Determination of Rice chaffs (Oryza sativa) in - iag

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Determination of Rice chaffs (Oryza sativa) in - iag
International Association of Feedingstuff Analysis
Section Feedingstuff Microscopy - Determination of Ambrosia, IAG-Method A9
Determination of Rice chaffs (Oryza sativa) in
Feedingstuff,
IAG-Method A9
International Association of Feedingstuff Analysis
Section Feedingstuff Microscopy
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International Association of Feedingstuff Analysis
Section Feedingstuff Microscopy - Determination of Ambrosia, IAG-Method A9
1.
Objective and field of application
The method is used for both qualitative and quantitative determination of Rice
chaffs (Oryza sativa) in animal feedingstuffs.
2.
Principle
Rice chaff content is determined by macroscopic and microscopic identification
of the chaffs and chaff fragments. Quantification is done by weighing the
amount of identified chaffs and fragments in sieved fractions of the sample.
3.
Reagents
3.1
Embedding agents
3.1.1
Chloral hydrate (ß = 60 %)
3.1.2
Water
The reagents listed may be replaced by others which yield comparable results.
4.
Equipment and accessories
4.1
Optical equipment
4.1.1 Stereo microscope (up to 70x magnification); recommended
additional equipment: image support system
4.1.2 Compound microscope (up to 400x magnification);
recommended additional equipment: polarization, phase contrast, image
support system
4.1.3
5.
Magnifier (up to 10x magnification)
4.2
Mortar and pestle
4.3
Sieve fitted with square meshes of width of 0.5 mm
4.4
Analytical balance (accuracy 0.001 g)
4.5
Additional laboratory equipment is listed in supporting document (9)
4.6
Reference material
Procedure
The examination is performed in non-pelleted feedingstuffs.
feedingstuffs have to be depelleted before examination (4.2; 8.1).
Pelleted
Qualitative determination of the rice chaffs is performed macroscopically and
microscopically considering rice chaffs and rice chaff fragments in both the
sieve fraction > 0.5 mm and < 0.5 mm.
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International Association of Feedingstuff Analysis
Section Feedingstuff Microscopy - Determination of Ambrosia, IAG-Method A9
Quantification is performed by selecting and weighing of rice chaffs and rice
chaff fragments with a particle size > 0.5 mm out of the laboratory sample or
an aliquot of it.
5.1
Preparation of the laboratory sample
Non-pelleted feedingstuffs (at least 10g) are weighed (4.4) and
fractionated using supporting document (9., 5.3.1). The obtained
fractions > 0.5mm and ≤ 0.5mm are weighed (4.4).
5.2
Identification of rice chaffs
Rice chaffs are identified based on characteristic features of both the
whole chaffs and their fragments. The identification of rice chaffs and
rice chaff fragments may be facilitated through comparison with
reference material (4.6) and existing descriptions (10).
Lemma and palea of rice can be destinguished from those of other types
of grains by their longitudinal and vertical striation. Using a light
microscope one can recognise the deeply emarginated and highly
silicified epidermal cells, up to 500 µm long hairs and a hypodermis that
consists of 2-3 rows of fibre cells. The parenchyma and the inner
epidermis have very thin cell walls. Fragments of rice chaffs can be easily
recognised in polarised light.
5.3
Quantification of the rice chaff content
The quantification of rice chaff fragments is performed using the sieve
fractions > 0.5 mm, deriving from the dried sediment. Material identified
as rice chaff fragments is separated from the sample and weighed (4.4).
An aliquot of the sieved fractions may be used if necessary.
The weight of the rice chaff fragments determined in the different sieve
fractions is summarized and recorded as milligram rice chaff fragments
per kilogram feedingstuff (mg/kg) (6.1).
6.
