mikro- da makroekonomikis safuZvlebi

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mikro- da makroekonomikis safuZvlebi
m. vaniSvili
mikro- da makroekonomikis
safuZvlebi
`teqnikuri universiteti”@
saqarTvelos teqnikuri universiteti
m. vaniSvili
mikro- da makroekonomikis
safuZvlebi
damtkicebulia stu-s
saredaqcio-sagamomcemlo
sabWos mier
Tbilisi
2009
uak 330(042.2)
v186
wignSi Tanmimdevruladaa ganxiluli mikro- da makroekonomikis safuZvlebi iseTi mniSvnelovani Temebis mixedviT, rogoricaa: ekonomika da
misi roli sazogadoebis cxovrebaSi; ekonomikur sistemaTa formebi da
tipebi; individualuri bazris analizi: bazari, fuli, moTxovna, miwodeba
da fasi; warmoebis faqtorTa bazrebi da faqtoruli Semosavlebi; biznesis (samewarmeo saqmianobis) ekonomikuri safuZvlebi; ojaxis ekonomikis
safuZvlebi; qveynis makroekonomikuri struqtura da erovnul angariSTa
sistema; erovnuli meurneobis ekonomikuri zrda da ganviTareba; makroekonomikuri ganviTarebis arastabiluroba: ekonomikuri meryeoba, umuSevroba
da inflacia; erovnuli meurneobis regulatorebi: sabazro TviTregulireba da saxelmwifoebrivi regulireba; ekonomikis saxelmwifoeb-rivi
regulirebis safinanso-sabiujeto da sabanko-sakredito berketebi.
saxelmZRvaneloSi teqstis gadmocemis gamartivebis, advilad aRqmadobisa da aTvisebis mizniT TiToeuli Tema dayofilia leqciebad. amasTan,
yoveli Temis bolos mocemulia testebi SeZenili codnis SemowmebisaTvis,
romlebic TemaTa sakvanZo sakiTxebis aTvisebis xarisxis gadamowmebis SesaZleblobas iZleva. garda amisa, wignSi, ZiriTadi Temebis dasrulebis Semdeg,
motanilia rekomendebuli literaturuli wyaroebis CamonaTvali, rac
mkiTxvels Sesaswavli masalis ufro siRrmiseulad aTvisebaSi daexmareba.
wigni gankuTvnilia saqarTvelos umaRlesi saswavleblebis ekonomikur da sxva humanitarul specialobaTa studentebisaTvis, profesormaswavleblebisaTvis, ekonomikis Tanamedrove Teoriisa da praqtikis sakiTxebiT dainteresebul mkiTxvelTa farTo wrisaTvis.
mecnier-redaqtori ekonomikis mecnierebaTa doqtori, stu-s ekonomikuri
Teoriisa da biznesis marTvis mimarTulebis xelmZRvaneli, sruli profesori karlo Rurwkaia
recenzenti
ekonomikis akademiuri doqtori, stu-s saerTaSoriso
ekonomikisa da turizmis mimarTulebis xelmZRvaneli,
sruli profesori guram jolia
© sagamomcemlo saxli ,,teqnikuri universiteti’’, 2009
ISBN 978-9941-14-359-5
http://www.gtu.ge/publishinghouse/
yvela ufleba daculia. am wignis arc erTi nawili (iqneba es teqsti, foto,
ilustracia Tu sxva) aranairi formiT da saSualebiT (iqneba es eleqtronuli Tu
meqanikuri), ar SeiZleba gamoyenebul iqnas gamomcemlis werilobiTi nebarTvis
gareSe.
saavtoro uflebebis darRveva isjeba kanoniT.
uak (UDK) 330(042.2)
v186
wignSi Tanmimdevruladaa ganxiluli mikro- da makroekonomikis
safuZvlebi iseTi mniSvnelovani Temebis mixedviT, rogoricaa: ekonomika da
misi roli sazogadoebis cxovrebaSi; ekonomikur sistemaTa formebi da
ti pebi; individualuri bazris analizi: bazari, fuli, moTxovna, miwodeba
da fasi; warmoebis faqtorTa bazrebi da faqtoruli Semosavlebi; biznesis
(samewarmeo saqmianobis) ekonomikuri safuZvlebi; ojaxis ekonomikis
safuZvlebi; qveynis makroekonomikuri struqtura da erovnul angariSTa
sistema; erovnuli meurneobis ekonomikuri zrda da ganviTareba;
makroekonomikuri ganviTarebis arastabiluroba: ekonomikuri meryeoba,
umuSevroba da inflacia; erovnuli meurneobis regulatorebi: sabazro
TviTregulireba da saxelmwifoebrivi regulireba; ekonomikis saxelmwifoebrivi regulirebis safinanso-sabiujeto da sabanko-sakredito berketebi.
saxelmZRvaneloSi teqstis gadmocemis gamartivebis, advilad aRqmadobisa
da aTvisebis mizniT TiToeuli Tema dayofilia leqciebad. amasTan, yoveli
Temis bolos mocemulia testebi SeZenili codnis SemowmebisaTvis, romlebic
TemaTa sakvanZo sakiTxebis aTvisebis xarisxis gadamowmebis SesaZleblobas
iZleva. garda amisa, wignSi, ZiriTadi Temebis dasrulebis Semdeg, motanilia
rekomendebuli literaturuli wyaroebis CamonaTvali, rac mkiTxvels
Sesaswavli masalis ufro siRrmiseulad aTvisebaSi daexmareba.
wigni gankuTvnilia saqarTvelos umaRlesi saswavleblebis ekonomikur
da sxva humanitarul specialobaTa studentebisaTvis, profesor-maswavleblebisaTvis, ekonomikis Tanamedrove Teoriisa da praqtikis sakiTxebiT
dainteresebul mkiTxvelTa farTo wrisaTvis.
ekonomikis mecnierebaTa doqtori,
stu-s ekonoikuri Teoriisa da
biznesis marTvis mimarTulebis
xelmZRvaneli, sruli profesori
ekonomikuri akademiuri doqtori,
stu-2 saerTaSoriso ekonomikisa da
turizmis mimarTulebis xelmZRvaneli
sruli profesori
karlo Rurwkaia
guram jolia
avtoris werilobiTi nebarTvis gareSe, mocemuli naSromis an misi romelime
nawilis nebismieri formiT gadabeWdva an aslis gadaReba (kopireba) kanoniT
dauSvebelia.
merab mixeilis Ze vaniSvili _
ekonomikis akademiuri doqtori, 50-ze meti
naSromis avtori ekonomikuri Teoriis,
makroekonomikis, regionalistikis,
munici paluri finansebisa da agraruli
ekonomikis sferoebSi. GgansakuTrebuli
aRniSvnis Rirsia mis mier sadoqtoro
d i s e rt a c i i s T em a z e g a m o ce m u l i
monografiuli gamokvleva: `saqarTvelos
sasursaTo usafrTxoebis saSinao da
sagareo ekonomikuri aspeqtebi: Teoria,
meTodologia, praqtika~ (2003 w.), leqciebis kursi `safinansosabanko statistika~ (2004 w.) da damxmare saxelmZRvaneloebi _
`munici paluri sabiujeto sistema da finansuri menejmenti~
(2005 w.); `ekonomikis safuZvlebi~ wigni pirveli (2006 w.) da
wigni meore (2007 w.); `finansebi” (2007 w.).
samecniero-pedagogiuri saqmianoba daiwyo 1983 wels
saqarTvelos yofil saxelmwifo sagegmo komitetTan arsebul
saxalxo meurneobis ekonomikis, dagegmvisa da marTvis samecnierokvleviT institutSi da gaiara gza umcrosi mecnier muSakidan
ganyofilebis gamgis Tanamdebobamde. 1996-1997 w.w. iyo saqarTvelos finansTa saministros fasebis, finansebisa da
sakredito politikis sammarTvelos ufrosis moadgile. 20002002 w.w. muSaobda msoflio bankis `munici palur programaTa
ganxorcielebis sakoordinacio centrSi~ adgilobriv finansistkonsultantad. 2001 wels gaiara staJireba poloneTisa (q.varSava)
da safrangeTis (q.anJe) saxelmwifo moxeleTa gadamzadebis prestiJul centrebSi.
amJamad aris saqarTvelos teqnikuri universitetis
humanitarul-socialuri fakultetis ekonomikisa da biznesis
marTvis departamentis asocirebuli profesori; qarTulevropuli universitetis sruli profesori, biznesisa da marTvis
fakultetis dekani.
sagamomcemlo saxli `teqnikuri universiteti~, 2009.
vaniSvili m. 2009.
ISBN
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
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3
mimarTva
mkiTxvelisadmi
keTili iyos Tqveni mobrZaneba `mikro- da makroekonomikis
safuZvlebis~ saswavlo kursSi. miuxedavad imisa, gegmavT ekonomikis
ufro Rrmad Seswavlas, vidre amis SesaZleblobas es wigni iZleva,
Tu igi iqneba Tqveni erTaderTi megzuri am yovlismomcveli
sagnis dasaufleblad, Cven vimedovnebT, rom Tqven miiRebT
kmayofilebas misi kiTxvisagan, da agreTve SeiqmniT zogad
warmodgenas ekonomikis samyaros Sesaxeb, romelSic cxovrobT, da
im ekonomikuri Zalebis Sesaxeb, romlebic kardinalur gavlenas
axdenen Cvens cxovrebaze.
im SemTxvevaSic ki, Tu Tqven adre arasdros ar yofilxarT
dakavebuli `mikro- da makroekonomikis safuZvlebis~ SeswavliT,
mainc ukve bevri ram iciT mis Sesaxeb. bolos da bolos, Tqven
praqtikulad yoveldRe RebulobT ekonomikur gadawyvetilebebs.
yovelTvis, roca midixarT maRaziaSi, Tqven iqceviT rogorc
`ekonomisti~, wyvetT ra sakiTxs imis Sesaxeb, Tu ra SeiZinoT
Tqvens gankargulebaSi arsebuli fuliT. magram ekonomistis rolSi
Tqven gamodixarT ara mxolod im SemTxvevebSi, roca raRacas
iZenT. ramdeni iSromoT, ramdeni iswavloT da, Tundac, dReSi
ramdeni dro dauTmoT ama Tu im saganSi mecadineobas _ yovelive
es raRaca xarisxiT ekonomikuri gadawyvetilebebia. aRarafers
vambobT im ekonomikur gadawyvetilebebze, romelsac Tqven
gaakeTebdiT, rogorc firmis menejeri an saxelmwifo moxele.
mtkiced mwams, rom is fundamenturi ideebi, romlebsac `mikroda makroekonomikis safuZvlebis~ kursi gvTavazobs, yvelam unda
Seiswavlos. ekonomikis, iseve rogorc nebismieri sxva disciplinis,
Seswavlis erT-erTi mizania meti informacia miawodos adamianebs
samyaros Sesaxeb, raTa xeli Seuwyos maTs moqalaqeobriv
ganviTarebas.
imisaTvis, Tu ratom unda daiwyoT Tqven, _ XXI saukunis
studentebma, `mikro- da makroekonomikis safuZvlebis~ Seswavla,
4
sami ZiriTadi mizezi arsebobs:
pirveli, ekonomikasTan dakavSirebiT Cndeba uamravi kiTxva
romlebmac SesaZloa Tqveni cnobismoyvareoba gaaRvivos. ratom
uxdian Jerar departies did Tanxas ama Tu im filmSi Sesrulebuli
rolisaTvis? ratom aris cxovrebis done ase dabali afrikis bevr
qveyanaSi? ratomaa zog qveyanaSi inflaciis done maRali, xolo
sxvagan _ fasebi stabiluri? ratom aris samuSaos Sovna ioli
garkveul wlebSi, sxva wlebTan SedarebiT? _ es mxolod mcire
nawilia im kiTxvebis grZeli siisa, romlebze pasuxis gacemaSic
mikro- da makroekonomikis safuZvlebis kursi dagexmarebaT.
meore, `mikro- da makroekonomikis safuZvlebis~ kursis
daxmarebiT ukeT gaigebT ekonomikur procesebs. cxovrebis gzaze
mravali ekonomikuri xasiaTis gadawyvetilebis miReba mogiwevT.
debulebebi, romlebic Camoyalibebulia winamdebare wignSi, am
gadawyvetilebebis miRebaSi dagexmarebaT.
mesame, `mikro- da makroekonomikis safuZvlebis~ kursis
Seswavlis meSveobiT SesaZlebeli xdeba ekonomikuri politikis
potencialisa da limitebis gaanalizeba. Tqven, rogorc amomrCeveli,
xmas aZlevT im politikur Zalas, romelic sazogadoebrivi
resursebis ganawilebasa da gamoyenebas akontrolebs.
amgvarad, `mikro- da makroekonomikis safuZvlebis~ codna
SeiZleba mraval cxovrebiseul situaciaSi gamoiyenoT. mniSvneloba
ara aqvs imas, Tu ras gaakeTebT momavalSi, _ ubralod wignebs
waikiTxavT, samRebro samuSaoebs SeasrulebT, firmas
uxelmZRvanelebT, Tu saxelmwifo moxele an politikosi iqnebiT,
_ yovelTvis kmayofili iqnebiT imiT, rom `mikro- da makroekonomikis
safuZvlebis~ saswavlo kurss gadiodiT.
sanam winamdebare saxelmZRvanelos nebismieri Temis wakiTxvasa
da Seswavlas daiwyebT, albaT, jer Temis struqturas gaecnobiT
da gverdebis saerTo raodenobas daiTvliT, magram girCevT nu
SeSindebiT zogierTi Temis sididiT. vecade calkeul TemaTa
Sinaarsi saintereso, naTeli da gasagebi gamosuliyo, da momiteveT,
5
Tuki am mcdelobis gamo zogierTi Tema moculobiT didic gamovida.
ar SeSindeT, Tu calkeuli Temebis Seswavlisas daiRlebiT
da mogeCvenebaT, rom, miuxedavad amdeni mecadineobisa, jer kidev
araferi iciT. ai, ra aqvs naTqvami sakuTar Tavze cnobil ekonomists
alfred marSals: `rac ufro metad vuRrmavdebodi ekonomikuri
mecnierebis Seswavlas, miT ufro metad vxvdebodi, rom Cems mier
am sferoSi miRebuli codna gacilebiT naklebia, vidre me mWirdeba;
da axla, mxolod am mecnierebis TiTqmis 50-wliani Seswavlis
Semdeg, vxvdebi, rom maqvs gacilebiT naklebi codna, vidre maSin,
roca mis Seswavlas viwyebdi.~ da es arcaa gasakviri. ekonomika,
sxva mecnierul disci plinaTa msgavsad, xom iseTive saintereso
da amouwuravia, rogorc TiToeuli adamiani. mTavaria, ar daizaroT
da far-xmali ar dayaroT, gamoiCinoT `aqlemis amtanoba~ da
`wmindanis moTmineba~, roca Temebis Seswavlisas raRac rTulad
mogeCvenebaT da daibneviT.
vimedovnebT, rom `mikro- da makroekonomikis safuZvlebis~
SeswavlisaTvis gankuTvnili erTi Tu ori semestri Tqveni cxovrebis
sasiamovno da sasargeblo epizodi aRmoCndeba.
sakmarisia msjeloba! droa gadaSaloT saxelmZRvanelo!
saintereso, xalisian da nayofier swavlas gisurvebT!
merab vaniSvili
2008 wlis 19 dekemberi
6
winasityvaoba
Tbilisis saxelmwifo universitetSi swavlis periodSi sagani,
romelmac yvelaze metad gamitaca, ekonomikis orsemestriani kursi
iyo. gadauWarbeblad SeiZleba iTqvas, rom am kursma Cemi profesiuli
interesebi daxvewa da mTeli Cemi cxovreba Secvala, Cems win
azrovnebisa da SemoqmedebiTi gamoxatvis axali SesaZleblobebi
warmoaCina.
ekonomika im disci plinaTa ricxvs miekuTvneba, sadac mcire
codnasac ki Sors mivyavarT. swored amitom aris ekonomikis
saxelmZRvanelos dawera didi pativi da, amasTan, didi pasuxismgeblobac. es politikur moRvaweobaze maRla dgas da, rogorc
g. menqiu SeniSnavs, `...erT-erTi saSualebaa, romlis daxmarebiTac
ekonomists SeuZlia xeli Seuwyos ukeTes xelisuflebas da
ukeTes momavals.~ ai, ras wers amis Sesaxeb cnobili amerikeli
ekonomisti pol samuelsoni: `ar madardebs, vin wers qveynis
kanonebs an awarmoebs qveynisTvis xelsayrel molaparakebebs, Tuki
me am qveynisTvis ekonomikis saxelmZRvanelos dawera SemiZlia.~
imisaTvis, rom farTo auditoria momepovebina, miznad davisaxe
`es wigni mokle yofiliyo~, ramdenadac, rogorc Zveli berZeni
poeti kalimaqosi werda, `didi wigni, didi mowyenilobaa.~ ar vici,
ramdenad movaxerxe am miznis realizeba. es Tavad Tqven gansajeT!
Tumca, is, marTlac, bevrad ufro mcirea im standartul
saxelmZRvaneloebTan SedarebiT, romlebic ekonomikis Sesaswavlad
gamoiyeneba. misi Rirseba ZiriTadad imaSi mdgomareobs, rom aq
mikro- da makroekonomikis safuZvlebi, maqsimalurad lakonurad
da Tanamedrove moTxovnebis donezea gadmocemuli.
rodesac saxelmZRvanelos momzadeba gadavwyvite, msurda
iseTi wigni damewera, romelic, p. samuelsonis sityvebiT, `ar
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unda iyos arc mosawyeni, arc Zneli~ da, romelsac studentobis
dros TviTonac siamovnebiT wavikiTxavdi. amasTan dakavSirebiT,
Cemi umTavresi mizani uxvsityvaobis Tavidan acileba iyo, kargad
maxsovda ra didi mwerlis robertTson devisis aforizmi _
`mwerlobaSi erT-erTi yvelaze mniSvnelovani ramaa saTqmelis
mokled gadmocema, ise, rom yvelasTvis jojoxeTurad mosabezrebeli
ar gaxde.~
ekonomikis yvela axali saxelmZRvanelo mogviTxrobs resursebis SezRudulobis Sesaxeb. magram am saxelmZRvaneloebis avtorTa
umravlesobas aviwydeba, rom studentTa dro swored erT-erTi
aseTi SezRuduli resursia. amis gaTvaliswinebiT, Sevecade Tavi
ameridebina zedmeti detalebisaTvis, romlebic students ZiriTadi
saqmisagan moacdendnen. imedi maqvs, winamdebare saxelmZRvanelo
amarTlebs Tavissave saTaurs _ `mikro- da makroekonomikis
safuZvlebi~.
imisaTvis, rom ekonomikaSi yvelaze arsebiTi momentebi
warmomeCina, unda gadamewyvita, Tu ra aris studentisaTvis
WeSmaritad ufro mniSvnelovani ekonomikis Seswavlisas. amis
gamo es wigni sxvebisagan ara marto originaluri formatiTa da
dizainiT, aramed orientaciiTac gamoirCeva.
saxelmZRvanelos weris dros maqsimalurad vcdilobdi _
Tavi dameyenebina im studentis adgilas, visac ekonomikis saswavlo
kursTan Sexeba pirvelad uwevs. Cemi mcdelobis mizania im masalis
gamokveTa, romelic gansakuTrebiT sainteresoa studentisaTvis.
amgvari mcdelobis erT-erTi Sedegi is aris, rom masSi meti
yuradReba eTmoba praqtikul sakiTxebsa da ekonomikur politikas,
vidre formalur ekonomikur Teorias, romelic ufro srulyofilad
ekonomikis sxva saxelmZRvaneloebSia warmodgenili.
mokle da studentebisaTvis mimzidveli saxelmZRvanelos
8
dasawerad saWiro iyo masalis gadmocemis axali gzebis Zieba.
igi faqtobrivad yvela im ZiriTad sakiTxs moicavs, romelic
arsebiTia ekonomikis orsemestriani swavlebisaTvis. magram es
sakiTxebi yovelTvis tradiciuli TanmimdevrobiT ar aris
dalagebuli. qvemoT mocemulia saxelmZRvanelos Sinaarsis
struqturis mokle mimoxilva, rac, vimedovneb, mkiTxvels garkveul
STabeWdilebas Seuqmnis teqstis nawilTa urTierTdamokidebulebis
Sesaxeb.
saxelmZRvaneloSi Tanmimdevruladaa gadmocemuli Semdegi
ZiriTadi Temebi:
 ekonomika da misi roli sazogadoebis cxovrebaSi;
 ekonomikur sistemaTa formebi da ti pebi;
 individualuri bazris analizi: bazari, fuli, moTxovna,
miwodeba da fasi;
 warmoebis faqtorTa bazrebi da faqtoruli Semosavlebi;
 biznesis (samewarmeo saqmianobis) ekonomikuri safuZvlebi;
 ojaxis ekonomikis safuZvlebi;
 qveynis makroekonomikuri struqtura da erovnul angariSTa
sistema;
 erovnuli meurneobis ekonomikuri zrda da ganviTareba;
 makroekonomikuri ganviTarebis arastabiluroba: ekonomikuri
meryeoba, umuSevroba da inflacia;
 erovnuli meurneobis regulatorebi: sabazro TviTregulireba
da saxelmwifoebrivi regulireba;
 ekonomikis saxelmwifoebrivi regulirebis safinansosabiujeto da sabanko-sakredito berketebi.
winamdebare wigni daiwera erTi mTavari mizniT: _ Tanamedrove
moTxovnebis gaTvaliswinebiT, mokled, gasagebad da mimzidvelad
9
gadmocemuliyo uCveulod mniSvnelovani saswavlo disci plinis
_ ekonomikis Teoriul-meTodologiuri da praqtikul-gamoyenebiTi
xasiaTis fundamenturi sakiTxebi.Aamitom mocemul wigns aqvs
Semdegi ZiriTadi niSnebi:
teqstis Sinaarsis gadmocemis orazrovnebisagan Tavisufali
da naTeli stili, romlis mizani yovelTvis maqsimaluri sicxade
da swrafi aRqmaa;
yoveli axali ganyofilebisa da Temis dasawyisSi wamZRvarebuli ganmarteba (amonaridi cnobil pirovnebaTa gamonaTqvamidan),
romelic migvaniSnebs teqstis ZiriTad Sinaarsze;
TiToeuli Temis warmodgena calkeuli saleqcio teqstebis
saxiT, rac iZleva masalis advilad aTvisebis SesaZleblobas;
mravalricxovani magaliTebis, grafikebis, sqemebisa da
sainformacio cxrilebis gamoyeneba Tanamedrove cxovrebidan
argumentaciaTa ilustrirebisaTvis, rac iZleva gansjis sagnis
gamococxlebisa da realur situaciaTa konteqstSi ganxilvis
saSualebas;
 testebi SeZenili codnis SemowmebisaTvis, romlebic
dagvexmareba aTvisebuli masalis ganmtkicebasa da SeZenili codnis
donis Semowmeba-SefasebaSi.
bunebrivia, wignSi warmodgenili masala kursis TemaTa Sinaarss
mTlianad ver amowuravs. kursis sruli moculobiT daufleba
da calkeuli Temebis ufro siRrmiseulad Seswavla saxelmZRvaneloSi miTiTebuli literaturuli wyaroebis gamoyenebiT iqneba
SesaZlebeli.
