Music styles).
A theory of that kind should be as clear and easy to understand as possible, and powerful enough to be valid for and applicable to ideally ALL music.
Traditionally, musicologists of all areas tend to maybe too much have the music in mind they are about to examine, when developing abstract notions of
rhythm or meter. This is certainly correct for a great part of the WesternArt-Music tradition of musicology, and—judging from the few articles I found
on the topic—it also holds true for part of the research on rhythms in Southeastern Europe. I think that the musics found in Southeastern Europe might
actually prove especially useful when trying to formulate a suitable theory
of rhythm, meter and related terms. This is because rhythmwise, they appear in particularly diverse forms. There are free-rhythmic songs, all sorts of
different meters, diverse song forms (e.g. there are some traditions where typically musical phrases are organized in cycles of 3 or 5 bars (not 4) which is
fairly rare in Western traditions),. . . Therefore, it seems probable that a theory which is capable to accurately describe the rhythmic phenomena found
in Southeastern European music is also capable to describe a lot of other
music as well.
3.3
The aims and value of Research on Romani/Folk
music in Southeastern Europe
Once the theoretical foundations have been considered and the existing research materials have been reviewed, one could proceed to evaluate examples,
e.g. from the numerous available recordings or collections of folk songs. A
description of the rhythmical structures of those should be given. Firstly
on a macrorhythmic level, and secondly, to gain even deeper insights, on a
microrhythmic level. The latter task is probably even a little more involved,
since detailed sound analyses would have to be carried out for its completion
and since fewer pilot studies are available.
Besides the obvious benefit of deepening the understanding of the music
of Southeastern Europe—which is in itself a desirable goal—and besides the
political significance that any research on Romani music has, such work could
hopefully inform the development of a simple, clear, coherent, and powerful
theory of musical rhythm, meter, and related terms, for reasons mentioned
earlier. Such a theory is, as I see it, has not yet been formulated, which is
Thalwitzer: Research on Romani Rhythms in Southeastern Europe
21
the reason for the observable inconsistent use of those terms by musicologists
in general.
I will leave the concluding remark to Ursula Hemetek, who wrote the
following on Romani music in 1998:
“[. . . ] Ebenso ist der Stellenwert der Roma-Kultur für die europäische traditionelle Musik nicht hoch genug einzuschätzen und
deshalb als wesentliches Forschungs-Desideratum für die Ethnomusikologie zu betrachten [64, p.455].”8
8
“[. . . ] Similarly, the significance of Romani culture for European traditional music
cannot be valued highly enough and is therefore to be regarded as an essential researchdesideratum for ethnomusicology.”
Thalwitzer: Research on Romani Rhythms in Southeastern Europe
22
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