Calculation and report
6.1
Calculation
The amount of rice chaff fragments in mg/kg feedingstuff (original
sample) is calculated using the following formula:
C
=
BC x 1000 [mg/kg]
E
C
= amount of component in mg/kg feedingstuff
BC
= selected fragments of component in the
laboratory sample or an aliquot of it [mg]
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International Association of Feedingstuff Analysis
Section Feedingstuff Microscopy - Determination of Ambrosia, IAG-Method A9
E
6.2
= total weight of the laboratory sample or an examined aliquot
of the laboratory sample [g]
Report
6.2.1
Negative result:
As far as was discernible using a microscope, rice chaffs or rice chaff
fragments (Oryza sativa) were not found in the submitted sample.
6.2.2
Positive result:
As far as was discernible using a microscope x mg rice chaff (Oryza
sativa) fragments/kg feedingstuff were found in the submitted sample.
For quantification rice chaff fragments > 0.5 mm are considered.
6.2.3
Possible supplement to the report:
The sieve fraction > 0.5 mm amounts to xx % of the laboratory sample.
7.
Validation
not applicable
8.
9.
Remarks
8.1
For the identification of ergot in pelleted feedingstuffs the use of
supporting document (9.; 5.2.2.2 or 5.2.2.3) is recommended for
depelleting the sample.
8.2
According to their high content of silicates, rice chaffs must not be fed to
animals and only minute amounts are allowed in animal feedingstuffs.
8.3
This Method is also suitable for examining food and unprocessed
feedingstuff.
8.4
This method has been developed by the International Association of
Feedingstuff Analysis (IAG) – Section Feedingstuff Microscopy.
Supporting document
Sample Preparation for the Macroscopic and Microscopic Analysis, IAG-Method
A1
10. Literature
•
FREUND, H. (ed.), 1976: Handbuch der Mikroskopie in der Technik. Band
VIII: Mikroskopie der Nahrungs- und Futtermittel, der Drogen und
Genußmittel. Umschau-Verlag, Frankfurt/ Main
4/10
International Association of Feedingstuff Analysis
Section Feedingstuff Microscopy - Determination of Ambrosia, IAG-Method A9
•
GASSNER, G.; HOHMANN, B. UND DEUTSCHMANN, F., 1989: Mikroskopische
Untersuchung pflanzlicher Lebensmittel. 5. Auflage, Gustav FischerVerlag, Stuttgart, New York, 66-70
•
HAHN, H. UND MICHAELSEN, L., 1996: Mikroskopische Diagnostik pflanzlicher
Nahrungs-, Genuß- und Futtermittel, einschließlich Gewürze. SpringerVerlag, Berlin, Heidelberg, New York
•
HUSS, W., 1969: Methode zur Bestimmung von Hülsen, Spelzen und
Schalen. In: Tagungsprotokoll der Internationalen Arbeitsgemeinschaft
für Futtermitteluntersuchung, Sektion Futtermittelmikroskopie, Münster
•
HUSS, W., 1970: Quantitative Bestimmung von Schalen, Hülsen, Spelzen
in Pressfuttermitteln. In: Tagungsprotokoll der Internationalen
Arbeitsgemeinschaft
für
Futtermitteluntersuchung,
Sektion
Futtermittelmikroskopie, Maastricht
•
HUSS, W., 1971: Quantitative Bestimmung von Haferspelzen in
Mischfutterpellets
durch
Auslesen.
In:
Tagungsprotokoll
der
Internationalen Arbeitsgemeinschaft für Futtermitteluntersuchung,
Sektion Futtermittelmikroskopie, Würzburg
•
MALKOMESIUS, E.; Nehring, K.; Claus, G. und Kummer, H., 1951: Die
Untersuchung von Futtermitteln. In: Handbuch der landwirtschaftlichen
Versuchs- und Untersuchungsmethodik (Methodenbuch, Band III, 2.