10
ganyofileba I
ekonomikis zogadi safuZvlebi
1
Tema
ekonomika da
s a z og a d oe b i s
misi roli
cx ov r e b a Si
`ekonomika aris is, rasac ekonomistebi akeTeben.~
i.vineri
SesaZloa, Tqven dRemde ar SegiswavliaT ekonomika. Tumca,
TiTqmis yoveldRiurad gaqvT masTan Sexeba: gadaSliT ra gazeTs,
_ kiTxulobT `ekonomikis sakiTxebSi sakuTari korespondentis~
statias; CarTavT ra televizors, _ `axal ambebSi~ ismenT
`reportaJs ekonomikis mdgomareobis Sesaxeb~; SedixarT ra internetSi, _ `mogzaurobT~ ekonomikis samyaroSi; saubrobT ra
megobrebTan, _ xSirad ganixilavT fasebis problemas da arkvevT
sakiTxs imis Sesaxeb, gaqvT Tu ara sakmarisi fuli sasurveli
nivTis SesaZenad.
saqme imaSia, rom ekonomika zegavlenas axdens Cvens yoveldRiur cxovrebaze. Cven yvelgan da yovelTvis vxvdebiT adgilobrivi, saxelmwifoebrivi Tu saerTaSoriso mniSvnelobis
ekonomikur problemebs. es Seexeba fasebisa da saprocento ganakve11
Tebis cvlilebas, savaluto kursis meryeobas, umuSevrobas,
ekonomikur dacemasa da sagadasaxdelo balansis gauaresebasTan
dakavSirebul problemebs. Cven aseve mudmivad vawydebiT pirad
ekonomikur problemebs da vdgebiT ekonomikur gadawyvetilebaTa
miRebis aucileblobis winaSe: ra SeviZinoT maRaziaSi _
personaluri kompiuteri Tu musikaluri centri; gavadidoT
yoveldRiuri danaxarjebi, Tu davzogoT meti fuli saSvebulebod; viswavloT institutSi, Tu movZebnoT samuSao. swori
gadawyvetilebis miRebis gasaRebs ekonomika iZleva.
maS, konkretulad, raSi mdgomareobs ekonomikis arsi da
daniSnuleba? rogoria misi struqtura? qvemoT SevecdebiT pasuxi
gavceT mocemul kiTxvebze da CamovayaliboT garkveuli warmodgena
im disci plinis sagnis Sesaxeb, romlis SeswavliTac Tqven
dakavdebiT winamdebare saxelmZRvanelos mixedviT.
leqcia 1. ekonomikis fundamenturi
safuZvlebi da deficitis problema
`ekonomika _ es metad mniSvnelovani disciplinaa. amasTan erTad, es
Zalian saintereso sagania.~
p.samuelsoni
ekonomikis arsi da daniSnuleba. termini `ekonomika~ pirvelad gamoiyena cnobilma berZenma filosofosma
qsenofontem (Cv. w/aR-mde VI-V s.s.), romelSic igi gulisxmobda
saojaxo meurneobis gaZRolis xelovnebas. am termins ufro
vrceli Sinaarsobrivi datvirTva misca aristotelem (Cv. w/aRmde IV s.). man ekonomikas miakuTvna sasargeblo nivTebis warmoeba
saojaxo moxmarebisaTvis. Semdgom, ekonomikuri sivrcis Tvisebrivad
Secvlisa da gafarToebis Sesabamisad, Tanmimdevrulad gamoiyo
ojaxis (individualuri meurneobis) ekonomika, dargis (magaliTad,
mrewvelobis) ekonomika, erovnuli (magaliTad, saqarTvelos)
ekonomika da msoflio ekonomika.
amJamad Cven ekonomikas, uwinares yovlisa, vuwodebT ojaxis,
sawarmos, qveynisa da mTeli msoflios mosaxleobis sameurneo
saqmianobas. imavdroulad, termini `ekonomika~ aRniSnavs amgvari
saqmianobis Semswavlel mecnierebas. davesesxebiT `ekonomikis~
cnobili saxelmZRvanelos avtorebs k.r.makkonelsa da s.l.brius
da winaswar SevniSnavT, rom ekonomikis, rogorc mecnierebis sagania
`brZola materialuri keTildReobis gaumjobesebisaTvis, Cveni
mcdeloba `gamovimuSaoT sarCo sakuTari gadarCenisaTvis~.* ufro
zustad, ekonomika _ es aris sazogadoebis qcevis gamokvleva
* k.r.makkoneli, s.l.briu. ekonomiksi, t.I. _ Tb., 2001, gv.24.
12
13
saqonlisa da momsaxurebis warmoebis, ganawilebisa da moxmarebis
procesSi, SezRuduli resursebis samyaroSi.*
bevrs miaCnia, rom ekonomika dakavebulia fulis sakiTxebis
SeswavliT. garkveuli gagebiT, es namdvilad asea. ekonomikaSi,
marTlac, mravali sakiTxia dakavSirebuli fulTan. magram, miuxedavad fulTan dakavSirebuli sakiTxebis simravlisa, romelTanac
Cven TiTqmis yoveldRiurad gviwevs Sexeba, ekonomika mainc araa
mecniereba mxolod fulis Sesaxeb. igi dakavebulia Semdegi
ZiriTadi sakiTxebis SeswavliT:
 saqonlisa da momsaxurebis warmoeba: ramdens awarmoebs
mocemuli qveynis ekonomika, rogoria masSi saqonlisa da momsaxurebis Tanafardoba, ramdens awarmoebs TiToeuli sawarmo, rogor
teqnologiebs iyenebs igi, ramdeni adamiania dasaqmebuli masSi;
 saqonlisa da momsaxurebis moxmareba: ramdens xarjavs da
ramdens zogavs mocemuli qveynis mosaxleoba mTlianad, moxmarebis
rogori modeli funqcionirebs ekonomikaSi, ris SeZenas aniWeben
upiratesobas adamianebi, rogor gavlenas axdens fasebi da sxva
faqtorebi moxmarebaze.
magram zemoT aRniSnuli sakiTxebi ar moicavs ekonomikis
funqcionirebis yvela aspeqts. amasTan dakavSirebiT, gansakuTrebuli mniSvneloba eniWeba Semdegi ori fundamenturi faqtis
gaTvaliswinebas: 1. sazogadoebis materialuri moTxovnilebebi
usazRvro da zrdadia; 2. ekonomikuri resursebi, anu saqonlisa
da momsaxurebis warmoebis saSualebebi SezRudulia (iSviaTia).
* Tavidanve SevniSnoT: ZiriTadi gansxvaveba saqonelsa da momsaxurebas
Soris imaSi mdgomareobs, rom momsaxurebis gawevis dros adgili aqvs
moTxovnilebis uSualod dakmayofilebas, maSin, rodesac saqonlis SeZenisas
masze moTxovnilebis dasakmayofileblad moxmarebis damatebiTi aqtia
saWiro. saqonels TavisTavad, moxmarebis gareSe, ar SeuZlia moTxovnilebis
dakmayofileba.
14
es ori fundamenturi faqti qmnis ekonomikis rogorc mecnierebis
safuZvels da, arsebiTad, gansazRvravs centralur ekonomikur
problemas.
centralur ekonomikur problemas warmoadgens deficitis
problema. igi arsebobs ara mxolod eTiopiasa da sudanSi, aramed,
agreTve saqarTveloSi, safrangeTSi, aSS-Si, iaponiasa da yvela
sxva danarCen qveyanaSi. ekonomistisaTvis deficits specifikuri
mniSvneloba gaaCnia. modiT, gavecnoT mas.
deficitis problemasTan gacnobis mizniT, saWiroa Tavdapirvelad pasuxi gaeces erTi SexedviT TiTqosda martiv, magram
sinamdvileSi friad mravlismetyvel kiTxvas: romelia is dovlaTi,
romelic nebismier sazogadoebaSi aucilebelia adamianTa arsebobisa
da ganviTarebisaTvis? _ esaa kvebis produqtebi, tansacmeli,
fexsacmeli, Tavsamkauli, sacxovrebeli bina, aveji, WurWeli,
sxvadasxva saxis momsaxureba da a.S. yovelive es adamians iseve
sWirdeba, rogorc haeri da wyali. magram, haerisa da wylisagan
gansxvavebiT, isini bunebaSi mza saxiT ar moi poveba. amitom
aucilebelia maTi warmoeba, rac Sesabamis resursebs moiTxovs.
axla SevecdebiT dawvrilebiT avxsnaT zemoT aRniSnuli ori
fundamenturi faqti dasaxelebuli TanmimdevrobiT.
usazRvro da zrdadi materialuri moTxovnilebani. uwinares yovlisa, pirveli fundamenturi faqtis Sesaxeb:
materialuri moTxovnilebebi usazRvro da zrdadia. `materialuri moTxovnilebebis~ cnebaSi igulisxmeba momxmarebelTa
survilebi SeiZinon da gamoiyenon saqoneli da momsaxureba,
romlebic maT sargeblobas aniWebs. sawarmoebsa da samTavrobo
uwyebebsac aseve gaaCniaT materialuri moTxovnilebebi. sawarmoebs
surT Tavis gankargulebaSi hqondeT Senobebi, nagebobebi, satvirTo
avtomanqanebi da yvelaferi is, rac maT warmoebrivi miznebis
realizebis saSualebas aZlevs. mTavrobas, sakuTari miznebis gamodevnebiT, surs aagos avtostradebi, aaSenos skolebi da saavad15
myofoebi, daagrovos samxedro teqnika da SeiaraReba.
mTlianobaSi, sazogadoebis materialuri moTxovnilebebi
usazRvroa, rac imas niSnavs, rom maTi sruli dakmayofileba
saqonelsa da momsaxurebaze SeuZlebelia. ufro metic, droTa
ganmavlobaSi moTxovnilebebi izrdeba, rasac aqvs myari da mudmivad
ganmeorebadi xasiaTi. albaT, xSirad gsmeniaT Semdegi Sinaarsis
SeniSvna: `rac meti gagaCnia, miT ufro meti ginda~.
aq isic unda iTqvas, rom adamianis moTxovnileba konkretul
saqonelsa da momsaxurebaze usazRvro rodia. konkretuli
moTxovnilebis sruli dakmayofileba SeiZleba. magaliTad,
apenciditis erTi operacia amowuravs masze adamianis moTxovnilebas. isic SesaZlebelia, rom drois konkretul monakveTSi
adamians gaaCndes zogierTi dasaxelebis saqonlis (magaliTad,
kbilis pastis an ludis) iseTi raodenoba, rom mTlianad
daikmayofilos moTxovnileba maTze. magram drois mxolod
garkveul monakveTSi, e.i. manam, sanam moTxovnilebani ar Seicvleba.
saerTod, SeiZleba iTqvas, rom yovel mocemul momentSi
sazogadoeba, misi calkeuli individebi da institutebi mraval
daukmayofilebel moTxovnilebas ganicdian. droTa ganmavlobaSi
moTxovnilebebi icvleba da mravldeba axal nakeTobaTa gamoCenis,
reklamis gaaqtiurebisa da gasaRebis energiuli stimulirebis
zegavleniT.
mTeli sameurneo saqmianobis saboloo mizani da amocana
sazogadoebis mravalferovan materialur moTxovnilebaTa
maqsimalur dakmayofilebaSi mdgomareobs. am miznis miRweva ki
did winaaRmdegobas awydeba, vinaidan SezRuduli, anu iSviaTia is
ekonomikuri resursebi, romlebic aucilebelia sazogadoebisaTvis
saWiro saqonlisa da momsaxurebis sawarmoeblad.
SezRuduli anu iSviaTi ekonomikuri resursebi.
axla ganvixiloT meore fundamenturi faqti: ekonomikuri resursebi
SezRuduli anu iSviaTia. `ekonomikuri resursebis~ cnebaSi
16
igulisxmeba bunebrivi (miwa), SromiTi anu adamianiseuli (Sroma)
da adamianis mier Seqmnili yvela resursi (kapitali anu
`sainvesticio resursebi~), romlebsac iyeneben sazogadoebisaTvis
saWiro saqonlisa da momsaxurebis warmoebisaTvis. ufro
detalurad, ekonomikuri resursebis kategoriebi Semdegnairad
warmogvidgeba:
 bunebrivi resursebi: niadagi, mdinareebi, tbebi, zRvebi, okeaneebi,
mineraluri resursebi (ZiriTadad miwis sasargeblo wiaRiseuli),
satyeo resursebi da cxovelTa samyaro. am resursebs, Tavis
mxriv, yofen amouwurav (magaliTad, mzis energia, qaris energia da
sxv.) da amowurvad (magaliTad, sasargeblo wiaRiseuli, tyis
simdidre da sxv.) resursebad. amowurvadi resursebidan garkveuli
nawili ganaxlebadia (magaliTad, tyis resursebi), ufro didi
nawili ki _ saerTod ganuaxlebadi (magaliTad, navTobis, qvanaxSiris,
bunebrivi airis da a.S. maragi);
 SromiTi anu adamianiseuli resursebi _ Sromisunariani
(16 wlis an meti asakis) mosaxleoba, romelic dasaqmebulia an
eZebs samuSaos;
 adamianis mier Seqmnili materialuri resursebi: manqanaiaraRebi, instrumentebi, mowyobiloba, kompiuteruli teqnika,
eleqtrogamomTvleli manqanebi da warmoebrivi daniSnulebis sxva
kapitaluri saqoneli.
xSirad `ekonomikur resursebs~ iyeneben `warmoebis faqtorebis~
sinonimad, rac ZiriTadad sworia, magram mTlad zusti ar aris.
mainc ra gansxvavebaa maT Soris? _ bunebrivi da SromiTi resursebi
warmoebis mxolod potenciuri komponentebia, e.i. maTi gamoyeneba
an SeiZleba moxdes, an _ ara. `warmoebis faqtorebi~ ki ekonomikuri
kategoriaa da gamoxatavs warmoebis procesSi ukve realurad
CarTul resursebs. amdenad, `ekonomikuri resursebi~ ufro farTo
cnebaa, vidre `warmoebis faqtorebi~.
warmoeba misi faqtorebis organuli urTierTqmedebis
17
erTianobaa. warmoebis faqtorebi SeiZleba davyoT Semdeg oTx
jgufad:
warmoebis procesSi CarTuli bunebrivi resursebi;
kapitali, anu adamianis SromiT Seqmnili materialuri
resursebi;
SromiTi resursebis is nawili, romelic dasaqmebulia
warmoebis procesSi;
samewarmeo unari (gergilianoba).
ekonomikur literaturaSi savsebiT samarTlianad gvxvdeba
mosazreba sabazro ekonomikaSi saxelmwifos (mTavrobis)
ekonomikuri rolis warmoebis mexuTe (damoukidebel) faqtorad
aRiarebis Taobaze.* am mosazrebis Tanaxmad, mTavroba, asrulebs
ra zogierT aucilebel funqcias, did zegavlenas axdens sawarmoo
procesze. igi wyvets biznesis funqcionirebisaTvis iseT mniSvnelovan sakiTxebs, rogoricaa Tavisufali konkurenciis uzrunvelyofa, sawarmoo standartebis pirobebis SemuSaveba-ganxorcieleba
da a.S. garda amisa, sazogadoebis saerTo interesebidan gamomdinare,
saxelmwifo aregulirebs da akontrolebs biznesis funqcionirebas
qveynis masStabiT, zemoqmedebas axdens fasebsa da mTlianad bazarze,
gansazRvravs samuSao drois maqsimumsa da xelfasis minimums,
adgens damqiraveblebsa da daqiravebul muSakebs Soris urTierTobis
samarTlebriv sakiTxebs da wyvets biznesis moRvaweobasTan dakavSirebul mraval mniSvnelovan problemas. zogierTma es mosazreba
SeiZleba sadaod miiCnios, magram, Cveni azriT, erTi ram cxadia:
misi sasargeblo argumentebi ufro meti da damajerebelia, vidre
sawinaaRmdego.
warmoebis procesSi TiToeuli saxeobis resursis roli da
* v.papava, postkomunisturi kapitalizmis politikuri ekonomia da
saqarTvelos ekonomika. _ Tb., 2002, gv.188.
18
mniSvneloba icvleboda industriulamdelidan industriulze da
am ukanasknelidan postindustriul teqnologiaze gadasvlis
kvalobaze. industriulamdel sazogadoebaSi prioritetul rols
asrulebda bunebrivi da SromiTi resursebi, industriulSi _
adamianis SromiT Seqmnili materialuri resursebi, xolo postindustriulSi prioritetuli resursebis rolSi gvevlineba
inteleqtualuri da informaciuli resursebi.
yvela ekonomikur resurss erTi saerTo Zireuli Tviseba
gaaCnia: isini iSviaTia da SezRuduli raodenobiT arsebobs. Cveni
`kosmosuri xomaldi _ dedamiwa~ resursebs Seicavs mxolod
gansazRvruli raodenobiT. maSasadame, ekonomikur resursTagan
bunebasa da sazogadoebaSi ganusazRvreli raodenobiT arc erTi
ar gvxvdeba. piriqiT, yoveli maTgani raodenobrivad met-naklebad
SezRudulia. SezRuduloba ekonomikuri resursebis naklebobaa
(simcirea), maTze moTxovnilebasTan SedarebiT
bunebrivi resursebis SezRuduloba umTavresad ganpirobebulia imiT, rom dedamiwis zedapiris mxolod mcire nawilia
vargisi adamianTa sacxovreblad: dedamiwis 72% zRvebsa da
okeaneebs ukavia, xolo sul raRac 28% _ xmeleTs. TviT xmeleTis mniSvnelovani nawilic gamousadegaria adamianTa saarsebo
saSualebebis Sesaqmnelad, radganac dafarulia yinuliT an ukavia
udabnoebs, tropikul junglebsa da maRalmTian ferdobebs. saqarTveloSi intensiur sasoflo-sameurneo damuSavebas eqvemdebareba teritoriis saerTo farTobis mxolod 17%. bunebrivi
resursebis SezRuduloba naTlad Cans sasargeblo wiaRiseulis
(navTobis, qvanaxSiris, bunebrivi airis da sxv.) maragis magaliTze.
isini, intensiuri eqsploataciis kvalobaze, TandaTanobiT mcirdeba
da sul ufro deficituri xdeba. axali sabadoebis aRmoCena da
aTviseba SezRudulobis problemas ver xsnis.
SromiTi anu adamianiseuli resursebis SezRuduloba Cvens
planetaze mosaxleobis saerTo raodenobis arasakmarisobiT ki
araa ganpirobebuli, aramed imiT, rom mTlianobaSi es maCvenebeli
19
kontinentebis, msxvili regionebisa da calkeuli qveynebis mixedviT,
metismetad uTanabrodaa ganawilebuli. amasTan, SromiTi resursebi
upiratesad SezRudulia profesionalTa ricxovnobiTa da uTanabro
ganawilebiT.
adamianis SromiT Seqmnili materialuri resursebis SezRuduloba TiToeuli qveynis ekonomikuri ganviTarebis doniT, erovnuli simdidris masStaburobiTa da xarisxobrivi SemadgenlobiT
ganisazRvreba. marTalia, igi axali sawarmoo obieqtebis aSenebiT,
damatebiTi simZlavreebis amoqmedebiT da sxva RonisZiebaTa gatarebiT
ivseba, magram xSirad am process, sxva garemoebebTan erTad, fuladi
resursebis nakleboba zRudavs. amisi gardauvali Sedegia Tanamedrove msoflio standartebis Sesabamisi teqnikisa da teqnologiis
ukmarisoba da sazogadoebisaTvis saWiro saqonlisa da momsaxurebis SedarebiT mokrZalebuli moculobiT warmoeba.
amrigad, iSviaToba yvela ekonomikuri resursis damaxasiaTebeli niSania. sul sxva sakiTxia iSviaTobis (SezRudulobis)
xarisxi, simwvave: zogierTi ekonomikuri resursi naklebadaa
SezRuduli, zogierTi _ metad. Tu istoriulad mivudgebiT sakiTxs,
vnaxavT, rom droTa ganmavlobaSi zogierTi resursis SezRuduloba
SeiZleba kidec gaZlierdes, zogierTisa ki _ Serbildes. magaliTad,
wiaRiseulis maragebi TandaTanobiT mcirdeba, ris gamoc am resursis
SezRuduloba Zlierdeba. adamianis mier xelovnuri masalebis
Seqmna arbilebs bunebrivi masalebis SezRudulobis simwvaves.
warmoebis avtomatizacia SefardebiT amcirebs samuSao Zalaze
moTxovnas da amiT amcirebs misi iSviaTobis simwvaves.
deficitis problema da misi axsna ekonomistis
poziciidan. ekonomikuri resursebis SezRudulobis (iSvi-
aTobis) gamo, TiToeuli saxeobis saqonlisa da momsaxurebis
warmoeba mxolod gansazRvruli raodenobiT SeiZleba, maSin, rodesac
sazogadoebis moTxovnilebani mravalferovani da usazRvroa. amitom
igi yovelTvis rodi flobs (an sakmarisad rodi flobs) imas,
20
rac surs. am winaaRmdegobas mniSvnelovanwilad amwvavebs is
garemoebac, rom warmoebriv SesaZleblobaTa zrdis tempebs
(romelsac, Tavis mxriv, aferxebs resursebis iSviaToba), TiTqmis
yovelTvis win uswrebs saqonelsa da momsaxurebaze sazogadoebis
moTxovnilebaTa zrdis tempebi.
deficitis mizezi mdgomareobs imaSi, rom sazogadoebis
moTxovnilebani usazRvroa, maTi dakmayofilebisaTvis saWiro
resursebis raodenoba ki _ SezRuduli. aqedan gamomdinare,
deficiti ganisazRvreba rogorc moTxovnis (sazogadoebis
gadaxdisunariani moTxovnilebebis) gadameteba miwodebaze (imaze,
rac SeiZleba warmoebul iqnas arsebul moTxovnilebaTa
dakmayofilebisaTvis).
rasakvirvelia, yvela awydeba deficitis problemas, magram
sxvadasxva simwvaviT. Raribi adamiani, romelsac ar SeuZlia Tavis
Tavs saukeTeso sacxovrebel adgilze gadasvlis neba misces,
Znelad Tu Seafasebs problemad imas, rom mdidars ar SeuZlia
Tavis Tavs meore `mersedesis~ markis avtomobilis SeZenis ufleba
misces. ekonomistebi arc amtkiceben imas, rom ToTqos Cven yvela
deficitis erTnair problemas vawydebodeT. sinamdvileSi,
ekonomistebi Seiswavlian erT-erT umniSvnelovanes sakiTxs imis
Sesaxeb, Tu rogor nawildeba resursebi da warmoebuli saqoneli
(momsaxureba) saojaxo meurneobebs, sawarmoebs, regionebsa da
qveynebs Soris. saerTod, isini ikvleven yvelafers, rac
dakavSirebulia sazogadoebis moTxovnilebaTa dakmayofilebasTan.
rogorc zemoT aRvniSneT, ekonomikas ainteresebs saqonlisa
da momsaxurebis warmoeba da moxmareba. am cnebaTa ukeT axsnisaTvis gamoiyeneba `moTxovnisa~ da `miwodebis~ cnebebi, romlebsac fundamenturi mniSvneloba aqvs ekonomikis funqcionirebisaTvis. aq gansakuTrebiT sainteresoa imis garkveva, Tu
rogor aris aRniSnuli cnebebi dakavSirebuli deficitis
problemasTan.
moTxovna dakavSirebulia moTxovnilebebTan. im SemTxvevaSi,
21
Tu saqoneli da momsaxureba iqneboda ufaso, adamianebi ubralod,
uproblemod miiRebdnen yvelafers, rasac moisurvebdnen. magram,
rogorc aRvniSneT, moTxovnilebebi praqtikulad usazRvroa: isini,
SesaZloa, SezRuduli iyos mxolod wminda adamianuri mosazrebiT.
miwodeba ki, piriqiT, SezRudulia, rac dakavSirebulia resursebis
iSviaTobasTan.
deficitis problemis arsebobis gamo, potenciuri moTxovna
aWarbebs potenciur miwodebas. amitom sazogadoebam saWiroa
gamonaxos am problemasTan gamklavebis, moTxovnisa da miwodebis
gawonasworebis gzebi. es amocana, uwinares yovlisa, ganekuTvneba
erovnuli ekonomikis dones mTlianad: erToblivi moTxovna
dabalansebuli unda iqnas erTobliv miwodebasTan. sxva sityvebiT,
ekonomikaSi mTlianad gaweuli xarjebis jami unda dabalansdes
warmoebis saerTo moculobasTan. es aseve miekuTvneba konkretul
saqonelsa da momsaxurebasac: moTxovna da miwodeba funTuSaze
iseve unda iyos dabalansebuli, rogorc avtomobilebsa da
kompiuterul teqnikaze.
magram Tu potenciuri moTxovna aWarbebs potenciur miwodebas,
maSin rogor SeiZleba realuri moTxovnisa da realuri miwodebis
dabalanseba? _ amisaTvis saWiroa an Semcirdes moTxovna, an
gadiddes miwodeba, an erTdroulad gakeTdes erTic da meorec.
ekonomistebi detalurad Seiswavlian am process. kerZod, isini
ikvleven, Tu moTxovna rogor egueba miwodebis SesaZleblobebs
da miwodeba rogor regulirdeba samomxmareblo moTxovniT.
22
leqcia 2. ekonomika rogorc
mecniereba resursebis racionaluri
arCevanis Sesaxeb
`ekonomikuri mecnierebis amocanaa
erovnuli resursebis saukeTeso gamoyenebis gzebis Zieba.~
l.stoleriu
SezRuduloba da arCevani. imasTan dakavSirebiT, rom
realurad arsebobs materialur moTxovnilebaTa usazRvroba da
maTi dakmayofilebisaTvis saWiro ekonomikuri resursebis SezRuduloba, praqtikulad yvela individs, saojaxo meurneobas, sawarmos
da mTlianad qveyanas uwevs arCevanis gakeTeba. maSasadame, usazRvro
moTxovnilebebisa da maTi dakmayofilebisaTvis saWiro resursebis
SezRudulobis urTierTdamokidebulebasa da Tanafardobas arCevanis
gakeTebis aucileblobasTan mivyavarT. arsebobs arCevanTan dakavSirebuli sami ZiriTadi problema, romelTa gadawyveta uxdeba
nebismier sazogadoebas:
 ra saqoneli da momsaxureba unda vawarmooT da ra
raodenobiT?
 rogor unda vawarmooT es saqoneli da momsaxureba?
 vin miiRebs da moixmars am saqonelsa da momsaxurebas?
zemoT aRniSnul problemebTan mimarTebiT, nebismieri qveyana
akeTebs iseT arCevans, romelic yalibdeba misi individebis, saojaxo
meurneobebis, sawarmoebisa da samTavrobo organoebis specifikuri
arCevanisagan.
vinaidan Cven ar SegviZlia SeviZinoT (vawarmooT) yvelaferi
is, rac gvesaWiroeba, resursebis moculobidan gamomdinare, gvixdeba
arCevanis gakeTeba. rodesac varCevT SesaZleblobebis gaTvaliswinebiT, SeviZenT (vawarmoebT) im saqonels (momsaxurebas), romelic
gvaniWebs yvelaze met kmayofilebas.
23
gamouyenebel SesaZleblobaTa xarjebi anu alternatiuli xarjebi. arCevani varaudobs msxverpls, ram-
denadac arCevanis gakeTebisas iZulebuli varT uari vTqvaT raRacaze,
raRacas SevelioT, e.i. gaviRoT msxverpli, raTa SeviZinoT (vawarmooT) Cvens mier SerCeuli saqoneli (momsaxureba). rac ufro
mets davxarjavT sakvebis SeZenaze, miT ufro naklebi fuli
dagvrCeba sxva danarCenis SesaZenad. analogiurad, rac ufro
meti raodenobis kvebis produqtebs awarmoebs sawarmo (qveyana),
miT naklebi resursebi darCeba mas danarCeni produqciis sawarmoeblad. maSasadame, erTi saxeobis saqonlis (momsaxurebis) warmoeba da moxmareba gulisxmobs imas, rom am dros Cven msxverplad
gaviRebT sxvebs.
msxverplad gaRebuli saqonlis (momsaxurebis) warmoebis
alternatiuli SesaZleblobebi iwodeba gamouyenebel SesaZleblobaTa xarjebad, anu alternatiul xarjebad.* maTi warmoqmna,
rogorc f.Stoqeri SeniSnavs, `SesaZlebelia mxolod maSin, rodesac
gza xsnilia SezRuduli saxsrebis alternatiuli gamoyenebisaTvis~. ufro gasagebad Tu vityviT, alternatiuli xarjebi
(Rirebuleba) aris im saqonlis (momsaxurebis) sargeblianoba,
romelzec uars vambobT meoresaTvis upiratesobis miniWebis gamo.
* unda SevniSnoT, rom ekonomikur literaturaSi gvxvdeba terminis
`alternatiuli xarjebi~ ramdenime sinonimi: `Canacvlebuli xarjebi~,
`alternatiuli Rirebuleba~ da sxv. amasTan, saWiroa yuradReba mivaqcioT
imasac, rom xarjebis kategoriis tradiciuli gagebisagan ramdenadme
gansxvavdeba `alternatiuli xarjebis~ Sinaarsobrivi datvirTva. aq
`xarjebi~ arapirdapiri mniSvnelobiT gamoiyeneba da migvaniSnebs im
alternatiul SesaZleblobebze, romelTac Cven arCevanis gakeTebisas SeveleviT
xolme da, rogorc f.naiti SeniSnavs, `...ubralod asaxavs konkretul
upiratesobas~.
24
davuSvaT mZRols benzinis SesaZenad an restoranSi sadilisaTvis aqvs sakmarisi Tanxa. vTqvaT, man arCevani gaakeTa benzinis
SeZenaze. maSin benzinis SeZenis alternatiuli xarji iqneba sadili
restoranSi, romelzedac igi iZulebuli iyo uari eTqva. wignis
SeZenis alternatiuli xarji iqneba axali jinsebi, romlis SeZenac
students aseve surda, magram uromlisodac mas mouwevs
universitetSi wasvla. ukanaskneli magaliTi sqematurad SeiZleba
Semdegnairad warmovadginoT (ix. nax. 1.1).
axla davuSvaT, rom sawarmos tvirTi aqvs gadasatani Tbilisidan
foTamde. amis ganxorcieleba mas SeuZlia rogorc sarkinigzo,
ise saavtomobilo transportiT. man gaanaliza yvela mosalodneli
xarji, aseve masTan dakavSirebuli sxva momentebi da gaakeTa
arCevani daniSnulebis adgilamde tvirTis sarkinigzo transportiT
gadazidvis Sesaxeb. am SemTxvevaSi alternatiuli xarji iqneba
tvirTvis saavtomobilo transportiT gadazidvis gaSvebuli
SesaZlebloba.
iseve, rogorc calkeul individsa da sawarmos, mTlianad
sazogadoebasac (saxelmwifosac) uxdeba arCevanis gakeTeba. Tu
saxelmwifos gankargulebaSi arsebuli ekonomikuri resursebi
mTlianad gamoiyeneba sacxovrebeli saxlebis asaSeneblad, maSin
alternatiuli xarjebi iqneba is saavadmyofoebi, skolebi, biblioTekebi an* ofisebi, romelTa aSeneba SesaZlebeli iyo imave
resursebis gamoyenebiT.
racionaluri arCevani. ekonomistebi xSirad mimarTaven
racionalur arCevans. am ukanasknelSi gulisxmoben nebismieri
* unda SevniSnoT: aq `an~ Segvaxsenebs imas, rom alternatiuli
xarjebi aris is, romelic ufro faseulia, saukeTesoa arCevaniT dafiqsirebuli danarCeni alternativebidan (gamouyenebeli SesaZleblobebidan).
25
SezRuduli Semosavali
gaiZulebT airCioT
wigni
an
axali jinsebi
Tqven airCieT wigni
alternatiuli xarjebi _ esaa axali
jinsebi, romelzec uari ganacxadeT
alternatiuli xarjebi = msxverplad
gaRebuli rigiT momdevno yvelaze
sasurveli nivTis SeZena
nax. 1.1. arCevani (wigni) da alternatiuli xarjebi
(axali jinsebi)
26
saqmianobidan miRebuli yvela sargeblianobisa da xarjebis
Sefasebas. es exeba rogorc individebis, saojaxo meurneobebisa
da sawarmoebis, ise mTlianad saxelmwifos saqmianobas.
warmoidgineT, rom Tqven akeTebT SenaZens supermarketSi da
gsurT erTi boTli Rvinis SeZena. ras mianiWebdiT upiratesobas:
daxarjavdiT bevr fuls saukeTeso xarisxis franguli Rvinis
SeZenaze Tu SearCevdiT raimes ufro dabalfasians? racionaluri,
gonivruli gadawyvetilebis misaRebad Tqven unda awon-dawonoT
orive alternativis yvela uaryofiTi da dadebiTi mxareebi.
mSvenieri xarisxis franguli Rvino Tqven mogitanT did
kmayofilebas, magram mas gaaCnia gamouyenebel SesaZleblobaTa
maRali xarjebi: igi Zalian Zviria da Tqven mogiwevT bevri sxva
ramis msxverplad gaReba, Tuki gadawyvetT mis SeZenas. xolo im
SemTxvevaSi ki, Tu Tqven SeiZenT dabalfasian Rvinos, maSin, marTalia,
ver miiRebT misgan iseTsave kmayofilebas, rogorsac miiRebdiT
ZviradRirebulisagan, magram dagrCebaT meti fuli sxvaTa SesaZenad:
am Rvinos gaaCnia gamouyenebel SesaZleblobaTa ufro dabali
xarjebi.
amrigad, racionaluri gadawyvetilebis miReba momxmareblisaTvis niSnavs iseTi saqonlis (momsaxurebis) SerCevas, romelsac
meti sargeblianoba moaqvs daxarjuli fulisaTvis, e.i. yvelaze
metad sargebliania, ramdenadac masSi fasebisa da xarisxis
Tanafardoba optimaluria.
faqtobrivad igive princi pi gamoiyeneba sawarmoebisa da
saxelmwifos mimarT warmoebis Sesaxeb gadawyvetilebis miRebisas. magaliTad, saWiroa Tu ara avtomobilebis mwarmoebelma
sawarmom gaxsnas kidev erTi sawarmoo xazi? am SemTxvevaSi
racionaluri gadawyvetilebis miReba aseve moicavs yvela xarjebisa
da sargeblianobis Sefasebas. sargeblianoba iqneba Semosavali,
romelsac sawarmo miiRebs damatebiTi avtomobilebis gayidviT.
xarjebi ki moicavs damatebiT danaxarjebs samuSao Zalaze,
nedleulze, maragnawilebze da a.S. `kidev erTi sawarmoo xazis~
27
gaxsna xelsayreli iqneba mxolod im SemTxvevaSi, rodesac misgan
miRebuli Semosavlebi (sargeblianoba) gadaaWarbebs masTan dakavSirebul xarjebs.
ufro rTul situaciaSi, rodesac aucilebelia gadawydes
Tu romeli modelis avtomobilebi da TiToeuli modelis ramdeni
avtomobili awarmoos, sawarmom unda Seafasos yoveli alternativis
xarjebi da sargeblianoba, raTa miiRos gadawyvetileba maTi yvelaze
xelsayreli Tanafardobis Sesaxeb.
zRvruli sargeblianoba da zRvruli xarjebi.
ekonomistebi amtkiceben, rom racionaluri arCevani moicavs zRvruli
sargeblianobisa da zRvruli xarjebis Sefasebas. `zRvruli~ aq,
ubralod, gadawyvetilebasTan dakavSirebul damatebiT sargeblianobas an xarjebs niSnavs.
aviRoT martivi magaliTi: ra droze ayenebT maRviZaras momavali
dilisaTvis? davuSvaT, Tqven saxlidan unda gaxvideT 8.30 sT-ze.
SegiZliaT maRviZara daayenoT 7.00 sT-ze. es SesaZleblobas
mogcemT auCqareblad adgeT da mowesrigdeT, magram es imasac
niSnavs, rom Tqven naklebs iZinebT. SesaZlebelia Tqven gadawyvitoT
maRviZaras dayeneba 7.30 sT-ze an sulac 8.00 sT-ze. am SemTxvevaSi
SeZlebT ufro didxans Zils, magram mogiwevT aCqareba. maS,
realurad rogor unda miiRoT gadawyvetileba imis Sesaxeb, Tu
ra droze daayenoT maRviZara?
racionaluri gadawyvetilebis misaRebad Tqven unda SeafasoT damatebiTi Zilis xarjebi da sargeblianoba. sawolSi gatarebuli yoveli damatebiTi wuTi niSnavs Zilis damatebiT wuTs
(zRvruli sargeblianoba), romelic Sesabamisad amcirebs dros
mowesrigebisaTvis, amitom mogiwevT aCqareba (zRvruli xarjebi).
amrigad, racionaluri gadawyvetileba efuZneba damatebiTi Zilis
xarjebsa da sargeblianobas da ara mTeli Ramis Zilis saerTo
xarjebsa da sargeblianobas.
axla aviRoT sxva magaliTi. Tqven, albaT, yovel diliT
28
ivarcxniT Tmas. is, Tu ramden dros xarjavT Tmis varcxnasa da
mowesrigebaze, damokidebulia im zRvrul (damatebiT) sargeblianobaze, romelsac Tqven RebulobT. sarke gagebinebT, rom Tqveni
Tmis mowesrigebas SeiZleba garkveuli dro dasWirdes. ramdenime
damatebiTi wuTis daxarjvis sargeblianoba aRemateba Tqveni drois
damatebiT xarjebs da Tqvenc Tmis varcxnas iwyebT.
rogorc ki Tmis varxniloba TqvenTvis sasurveli ieris miRebas
iwyebs, masze damatebiTi drois xarjvis sargeblianoba klebulobs.
sanam zRvruli sargeblianoba zRvrul xarjebze metia, Tqven
Tmis varcxnas ganagrZobT. magram, garkveul momentSi zRvruli
sargeblianoba aRar giRirT zedmeti drois xarjvad. arsebiTad,
ukompromiso arCevanis _ `an yvelaferi, an araferi~ _ nacvlad,
Tqven kompromisul (racionalur) arCevans akeTebT.
sxva arCevanic aseTive xasiaTisaa. Tu, magaliTad, gaqvT
avtomobili da gsurT benzinis SeZena, Tqven ar gixdebaT
gadawyvetilebis miReba _ avzi mTlianad gaavsoT, Tu benzini
saerTod ar SeiZinoT. samagierod, Tqven unda gadawyvitoT _
ramdeni fuli daxarjoT benzinis SesaZenad imis mixedviT, Tu
rogoria am fulis sxva mizniT gamoyenebis alternatiuli xarjebi.
maSasadame, Tqven aqac zRvruli sargeblianobisa da zRvruli
xarjebis sakuTari Sefasebis safuZvelze akeTebT racionalur
arCevans.
es princi pi gamoiyeneba saojaxo meurneobebis, sawarmoebis
da saxelmwifos mier miRebul racionalur gadawyvetilebaTa
mimarTac. magaliTad, sawarmo, romelic uSvebs avtomobilebs (romlis
Sesaxebac zemoT gvqonda saubari), afasebs avtomobilebis warmoebis
zRvrul sargeblianobasa da xarjebs. sxva sityvebiT, igi erTmaneTs
udarebs avtomobilebis damatebiTi gamoSvebiT miRebul xarjebsa
da Semosavals. Tu damatebiT gamoSvebul avtomobilebs moaqvs
maTze gaweul xarjebze ufro meti Semosavali (sargeblianoba),
maSin maTi warmoeba iqneba xelsayreli, xolo Sesabamisi
gadawyvetileba _ racionaluri.
29
sazogadoebis warmoebrivi SesaZlebloba. racionaluri arCevanis gakeTebis aucileblobis ilustrireba SeiZleba
movaxdinoT warmoebriv SesaZleblobaTa mrudis meSveobiT.
winaswar unda SevniSnoT, rom ekonomikuri resursebis
iSviaTobidan gamomdinare, sazogadoeba dainteresebulia mis gankargulebaSi arsebuli resursebis efeqtiani gamoyenebiT. efeqtianoba niSnavs minimaluri danaxarjebiT maqsimaluri Sedegis miRwevas.
efeqtiania ekonomika, romelic uzrunvelyofs srul dasaqmebasa
da warmoebis srul moculobas.*
axla davuSvaT, rom ekonomika funqcionirebs sruli dasaqmebisa da warmoebis sruli moculobis pirobebSi, sazogadoebis
gankargulebaSi arsebuli ekonomikuri resursebi mudmivi sididea,
ucvlelia teqnologia da bolos, iwarmoeba mxolod ori dasaxelebis saqoneli: personaluri kompiuteri da avtomobili.
resursebis SezRudulobis gamo SeuZlebelia ganusazRvreli
raodenobis kompiuterisa da avtomobilis warmoeba. Tu warmovidgenT ukiduresobas, rom yvela resursi xmardeba kompiuterebis
warmoebas, bunebrivia, gaizrdeba warmoebuli kompiuterebis
raodenoba. magram mainc iarsebebs misi warmoebis maqsimaluri
zRvari wlis ganmavlobaSi. davuSvaT, rom arsebuli resursebisa
da teqnologiis pirobebSi wlis ganmavlobaSi SesaZlebelia maqsimum
40 cali personaluri kompiuteris warmoeba.
meore ukiduresobaa, roca sazogadoebis gankargulebaSi arsebuli resursebi mTlianad gamoiyeneba avtomobilis sawarmoeblad.
* ekonomistebi srul dasaqmebaSi gulisxmoben yvela gamosadegi da
xelmisawvdomi resursis gamoyenebas (am SemTxvevaSi gamoricxulia iZulebiTi
umuSevroba, sasoflo-sameurneo savargulebisa da kapitaluri mowyobilobis
mocdena), warmoebis srul moculobaSi ki _ yvela resursis iseT gamoyenebas,
romelic uzrunvelyofs sazogadoebis materialur moTxovnilebaTa
maqsimalurad srul dakmayofilebas.
30
am SemTxvevaSi, davuSvaT, rom SeiZleba damzaddes maqsimum 10
cali avtomobili.
am or ukiduresobas Soris arsebobs sxva variantebic: Tu
SevamcirebT personaluri kompiuterebis warmoebas, SeiZleba
vawarmooT meti raodenobis avtomobili da, piriqiT. warmoebis
SesaZlo kombinaciebi asaxulia 1.1 cxrilSi.
rogorc vxedavT, cxrilSi mocemulia personaluri kompiuterebisa da avtomobilebis warmoebis xuTi alternatiuli
kombinacia. alternativa A imas niSnavs, rom ekonomikaSi yvela
resursi gamoyenebulia avtomobilebis warmoebisTvis; E alternativis SemTxvevaSi ki iwarmoeba mxolod personaluri kompiuterebi.
cxadia, orive alternativa ararealuria, radgan sazogadoebas
sWirdeba rogorc avtomobilebi, ise personaluri kompiuterebi.
amitom ekonomikuri resursebic Sesabamisad unda iqnas gadanawilebuli, e.i. unda veZeboT A da E-sgan gansxvavebuli variantebi.
cxrili 1.1.
personaluri kompiuterebisa da avtomobilebis
warmoebis alternatiuli SesaZleblobebi sruli
dasaqmebisa da warmoebis efeqtianobis pirobebSi
alternatiuli variantebi
saqonlis
dasaxeleba
A
B
C
D
E
personaluri
kompiuteri
0
10
20
30
40
avtomobili
10
9
7
4
0
31
A da E SualedSi (B, C, D alternativebis SemTxvevaSi) personaluri kompiuterebi iwarmoeba sul ufro meti raodenobiT,
avtomobilebi ki _ piriqiT.
mocemuli cxrilisa da masze dafuZnebuli msjelobis azri
Semdegia: sruli dasaqmebis ekonomika drois yovel momentSi unda
Seelios erTi dasaxelebis saqonlis garkveul nawils, raTa awarmoos
sxva dasaxelebis saqonlis meti raodenoba.
warmoebriv SesaZleblobaTa cxrilis arsis ukeT gagebisaTvis
grafikul gamoxatulebaSi ganvixiloT masSi asaxuli monacemebi.
gamoviyenoT martivi, organzomilebiani grafiki avtomobilebis
warmoebis monacemebis vertikalur (ordinatTa) RerZze, xolo
personaluri kompiuterebis warmoebis monacemebis horizontalur
(abscisaTa) RerZze ganTavsebiT. grafikze marjvniv gadavTvaloT
40 erTeuli personaluri kompiuteri, zeviT _ Sesabamisad 0
erTeuli avtomobili. am SemTxvevaSi miviRebT E wertils. marjvniv
30 erTeuli personaluri kompiuterisa da zeviT 4 erTeuli
avtomobilis aRniSvniT miviRebT D wertils da a.S. am gziT
miRebuli yvela wertilis gaerTianebiT miiReba warmoebriv
SesaZleblobaTa mrudi (ix. nax. 1.2).
yoveli wertili warmoebriv SesaZleblobaTa mrudze gviCvenebs
mocemuli ori saqonlis warmoebis yvela SesaZlo kombinaciis
raRac maqsimalur moculobas, romelic miiRweva sruli dasaqmebisa
da warmoebis sruli moculobis pirobebSi.
magaliTad, B wertilSi warmoebuli iqneba 9 cali avtomobili
da 10 cali personaluri kompiuteri. Tuki avtomobilebis warmoeba
Semcirdeba 4 calamde, maSin personaluri kompiuterebis warmoeba
gaizrdeba 30 calamde. maSasadame, mrudis gaswvriv moZraobisas
meti avtomobilebi niSnavs nakleb personalur kompiuterebs da,
piriqiT.
cxrili da grafiki iZleva zrdadi alternatiuli xarjis
ilustracias. personaluri kompiuteris yvelaze pirveli erTeuli
moiTxovs avtomobilis erT erTeulze uaris Tqmas. personaluri
32
nax. 1.2. warmoebriv SesaZleblobaTa mrudi
kompiuteris damatebiTi erTeulis miReba ki moiTxovs ori erTeuli
avtomobilis uaryofas da a.S. es imas niSnavs, rom personaluri
kompiuteris yoveli damatebiTi erTeulis warmoeba moiTxovs
ufro meti raodenobis avtomobilis damzadebaze uaris Tqmas.
wertilebi warmoebriv SesaZleblobaTa mrudis SigniT (marcxniv
da qveviT) miRwevadia, magram imaze migviTiTeben, rom am SemTxvevaSi
sruli dasaqmeba da warmoebis sruli moculoba ar xorcieldeba.
davuSvaT, qveyanaSi iwarmoeba 4 erTeuli avtomobili da 15 erTeuli
personaluri kompiuteri (V wertili). es imas niSnavs, rom
arsebuli resursebi srulad ar gamoiyeneba, ramdenadac mas 4
avtomobilTan erTad DSeeZlo gamoeSva 30 erTeuli personaluri
kompiuteri. maSasadame, resursebis ganawileba araefeqtiania im
SemTxvevaSi, roca aris SesaZlebloba arsebuli resursebiT meti
33
saqonlis warmoebisa sxva saqonelTa gamoSvebis Seumcireblad.
resursebis SezRuduloba da teqnologiis ucvleloba ganuxorcielebels xdis avtomobilebisa da personaluri kompiuterebis
warmoebis yovelgvar kombinacias warmoebriv SesaZleblobaTa mrudis
gareT (vTqvaT, W wertilze).
naTqvamidan ar unda dagvrCes iseTi STabeWdileba, rom TiTqos
realur sinamdvileSi sazogadoebas ar SeuZlia sxvadasxva
dasaxelebis saqonelTa warmoebis erTdrouli gadideba, e.i.
ekonomikuri zrdis uzrunvelyofa.
sazogadoebis warmoebrivi SesaZleblobebis Sesaxeb msjeloba,
romelic zemoTaa mocemuli, dafuZnebulia or ZiriTad daSvebaze:
1. ekonomika funqcionirebs sruli dasaqmebisa da warmoebis sruli
moculobis pirobebSi; 2. resursebis raodenoba da xarisxi, agreTve
teqnologia ucvlelia.