Auflage, Hrsg. R. Herrmann), Neumann-Verlag, Radebeul und Berlin
•
MÉSZAROS, L. und Bihler, E., 1975: Atlas für die Mikroskopie von
Nahrungsgrundstoffen und Futtermitteln. Teil 2: Stärkereiche
Nahrungsgrundstoffe und deren Verarbeitungsprodukte. In: Handbuch
der landwirtschaftlichen Versuchs- und Untersuchungsmethodik
(Methodenbuch, Band XI, Hrsg. L. Schmitt), Verlag Neumann-Neudamm,
Melsungen
•
RÖZSE, E., 2005: Atlas of Feed Microscopy. Part II: The Examination of
Non-desired Materials in Feed. National Institut for Agricultural Quality
Control, Budapest
•
VÖHRINGER, H., 1997: Leitfaden für die Futtermittel-Qualitätskontrolle
durch Mikroskopie. Hoffmann-La Roche, 3. Fassung, Wien
5/10
International Association of Feedingstuff Analysis
Section Feedingstuff Microscopy - Determination of Ambrosia, IAG-Method A9
Method for the Determination of Ambrosia
(Ambrosia artemisiifolia L.) in non-pelleted
Animal Feedingstuff,
IAG-Method A5
International Association of Feedingstuff Analysis
Section Feedingstuff Microscopy
6/10
International Association of Feedingstuff Analysis
Section Feedingstuff Microscopy - Determination of Ambrosia, IAG-Method A9
1.
Objective and field of application
The method is used for both qualitative and quantitative determination of whole
Ambrosia artemisiifolia L. fruits and seeds in non-pelleted animal feedingstuffs.
2.
Principle
Ambrosia is determined by the visual identification of the fruits and seeds.
Quantification is done by weighing and counting the amount of identified whole
fruits and seeds in the sieved fractions of the sample.
3.
Reagents
not needed
4.
Equipment and accessories
4.1
5.
Optical equipment
4.1.1
Stereo microscope (up to 70X magnification)
4.1.2
Magnifier (up to 10X magnification)
4.2
Analytical balance (accuracy 0,001 g)
4.3
Additional laboratory equipment is listed in supporting document (9)
4.4
Reference material
Procedure
5.1
Preparation of the laboratory sample
The non-pelleted laboratory sample (at least 500g) is weighed (4.2) and
sieved. The sieve fractions between 1,5 – 4,0 mm have to be analysed.
The weight of each fraction is recorded.
5.2
Identification
Ambrosia fruits and seeds are identified based on their characteristic
features.The identification of fruits and seeds may be facilitated by
comparison to reference material (4.4) and existing descriptions (10).
Ambrosia fruits / seeds are 2-4 mm long, and are coloured dark-brown
to black. Due to deformed spathe they have spiny tops which fit
terminally.
5.3
Quantification
The quantification of whole Ambrosia seeds / fruits performed using the
sieve fractions between 1,5-4,0 mm.
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International Association of Feedingstuff Analysis
Section Feedingstuff Microscopy - Determination of Ambrosia, IAG-Method A9
Material identified as Ambrosia seeds / fruits is separated from the
sample and weighed. An aliquot of the sieved fractions may be used if
necessary.
6.
Calculation and report
6.1
Calculation
The amount of Ambrosia seeds / fruits in mg/kg (ppm) feedingstuff
(original sample) is calculated using the following formula:
C
=
BC x 1000 [mg/kg]
E
6.2
C
= amount of component in mg/kg feedingstuff (ppm)
BC
= selected fragments of component in the
laboratory sample or an aliquot of it [mg]
E
= total weight of the laboratory sample or an examined aliquot
of the laboratory sample [g]
Report
6.2.1
Negative result:
As far as was discernible using a microscope, Ambrosia seeds / fruits
were not found in the submitted sample.
6.2.2
Positive result :
6.2.2.1
Counted Ambrosia seeds / fruits
As far as was discernible using a microscope x Ambrosia seeds /
fruits were counted in x g of feedingstuff in the submitted
sample.
6.2.2.2
Weighed Ambrosia seeds / fruits
As far as was discernible using a microscope x mg Ambrosia
seeds/fruits/kg feedingstuff were found in the submitted sample.