`sruli dasaqmeba~ da `warmoebis sruli moculoba~ _ es
mxolod idealebia, romliskenac miiswrafvis sazogadoeba. sinamdvileSi ekonomikaSi yovelTvis arsebobs gamouyenebeli resursebi
da, maSasadame, warmoebis gadidebis SesaZlebloba. warmoebis marTvis
mTeli xelovneba swored imaSia, rom es SesaZleblobani rac
SeiZleba srulad iqnas gamoyenebuli.
aseve cvalebadia resursebis raodenoba da teqnologia. droTa
viTarebaSi mosaxleobis ricxvi izrdeba, rasac Tan axlavs SromiTi
resursebis raodenobrivi mateba da xarisxis (ganaTleba, kvalifikacia) amaRleba, samewarmeo unaris ganviTareba. marTalia, samewarmeo saqmianobis Sedegad gamoifita zogierTi energetikuli
da mineraluri resursi, magram, samagierod, xdeba maTi axali
wyaroebisa da saxeobebis aRmoCena da gamoyeneba. Waobebis amoSrobisa
da sairigacio programebis ganxorcielebis Sedegad izrdeba saxnavi
miwebis farTobi. ganuwyvetliv icvleba da srulyofili xdeba
teqnika da teqnologia, rac saSualebas iZleva imave resursebidan
meti da ukeTesi xarisxis produqcia miviRoT.
yovelive es iZleva personaluri kompiuterebisa da avtomo34
bilebis meti raodenobiT warmoebis SesaZleblobas, anu uzrunvelyofs ekonomikur zrdas.
mTeli Cveni msjeloba safuZvels gvaZlevs movaxdinoT ori
ucilobeli da globaluri faqtis konstatacia:
 sazogadoebis moTxovnilebani usazRvroa, xolo resursebi,
romlebic saWiroa am moTxovnilebaTa dakmayofilebisaTvis _
iSviaTi, anu SezRuduli;
 sazogadoebas ar gaaCnia iseTi resursi, romlis gamoyeneba
xarjis gawevasTan ar iyos dakavSirebuli. resursebs rom iSviaToba
ar axasiaTebdeT, maSin zedmeti gaxdeboda arCevani, alternatiuli
gzebis Zieba. radgan sazogadoebis moTxovnilebebi usazRvroa,
xolo resursebi _ SezRuduli, gardauvalia resursebis racionaluri, efeqtiani gamoyenebis gzebis Zieba, rasac ekonomikuri
mecniereba akeTebs.
amdenad, SezRuduli resursebis pirobebSi sazogadoebis
usazRvro moTxovnilebaTa maqsimalurad sruli dakmayofilebisaTvis racionaluri arCevanis Sesaxeb mecnierebas
ekonomika ewodeba .
ufro zustad Tu vityviT, ekonomika aris sazogadoebrivi
mecniereba, romelic ikvlevs iSviaTi resursebis iseTi
gamoyenebis gzebsa da saSualebebs, romlis drosac miiRweva
sazogadoebis usazRvro moTxovnilebaTa maqsimalurad
sruli dakmayofileba . misi mTavari daniSnulebaa ekonomikuri
resursebis ganawilebis yvelaze xelsayreli da efeqtiani gzebis
SerCeva, sazogadoebis usazRvro moTxovnilebebsa da SezRudul
resursebs Soris arsebuli winaaRmdegobis SerbilebisaTvis.
35
leqcia 3. ekonomikuri mecnierebis
genezisi, misi klasifikacia da
struqtura
`ekonomika aris... mecnierebis is
ganyofileba adamianis moqmedebis Sesaxeb, romelic... ikvlevs adamianis Zalisxmevas Tavisi moTxovnilebebis im zomiT dakmayofilebisaTvis, rogoriTac
SeiZleba gaizomos es Zalisxmeva da
es moTxovnebi simdidris an misi saerTo
ekvivalentis, fulis daxmarebiT.~
a.marSali
ekonomikuri
mecniereba erT-erTi uZvelesia mecnierul disciplinaTa sistemaSi.
misi warmoSoba dakavSirebulia warmoebisa da Semdeg warmoebuli
produqtis gacvla-ganawilebis aRmocenebasTan. mogvianebiT, bunebisa
da sazogadoebis Sesaxeb adamianTa codnis sistemas gamoeyo
gansakuTrebuli dargi `politikuri ekonomiis~* saxelwodebiT,
romelic dReisaTvis, sruliad samarTlianad, `ekonomikis~ (`ekonomiksis~) mniSvnelobiTac ixmareba.
ekonomikurma mecnierebam, politikuri ekonomiis saxiT, mecnierebad Camoyalibebis sakmaod grZeli gza ganvlo. ekonomikuri
movlenebisa da procesebis mecnieruli gaazreba adamianTa sazogaekonomikuri mecnierebis genezisi.
* igi Sedgeba sami berZnuli sityvisagan: pollitikos (saxelmwifoebrivi) + oikos (saxli, saojaxo meurneoba) + nomos (wesi, kanoni). amrigad,
es termini sityva-sityviT niSnavs saxlmwifos farglebSi meurneobriobis
kanonebs.
36
doebis warmoSobis momentidanve daiwyo, magram Tavdapirvelad
mas sistemuri xasiaTi ar hqonda. amis dasturia msoflio civilizaciis akvnis _ Zveli aRmosavleTis qveynebis moazrovneTa moZRvrebebSi amokiTxuli Sexedulebebi imdroindeli ekonomikuri cxovrebis calkeul sakiTxebze.
pirveli warmodgenebi ekonomikis, rogorc mecnierebis, Sesaxeb
dakavSirebulia qsenofontes , platonis , aristoteles da sxva
cnobili Zveli berZeni moazrovneebis saxelebTan.
ekonomika, politikuri ekonomiis saxiT, rogorc damoukidebeli mecniereba, warmoiSva ufro mogvianebiT _ sabazro urTierTobaTa Casaxvisa da erovnuli bazris Camoyalibebis periodSi.
politikuri ekonomiis damoukidebel mecnierebad Camoyalibeba
Tan sdevda SexedulebaTa ganviTarebas iseT sadiskusio problemebze,
rogoricaa erovnuli simdidris, materialuri dovlaTis Semqmneli
Sromis xasiaTi, sabazro ekonomikis SesaZleblobaTa Sefaseba,
ekonomikis regulirebis meqanizmis axsna da a.S. am TvalsazrisiT,
uwinares yovlisa, yuradsaRebia pirveli mecnieruli mimarTuleba
_ merkantilizmi, romlis mimdevrebic kapitalis pirvandeli
dagrovebis epoqis vaWarTa interesebs gamoxatavdnen.
merkantilizmis yvelaze gamoCenili warmomadgenlebi iyvnen:
Tomas meni (1571-1641), antuan monkretieni (1575-1621), devid
iumi (1711-1776). antuan monkretienma Tavisi saxeli ukvdavyo
imiT, rom mecnierul brunvaSi pirvelad moaqcia termini
`politikuri ekonomia~ . man 1615 wels gamosca naSromi
`politikuri ekonomiis traqtati~, romelSic igi rCevas aZlevda
ludoviko XIII-s imis Taobaze, Tu rogori ekonomikuri politika
unda gaetarebina saxelmwifos gamdidrebisaTvis.
ganasxvaveben adreul da gviandel merkantilizms. adreuli
merkantilizmis devizi iyo keTilSobili liTonebis gatanis
akrZalva, importis SezRudva, qveyanaSi fulis modinebasTan
dakavSirebuli meurneobrivi saqmianobis waxaliseba. igi qadagebda
fuladi simdidris gadidebas wminda kanonmdebluri gziT. droTa
37
ganmavlobaSi merkantilistebi mixvdnen, rom marto Zvirfasi
liTonebis gatanis regulireba araa sakmarisi qveyanaSi simdidris
dasagroveblad da Semdeg daskvnamde mividnen: qveynis simdidre
damokidebulia ara dagrovili fulis raodenobaze, aramed saqonlis
gatana-Semotanaze. swored aman ganapiroba is, rom gviandeli
merkantilizmi mxars uWerda aqtiur savaWro balanss, e.i.
eqsportis (saqonlis gatanis) gadametebas importze (saqonlis
Semotanaze), rac proteqcionistuli politikis principebs uaxlovdeba da amJamadac gamoiyeneba neomerkantilizmis saxelwodebiT.
ekonomikuri mecnierebis ganviTarebaSi axali, rigiT meore
mimarTuleba iyo fiziokratiuli skola , romelic gamoxatavda
msxvil miwaTmflobelTa interesebs. TviT termini `fiziokratebi~ warmodgeba berZnuli sityvebisagan (physis _ buneba da
kratos _ batonoba, Zala) da sityva-sityviT `bunebis Zalauflebas~
niSnavs.
am mimarTulebis damfuZnebeli da mTavari warmomadgenelia
frangi ekonomisti fransua kene (1694-1774). misi mTavari politekonomiuri nawarmoebia `ekonomikuri tabula~ (1758 w.). masSi
mocemulia sazogadoebrivi produqtis kvlavwarmoebis analizis
genialuri cda naturalur da RirebulebiT elementebs Soris
garkveuli sabalanso proporciebis damyarebis poziciidan.
sagulisxmoa, rom f.kenem uaryo merkantilistTa ZiriTadi
idea imis Taobaze, rom mxolod gacvla qmnis simdidres. simdidris
wyarod man gamoacxada ara ubralod miwaTmoqmedebaSi daxarjuli
Sroma, aramed, saxeldobr, soflis meurneobaSi moxmarebulTan
SedarebiT warmoebuli produqtis gadameteba. misi moZRvrebis
SezRuduloba isaa, rom simdidris erTaderT wyarod igi Tvlida
mxolod miwaTmoqmedebaSi daxarjul Sromas. f.kenesTan erTad,
fiziokratiul ideebs aviTarebdnen misi mowafeebi da Tanamoazreebi:
diupon de nemuri (1739-1817), an tiurgo (1727-1781) da sxv.
fiziokratebma, merkantilistebisagan gansxvavebiT, TvalsaCino
nabiji gadadges win imiT, rom simdidris wyaros kvleva mimoqcevidan
38
warmoebis sferoSi gadaitanes. miuxedavad amisa, isini mowodebis
simaRleze mainc ver aRmoCndnen, ramdenadac simdidris Semqmnelad
mxolod miwaTmoqmedebaSi daxarjul Sromas Tvlidnen.
xazgasasmelia, rom f.kenesTan SedarebiT gacilebiT bevrad
ufro adre fiziokratiuli Sexedulebani savsebiT naTlad aqvs
Camoyalibebuli Cvens saxelovan winapars sulxan-saba orbelians
(romelic kenes `ekonomikuri tabulis~ gamoqveynebamde zustad
100 wliT adre daibada) naSromSi `sibrZne sicruisa~. am
`saidumloebas~ farda axada da mecnierul interesTa sferoSi
moaqcia aw gansvenebulma cnobilma qarTvelma mecnier-ekonomistma
vasil CantlaZem .
ekonomikuri mecnierebis ganviTarebaSi gansakuTrebiT sayuradRebo etapis dawyebis mauwyebeli iyo klasikuri politikuri ekonomiis warmoSoba. misi mTavari warmomadgenlebis
adam smiTisa (1723-1780) da david rikardos (1772-1823)
moZRvreba saTaves iRebda uiliam petis (1623-1686) Sexedulebebidan, romlis didi damsaxureba iyo simdidris wyarod Sromisa
da miwis gamocxadeba.
a.smiTma Tavis sayovelTaod cnobil nawarmoebSi `gamokvleva
xalxTa simdidris bunebisa da mizezebis Sesaxeb~ (1776 w.) Rrmad
gaanaliza im droisaTvis dagrovili ekonomikuri codna da scada
ekonomikuri mecnierebis Semdgomi ganviTareba. misi moZRvrebis
mTavari laitmotivi iyo liberalizmis, ekonomikaSi saxelmwifos
mxolod minimalurad Carevis, moTxovna-miwodebis kanonis Sesabamisad Camoyalibebuli Tavisufali fasebis safuZvelze sabazro
TviTregulirebis idea. am ekonomikur regulatorebs igi `uCinar
xels~ uwodebda. man gamokveTa produqtiuli Sromis roli, warmoaCina Sromis danawilebis mniSvneloba, Seqmna moZRvreba Semosavlebis Sesaxeb, mwyobr sistemad Camoayaliba gadasaxadebiT dabegvris princi pebi da, rac mTavaria, safuZveli Cauyara Rirebulebis
SromiT Teorias (Tumca, am mxriv, bolomde Tanmimdevruli ver
aRmoCnda).
39
d.rikardom ara marto safuZvlianad aiTvisa a.smiTis ideebi,
aramed Tavis epoqaluri mniSvnelobis nawarmoebSi `politikuri
ekonomiisa da dabegvris safuZvlebi~ (1817 w.) SesaniSnavad daZlia
misi moZRvrebis calkeuli susti mxareebi da ganaviTara kidec
isini. d.rikardo gansakuTrebiT cnobilia saerTaSoriso ekonomikaSi
vaWrobis Tavisuflebis upiratesobebisadmi miZRvnili gamokvlevebiT.
am sferoSi Tavisi Tvalsazrisis dasasabuTeblad man daamuSava
koncefcia, romelic cnobilia SefardebiTi upiratesobis Teoriis
saxelwodebiT.
amrigad, ekonomikuri problemebis kvleva klasikurma politikurma ekonomiam, merkantilizmisa da fiziokratiul skolasTan
SedarebiT, mniSvnelovnad waswia win. marto is rad Rirs, rom
erovnuli simdidris wyarod man aRiara sazogadoebriv warmoebaSi
daxarjuli Sroma saerTod. miuxedavad amisa, srulad verc es
mimdinareoba amaRlda mecnieruli WeSmaritebis donemde. misi
erT-erTi udidesi Secdoma iyo qveynis ekonomikur cxovrebaSi
saxelmwifos rolis ugulvebelyofa. arc is iyo swori (rogorc
es SemdgomSi movlenaTa ganviTarebam daadastura), rom am skolis
warmomadgenlebi TavianT Teoriul daskvnebs yvela drois, qveynisa
da xalxis meurneobrivi sistemis axsnisaTvis gamosadegad miiCnevdnen.
ekonomikuri mecnierebis genezisSi TvalsaCino adgili ukavia
marqsistul ekonomikur moZRvrebas . karl marqsis ekonomikuri
moZRvreba gadmocemulia mis mTavar nawarmoebSi `kapitali~, romelic
gamocemulia oTx tomad (7 wignad). am moZRvrebis Tanaxmad:
 kapitalisturi sazogadoeba Sedgeba ori ZiriTadi urTierTdapirispirebuli klasisagan. maT Soris yovelgvari simdidris
Semqmnelia proletariati, romelic eqsploatacias ganicdis kapitalistTa klasisagan;
 kapitalizmis mudmivi Tanamgzavria makroekonomikuri arastabiluroba: perioduli ekonomikuri krizisebi, umuSevroba da
inflacia;
40
 Tavisi Sinagani antagonisturi winaaRmdegobebi kapitalizms gardauvalad miiyvans TviTuaryofamde da mis adgilas
aRmocendeba sazogadoebriv sakuTrebaze dafuZnebuli uklaso
komunisturi wyobileba;
 saqonlis Rirebulebis Semqmnelia abstraqtuli Sroma,
romlis sididesac gansazRvravs sazogadoebrivad aucilebeli
samuSao dro; mogeba warmoadgens zedmeti Rirebulebis gardaqmnil
formas, realizebul zedmet Rirebulebas. misi erTaderTi wyaroa
daqiravebul muSakTa aunazRaurebeli (zedmeti) Sroma, romlis
Sedegebsac muqTad iTvisebs kapitalistTa klasi.
kapitalizmis ganviTarebis kanonzomierebaTa Rrma mecnieruli
analizis safuZvelze, mecnierebisa da praqtikisaTvis mravali
sagulisxmo daskvnis gakeTebis miuxedavad, marqsistulma ekonomikurma moZRvrebam Tavis mTavar postulatebSi kraxi ganicada da
istoriis kuTvnilebad iqca. amis mizezi ramdenimea:
jer erTi, rogorc maRalganviTarebul qveynebSi arsebuli
mdgomareoba mowmobs, sakuTrebis mravalformianobaze damyarebuli regulirebadi sabazro ekonomika gacilebiT ufro sicocxlisunariani da moqnili sistema aRmoCnda, vidre amas marqsi
varaudobda;
meore, ver gaamarTla marqsis mier idealuri wyobis saxiT
SemoTavazebulma, ZiriTadad sazogadoebriv sakuTrebasa da
centralizebul direqtiul dagegmvaze dafuZnebulma, meurneobis
socialisturma sistemam. man ganviTarebis garkveul etapze amowura
Tavisi potenciuri SesaZleblobani da daiSala;
mesame, klasikuri skolis mier SemuSavebuli da marqsis mier
gaRrmavebuli Rirebulebis SromiTi Teoria, agreTve mogebis bunebis
marqsiseuli axsna ver gamodga Seuvali da stabiluri. Tanamedrove
msoflio ekonomikuri azris Tanaxmad, mogebis (rogorc Rirebulebis
Semadgeneli nawilis) SeqmnaSi met-naklebi zomiT yvela ekonomikuri
resursi monawileobs.
dRes Cveni valia vixelmZRvaneloT marqsiseuli mecnierulad
41
dasabuTebuli daskvnebiT da ukuvagdoT usafuZvlo, dromoWmuli,
dogmaturi Sexedulebebi.
Tanamedrove ekonomikuri azris ganviTareba saTaves iRebs
XIX saukunis dasasrulidan da XX saukunis dasawyisidan, rodesac
Camoyalibda neoklasikuri skola . igi kritikulad udgeboda
k.marqsis ekonomikur moZRvrebas, uaryofda mis mTavar postulatebs
da qadagebda Tavisufali konkurenciis progresulobas. neoklasikuri skolis ideebi privalirebda XX saukunis 30-ian wlebamde,
Semdeg ki axali mimarTulebiT misi Secvlis gardauvaloba TviT
cxovrebam gansazRvra.
XX saukunis 30-iani wlebidan ekonomikuri mecnierebis
ganviTarebaSi sruliad axali etapi dakavSirebulia jon meinard
keinzis (1883-1946) saxelTan. man Tavisi genialuri nawarmoebiT
_ `dasaqmebis, sargeblisa da fulis zogadi Teoria~ (1936 w.)
Zireulad Secvala ekonomikuri azrovneba XX saukuneSi da
Rirseuli adgili daikava mecnier-ekonomistTa rigebSi (mas savsebiT
marTebulad Tvlian a.smiTis da k.marqsis rangis mecnierad). mas
es sapatio da gamorCeuli adgili moupova ekonomikis saxelmwifoebrivi regulirebis Teoriis SemuSavebam.
XX saukunis 70-iani wlebis meore naxevridan, rodesac
ekonomikaSi saxelmwifos gadaWarbebuli Carevis Sedegad SesamCnevi
gaxda sazogadoebrivi warmoebis ganviTarebis damuxruWeba, kvlav
aqtualuri gaxda neoklasikuri skolis edeebi, romelic ZiriTadad
ZalaSia dResac. misi nairsaxeobebidan gansakuTrebuli popularobiT
sargeblobs monetarizmi (fuZemdebelia amerikeli ekonomisti
milton fridmeni), romlis warmomadgenelTa mtkicebiT, fulis
simyares gansakuTrebuli mniSvneloba aqvs ekonomikis normaluri
funqcionirebisaTvis. monetarizmis ideebma pirveli oficialuri,
praqtikuli gamoyeneba hpova aSS-is prezidentis (1980-1988) roland reiganis ekonomikur programaSi, romelic cnobilia `reiganomikis~ saxelwodebiT. sxvadasxva variaciebiT igi dResac
farTod gamoiyeneba mravali qveynis ekonomikur politikaSi.
42
ekonomikuri mecnierebis struqtura. ekonomikuri
mecniereba, ekonomikuri realobis mravalferovnebidan gamomdinare,
rTuli struqturiT xasiaTdeba. pirobiTad mas adareben didi
muxis xes, romlis `korpusia~ ekonomikuri Teoria (an, ubralod,
ekonomika), xolo `totebi~ _ kerZo ekonomikuri mecnierebebi,
romlebic Seiswavlian ekonomikuri sistemis calkeul mxareebs,
mis dargobriv, funqciur, regionul da istoriul aspeqtebs.
dargobriv ekonomikur mecnierebebs miekuTvneba, uwinares
yovlisa, calkeul dargTa ekonomikuri kanonzomierebebis Semswavleli disciplinebi: mrewvelobis ekonomika, soflis meurneobis
ekonomika, transportis ekonomika, mSeneblobis ekonomika da a.S.,
agreTve sxvadasxva dargis mijnaze warmoSobili ekonomikuri
disciplinebi: ekonomikuri kibernetika, bunebaTsargeblobis ekonomika,
demografiuli statistika, safinanso-sabanko statistika da sxv.
maTi mizania meurneobis calkeul da mimijnave dargebSi mimdinare
ekonomikuri movlenebisa da procesebis kanonzomierebaTa siRrmiseuli Seswavla.
funqciur ekonomikur mecnierebebs miekuTvneba: finansebi
da krediti, statistika, menejmenti, marketingi, sabuRaltro aRricxva
da sxv., romelTa kvlevis areali Semoifargleba ekonomikis
calkeuli funqciuri sferoebisaTvis damaxasiaTebeli TaviseburebebiT.
regionuli ekonomikis damoukidebel mecnierul disci plinad gamoyofis aucilebloba ganapiroba regionul WrilSi
ekonomikis ganviTarebisaTvis damaxasiaTebelma specifikurma kanonzomierebebma.
gamoiyofa ekonomikuri codnis kidev erTi gansxvavebuli aspeqti
_ istoriuli. mxedvelobaSi gvaqvs iseTi mecnieruli disciplinebi,
rogoricaa ekonomikis istoria da ekonomikuri azris istoria,
romlebic ekonomikisa da ekonomikuri azris ganviTarebas ikvleven
istoriul WrilSi.
ekonomikur mecnierebaTa saerTo damaxasiaTebeli niSania is,
43
rom resursebis SezRudulobasa da moTxovnilebaTa ganusazRvrelobas, anu SesaZleblobasa da sasurvelobas Soris Seusabamobis
gamo, yvela maTganis winaSe mTavar dilemad dgas resursebis
racionaluri arCevanis problema. gansxvaveba ki am problemisadmi
TiToeuli maTganis midgomis aspeqtebsa da uSualo Seswavlis
obieqtTa TaviseburebebSi unda veZioT.
ekonomikuri Teoria (igive ekonomika) yvela ekonomikuri
mecnierebis safuZvelTa safuZvelia. igi, ZiriTadad, zogad Teoriulekonomikur problemebs swavlobs. misi kvlevis sferoa mTeli
`ekonomikuri samyaro~, kvlevis sagani _ resursebis racionaluri
arCevanisa da sameurneo subieqtTa ekonomikuri qcevis zogadi
kanonzomierebebi. amitom mas savsebiT marTebulad fundamentur,
universalur ekonomikur disciplinas uwodeben. kerZo ekonomikur
mecnierebaTa kvlevis sfero ki SedarebiT lokaluri xasiaTis
ekonomikuri movlenebisa da procesebis Taviseburebebisa da
ganviTarebis kanonzomierebebis SeswavliT Semoifargleba.
ekonomikuri Teoria ekonomikuri politikis SemuSavebis safuZvelia. Tu ekonomikuri Teoria avlens ekonomikuri qcevis zogad
principebs, ekonomikuri politika ukve akontrolebs ekonomikuri
qcevis Sedegebs an zemoqmedebs maTze. ekonomikuri Teoriisa da
princi pebis donidan ekonomikuri politikis doneze gadasvliT
mkveTri naxtomi keTdeba pozitiuri ekonomikidan normatiuli
ekonomikisaken.
pozitiur ekonomikas saqme aqvs ukve SerCeul da Teoriis
doneze gadasul faqtebTan, romlebic Tavisufalia subieqturi
msjelobebisagan. igi cdilobs mecnieruli warmodgenebis formulirebas ekonomikuri qcevis Sesaxeb.
normatiuli ekonomika , piriqiT, ganasaxierebs subieqtur
SefasebiT msjelobebs imis Sesaxeb, Tu rogori unda iyos ekonomika,
an rogori politikuri aqciis Catarebaa rekomendirebuli
gansazRvrul ekonomikur Teoriaze dayrdnobiT an gansazRvruli
ekonomikuri TvalsazrisiT.
44
martivad rom vTqvaT, pozitiuri ekonomika Seiswavlis imas,
rac aris, maSin rodesac normatiuli ekonomika gamoxatavs
subieqtur SefasebiT warmodgenebs imis Sesaxeb, rac unda iyos.
pozitiuri ekonomika ikvlevs faqtobriv mdgomareobas, normatiuli
ekonomikis amocana ki aris imis gansazRvra, Tu rogori konkretuli
pirobebi an ekonomikis aspeqtebia sasurveli an arasasurveli.
pozitiuri mtkiceba, magaliTad, ase JRers: `umuSevroba Seadgens
qveynis Sromisunariani mosaxleobis 17%-s~. normatiuli msjeloba
am Temaze Semdegnairad gamoiyureba: `umuSevroba unda Semcirdes
qveynis Sromisunariani mosaxleobis 6%-mde~. maSasadame, rogorc
ki winadadebaSi Cndeba sityvebi `unda~ da `saWiroa~, SeiZleba
safuZvlianad vivaraudoT, rom Cvens winaSea normatiuli msjeloba.
ekonomistTa Soris aSkara uTanxmoebaTa umetesi nawili
dakavSirebulia ekonomikuri movlenisadmi normatiul midgomasTan,
subieqtur SefasebiT msjelobebze damyarebul politikasTan.
umniSvnelovanesi uTanxmoebebi asaxaven sxvadasxva SefasebiT
msjelobaTa an mosazrebaTa arsebobas imis Sesaxeb, Tu rogori
unda iyos Cveni sazogadoeba. magaliTad, gacilebiT meti Tanxmoba
arsebobs sakiTxze imis Sesaxeb, Tu faqtobrivad rogor nawildeba
Semosavali, vidre imis Sesaxeb, Tu rogor unda ganawildes igi.
maSasadame, mTavaria imis xazgasma, rom SefasebiTi msjelobebi
(normatiuli mtkicebebi) warmoiSoba ekonomikuri politikis
dasabuTebis doneze.
amrigad, pozitiuri ekonomika axdens faqtebis konstatacias
(`ra aris~), maSin rodesac normatiul ekonomikas gamoaqvs
subieqturi SefasebiTi msjelobebi (`ra unda iyos~).
ekonomikuri Teoria Sedgeba mikro-, makro- da megaekonomikuri Teoriebisagan. Sesabamisad, `ekonomikis~ ZiriTadi Semadgeneli
nawilebia mikroekonomika, makroekonomika da megaekonomika
anu msoflio ekonomika .
mikro- da makroekonomikebis gamoyofa da maTi Semswavleli
disci plinebis warmoSoba Tvisebrivi naxtomi iyo ekonomikuri
45
Teoriis (ekonomikis) ganviTarebaSi. Tavdapirvelad Camoyalibda
mikroekonomikuri Teoria, romlis Seswavlis sagania calkeuli
bazrisa da ekonomikuri agentebis (saojaxo meurneoba, sawarmo,
saxelmwifo) qcevis (funqcionirebis) axsna. mogvianebiT, ganviTarebis
garkveul safexurze, mikroekonomikuri Teoriis sabazro
meTodologia erTgvar winaaRmdegobaSi aRmoCnda saerToekonomikuri
procesebis analizis arasabazro meTodologiasTan.
sistemurobis princi pis realizacia moiTxovda imas, rom
mTel ekonomikas miscemoda sabazro ekonomikiseburi axsna. es
rTuli amocana brwyinvaled gadaWra gamoCenilma ingliselma
ekonomistma jon meinard keinzma . man XX saukunis 30-ian
wlebSi safuZveli Cauyara makroekonomikur Teorias, romlis sagania
mTlianad erovnuli ekonomikuri sistemis ganviTarebis kanonzomierebaTa Seswavla.
makroekonomika da mikroekonomika iseT urTierTdamokidebulebaSia, rogorc mTeli da misi Semadgeneli nawili. arsebobs aseTi
xatovani Sedarebac: `Tu makroekonomika swavlobs tyes saerTod,
mikroekonomika tyeSi xeebis SeswavliT Semoifargleba~. mTelisa
da misi nawilis Seswavla-ganxilvis TvalsazrisiT, aseTi gamijvnis
safuZveli unda veZioT maTi kvleva-Ziebis ara masStabebSi, aramed
Tvisebriv maxasiaTeblebSi, romlebic ganasxvaveben maTi ganviTarebis
kanonzomierebebs.
miuxedavad imisa, rom dReisaTvis ar arsebobs mkacri sazRvari mikroekonomikasa da makroekonomikas Soris, mikroekonomikur
problemaTa Soris mTeli damajereblobiT gamocalkevebulad
ganixilaven samewarmeo saqmianobas, sawarmosa da saojaxo meurneobis
ekonomikas da calkeuli ekonomikuri agentebis saqmianobasTan
dakavSirebul sxva mniSvnelovan sakiTxebs.
makroekonomikur problemaTa Soris Tanamedrove ekonomikur
literaturaSi tradiciulad ganixilaven Sromisunariani mosaxleobis dasaqmebas, inflacias, umuSevrobas, mTliani erovnuli
(Sida) produqtisa da erovnuli Semosavlis warmoebas, ekonomikur
46
zrdas, fulad-sakredito sistemas, ekonomikis saxelmwifoebriv
regulirebas da sxv.
rogorc zemoT aRvniSneT, mikro- da makroekonomikasTan erTad,
ekonomikaSi damoukidebeli struqturuli elementis saxiT^gamoiyofa agreTve megaekonomika (msoflio ekonomika). igi
moicavs da ikvlevs Sromis saerTaSoriso danawilebas, saerTaSoriso
vaWrobas, saerTaSoriso savaluto sistemas, savaWro da sagadasaxdelo balanss, saerTaSoriso ekonomikur integracias da
saerTaSoriso masStabis sxva problemebs.
ekonomikuri Teoria (ekonomika) ikvlevs mikro-, makro- da
megaekonomikis mxolod zogad safuZvlebs. amasTan, TiToeul maTgans
aqvs kvleva-Ziebis specifikuri sfero, obieqti, sagani da amitomac
arian isini damoukidebeli ekonomikuri disci plinebi.
ekonomikuri movlenebisa da procesebis Seswavlis swored
amgvar logikas emyareba `mikro- da makroekonomikis safuZvlebis~
winamdebare saswavlo kursi. igi ekonomikur Teorias gadmoscems
praqtikuli sameurneo cxovrebis Sesabamisad da masTan erTianobaSi.
mikro- da makroekonomikis safuZvlebis kursis
Seswavlis aucilebloba da sargeblianoba. Tqven,
albaT, sakuTar Tavs ekiTxebiT: `ratom unda Seviswavlo ekonomika?~
marTlac, deficitis problemas Tqven ver gadawyvetT da iSviaTi
resursebis ganawilebac saxelmwifo moxeleTa saqmed geCvenebaT.
magram,YTu ufro Rrmad CaukvirdebiT, mixvdebiT, rom ekonomika
Tqven gexebaT rogorc calkeul individs, rogorc Semosavlis
mimRebsa da fulis mxarjvels, rogorc moqalaqes. Tqvens kvebaze,
Cacmaze, sacxovrebel problemebze da, warmoidgineT, Tqvens
Tavisufal drozec ki garkveulwilad gavlenas axdens ekonomikuri resursebi anu warmoebis faqtorebi. ekonomikis Seswavla
dagexmarebaT am faqtorebis ukeT gagebaSi.
imisda miuxedavad, Tqven sawarmos mflobeli an menejeri
xarT, Tu ubralod am sawarmoSi muSaobT, ekonomikis codna
47
dagexmarebaT Tqveni sawarmosa da Tqveni piradi momavlisaTvis
sasargeblo gonivruli arCevanis gakeTebasa da swori gadawyvetilebebis miRebaSi. ekonomika Tqveni moqalaqeobrivi movaleobis
SesrulebaSic dagexmarebaT. Tqven gaqvT privilegia, Cveni qveynis
marTvas xeli SeuwyoT xmis micemis meSveobiT, riTac Tqven
gamoxatavT sakuTar azrs mraval sakiTxze, maT Soris ekonomikur
problemebzec.
rogorc xedavT, ekonomika masSi CarTul yvela adamians moicavs.
Tavisufali ekonomikuri sistemis qveyanaSi Cveni, rogorc
momxmareblis, individualuri arCevani gansazRvravs imas, Tu ra
iwarmoeba, rogor iwarmoeba esa Tu is produqcia da vin iRebs
mas. am kiTxvebze pasuxebi ki asaxavs mocemul qveyanaSi arsebuli
ekonomikuri sistemis tips.
miuxedavad zemoT aRniSnulisa, ver vityviT, rom ekonomikuri
codnis gareSe adamians arseboba ar SeuZlia. magram upriani
iqneba aseTi adamianis Sedareba ukompasod okeaneSi gasul gemTan,
romelic mravali gauTvaliswinebeli dabrkolebis gadalaxvis
gareSe ver aRwevs daniSnulebis adgils. rogorc pol samuelsoni
SeniSnavs, `adamiani, romelsac sistematurad ar uswavlia
ekonomikuri Teoria, hgavs yrus, romelic cdilobs Seafasos
musikaluri nawarmoebi~.
ara marto Teoriuladaa dasabuTebuli, aramed praqtikuladac mravalgzis dadasturebulia, rom vinc daeufleba ekonomikur
mecnierebas, mas Zalian gauadvildeba rogorc ekonomikis rTul
problemebSi garkveva, ise cxovrebaSi gzis gakafva, swori arCevanis SedarebiT iolad gakeTeba. igi rTul viTarebaSic ki ise
igrZnobs Tavs, rogorc Tevzi wyalSi.
swored es hqonda mxedvelobaSi jon meinard keinzs , roca
werda: `ekonomikuri Teoria ar aris uSualod sameurneo politikaSi
gamosayenebeli mza rekomendaciebis krebuli. is aris ufro meTodi,
inteleqtualuri instrumenti, azrovnebis teqnika, vidre moZRvreba.
yvelas, vinc mas flobs, igi exmareba swori daskvnebis gamotanaSi~.
48
meore mxriv, rogorc j.robinsoni SeniSnavs, ekonomikis
Seswavlis azri `mdgomareobs ara imaSi, rom miviRoT ekonomikur
sakiTxebze mza pasuxebi, aramed imaSi, rom vicodeT, rogor ar
unda wamovegoT ekonomistebis ankesze~.
ekonomikis mecnierebis Seswavla sargeblobas moutans ara
marto ekonomists, aramed nebismier pirovnebas, magaliTad, myidvels
(romelmac arCevani unda gaakeTos imis Tobaze, Tu Tavisi moTxovnilebebisa da realuri SesaZleblobebis Sesabamisad, ra saqoneli
da momsaxureba SeiZinos, ra raodenobiTa da rogori TanmimdevrobiT),
abiturients (romelmac Tavisi niWis, unarisa da midrekilebis
gaTvaliswinebiT, gonivrulad unda gansazRvros Tavisi momavali
profesia), meanabres (romelmac sworad unda gaanalizos finansur
bazarze arsebuli mdgomareoba da Tavis danazogs mouZebnos
anabrad Setanis yvelaze momgebiani forma), meojaxes (romelmac
racionalurad unda warmarTos Tavisi saojaxo meurneoba),
damsvenebels (romelmac Tavisi fizikuri mdgomareobis, survilebisa
da finansuri SesaZleblobebis gaTvaliswinebiT, gaazrebulad unda
gadawyvitos, Tu sad, rodis da romel sanatoriumSi daisvenos an
icxovros) da a.S.
Tu i.Sumpeteris Segonebas mivyvebiT, `sruliadac ar aris
savaldebulo, rom yvelam moindomos biznesmenoba an ekonomistoba,
magram Tanamedrove adamians uTuod unda hqondes naTeli
warmodgena ekonomikuri Teoriisa da praqtikis Sesaxeb, iseve
rogorc maTematikis, istoriis, fizikis, biologiisa da sxvaTa
Sesaxeb, da SeiZleba cota metic~.
Tu Tqven maincdamainc mtkiced gaqvT gadawyvetili saxelmwifo samsaxurSi an biznesis sferoSi moRvaweoba, amTaviTve
cxadia, rom `ekonomikis safuZvlebis kursis~ daufleba sagrZnoblad
gagiadvilebT am sakmaod rTul, magram saintereso samyaroSi
gzis gakafvas, aRniSnuli mimarTulebiT Tqveni niWisa da unaris
swrafad da mTeli sisruliT gamovlenas. ekonomikis safuZvlebis
codna ueWvelad dagexmarebaT ekonomikur urTierTobaTa sworad
49
aRqma-SefasebaSi da, rac gansakuTrebiT mniSvnelovania, imaSi, rom
aqtiuri monawileoba miiRoT qveynis ekonomikis warmatebiT
funqcionirebaSi.
Tqven, albaT, migiqceviaT yuradReba im faqtisaTvis, rom kargi
eqimi swrafad da zustad usvams avadmyofs diagnozs. es ganpirobebulia imiT, rom man icis janmrTeli organizmis funqcionirebis
Taviseburebebi, romlisgan gadaxvevac paTologiaa. igive iTqmis
maRalkvalificiur xelosanze, romelic advilad aRmoaCens avtomobilis dazianebis mizezs. amas igi axerxebs imiT, rom SesaniSnavad
icis, Tu rogor muSaobs gamarTuli avtomobilis sistema.
swored asea ekonomikaSic. maRalkvalificiuri ekonomistia
is, vinc kargadaa garkveuli jansaRi ekonomikuri organizmis
funqcionirebis kanonzomierebebSi da advilad xvdeba misgan
gadaxvevebs. aseTi specialistis kargad mofiqrebul rekomendaciebs
SeuZlia `daavadebuli ekonomikis gankurnebisaTvis~ xelis Sewyoba.
amitom, SemTxveviTi rodia is, rom dasavleTis ganviTarebuli
qveynebis xelisuflebis organoebSi, iuristebTan erTad, ZiriTadad
ekonomistebi ikaveben sapasuxismgeblo Tanamdebobebs.
axla imis Sesaxeb, _ ekonomikuri mecniereba Sesaswavlad
advilia Tu Zneli. rogorc istoriuli wyaroebidanaa cnobili,
kvanturi fizikis fuZemdebelma maqs plankma erTxel mokrZalebiT
aRniSna, rom man Tavisi moRvaweoba ekonomistobiT daiwyo, magram
Semdeg am profesias Tavi daaneba misi sirTulis gamo. roca
mocemul sakiTxze saubrobdnen, Tanamedrove maTematikuri logikis
pionerma bertran raselma SeniSna: `saocaria, piradad me
ekonomikur Teoriaze xeli aviRe imitom, rom igi metismetad
martivia~.
marTlac, orive Tvalsazrisi Seicavs WeSmaritebis marcvals.
ekonomikis mecniereba Tavisi SinaarsiT martivic aris da rTulic,
xolo Sesaswavlad _ advilicaa da Znelic. amasve adasturebs
nobelis premiis laureatis milton fridmenis mosazrebac:
`ekonomika momxibvleli mecnierebaa. gansakuTrebul mimzidvelobas
50
mas aniWebs is, rom misi fuZemdebeli princi pebis moTavseba erT
furcelze SeiZleba da es principebi imdenad martivia, rom maTi
gageba yvelas ZaluZs. miuxedavad amisa, isini cota vinmes Tu
esmis~. ekonomikis mecnierebis Seswavlis sirTulezea gamaxvilebuli
yuradReba ekonomikuri azris istoriis msoflioSi cnobili
specialistis a.hailbroneris mosazrebaSi imis Taobaze, rom
`ekonomikis Seswavla moiTxovs aqlemis amtanobasa da wmindanis
moTminebas~.
magram, esoden mkacri Segonebani nu SegaSinebT. isic xom
cnobilia, rom mizanswrafuli Sromis winaSe faqtiurad ar arsebobs
gadaulaxavi siZnele. Tanac, ecadeT, gamoimuSaoT ekonomikuri
azrovnebis Cvevebi da Tu erTxel daiwyeT aseTi azrovneba, Semdeg
aRarasodes SeCerdebiT.
sazogadoebrivi cxovrebis mdidari gamocdilebiT dadasturebulia, rom ar aris aucilebeli mosamarTle imave dros rTul
neiroqirurgiul operaciebs akeTebdes, an eqims, Tavisi profesiuli
movaleobis SesrulebasTan erTad, SeeZlos sasamarTlo davebis
gadaWra, magram ekonomikuri mecnierebis, yovel SemTxvevaSi misi
safuZvlebis codna sazogadoebis TiToeuli wevrisaTvis (imisaTvis,
visac ekonomikuri cxovrebis labirinTebSi brmad xetiali ar
surs) metad saWiro da aucilebelia.
51
?
testebi SeZenili codnis
SemowmebisaTvis
1. saojaxo meurneobis gaZRolis xelovnebis aRsaniSnavad termini `ekonomika~ pirvelad gamoiyena:
a. aristotelem;
b. platonma;
g. qsenofontem;
d. antuan monkretienma.
2. CamoTvlili ekonomikuri resursebidan kapitalurs
miekuTvneba:
a. samewarmeo unari;
b. miwa da misi simdidre;
g. fuladi saxsrebi;
d. Senoba, Carxi, kompiuteri.
3. deficiti ewodeba mdgomareobas, rodesac:
a. sasurveli saqonlis fasebi Zalian maRalia;
b. momxmareblebi ver yiduloben sasurveli saqonlis
saWiro raodenobas;
g. sasurveli saqoneli imdenia, rom veRar iyideba;
d. sasurveli saqonlis fasebi Zalian dabalia.
4. CamoTvlilTagan im ZiriTad arCevanTa ricxvs, romlebic nebismierma sazogadoebam unda gaakeTos, ar miekuTvneba:
a. ra saqoneli unda vawarmooT da ra raodenobiT?
b. rogor unda vawarmooT es saqoneli?
g. ra unda vuyoT resursebs, romlebic SezRuduli araa?
d. vin miiRebs da moixmars warmoebul saqonels?
52
5. msxverplad gaRebuli saqonlis warmoebisa da
moxmarebis alternatiuli SesaZleblobebi iwodeba:
a. warmoebis xarjebad;
b. cvalebad xarjebad;
g. alternatiul xarjebad;
d. zRvrul xarjebad.
6. CamoTvlili mtkicebebidan arasworia:
a. haers ara aqvs alternatiuli xarjebi;
b. advokatebi arafers qmnian da amitom maTi Sroma araa
mwarmoebluri;
g. `ufaso~ ganaTleba sinamdvileSi ar arsebobs;
d. ekonomikaSi termini `SezRuduli~ exeba resursebs.
7. ekonomistebis mtkiceba resursebis SezRudulobis
fardobiTobis Sesaxeb gulisxmobs, rom:
a. resursebi SezRudulia mxolod Rarib qveynebSi;
b. resursebi SezRudulia nebismier qveyanaSi;
g. resursebis SezRuduloba SeiZleba Seicvalos, Tu
Seicvleba sazogadoebis moTxovnilebani da mis gankargulebaSi
arsebuli resursebis raodenoba;
d. SezRuduli da mcire raodenobiT arsebuli resursebi
erTi da igivea.
8. resursebis SezRuduloba da teqnologiis ucvleloba ganuxorcielebels xdis ori sxvadasxva dasaxelebis
saqonlis warmoebis yovelgvar kombinacias:
a. warmoebriv SesaZleblobaTa mrudze;
b. warmoebriv SesaZleblobaTa mrudis SigniT;
g. warmoebriv SesaZleblobaTa mrudis gareT;
d. warmoebriv SesaZleblobaTa mrudis zeda marcxena
monakveTze.
53
9. CamoTvlili problemebidan mikroekonomikurs miekuTvneba:
a. ori valutis gasacvleli kursi;
b. inflaciis tempi;
g. avtomobilis fasi;
d. ekonomikis zrdis moculoba mimdinare wels gasul
welTan SedarebiT.
10. inflaciis tempsa da umuSevrobis dones ikvlevs:
a. finansebis zogadi Teoria;
b. megaekonomika;
g. makroekonomika;
d. mikroekonomika.
11. istoriaSi adam smiTisa da karl marqsis rangis
ekonomistad da makroekonomikuri Teoriis fuZemdeblad
miCneulia:
a. fridrix engelsi;
b. jon meinard keinzi;
g. joan robinsoni;
d. irvin fiSeri.
2
Tema
e konomi ku r si stem aT a
formebi da ti pebi
`kapitalizmis mTavari naklia sikeTis uTanabro ganawileba, socializmis
mTavari upiratesobaa gaWirvebis Tanabari ganawileba~.
u.CerCili
`administraciul-mbrZanebluri sistema uzrunvelyofs warmoebuli saqonlis met-naklebad Tanabar ganawilebas,
magram mas SeuZlia Tanasworobis garantia mxolod siRatakeSi da ara keTildReobaSi~.
Jak dreze, edmon malinvo
`sabazro ekonomikis sistema SeiZleba ganvixiloT, rogorc yvelaze
ganviTarebuli makoordinebeli sistema~.
a.lindbeki
54
55
leqcia 4. ekonomikuri sistemis arsi,
amocanebi da klasifikaciis
kriteriumebi
ekonomikuri sistemis arsi. wina TemaSi warmoeba
daxasiaTebuli iyo zogadad, abstraqtulad. magram realur
sinamdvileSi warmoeba arsebobs ara zogadad, aramed konkretulad, gansazRvruli formiT, anu ama Tu im ekonomikuri sistemis
saxiT. nebismier epoqasa da qveyanaSi warmoeba arsebobs
ama Tu im ekonomikuri sistemis saxiT . sxvanairad rom
vTqvaT, ekonomikuri sistema sazogadoebrivi warmoebis arsebobisa
da sazogadoebis sameurneo cxovrebis organizaciis formaa.
ekonomikuri sistema aris erToblioba urTierTobebisa
da procesebisa, romelTac adgili aqvs sazogadoebaSi im
sakuTrebrivi da organizaciuli institutebis safuZvelze, romlebic gabatonebulia mocemul sazogadoebaSi .
nebismier qveyanaSi arsebuli ekonomikuri sistema asaxavs mis
istorias, tradicias da, rac mTavaria, politikur realobas.
ekonomikur sistemaTa klasifikaciis kriteriumebi. ekonomikuri sistemebi erTmaneTisagan gansxvavdebian ori
ZiriTadi niSniT: 1. warmoebis faqtorebze sakuTrebis formiT;
2. ekonomikuri agentebis koordinirebisa da marTvis wesiT.
pirveli niSani ukavSirdeba ekonomikur resursebze sakuTrebis
uflebas, romelic SeiZleba iyos kerZo, saxelmwifoebrivi, koleqtiuri da Sereuli. meore niSani ki dakavSirebulia nebismieri
sazogadoebis winaSe mdgari sami urTierTdakavSirebuli problemis
(ra vawarmooT? rogor vawarmooT? visTvis vawarmooT?) gadaWrasTan. TiToeuli ekonomikuri sistema gansxvavebulad, misTvis damaxasiaTebeli wesebiT wyvets am problemebs.
sxvadasxva qveynis ekonomikuri sistemebi, romelTa meSveobiTac
xdeba zemoT aRniSnuli problemebis gadaWra, erTmaneTisagan
56
gansxvavdebian; TiToeul maTgans gaaCnia misTvis damaxasiaTebeli
specifikuri Taviseburebani. miuxedavad amisa, bevr maTgans Soris
mainc aris garkveuli msgavseba, rac SesaZleblobas gvaZlevs
warmovadginoT isini Semdegi oTxi ZiriTadi ti piuri jgufis
saxiT:
 tradiciuli (Cvevebze damyarebuli) ekonomikuri sistema;
 Tavisufal konkurenciaze damyarebuli sabazro ekonomikuri sistema (wminda kapitalizmi);
 administraciul-mbrZanebluri (komunisturi) ekonomikuri
sistema;
 Tanamedrove sabazro (Sereuli) ekonomikuri sistema.
ekonomikur sistemaTa Soris arsebuli sxvaobis gamoaSkaravebis saukeTeso meTodia Tavisuflebis xarisxis
Sefaseba, romelsac isini sTavazoben ekonomikur agentebs warmoebis
faqtorebis flobisa da sakuTari ekonomikuri interesebis realizaciis sferoSi. ekonomikur agentTa Tavisuflebis xarisxi
dakavSirebulia sakuTrebasTan .
ra aris TviT sakuTreba? didi xnis manZilze gabatonebuli
iyo mosazreba, rom sakuTreba _ esaa adamianis urTierToba nivTebTan,
misi Zalaufleba nivTebze, maTi flobis, gankargvisa da gamoyenebis
SesaZlebloba. SemdgomSi aseTi Sexeduleba mniSvnelovnad Seicvala.
amJamad sakuTrebis ganmartebaSi dominirebs socialuri safuZveli.
XIX saukunis moazrovnis p.prudonis gamoTqmaSi _ `sakuTreba
_ es qurdobaa~ _ Cadebulia is azri, rom Tu erTi piri flobs
raime nivTs, igi imavdroulad ar SeiZleba meore pirsac ekuTvnodes.
amiT isaa naTqvami, rom sakuTrebis Sinaarsi adamianTa urTierTobaa.
marTalia, sakuTreba gulisxmobs adamianis urTierTobas
nivTebTan, magram imavdroulad, sakuTreba adamianTa urTierTobaa, romelic gamoxatavs adamianis mier am nivTebis miTvisebis
gansazRvrul formas.