For quantification Ambrosia seeds / fruits have been determined
using the sieve fractions between 1,5-4,0 mm.
7.
Validation
Inapplicable
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International Association of Feedingstuff Analysis
Section Feedingstuff Microscopy - Determination of Ambrosia, IAG-Method A9
8.
9.
Remarks
8.1
The seeds and fruits of Ambrosia artemisiifolia L. mainly occur as
impurity in bird feed. Ambrosia causes a high health risk because of its
pollen possessing a high allergenic potential.
8.2
Fragments of Ambrosia seeds / fruits are not determined, because they
are unable of further spreading.
8.3
This method also is suitable for the examination of raw material and
food.
8.4
This method has been developed by the International Association of
Feedingstuff Analysis (IAG) – Section Feedingstuff Microscopy.
Supporting document
Sample Preparation for the Macroscopic and Microscopic Analysis, IAG-Method
A1
10. Literature
•
FREUND, H. (ed.), 1976: Handbuch der Mikroskopie in der Technik. Band
VIII: Mikroskopie der Nahrungs- und Futtermittel, der Drogen und
Genußmittel. Umschau-Verlag, Frankfurt/ Main
•
GASSNER, G.; Hohmann, B. und Deutschmann, F., 1989: Mikroskopische
Untersuchung pflanzlicher Lebensmittel. 5. Auflage, Gustav FischerVerlag, Stuttgart, New York, 66-70
•
HAHN, H. und Michaelsen, L., 1996: Mikroskopische Diagnostik
pflanzlicher Nahrungs-, Genuß- und Futtermittel, einschließlich Gewürze.
Springer-Verlag, Berlin, Heidelberg, New York
•
MALKOMESIUS, E.; Nehring, K.; Claus, G. und Kummer, H., 1951: Die
Untersuchung von Futtermitteln. In: Handbuch der landwirtschaftlichen
Versuchs- und Untersuchungsmethodik (Methodenbuch, Band III, 2.
Auflage, Hrsg. R. Herrmann), Neumann-Verlag, Radebeul und Berlin
•
MEZAROS, L. UND DEUTSCHMANN, F., 1975: Atlas für die Mikroskopie von
Nahrungsgrundstoffen und Futtermitteln. Teil I: Ölsaaten und deren
Verarbeitungsrückstände. In: Handbuch der landwirtschaftlichen
Versuchs- und Untersuchungsmethodik (VDLUFA-Methodenbuch, Bd. XI,
Hrsg. L. Schmitt), Verlag Neumann-Neudamm, Melsungen
•
RÖZSE, E., 2005: Atlas of Feed Microscopy. Part II: The Examination of
Non-desired Materials in Feed. National Institute for Agricultural Quality
Control, Budapest
•
VÖHRINGER, H., 1997: Leitfaden für die Futtermittel-Qualitätskontrolle
durch Mikroskopie. Hoffmann-La Roche, 3. Fassung, Wien
9/10
International Association of Feedingstuff Analysis
Section Feedingstuff Microscopy - Determination of Ambrosia, IAG-Method A9
•
AMBROSIA ARTEMISIIFOLIA in der Schweiz – eine herbologische Annäherung,
Christian Bohren et. Al, AGRARForschung 12(2): 71-78, 2005.
•
Schädliche Unkraut- und Grassamen, Dr.-Ing: J.Wolff, Die Mühle +
Mischfuttertechnik Heft 48 Nov. 1987, Verlag Moritz Schäfer
•
Die Unkrautsamen der Klee- und Grassaaten mit besonderer
Berücksichtigung ihrer Herkunft, Burchard, O., Verlagsbuchhandlung Paul
Parey
•
Ackerunkräuter und Ackergräser – Ihre Verbreitung, Gefährdung und
Wissenschaftliche Bedeutung. – Mitteilungen für den Landbau 1/85
BASF, Limburgerhof
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