Tu gaviTvaliswinebT, rom dovlaTis warmoeba da miTviseba
sazogadoebis arsebobisa da ganviTarebis pirobaa, SegviZlia vTqvaT,
57
rom sazogadoeba ar SeiZleba arsebobdes sakuTrebis gareSe,
istoriis manZilze icvleba mxolod sakuTrebis formebi .
sakuTrebas mravali forma gaaCnia. maT Soris mTavaria: 1.
kerZo sakuTreba (individualuri da koleqtiuri); 2. saxelmwifo sakuTreba (federaciis anu saerTo-erovnuli, federaciis
subieqtebis da munici paluri); 3. Sereuli sakuTreba.
sazogadoebis istoriis gariJraJze, pirvelyofil sazogadoebaSi, gabatonebuli iyo koleqtiuri, Temuri sakuTreba warmoebis
faqtorebsa da Sromis produqtebze. aTaseuli wlebis manZilze
adamianma ar icoda `Cemi~ da `Seni~. ganviTarebis ufro maRal
safexurze gaCnda kerZo sakuTreba, romelic gvevlineboda sxvadasxva
saxiT: uSualo mwarmoeblis, glexisa da xelosnis kerZo sakuTrebis,
monaTmflobelisa da feodalis, mewarme-kapitalistis kerZo
sakuTrebis saxiT.
Tanamedrove sabazro ekonomikis pirobebSi Tanabari uflebiT
nebadarTulia sakuTrebis yvela forma. sakuTrebis uflebas icavs
kanoni.
sakuTrebis subieqti SeiZleba iyos: calkeuli pirovneba,
ojaxi, koleqtivi, saxelmwifo, munici paliteti, partia, sazogadoebrivi organizacia.
sakuTrebis obieqtebs sam jgufad yofen:
 uZravi qoneba: miwa, wiaRiseuli, sawarmoo da arasawarmoo
daniSnulebis Senoba-nagebobani, gzebi, infrastruqturis obieqtebi
da sxv.
 moZravi qoneba: manqanebi da mowyobilobani, instrumentebi, aveji, mza produqcia, fuli, fasiani qaRaldebi da a.S.
 inteleqtualuri dovlaTi: gamogoneba, literaturisa
da xelovnebis nawarmoebebi, informacia, programa gamomTvleli
manqanebisaTvis da sxv.
sakuTrebis uflebis realizacia dakavSirebulia iseT cnebebTan,
rogoricaa: floba, gankargva, gamoyeneba. srulyofili, klasikuri
mesakuTrea is, vinc yvela CamoTvlil uflebas daubrkoleblad
58
da Seukvecavad axorcielebs, e.i. vinc aris sakuTrebis obieqtTa
mflobelic da ganmkargavic; visac ufleba aqvs gamoiyenos isini
Tavisi survilis Sesabamisad (gayidos, gaasaCuqros, daagiraos,
ijariT gasces, memkvidreobiT gadasces da a.S.).
SesaZlebelia flobis, gankargvisa da gamoyenebis uflebebi
erTmaneTs dascildes. mesakuTres SeuZlia es uflebebi (yvela an
zogierTi) droebiT sxvas gadasces, magram es ar auqmebs sakuTrebis
uflebas. magaliTad, roca mesakuTre miwas ijariT gadascems
fermers, fermeri iZens miwis gamoyenebis uflebas, magram mesakuTre
ar kargavs masze sakuTrebis uflebas. roca adamiani daqiravebiT
muSaobs, igi damqiravebels aZlevs Tavisi samuSao Zalis gamoyenebis
uflebas, magram samuSao Zala mis sakuTrebad rCeba.
sakuTreba (sakuTrebis forma) gansazRvravs ekonomikuri sistemis bunebas . amas adasturebs kacobriobis mTeli
istoria. magram am debulebis WeSmaritebis naTelsayofad Sors
wasvla araa saWiro. ram gamoiwvia is, rom, roca dRis wesrigSi
daisva yofil ssrk-Si arsebuli totalitaruli ekonomikuri
sistemis Secvlis sakiTxi, pirvel rigSi, gadasawyveti Seiqna
sakuTrebis problema? ratomaa, rom ekonomikuri krizisidan
saqarTvelos gamosvlis upirveles pirobad miCneul iqna sakuTrebis
radikaluri reforma?
orive kiTxvas erTi pasuxi gaaCnia: imitom, rom sakuTrebis
formis Secvlis gareSe SeuZlebelia ekonomikuri sistemis Secvla.
am SemTxvevaSi logika sruliad naTelia: imisaTvis, rom daCqardes
sazogadoebis progresi, aucilebelia misi xelSemSleli, moZvelebuli,
mankieri ekonomikuri sistemis damsxvreva, magram es ar xerxdeba
misi safuZvlis _ sakuTrebis Zireuli gardaqmnis gareSe.
es zogadi msjeloba ufro konkretuli da xelSesaxebi rom
gavxadoT, SegviZlia vTqvaT, rom sakuTrebis formazea damokidebuli: (1) warmoebis faqtorTa SeerTebis wesi; (2)
produqtis ganawilebis wesi; (3) meurneobis marTvis xasiaTi da formebi; (4) Sromis stimulebi; (5) resursebis
59
gamoyenebis efeqtianoba; (6) dazogvisadmi midrekileba.
warmoebis faqtorTa SeerTebis wesi yoveli ekonomikuri
sistemis fundamenturi urTierTobaa. am wess ki gansazRvravs
warmoebis faqtorebze sakuTrebis arsebuli forma. Tu warmoebis
faqtorebi TviTon mwarmoebelTa sakuTrebaSia, maSin warmoebis
faqtorTa SeerTeba xdeba uSualod. im SemTxvevaSi ki, roca
sazogadoebis wevrTa erTi nawili moklebulia warmoebis faqtorebs,
samuSao Zalis SeerTeba sxva resursebTan xdeba sul sxva wesiT
_ samuSao Zalis daqiravebis da warmoebis faqtorebis ijariT
gacemis gziT.
warmoebis faqtorebze sakuTrebis forma gansazRvravs
warmoebis Sedegis _ produqtis ganawilebis wess. produqti
ekuTvnis imas, visac ekuTvnis warmoebis faqtorebi. Tu mwarmoebeli
imave dros ekonomikuri resursebis mesakuTrecaa, cxadia, produqtic
misi sakuTrebaa. warmoebis sxva faqtorebs moklebuli muSaki
Rebulobs xelfass. Tu warmoebis faqtorebi koleqtiur sakuTrebaSia, produqtic koleqtivis kuTvnilebaa. zogadi saxiT SegviZlia
vTqvaT, rom sazogadoebis wevrebs Soris Semosavlebis ganawileba,
saboloo jamSi, damokidebulia imaze, Tu rogoraa ganawilebuli
(vis sakuTrebaSia) ekonomikuri resursebi.
sakuTrebis formazea damokidebuli warmoebis marTvis
forma da xasiaTi. roca warmoeba kerZo sakuTrebaSia, mesakuTre
TviTon marTavs mas Tavisi Sexedulebebisamebr. saqmis arsi ar
icvleba imiT, rom man SeiZleba marTvis funqciebi gadaakisros
menejers. es ukanaskneli mesakuTris neba-survilis Semsrulebelia
mxolod. gansxvavebulia koleqtiuri sakuTrebis obieqtTa marTva:
aq marTvis funqcias asrulebs TviT koleqtivi da mis mier
arCeuli organoebi. Tu warmoeba saxelmwifo sakuTrebaa, mas
marTavs saxelmwifos mier daniSnuli piri.
sakuTrebis forma gansazRvravs Sromisadmi adamianis
damokidebulebas. yofili ssrk kavSiris gamocdilebam dagvanaxa,
rom sakuTrebas mowyvetili adamiani kargavs interess Sromisadmi,
60
rac, sabolood, aRatakebs sazogadoebas. Sromis Sinagani (da ara
garegani, administraciuli, iZulebiTi) stimuli gaaCnia imas, vinc
warmoebis pirobebisa da Sedegebis mesakuTrea.
sakuTrebis ufleba adamians stimuls aZlevs misi
sakuTrebis obieqtebi (resursebi) gamoiyenos maqsimaluri
efeqtianobiT . im SemTxvevaSi, roca resursebi sxvas ekuTvnis,
maTi gamoyenebis efeqtianoba ecema. albaT, yvelas SeumCnevia didi
gansxvaveba mZRolis mier avtomobilis movlaSi imisda mixedviT,
misi sakuTrebaa igi, Tu sxvisi. Tu avtomobili sakuTaria, mZRoli
mas saTuTad epyroba, radgan icis, rom swori movlis gareSe misi
SekeTebis xarjebi gaizrdeba da Semosavali Seumcirdeba. magram,
roca avtomobili sxvas ekuTvnis da mZRoli daqiravebuli muSakia,
igi, Tavisi Semosavlis gadidebiT dainteresebuli, cdilobs meti
`gamoswuros~ avtomobils da amisaTvis ar erideba eqsploataciis
wesebis darRvevasac. man icis, rom SekeTebis xarjebi sxvam unda
gaiRos. sxvisi an `aravisi~ (saerTo sakuTrebis) resursebis
gamoyeneba mflangvelurad xdeba.
sakuTrebis xeluxlebloba stimuls aZlevs adamians
Tavisi Semosavlis nawili dazogos, daagrovos da, amdenad,
kidev ufro gamdidrdes: es xom imave dros mTeli sazogadoebis gamdidrebaa?! Tu sakuTrebis ufleba saimedod araa daculi,
saRi azri adamians ukarnaxebs Tavisi Semosavlis meti nawili
dResve gamoiyenos, daxarjos.
sakuTrebis obieqtTa Tavisufali gankargvisa da gamoyenebis
ufleba xels uwyobs ekonomikis wonasworobas. sakuTrebis obieqtTa
Tavisufali yidva-gayidvis pirobebSi resursebi gadadis im dargebSi,
sadac meti Sedegis motana SeuZliaT, e.i. sadac maTi gamoyenebis
saWiroeba metia. amiT myardeba wonasworoba warmoebasa da
moxmarebas Soris, moTxovnasa da miwodebas Soris.
ekonomikur sistemaTa zemoT aRniSnuli ZiriTadi ti pebis
daxasiaTebamde, upriani iqneba ganvixiloT ekonomikuri sistemis
funqcionirebis istoriulad cnobili ori uzogadesi forma:
61
naturaluri meurneoba da sasaqonlo meurneoba.
ekonomikuri sistemis funqcionirebis uzogadesi formebi. ekonomikuri sistemis funqcionirebis pirveli
istoriuli forma iyo naturaluri meurneoba. esaa ti pi
warmoebisa, romelic misTvis saWiro yvela produqts an
maTs umetesobas TviTonve awarmoebs .
naturaluri meurneobis produqti ar iqceva saqonlad, yidvagayidvis obieqtad, aramed warmoqmnis TviT mwarmoeblisaTvis
sasicocxlod aucilebel fondebs: warmoebis saSualebebs,
moxmarebis sagnebs da maragebs. naturalur meurneobaSi, magaliTad,
marcvali unda damzaddes imdeni raodenobiT, rom igi sakmarisi
iyos TviT mwarmoeblisa da misi ojaxis wevrTa moTxovnilebebis
dasakmayofileblad, ise furaJad pirutyvisa da frinvelisaTvis,
agreTve Teslad, raTa momaval wels SesaZlebeli gaxdes warmoebis
ganmeoreba.
istoriulad naturaluri warmoebis safuZveli iyo miwaTmoqmedeba da mecxoveleoba. magram igi gardauvlad gulisxmobs
Sinamrewvelobasac, e.i. memcenareobisa da mecxoveleobis produqtebis Sin gadamuSavebas, raTa maT saboloo saxe mieceT. am
SemTxvevaSi meurne ara marto xnavs, Tesavs, pirutyvs uvlis,
aramed, agreTve, marcvleuls fqvavs, purs acxobs, rTavs, qsovs,
tansacmelsa da fexsacmels ikeravs, saxls iSenebs, Sromis iaraRebs
amzadebs da a.S.
amrigad, naturaluri meurneoba Tavisi bunebiT mravaldargovania: radgan gacvlas adgili ara aqvs, igi iZulebulia yvelaferi,
rac mas sWirdeba, TviTon daamzados.
naturaluri meurneoba warmoadgens gankerZoebul, karCaketil,
TviTmyofad mikrosamyaros, romlisTvisac damaxasiaTebelia tradiciebisa da Cvevebis batonoba . masSi saukuneebis manZilze
misdevdnen tradiciul saqmianobas, warmoebis masStabi da struqtura TiTqmis ucvlelia. uZraoba, rutinuli teqnika, ganviTarebis
62
uaRresad neli tempi _ ai, naturaluri meurneobis damaxasiaTebeli
niSnebi.
ekonomikuri sistemis meore istoriuli ti pia sasaqonlo warmoeba. esaa ti pi warmoebisa, romelSic produqtebi mzaddeba ara sakuTari moxmarebisaTvis, aramed
gasacvlelad . Tanamedrove gagebiT, sasaqonlo meurneobis
ucilobeli atributia is, rom gacvla xdebodes yidva-gayidvis
gziT, fulis meSveobiT, e.i. adgili hqondes mimoqcevas: s_f_s.
produqtebis uSualo gacvla (barteri) jer kidev araa
srulyofili sasaqonlo meurneoba.
sasaqonlo warmoeba warmoiSva pirvelyofil-Temuri wyobilebis daSlis procesSi, mniSvnelovnad ganviTarda monaTmflobelobisa da feodalizmis dros, xolo warmoebis gabatonebul
formad gadaiqca kapitalizmis epoqaSi. dRes igi gabatonebulia
mTels msoflioSi.
sasaqonlo warmoebis safuZvelia Sromis sazogadoebrivi danawileba da mwarmoebelTa gankerZoebuloba, damoukidebloba.
Sromis bunebrivi danawileba arsebobda pirvelyofil
sazogadoebaSic. esaa Sromis danawileba asakisa da sqesis mixedviT:
qali bavSvebs zrdida, keras inaxavda, zrdasruli mamakaci nadirobda,
miwas amuSavebda, xandazmulebi Sromis iaraRebs amzadebdnen, bavSvebi
didebs exmarebodnen. magram Sromis aseTi danawileba ar warmoSobs
sasaqonlo warmoebas da gacvlas.
Sromis danawilebas adgili aqvs Tanamedrove warmoebis SigniTac. produqtis damzadebis procesSi muSakebi sxvadasxva operaciebs asruleben. magram arc es warmoSobs sasaqonlo warmoebas da gacvlas.
sul sxvaa Sromis sazogadoebrivi danawileba . igi gulisxmobs sameurneo saqmianobis specializacias, meurneobis dargebisa
da qvedargebis warmoSobas, romlis gardauvali Sedegia produqtebis
gacvla.
Sromis pirveli didi sazogadoebrivi danawileba iyo
63
64
cxrili 2.1.
Sromis nayofiereba
(hipoTezuri monacemebi)
I mwarmoebeli
II mwarmoebeli
jami
barbarosTa masidan mejoge tomebis gamoyofa, ramac safuZveli
Cauyara regularul gacvlas. im safexurze gacvlis mTavari
obieqtebi iyo pirutyvi da mecxoveleobis produqtebi.
Sromis meore didi sazogadoebrivi danawileba iyo
miwaTmoqmedebisagan xelosnobis gamoyofa. amis Semdeg gacvla
kidev ufro gafarTovda.
Tu Tvals gavadevnebT istorias, vnaxavT, rom warmoebis mTeli
progresi dakavSirebulia Sromis danawilebis Semdgom gaRrmavebasTan, specializaciasTan. es procesi dResac mimdinareobs.
ismis kiTxva: ratom moxda, rom naturaluri meurneoba, romelic
TiTqmis ori milioni wlis manZilze batonobda, Secvala sasaqonlo
meurneobam? raSi mdgomareobs am ukanasknelis upiratesoba? am
kiTxvebze mokle pasuxi aseTia: sasaqonlo warmoebam imitom
gaimarjva, rom igi adidebs Sromis nayofierebas .
naTqvamis sailustraciod mivmarToT martiv magaliTs (ix.
cxrili 2.1). vTqvaT, sazogadoeba Sedgeba ori mwarmoeblisagan
da TiToeuli maTgani amzadebs ori dasaxelebis produqts (A da
B). davuSvaT, rom maTi samuSao drois fondic Tanabaria da
Seadgens 30-30 saaTs, saidanac naxevari ixarjeba A produqtis,
naxevari ki _ B produqtis warmoebaze.
amasTan, vigulisxmoT, rom Sromis nayofiereba gansxvavebulia:
pirveli mwarmoebeli 15 saaTSi amzadebs A produqtis 15 erTeuls,
xolo danarCen 15 saaTSi _ B produqtis 7,5 erTeuls. meore
mwarmoebeli, piriqiT, drois imave monakveTSi amzadebsA produqtis
7,5 erTeuls da B produqtis 15 erTeuls.
amrigad, A produqtis warmoebaSi pirveli mwarmoeblis Sromis
nayofiereba orjer maRalia, vidre meore mwarmoeblisa, xolo B
produqtis warmoebaSi meore mwarmoeblis Sromis nayofiereba
orjer maRalia pirvel mwarmoebelTan SedarebiT. mwarmoebelTa
Soris aseTi gansxvaveba bunebrivia, radgan isini gansxvavdebian
niWiT da unariT, midrekilebiT, kvalifikaciiT, warmoebis pirobebiT.
axla davuSvaT, rom moxda Sromis specializacia: pirveli
A
B
A
B
samuSao drois fondi (sT)
15
15
15
15
60
Sromis nayofiereba specializaciamde (15 sT-Si damzadebuli
produqciis raodenoba)
15
7,5
7,5
15
45
Sromis nayofiereba specializaciis Semdeg
30
_
_
30
60
15 A-s 15 B-ze gacvlis Semdeg
mwarmoeblebs gaaCniaT
15
15
15
15
60
mwarmoebeli mTlianad gadavida A produqtis warmoebaze (radgan
misi Sromis nayofiereba aq ufro maRalia), xolo meore
mwarmoebeli _ B produqtis warmoebaze. es imas niSnavs, rom
axla pirveli mwarmoebeli 30 saaTSi daamzadebs A produqtis
30 erTeuls, xolo meore mwarmoebeli _ B produqtis 30 erTeuls.
Tuki mwarmoeblebi erTmaneTs gaucvlian 15 A-s da 15 B-s, TiToeuls
aRmoaCndeba orive produqtis 15-15 erTeuli.
amrigad, Tu specializaciamde orive mwarmoebeli amzadebda
orive produqtis 45 erTeuls, specializaciis Semdeg produqciis
raodenoba gaizarda 60 erTeulamde.
motanili magaliTis analizi gviCvenebs, rom Sromis da65
nawileba, specializacia, rac sasaqonlo warmoebis safuZvelia, adidebs Sromis nayofierebas .
sazogadoebam ukve didi xania aiTvisa is ubralo WeSmariteba,
rom TviTuzrunvelyofa, e.i. cda imisa, rom saWiro produqtebis
meti nawili TviTon awarmoo, araefeqturia. amas naTlad xedavda
Sromis danawilebis udidesi Teoretikosi adam smiTi. igi ambobda:
`ojaxis saRad moazrovne meTauris ZiriTadi wesia _ saxlSi ar
gaakeTos is, risi yidva ufro iafia. TerZi ar cdilobs TviTon
Seikeros fexsacmeli, aramed yidulobs mas xarazisagan. xarazi
TviTon ki ar ikeravs tansacmels, aramed qiraobs TerZs. fermeri
ar cdilobs arc erTisa da arc meoris gakeTebas, aramed qiraobs
dasaxelebul xelosnebs. TiToeuli maTganisaTvis xelsayrelia
Tavisi Zala gamoiyenos iq, sadac mas upiratesoba gaaCnia
mezoblebTan SedarebiT, xolo Tavisi produqtis nawiliT iyidos
danarCeni yvelaferi~.
saqonelwarmoeba SeiZleba iyos martivi, rTuli (kapitalisturi)
da `gegmiani~ (socialisturi). pirveli ori dafuZnebulia kerZo
sakuTrebaze, mesame ki _ saxelmwifo sakuTrebaze.
martivi saqonelwarmoeba upiratesad emyareba mwarmoebelTa
pirad Sromas. aq, rogorc wesi, warmoebis mesakuTre da mwarmoebeli
erTi da igive piria da, Sesabamisad, warmoebuli produqtic misi
sakuTrebaa.
rTuli (kapitalisturi) saqonelwarmoeba TiTqmis mTlianad
emyareba sxvisi (daqiravebuli) Sromis gamoyenebas. aq warmoebis
mesakuTre da mwarmoebeli sxvadasxva piria, warmoebuli produqti
mesakuTres ekuTvnis, daqiravebuli muSaki ki xelfass iRebs. aseT
urTierTobaSi xSirad warmoiSoba interesTa dapirispireba
mesakuTresa da mwarmoebels Soris. mas ukavSirdeba warmoebis
muSakTa gaficvebi xelfasisa da Sromis pirobebis gasaumjobeseblad.
Sromis sazogadoebrivi danawilebis gaRrmaveba da saqonelgacvlis masStabebis gafarToeba wvril saqonelmwarmoeblebs iTrevs
sabazro stiqiis morevSi, Sedegad maTi nawili Canagdeba, nawili
66
ki mdidrdeba. TandaTanobiT aRmocendeba msxvili (kapitalisturi)
saqonelwarmoeba, romelic iRebs sayovelTao xasiaTs, ramdenadac
saqonlur formas iZens ara mxolod adamianTa mier warmoebuli
produqti, aramed TviT mwarmoeblis Sromis unari _ samuSao
Zala.
sabolood, sazogadoebrivi urTierToba iRebs sasaqonlo
urTierTobis formas. kapitalisturi sazogadoebis simdidre
warmogvidgeba `uamravi saqonlis grovad~, calkeuli saqoneli ki
_ am simdidris elementarul formad, romelSic Canasaxis saxiT
mocemulia sabazro ekonomikis mamoZravebeli motivebi.
`gegmiani~ (socialisturi) saqonelwarmoebis dros, rTul
(kapitalistur) saqonelwarmoebasTan SedarebiT, SezRudulia
sasaqonlo urTierTobaTa sferoebi da masStabebi. am sakiTxze
ufro vrclad qvemoT iqneba saubari.
67
leqcia 5.
ekonomikur sistemaTa
ZiriTadi ti pebi da modelebi
tradiciuli (Cvevebze damyarebuli) ekonomikuri sistema. ekonomikuri sistemebidan yvelaze uZveless
tradiciuli (Cvevebze damyarebuli) ekonomika warmoadgens ,
romelSic sazogadoebis winaSe mdgar sam kiTxvaze (ra? rogor?
visTvis?) pasuxi tradiciebs eyrdnoba.
tradiciuli (Cvevebze damyarebuli) ekonomikuri sistema
amJamad iSviaTia. igi ganagrZobs arsebobas ekonomikurad sustad
ganviTarebul qveynebSi. aziis, afrikisa da samxreT amerikis
miyruebuli soflebi, beduinebis momTabare tomebi _ tradiciuli
ekonomikis ti piuri magaliTebia. misi elementebi SemorCenilia
zogierT ganviTarebul qveyanaSic (magaliTad, aSS-s pensilvaniis,
aiovasa da ohaios StatebSi).
tradiciuli ekonomikisaTvis damaxasiaTebelia: CamorCenili
teqnika da teqnologia, xeliT Sromis batonoba, mravaldargianoba
da mravalwyobianoba. es ukanaskneli imaSi gamoixateba, rom erTmaneTis gverdiT arsebobs sxvadasxva sameurneo sistema: naturalur-Temuri meurneoba, romelic damyarebulia koleqtiur Sromaze,
wvrilsaqonluri warmoeba, romelsac safuZvlad udevs kerZo
sakuTreba da individualuri Sroma. aseT ekonomikaSi adamianTa
absoluturi umravlesoba sofelSi cxovrobs da misdevs
miwaTmoqmedebas, mecxoveleobas, ufro xSirad ki nadirobas an
meTevzeobas. aseT ekonomikas naturalursac uwodeben, ramdenadac
aq yvelaferi ZiriTadad sakuTriv mwarmoeblis arsebobisaTvis
aucilebeli minimaluri moculobiT iqmneba.
tradiciuli ekonomikuri sistema xasiaTdeba mosaxleobis
SedarebiT dabali keTildReobis doniT. aq adamianTa saqmianobis
ZiriTadi principebi, maTi cxovrebis wesi praqtikulad ar icvleba
saukuneebis manZilze, yvelaferi keTdeba winaprebis msgavsad, cota
iwarmoeba da mosaxleobis umravlesoba arsebobis SenarCunebis
68
zRvarzea. sazogadoebis cxovrebaSi Warbobs saukuneebis ganmavlobaSi gamomuSavebuli tradiciebi da Cvevebi, kasturi da wodebrivi
dayofa. memkvidreobiToba da kasturi kuTvnileba karnaxobs
adamianebs maT ekonomikur rols da amis gamo batonobs socialurekonomikuri uZraoba. religiuri da kulturuli faseulobebi aq
pirveladia ekonomikur saqmianobasTan SedarebiT, xolo sazogadoeba
mxars uWers status guo-s SenarCunebas.
Tavisufal konkurenciaze damyarebuli sabazro
ekonomikuri sistema (wminda kapitalizmi). pirobiTad
ase uwodeben im sameurneo sistemas, romelic arsebobda
ganviTarebul kapitalistur qveynebSi XVIII-XIX saukuneebSi da
romlis bevri niSan-Tviseba dResac ZalaSia. masSi igulisxmeba
ekonomikuri saqmianobis iseTi sistema, romelSic TiToeuli misi
subieqtis qceva motivirebulia piradi egoisturi interesebiT;
yoveli ekonomikuri erTeuli cdilobs Tavisi Semosavlis maqsimizebas gadawyvetilebaTa individualurad miRebis safuZvelze.
sabazro meqanizmi ki erTmaneTTan akavSirebs da koordinacias
uwevs am individualur gadawyvetilebebs. am sistemaSi bazris
meSveobiT wydeba sazogadoebis winaSe mdgari problemebi (ra?
rogor? visTvis?).
Tavisufali sabazro ekonomikuri sistemis (wminda kapitalizmis) umTavresi ganmsazRvreli elementebia:
 ekonomikuri resursebisa da warmoebis Sedegis kerZo
sakuTreba;
 mewarmeobisa da arCevanis Tavisufleba;
 piradi interesi;
 Tavisufal konkurenciaze dafuZnebuli sabazro meqanizmi;
 fasebis sistema;
 saxelmwifos SezRuduli ekonomikuri roli.
mokled ganvixiloT TiToeuli maTgani:
Tavisufal sabazro ekonomikur sistemaSi ekonomikuri resursebi da warmoebis Sedegi aris kerZo pirebis
69
sakuTrebaSi. amasTan, arsebobs kerZo sakuTrebis gamoyenebis
samarTlebrivi SezRudvebi. magaliTad, kanoniT akrZalulia resursebis gamoyeneba narkotikebis sawarmoeblad.
kerZo sakuTrebas uSualod ukavSirdeba mewarmeobisa
da arCevanis Tavisufleba . Tavisufal sabazro sistemaSi kerZo
mewarmeebi SeZenili resursebiT Tavisi Sexedulebisamebr awarmoeben
da bazarze yidian warmoebul saqonels (momsaxurebas). Tavisufali
arCevanis uflebiT sargebloben momxmareblebic. es niSnavs, rom
Tu Tqven raime gaqvT gasayidi _ saqoneli (magaliTad, wigni)
anda momsaxureba (magaliTad, wignis kompiuterze akrefa da
dakabadoneba) _ SegiZliaT mas daadoT nebismieri fasi da mihyidoT
nebismier myidvels, romelic mzadaa gadaixados Tqvens mier
SeTavazebuli safasuri. da piriqiT, rogorc momxmarebelma, Tqven
SegiZliaT SeiZinoT yvelaferi, rac gsurT im gamyidvelTan, romelsac
Tqvenve airCevT. aq saxelmwifos Careva ekonomikur saqmianobaSi
minimaluria. saxelmwifo mxolod gansazRvravs ekonomikuri
saqmianobis TamaSis wesebs samarTlebriv bazaze dayrdnobiT.
Tavisufali sabazro sistema individTa erTobliobaa.
misi mamoZravebelia piradi interesebi . TiToeuli mewarmis
mizania maqsimaluri mogebis miReba. igive mizani amoZravebs
ekonomikuri resursebis sxva mesakuTreebs. momxmarebeli ki cdilobs,
rac SeiZleba meti sargebloba miiRos SeZenili produqtidan.
yovel ekonomikur agents surs maqsimaluri Semosavlis miReba
minimaluri danaxarjebiT. es warmoSobs maT Soris metoqeobas,
anu konkurencias, romelic sabazro sistemis Zireuli Tvisebaa.
is faqti, rom saqoneli da momsaxureba miewodeba konkurenciis
pirobebSi, niSnavs, rom arsebobs mravali damoukideblad moqmedi
myidveli da gamyidveli. amis gamo ekonomikuri Zalaufleba
ganawilebulia. kapitalizmisaTvis damaxasiaTebelia Tavisufali konkurencia da individualuri Tavisuflebis maRali xarisxi .
Tavisufali sabazro ekonomikis ZiriTadi makoordi70
nirebeli meqanizmia fasebis sistema (faswarmoqmna). bazarze
gasayid saqonelze fasi wesdeba misi miwodebisa da masze moTxovnis
Tanafardobis gaTvaliswinebiT. fasis safuZvelze xdeba Tavisufali
arCevanis koreqtireba. es imas niSnavs, rom sabazro sistemaSi
fasebis meSveobiT wydeba Zireuli ekonomikuri problemebi (ra?
rogor? visTvis?).
Tavisufali sabazro ekonomikis pirobebSi saqonelsa da
momsaxurebaze moTxovnisa da miwodebis cvlilebebi iwvevs fasebis
meryeobas, rasac mohyveba ekonomikuri resursebis gadanawileba.
magaliTad, Tu saqonelze moTxovna gaizarda, maSin igi ufro
iSviaTi gaxdeba da misi fasic aiwevs. fasebis amaRlebas mohyveba
is, rom aRniSnuli saqonlis warmoeba ufro xelsayreli iqneba.
amitom misi mwarmoebeli sawarmoebi gazrdian gamoSvebis moculobas,
sxvebi ki Seecdebian mocemul dargSi Sesvlas.
amdenad, moTxovnis gadideba iwvevs mocemuli saqonlis
warmoebaze meti raodenobis resursebis gamoyenebas. saqonelze
moTxovnis dacemis SemTxvevaSi ki gamoikveTeba fasis Semcirebis
tendencia. aRniSnuli saqonlis warmoeba gaxdeba naklebad
xelsayreli, Semcirdeba gamoSvebis moculoba da mocemul dargSi
gamoyenebuli iqneba naklebi raodenobis resursebi.
Tavisufal konkurenciaze dafuZnebuli sabazro sistema xels
uwyobs iSviaTi da SezRuduli resursebis efeqtian gamoyenebas,
warmoebisa da dasaqmebis stabilurobas, swraf ekonomikur zrdas.
amis gamo mravali mecnieri, gansakuTrebiT kapitalizmis
ganviTarebis adreul etapebze, uaryofiTad afasebda ekonomikaSi
saxelmwifos aqtiur Carevas (intervencias). aseT Sexedulebas
mtkice safuZveli Cauyara cnobilma ingliselma ekonomistma adam
smiTma. man wamoayena `uxilavi xelis~ Teoria, romlis mixedviT,
TiToeuli adamiani cdilobs Tavis gankargulebaSi arsebuli
resursebis rac SeiZleba momgebianad gamoyenebas. mas amoZravebs
mxolod erTi interesi _ meti mogebis miReba. sabolood, TiToeuli
adamianis egoisturi miznis (mogebis maqsimizacia) realizacia
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misdauneburad (gauazreblad) emsaxureba sazogadoebis interesebs.
sabazro ekonomikas xSirad uwodeben Tavisufali mewarmeobis
ekonomikas, sadac sityva `Tavisufali~ gulisxmobs `saxelmwifos
kontrolisagan Tavisufals~. Tavisufali sabazro ekonomikis
pirobebSi saxelmwifos funqciebi SezRudulia kerZo
sakuTrebis dacviT da Tavisufali bazrebis funqcionirebis
Sesabamisi samarTlebrivi bazis CamoyalibebiT.
administraciul-mbrZanebluri (komunisturi)
ekonomikuri sistema. wminda kapitalizmis alternativaa
administraciul-mbrZanebluri (komunisturi) ekonomikuri
sistema, romelic gabatonebuli iyo yofili ssr kavSiris, agreTve
aRmosavleT evropisa da aziis zogierTi qveynis teritoriaze.
amJamad is damaxasiaTebelia iseTi qveynebisaTvis, rogoricaa CrdiloeT korea da kuba. am sistemis yvelaze srulyofili daxasiaTeba
mocemulia karl marqsisa da fridrix engelsis SromebSi.
komunistur ideologiaze dafuZnebuli administraciulmbrZanebluri sistemisaTvis damaxasiaTebeli ZiriTadi niSnebia:
 sazogadoebrivi (saxelmwifo) sakuTreba praqtikulad yvela
ekonomikur resursze;
 piradi interesis daqvemdebareba sazogadoebrivi (koleqtiuri) interesisadmi;
 kerZo mewarmeobisa da arCevanis Tavisuflebis akrZalva;
konkurenciis Secvla e.w. komunisturi (socialisturi)
SejibrebiT;
 gegmis mimarT bazris daqvemdebareba da sagegmo sistemaze
dayrdnoba;
 saxelmwifos faqtobrivad SeuzRudveli roli.
mokled ganvixiloT TiToeuli maTgani:
marqsistuli koncefciis Tanaxmad, ekonomikur resursebze
sazogadoebrivi (saxelmwifo) sakuTrebis dakanonebiT iqmneba komunisturi saxelmwifos ekonomikuri safuZveli .
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kerZo sakuTreba Semoifargleba moqalaqeTa piradi da maTi saojaxo
nivTebiT.
komunistur sazogadoebaSi Teoriulad yvela adamiani
ekonomikurad Tanasworia. amitom sazogadoebis erTi nawilis
interesi ar SeiZleba daupirispirdes meore nawilis interess . maSasadame, sazogadoebis nebismieri wevris cxovrebis
pirobebis gaumjobeseba yvelas saerTo interesia.
sazogadoebriv (saxelmwifo) sakuTrebasTanaa dakavSirebuli mewarmeobisa da arCevanis Tavisuflebis akrZalva. komunistur sazogadoebaSi ara mxolod sazogadoebis
wevrebs, aramed sawarmoebsac ara aqvT ufleba SeZenili resursebiT
TavianTi Sexedulebisamebr awarmoon da bazarze gayidon warmoebuli saqoneli. aseve mkveTrad SezRudulia momxmareblis arCevanis
Tavisufleba, ramdenadac warmoeba yovelTvis CamorCeba mosaxleobis
yidviTunarian moTxovnilebas. warmoeba karnaxobs momxmarebels
Tu ra unda SeiZinos.
komunistur sazogadoebaSi Sejibreba miCneulia ganviTarebis erT-erT mamoZravebel Zalad . komunisturi Sejibreba
pirvelad aRmocenda yofil sabWoTa kavSirSi. misi formebi TandaTan
icvleboda, romelTagan aRsaniSnavia komunisturi SabaTobebi,
damkvreloba, staxanovuri moZraoba da Sromisadmi komunisturi
damokidebuleba. realurad, aseTi Sejibreba umeteswilad formalur
xasiaTs atarebda.
marqsistuli Teoria uaryofs sabazro meqanizmis gamoyenebas administraciul-mbrZaneblur (komunistur) sistemaSi. administraciuli mmarTvelobis pirobebSi bazari da
misi funqciebi seriozul deformacias ganicdian. bazris maregulirebeli rolis Sesusteba xels uwyobs disproporciis warmoSobas moTxovnasa da miwodebas Soris. Sedegad, damtkicebuli
gegmebi qronikulad uzrunvelyofili araa ekonomikuri resursebiT,
mosaxleobis fuladi Semosavlebis saqonliT uzrunvelyofa ki
deficituria. sabWoTa ekonomikis modelis erT-erTi paradoqsi
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iyo, realuri bazris ararsebobis pirobebSi, fulisa da fasis
moCvenebiTi simtkicis SenarCuneba. am SemTxvevaSi saqonlis
miwodebaSi dominirebda zemdgomi saxelmwifo aparatis gadawyvetileba da momxmarebeli absoluturad daucveli iyo. erTiani
saxelmwifo gegma direqtiul dokuments warmoadgenda da misi
Sesruleba yvelasaTvis savaldebulod iTvleboda.
administraciul-mbrZanebluri ekonomikis modelSi
saxelmwifo Rebulobs yvela gadawyvetilebas warmoebisa
da ganawilebis Sesaxeb . XX saukunis 30-ian wlebSi sabWoTa
kavSiris ekonomikaSi Camoyalibda ekonomikuri triadis (ra? rogor?
visTvis?) gadawyvetis meqanizmi, romelic Tavisi ZiriTadi niSnebiT
SenarCunda am saxelmwifos daSlamde. drodadro am meqanizmSi
Setanili nawilobrivi cvlilebebi ar cvlida mis arss da
gamoixateboda ekonomikaSi saxelmwifos rolis gaaqtiurebiT.
amis gamo ekonomikis am modelma miiRo `totalitaruli~ sistemis
saxelwodeba.
aRniSnuli sistemis av-kargianobas kargad gamoxatavs sabWoTa
kavSiris pirveli da ukanaskneli prezidentis mixeil gorbaCovis
sityvebi, romelic, Tavis droze sabWoTa kavSiris arsebobis bolo
wlebSi qveyanaSi Seqmnil situacias Semdegnairad aRwerda: `sabWoTa
kavSiri _ msoflioSi foladis, nedleulis, saTbobisa da energiis
umsxvilesi mwarmoebeli gamudmebiT ganicdis maT ukmarisobas,
rac gamowveulia uyairaTobiT an maTi araefeqtiani gamoyenebiT...
Cven gagvaCnia msoflioSi yvelaze meti eqimi da sawoli saavadmyofoSi aTas adamianze gadaangariSebiT da, amasTanave, Cvens jandacvaSi
SeimCneva uamravi naklovanebebi~.
Tanamedrove sabazro (Sereuli) ekonomikuri
sistema. Tanamedrove pirobebSi wminda saxiT arc erTi zemoT
dasaxelebuli sistema ar arsebobs. realurad arsebul ekonomikur
sistemebs raRac Sualeduri mdgomareoba ukaviaT or ukiduresobas
_ wminda kapitalizmsa da administraciul-mbrZaneblur sistemas
74
_ Soris.
realur sinamdvileSi ar arsebobs da arc arsebula wminda
administraciul-mbrZanebluri sistema. magaliTad, yofil sabWoTa
kavSirSi, romelic, Tumca, iyo kidevac aseTi sistemis zusti
gansaxiereba, SeiZleboda mogvenaxa sabazro ekonomikis zogierTi
elementi. aq raRac zomiT gamoiyeneboda fasebis meqanizmi. roca
romelime dargSi an regionSi igrZnoboda samuSao Zalis nakleboba,
maSin mas, rogorc wesi, agzavnidnen am adgilebSi ufro maRali
anazRaurebis miRebis garantiiT. XX saukunis bolos ganxorcielebuli reformebi yofil sabWoTa kavSirSi, CineTsa da mraval
aRmosavleT evropul qveyanaSi mowodebulia daabrunos maTi
ekonomikuri sistemebi administraciul-mbrZanebluridan sabazrod orientirebuli ekonomikisaken.
saerTod, administraciul-mbrZaneblur sistemas gaaCnia rogorc
dadebiTi, aseve uaryofiTi mxareebi. aseTi ekonomika uzrunvelyofs
SedarebiT nakleb gansxvavebas mdidrebsa da Raribebs Soris imis
gamo, rom misTvis damaxasiaTebelia swrafva socialuri keTildReobisaken. umuSevroba da inflacia ufro advilad eqvemdebareba
kontrols. meore mxriv, sawarmoebi aseTi ekonomikis dros
moklebulni arian dawinaurebis SesaZleblobas, praqtikulad ar
gaaCniaT stimuli axali saqonlis gamoSvebisaTvis da sakuTari
Sromis efeqtianobis asamaRleblad. rogorc Sedegi, mravali
saqoneli da momsaxureba, romlis gareSe ver warmoudgeniaT
Tavisi arseboba, magaliTad, britanelebs, aq xSirad Znelad xelmisawvdomia. magaliTad, yofili sabWoTa kavSiris qalaqebSi tipiuri
iyo situacia, rodesac xalxi elodeboda axali binis miRebas
saSualod 20-25 wlis ganmavlobaSi.
miuxedavad imisa, rom `sufTa~ komunizms isev hyavs erTguli
mimdevrebi, sul ufro da ufro meti komunisturi qveyana asustebs
centralizebul kontrols (umravles SemTxvevaSi saerTod auqmebs
kidec) ekonomikaze da axalisebs kerZo iniciativas.
Zvrebi gansakuTrebiT SesamCnevia aRmosavleT evropaSi, sadac
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problema mdgomareobda ara imaSi, gadasuliyvnen Tu ara sabazro
sistemaze, aramed imaSi, Tu ra roli unda Seesrulebina saxelmwifos
am saqmeSi da raoden umtkivneulod moxdeboda es. aRmosavleT
evropis qveynebma: aRmosavleT germaniam (axla gaerTianebuli
dasavleT germaniasTan erTad germaniaSi), poloneTma, ungreTma,
Cexoslovakiam (axla CexeTi da slovakeTi) da bulgareTma _
yvelam gadadga nabiji (ra Tqma unda, sxvadasxva tempebiT) sabazro
ekonomikis mimarTulebiT. yofil sabWoTa kavSirSi situacia
rTuldeba politikuri da ekonomikuri problemebiT imis gamo,
rom yofili sabWoTa respublikebi cdiloben miaRwion ufro did
regionul kontrols sakuTar resursebze. 1991 wlis dekemberSi
sabWoTa kavSiri, romelmac iarseba 74 weliwads, `mokvda~ da
masTan erTad mokvda sabWoTa `komunizmic~. 11 yofili respublika
gaerTianda damoukidebel saxelmwifoTa TanamegobrobaSi (dsT)
Sors mimavali reformis gatarebis mizniT, romelic mimarTuli
iyo sabazro ekonomikis, kerZo sakuTrebis Camoyalibebisa da dagegmvis decentralizaciisaken. magram aravin ar elodeba imas, rom
gza kerZo mewarmeobisaken iqneba `ia-vardebiT~ mofenili. dsT-sa
da aRmosavleT evropaSi gardamavali periodi aRiniSna politikuri
gadatrialebebiT, regionuli konfliqtebiT, umuSevrobiT, inflaciiTa
da cxovrebis donis droebiTi dacemiT.
CineTSi, komunisturi wyobis pirobebSi, cdiloben Tavidan
aicilon politikuri reformebi, paralelurad dgamen patara,
magram mudmiv nabijebs sabazro ekonomikis mimarTulebiT. sawarmoebis Cineli xelmZRvanelebi Zalian dainteresebulni arian
dasavluri tipis menejmentis aTvisebasa da ekonomikur reformebSi.
magram aseTi umniSvnelo nabijebi srulebiT ar aris sakmarisi
bevri honkongeli biznesmenisaTvis. 1997 wels honkongma Sewyvita
Tavisi arseboba, rogorc britaneTis koloniam da SeuerTda ra
komunistur CineTs, aRmoCnda misi mmarTvelobis qveS, ris gamoc
amiT ukmayofilo bevrma mewarmem da profesionalma datova honkongi.
ar arsebobs aseve mTlianad Tavisufali sabazro ekonomikis
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magaliTebi. realurad yvela, e.w. sabazro ekonomikis qveyanaSi
saxelmwifo mniSvnelovan kontrols axorcielebs socialurekonomikur procesebsa da sferoebze. magaliTad, Tanamedrove
aSS-is ekonomika aSkarad axlosaa wminda kapitalizmTan, magram
mainc gaaCnia arsebiTi xasiaTis gansxvavebebi. mTavari ki isaa, rom
aq saxelmwifo aqtiur rols TamaSobs ekonomikaSi, xels uwyobs
ra mis stabilurobas da zrdas, uzrunvelyofs ra zogierTi
saxeobis saqonlisa da momsaxurebis gamoSvebas, romelsac sabazro
ekonomika awarmoebs arasakmarisi raodenobiT an saerTod ar
awarmoebs, zegavlenas axdens ra Semosavlebis ganawilebaze da
a.S. wminda kapitalizmisagan gansxvavebiT, amerikulma kapitalizmma
warmoSva mZlavri ekonomikuri institutebi msxvili korporaciebisa
da profkavSirebis formiT, riTac Seqmna damatebiTi safuZveli
ekonomikaSi saxelmwifos CarevisaTvis.
ekonomikaSi saxelmwifos monawileoba ZiriTadad Semdegi sami
mizeziT aixsneba:
 sazogadoebis zogierTi moTxovnilebis (jandacvis, uSiSroebis dacvis da a.S.) dakmayofileba saxelmwifos ukeT SeuZlia,
vidre sabazro meqanizms;
 saxelmwifos SeuZlia Searbilos sabazro meqanizmis moqmedebis uaryofiTi Sedegebi. am SemTxvevaSi saxelmwifo axorcielebs
resursebisa da Semosavlebis gadanawilebis funqcias da am gziT
cdilobs bazris mizeziT warmoSobili socialuri uTanxmoebis
Semcirebas;
 Tanamedrove pirobebSi saxelmwifo asrulebs ekonomikis
regulirebis funqcias da am gziT cdilobs gamoasworos sxvadasxva ekonomikuri wonasworobis darRveva, rac ganpirobebulia
warmoebis daqveiTebiT, umuSevrobiT, inflaciiT, sagadasaxdelo
balansis deficitiT.
aq aRsaniSnavia erTi mniSvnelovani faqtic: kerZo sakuTreba
da sabazro meqanizmi, iseve rogorc saxelmwifo sakuTreba da
centralizebuli dagegmva, yovelTvis rodi Tanaarsebobdnen erTma77
neTTan. amis magaliTi SeiZleba iyos hitleruli nacisturi germaniis
faSisturi sistema, romelsac avtoritaruli kapitalizmi
ewodeba. aq kerZo sakuTreba batonobda, magram ekonomika mkacr
saxelmwifo kontrols emorCileboda. amis sapirispirod, XX
saukunis 90-iani wlebis iugoslaviaSi arsebul ekonomikur sistemas
uwodeben sabazro socializms , ramdenadac aq iyo imis cda,
rom saxelmwifo sakuTrebis pirobebSi CamoeyalibebinaT sabazro
meqanizmi.
zemoT aRniSnulis gaTvaliswinebiT, samarTliania mtkiceba,
rom Tanamedrove msoflios qveyanaTa umravlesobaSi arsebobs
Sereuli ekonomika _ iseTi ekonomikuri sistema, romelSic met-naklebi proporciulobiT erTmaneTTan Serwymulia sxvadasxva ekonomikuri sistemis, kerZod, sabazro da
administraciul-mbrZanebluri ekonomikis elementebi . magram
TviT aRniSnul qveynebs Sorisac arsebobs Zalze mniSvnelovani
gansxvaveba. aqedan gamomdinare, ganasxvaveben Sereuli ekonomikis
sxvadasxva models. qvemoT mokled ganvixilavT zogierT maTgans.
amerikuli modeli xasiaTdeba rogorc Sereuli ekonomika
_ sabazro ekonomikis organizaciis SedarebiT liberaluri modeliT,
sadac saxelmwifo sxvadasxva xerxiT zemoqmedebs sabazro meqanizmis
funqcionirebaze. es modeli agebulia mewarmeobis Zlier mxardaWeraze da eyrdnoba mosaxleobis yvelaze aqtiuri nawilis
gamdidrebas. amasTan, aSS-Si ekonomikurad naklebad uzrunvelyofili moqalaqeebisaTvis arsebobs mniSvnelovani socialuri
garantiebi, erovnuli Semosavlis am mizniT gadanawilebis meSveobiT.
aRsaniSnavia, rom aSS-Si ar dgas socialuri Tanasworobis
miRwevis amocana, gezi aRebulia masobrivi individualuri warmoebis
ganviTarebaze. aq raodenobrivad sWarbobs mcire biznesis sawarmoebi,
magram ekonomikaSi dominirebad rols asrulebs didi biznesi.
amis Sesaxeb mowmobs is faqti, rom korporaciebi Seadgenen sawarmoTa
saerTo raodenobis 18%-s, magram awarmoeben samrewvelo produqciis
mTliani moculobis 90%-s. didi biznesi wamyvania ekonomikis
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sxva dargebSic.
mTlianobaSi Sereuli ekonomikis amerikuli modeli gamoirCeva
sabazro ekonomikuri urTierTobebis gadamwyveti roliT
ekonomikuri struqturebis formirebasa da sameurneo erTeulebis
mimdinare rentabelobis uzrunvelyofaSi. rac Seexeba ekonomikis
saxelmwifoebriv regulirebasa da kontrols, maTi roli XX
saukunis 80-iani wlebis dasasrulamde SedarebiT SezRuduli
iyo. 90-iani wlebis dasawyisisaTvis ki aSS-is politikur wreebSi
Camoyalibda mZlavri lobisturi jgufebi, romlebic gamovidnen
e.w. `samrewvelo politikis~ sasargeblod. saqme isaa, rom amerikeli
saqmiani wreebi safuZvlian SeSfoTebas gamoTqvamen qveynis teqnikuri
momavlis gamo. aman garkveulwilad imoqmeda mTavrobis ekonomikur
politikaze, misi rolis gaZlierebiT ekonomikis struqturul
gardaqmnebSi, mrewvelobis CamorCenili dargebis msoflio arenaze
konkurentunarianobis amaRlebis xelSesawyobad. ekonomikis
saxelmwifoebrivi regulirebis strategiaSi swored aseTma
mobrunebam aSS-Si `samrewvelo politikis~ (`teqnikuri politikis~,
`zrdis politikis~) saxelwodeba miiRo. es politika aqtualuri
gaxda `civi omis~ dasrulebisa da konversiuli procesebis ganxorcielebasTan dakavSirebiT. misi arsia pirdapiri saxelmwifoebrivi
zemoqmedebiT ekonomikuri resursebis mizanswrafuli gadarTva
samxedro sferodan samoqalaqo dargebis sferoSi, gansakuTrebiT
samecniero-teqnikur miRwevaTa gavrcelebis industriaSi.
rogorc aRiniSna, aSS-s ekonomikaSi saxelmwifoebrivi Carevis
politika naklebadpopularulia, magram mrewvelobaSi konkurentebisagan qveynis progresirebadma CamorCenam dRis wesrigSi daayena
saxelmwifos rolis gaZlierebis sakiTxi Secvlili msoflio
ekonomikuri koniunqturis pirobebSi. saqme isaa, rom aSS sistematiurad agebs konkurenciul brZolas iaponiasTan da germaniasTan
msoflio teqnologiur bazrebze. amis ZiriTadi mizezi ki mecnierebatevadi dargebisadmi qmediTi saxelmwifoebrivi mxardaWeris
ararseboba iyo. dRes ki mdgomareoba mniSvnelovnad icvleba
`samrewvelo politikis~ praqtikulad ganxorcielebiT. magaliTad,
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aSS aZlierebs maRalteqnologiur sferoTa proeqtebis pirdapir
saxelmwifoebriv dafinansebas, rac uzarmazar Tanxebs nTqavs,
Tumca, saboloo angariSiT, ekonomikuri zrdis maRali tempebiT
did ukugebas iZleva.
`samrewvelo politikis~ realizacias emsaxureba aseve saxelmwifo samecniero laboratoriebisa da kerZo kompaniaTa TanamSromloba; saxelmwifoebrivi axali teqnologiebis gamavrcelebeli
centrebis dafinansebis gaZliereba, romlebic konsultaciebs uweven
kerZo firmebs warmoebisa da teqnologiis axali meTodebis
aTvisebaSi; kerZo kompaniebTan erTad saxelmwifos monawileoba
miznobriv samecniero-kvleviT procesebSi, konsorciumebis formiT.
am ukanasknelis amocanaa teqnologiur siaxleTa swrafi danergva,
rac warmoebis maRal efeqtianobas ganapirobebs. aris aseve zogierTi
sxva mimarTuleba, riTac Zlierdeba qveynis ekonomikur zrdaze
saxelmwifoebrivi zemoqmedeba.
iaponurma modelma Tavisi originalobiTa da daxvewilobiT ganapiroba qveynis ekonomikis ayvaveba da cxovrebis maRali
done. am modelisaTvis damaxasiaTebelia rigi fuZemdebluri
princi pebi, romelTa Soris gansakuTrebiT gamoirCeva korporaciebis da maTi muSakebis interesebis erTianoba. iaponuri sawarmo
faqtobrivad erTi didi mtkice socialuri ujredia (ojaxia),
sadac yvela erTmaneTisaTvis da TiToeuli yvelasaTvis zrunavs.
iaponiaSi farTod gamoiyeneba sawarmoTa mogebaSi muSakTa
monawileobis sistema, rogorc warmoebis zrdis avtomaturi
regulatori. amis meSveobiT muSakebi TavianT Tavs Tvlian ufro
`mudmiv partniorebad~, vidre `daqiravebulebad~. didi mniSvneloba
aqvs aseve imas, rom iaponuri modeli emyareba qveynis mosaxleobis
maRal erovnul Segnebas _ qveynis keTildReoba dayenebulia
calkeul adamianTa keTildReobaze maRla. es ekonomikurad vlindeba
imiT, rom sazogadoebrivi Sromis mwarmoeblurobis zrda uswrebs
mosaxleobis cxovrebis donis amaRlebas, riTac uzrunveliyofa
produqciis TviTRirebulebis Semcireba, msoflio bazarze misi
maRalkonkurentunarianoba da, rogorc logikuri Sedegi, cxovrebis
80
saerTo maRali done.
ekonomikis marTvis iaponuri modelis amosavali princi pebia:
1. muSakTa xangrZlivi, praqtikulad samudamo daqiraveba; 2. xelfasis
zrda namsaxurobis xangrZlivobis Sesabamisad; 3. profkavSirebis
organizacia sawarmos da ara dargis doneze princi piT: `erTi
sawarmo, erTi profkavSiri~.
iaponuri warmoebis produqciis maRalkonkurentunarianobas
mniSvnelovanwilad ganapirobebs korporaciebis dagegmvisa da aseve
qveynis ekonomikuri strategiis prognozirebis sayovelTaod
aprobirebuli praqtika. amasTan, mecniereba da teqnika ekonomikuri
zrdis iaponuri modelis mTavari struqturuli faqtoria.
Tanamedrove iaponia sayovelTaod aRiarebuli msoflio mniSvnelobis
samecniero-teqnikuri centri da umsxvilesi kreditoria.
unikaluri sainformacio sistema da prognozireba qveyanas
SesaZleblobas aZlevs zedmiwevniT srulad ganWvritos bazrisa
da warmoebis moculoba da struqtura, gegmazomierad daareguliros
isini ara mxolod erovnuli, aramed saerTaSoriso masStabiTac
ki. sainformacio sistemaze gadasvla ekonomikis ganviTarebaSi
axal regulatorebze gadasvlis saetapo movlenaa. amasTan, kvlavac
mimdinareobs intensiuri muSaoba sabazro meTodebisa da socialurekonomikuri regulirebis meTodebis optimaluri SexamebisaTvis,
rac ekonomikuri sistemis maRalefeqtiani funqcionirebis pirobaa.
saboloo angariSiT, xazgasmiT unda aRiniSnos, rom iaponiis
Tanamedrove ekonomikuri zrda erTian sistemad moqmedi sxvadasxva faqtorebis rTuli kompleqsis mizanswrafuli funqcionirebis Sedegia.
samxreTkoreuli modeli iaponiis yaidisaa. `miiRo~ ra
70-iani wlebis bolos, ekonomikis struqturuli gardaqmnis iaponuri
modeli, koream mkveTrad daaCqara qveynis ekonomikuri ganviTarebis
tempi, warmoebis teqnikuri agebulebiT swrafad miuaxlovda aSS-s
mrewvelobis dones da rig sakvanZo sferoSi konkurentunarianobiT
kidevac gauswro mas. sxva axali industriuli qveynebisagan
gansxvavebiT, koream (iaponiaze metadac) ekonomikaSi kursi aiRo
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kapitalis mkveTr koncentraciaze, risi Sedegic aris is, rom
didi biznesi dReisaTvis dominirebadia _ xuT umsxviles
konglomeratze modis qveynis erovnuli produqtis naxevari.
Sereuli ekonomikis samxreTkoreuli modeli eyrdnoba
prioritetuli dargebis ganviTarebas, rac emyareba Semdeg
kriteriumebs: jer erTi, dargis saeqsporto potenciali da msoflio
bazarze misi konkurentunarianobis perspeqtivebi; meore, dargis
produqciaze saSinao bazris moTxovna; mesame, dargis roli qveynis
industriuli ganviTarebis saerTo donis amaRlebaSi; meoTxe, dargis
produqciis sagareo resursebze (importze) moTxovnis da, saerTod,
resurstevadobis Semcireba; mexuTe, dargis roli qveynis savaWro
balansis deficitis SemcirebaSi; meeqvse, dargis roli ekonomikis
sxva seqtorebis efeqtianobisaTvis xelSewyobaSi da sxv.
aRsaniSnavia, rom koreis ekonomika arsebiTad Riaa ucxoeli
mwarmoeblebisaTvis da, Sesabamisad, orientirebulia eqsportze.
amrigad, iaponiis msgavsad, koreis industriuli politikis
ZiriTadi niSania eqsportze dayrdnoba da ekonomikis dagegmva. es
ukanaskneli moicavs qveynis socialur-ekonomikuri da infrastruqturis zogadi maCveneblebis dagegmvas, socialur dagegmvas, mimdinare
ekonomikur gamokvlevebs, sagareo-ekonomikuri kavSirebis dagegmvas,
finansur dagegmvas da sxv.
idustriuli ganviTarebis maRali donis miRwevis kvalobaze
korea 80-ian wlebSi mkacrad (direqtiulis CaTvliT) reglamentirebuli dagegmvidan indikatur ekonomikur dagegmvaze gadavida,
rac warmatebiT exmareba sabazro meqanizmebs. swored aman
ganapiroba mokle periodSi qveynis didi socialur-ekonomikuri
da samecniero-teqnologiuri warmateba da msoflio bazrebze
maRali konkurentunarianoba.
franguli modeli sabazro ekonomikis mier gegmiani sawyisebis
gamoyenebis klasikuri nimuSia. pirveli gegma, romelic miiRes
1945 wels, iTvaliswinebda omiT dangreuli ekonomikis aRdgenas
da atarebda savaldebulo xasiaTs. 60-70-iani wlebidan
safrangeTisaTvis damaxasiaTebelia indikaturi dagegmva, romlis
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upirvelesi amocanaa ekonomikis saxelmwifoebrivi da kerZo
seqtorebis koordinacia, anu Sereuli ekonomikis marTva, rac,
saboloo angariSiT, zemoqmedebas axdens sabazro ekonomikis
funqcionirebaze misi optimizaciis mimarTulebiT. saxelmwifos
Careva kerZo mewarmeobaSi, rogorc wesi, SezRudulia. sxva saqmea
ekonomikis saxelmwifo seqtori, romlis wilic mTlian Sida
produqtSi 29%-mdea.
ekonomikis saxelmwifoebrivi seqtoris meSveobiT (3,5 mln
kacia dasaqmebuli), romelsac mTavroba yovelnairad astimulirebs
(udgens strategiul gegmebs, uZRveba samecniero gamokvlevebs,
aformirebs saerTo erovnul interesebs da a.S.), is arapirdapir
zemoqmedebas axdens kerZo seqtorze.
dagegmvis Tanamedrove etaps safrangeTSi uwodeben `strategiuls~ _ detalizaciis gareSe. magaliTad, 1989-1992 w.w.
ekonomikis ganviTarebis meaTe gegma gamoirCeoda strategiulobiT,
sabazro da savaluto sistemis naTeli orientaciiT msoflio
siaxleebze. amasTan, masSi Cadebuli iyo sawarmoTa ganviTarebis
indikaturi gegmebi, riTac sawarmoTa interesebi faqtobrivad
gaigivebuli iyo qveynis interesebTan. safrangeTis sawarmoTa
gegma Seicavs pasuxs kiTxvaze: saiT wavides safrangeTis ekonomika?
gegmis ZiriTadi amocanaa uzrunvelyofil iqnas yvela socialuri
partnioris monawileoba ekonomikur procesebSi. Tumca, iq gegmas
arasodes Seucvlia bazari. es sakvanZo midgomaa: safrangeTSi
ZiriTadi ekonomikuri kavSirebis rols swored bazari asrulebs.
maT gegmaSi saerTod ar figurirebs ra, sad da ra raodenobiT
awarmoon. imavdroulad safrangeTis ekonomikis praqtika naTlad
warmoaCens bazrisa da gegmis nayofieri `TanamSromlobis~
SesaZleblobas.
safrangeTis bazari mdidaria, magram ara yovlismomcveli da
mTlad unaklo. swored aq iCens Tavs saxelmwifo gegma, rac
biujetur asignebaTa da SekveTebis ganawilebiT warmoaCens da
xels uwyobs prioritetebs da Tvalyurs miadevnebs mis ganxorcielebas. es gansakuTrebiT Seexeba infrastruqturas, komunikaciebs,
83
teritoriis keTilmowyobas, erovnul uSiSroebas.
frangebisaTvis kanonia gegmiT miRebuli strategiuli mimarTulebebi, romelTa Soris meaTe gegmaSi figurirebda: erovnuli
valutis ganmtkiceba, dasaqmebis uzrunvelyofa, ganaTlebisa da
mecnierul gamokvlevaTa ganviTareba, mosaxleobis socialuri
uzrunvelyofa, teritoriuli keTilmowyoba, saxelmwifo aparatis
srulyofa.
safrangeTSi aRiarebulia, rom sabazro urTierTobaTa arsi
arCevanis SesaZleblobebSi, prioritetebis amorCevSia, rom ekonomika
ar SeiZleba agebul iqnas princi piT: `an yvelaferi, an araferi~.
maTTvis civilizebuli dagegmvis mTavari laitmotivia: `dagegmeT
mxolod strategia, danarCeni miandeT bazars, rogorc es
safrangeTSia, da ara mxolod iq~.
Sveduri modeli gamoirCeva mkafiod gamoxatuli socialuri mimarTulebiT. sxvanairad, Sereuli ekonomikis birTvia
mZlavri socialuri politika, saxelmwifos aqtiuri monawileoba
ekonomikaSi. faqtebi, zogierTi gamonaklisis miuxedavad, damajereblad metyvelebs Sveciis ekonomikis saxelmwifoebrivi regulirebis maRali efeqtianobis Sesaxeb.
im socialur problemaTa Soris, romelTa gadawyvetasac
emsaxureba Sveduri modeli, gamoyofen sam ZiriTads: 1. Tanasworobis
principi, e.i. keTildReobis Tanabar SesaZleblobaTa uzrunvelyofa
sazogadoebis yvela wevrisaTvis; 2. socialuri garantiebis saimedo
sistema yvelasaTvis; 3. Sromisunariani mosaxleobis sruli dasaqmeba.
aqedan cxadia, rom Sveduri modelis mTavari maxasiaTebelia
ekonomikis, da bunebrivia, mTeli sazogadoebrivi cxovrebis humanizacia ekonomikuri da socialuri regulirebis meTodebis gamoyenebiT. yovelive amas safuZvlad udevs sami mTavari funqciis _
saxelmwifos, didi biznesisa da profkavSirebis harmoniuli
TanamSromloba.
sabazro ekonomikis Svedur models axasiaTebs e.w. `magiuri
xuTkuTxedis~ _ stabiluri zrdis, inflaciis dabali donis,
84
dasaqmebis maRali donis, mosaxleobis Semosavlebis gamoTanabrebis
da qveynis sagadasaxdelo balansis gawonasworebuli realizaciis
erTianoba.
Svecia dReisaTvis warmatebiT wyvets sazogadoebrivi cxovrebis Zireuli gardaqmnis mesame etapis amocanas. pirveli etapis
amocana iyo politikuri demokratiis, `pluralizmis~ miRweva;
meore etapze praqtikulad ganxorcielda socialuri demokratiis
principebis realizacia; mesame etapze, romelic eyrdnoba pirvel
ors, mTavaria `ekonomikuri demokratiis~ srulyofilad ganxorcieleba. mesame etapis strategiis realizaciis doneze, sxva
realiebTan erTad, metyvelebs is, rom SveciaSi miRweulia ara
mxolod calkeul moqalaqeTa gamdidreba, aramed cxovrebis saerTo
maRali done; yvelasaTvis uzrunvelyofilia maRalxarisxovani
saxelmwifoebrivi momsaxureba, Sromisa da moxmarebis Tanabari
ufleba yvelasaTvis; ganviTarebulia ufaso kveba da ganaTleba
sabavSvo baRebsa da skolebSi, moxucebulTa uzrunveli cxovreba;
gadawyvetilia mosaxleobis sabinao da dasvenebis problema da
sxv. sazogadoebrivi cxovrebis aseTi erTiani humanizebuli sistema
myarad ewinaaRmdegeba sazogadoebis fenebad daSlas, diferenciacias.
SveciaSi warmatebiT xorcieldeba `solidaruli~ politika
xelfasis sferoSi, rac niSnavs mTeli ekonomikis masStabiT Sromis
anazRaurebis Tanasworobas sawarmoTa rentabelobis miuxedavad.
aqedan gamomdinare, bunebrivia, xelfasis diferenciaciac didi ar
aris. yovelive amas safuZvlad udevs sazogadoebrivi produqtis
ganawileba saxelmwifos aqtiuri politikiT. Svedur models
`funqcionalur socializmsac~ uwodeben, romlis arsia erovnuli
Semosavlis gadanawileba sazogadoebriv moTxovnilebaTa prioritetiT, rac miznad isaxavs meti socialuri Tanasworobisa da
samarTlianobis miRwevas.
SvedeTis saxelmwifo Tavis moqalaqeebs sTavazobs karg (bevri
qveynisaTvis warmoudgenel) SeRavaTebs. magaliTad, umuSevrobis
Semcirebis mizniT, mTavroba gamoyofs 5,25 dolars xelfasze
saaTSi im momuSaveebze, romlebic winaaRmdeg SemTxvevaSi daTxovilni
85
iqnebodnen samsaxuridan. mkurnaloba saavadmyofoSi Rirs dReSi
mxolod 4 dolari. kbilebis mkurnaloba bavSvebisaTvis ufasoa.
magram, rogorc amboben, `ufaso sadilebi ar arsebobs~. Svedebi
uxdian saxelmwifos 75 cents yoveli gamomuSavebuli dolaridan,
Tu wliuri gamomuSavebuli Tanxa aWarbebs 31 aTas dolars.
garda amisa, SvedeTSi brunvidan gadasaxadi Seadgens 25%-s. es
procesi ukeT rom warmoidginoT, moviyvanT aseT magaliTs _
Tqven yidulobT koncertze dasaswreb bileTs, romlis Rirebulebac
Seadgens 20 dolars da, garda amisa, unda gadaixadoT kidev 5
dolari gadasaxadis saxiT. bevri politikuri moRvawe SvedeTSi
aRiarebs maRali gadasaxadebis naklovan mxares da mouwodebs
maTi Semcirebisaken. moviyvanT or magaliTs:
bengt vesterbergi (SvedeTis liberaluri partia): `maqsimaluri sagadasaxado ganakveTis 50%-mde Semcireba maqsimalurad
gaaumjobesebs ekonomikis maCveneblebs ramdenime mimarTulebiT.
pirvel rigSi, Semcirdeba maRalkvalificiuri mecnierebisa da
specialistebis gadinebis riski sxva qveynebSi da, Sesabamisad,
axali teqnologiebis SemuSavebaSi CamorCenis riski... da, rac
SeiZleba yvelaze mTavari iyos, Cven gavzrdiT stimuls muSaobisaTvis~.
karl bildti (SvedeTis zomierebis partia): `Tu sagadasaxado tvirTi, romelic amJamad awveba qveynis ekonomikas, ar iqneba
Semcirebuli, codnis, Sromisa da kapitalis modineba Cveni warmoebis
mzard seqtorSi Semcirdeba (an saerTod Sewydeba) da Cveni
zrdis maCveneblebic SemdgomSi ganagrZoben dacemas~.
albaT, axla Tqven ukve gesmiT sakiTxis arsi. im qveynebSi,
sadac aris socialistebis mTavroba, xSirad saxelmwifo iRebs
misi moqalaqeebis mier gamomuSavebuli Tanxis udides nawils da
abrunebs mas ukan socialuri momsaxurebis formiT. rogorc
wesi, saxelmwifo uzrunvelyofs adamianebis ufro karg `dacvas~,
vidre kapitalizmi, magram Tqven gagaCniaT naklebi Tavisufleba
`sakuTari~ fulis gankargvis dros. aseTi midgoma, ra Tqma unda,
sakmaod mimzidveli unda iyos im adamianebisaTvis, romlebic
86
gamoimuSaveben patara Tanxebs da ar iqneba saxarbielo, misaRebi
imaTTvis, vinc iRebs bevrs. zustad es ganapirobebs imas, rom
bevri maRalanazRaurebadi specialisti aseTi qveynebidan gadadis
sacxovreblad (samuSaod) im qveynebSi, sadac maT kanoniT SeuZliaT daitovon maT mier gamomuSavebuli Tanxebis didi nawili.
magaliTad, iseTi sayovelTaod cnobili CogburTelebi,
rogorebic arian biern borgi, maTs vilanderi, ioakim nistriomi,
stefan edbergi da andres iaridi, yvelani Tavis droze gadavidnen
sacxovreblad SvedeTidan londonSi imis gamo, rom SeecvalaT
Sveduri 75%-iani sagadasaxado ganakveTi inglisur (britanul)
40%-ianze.
bolos da bolos, SvedeTma Seamcira Tavisi maqsimaluri
sagadasaxado ganakveTi 60%-mde. saSualod, aTi Svedidan cxrisTvis,
romelTa wliuri Semosavali ar aRemateba 26 aTas dolars,
maqsimaluri dabegvris ganakveTi Semcirda 60%-dan 30%-mde.
rogorc eqspertebi miiCneven, aseTi Semcirebis Sedegad SvedeTi
gacilebiT nakleb maRalSemosavlian adamianebs dakargavs da SeiZens
ekonomikuri zrdis ufro maRal tempebs.
aRniSnulidan cxadia, rom SvedeTSi pirvelad da efeqtianad
ganxorcielda kapitalizmis genezisi sabazro ekonomikaSi, am
ukanasknelisa ki _ Tanamedrove civilizebul sazogadoebaSi
(socialurad orientirebul Sereul ekonomikaSi). koncentrirebulad es vlindeba mokle periodSi maRalefeqtiani da `sayovelTao keTildReobis~ saxelmwifos formirebiT, yvela Sromisunariani moqalaqis dasaqmebiT, siRaribis likvidaciT, ganviTarebuli socialuri uzrunvelyofis sistemis funqcionirebiT,
ganaTlebisa da kulturis maRali doniT da a.S.
germanuli modelis safuZvelia maRalmwarmoebluri Sromis
Sesabamisi stimulebisa da socialuri garantiebis harmoniuli
kombinacia, ris gamoc mas miiCneven yvelaze optimalur modelad.
rogorc cnobilia, omisSemdgom aT weliwadSi dasavleT
germaniam ara mxolod aRadgina dangreuli ekonomika, aramed
bevri maCvenebliT gauswro Tavis evropel mezoblebs da daikava
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erT-erTi soliduri adgili msoflios ganviTarebul qveyanaTa
Soris. es didi gardatexa, rac ganxorcielda ludvig erhardis
programiTa da xelmZRvanelobiT da aSS-s TanadgomiT, cnobilia
`germanuli saswaulis~ saxelwodebiT da samagaliToa bevri sxva
qveynisaTvis, romlebic administraciul-mbrZanebluri sistemidan
socialurad orientirebul sabazro ekonomikaze gadadian.
germaniaSi Camoyalibebulia konkurenciaze damyarebuli ekonomikuri sistema, romelic, marTalia, ar icavs yvelas da TiToeuls
gardauvali riskis Tu sxva SemTxvevebisagan, magram adamianebs
ayenebs mdgomareobaSi, roca isini TviTon, da sxva aravin, TavianTi
moqmedebisa da misi SedegebisaTvis sruli pasuxismgebelni arian.
dasavleT germaniis 1948 wlis sameurneo reforma, romelmac
Zireulad Secvala da Semoabruna am qveynis bedi, moicavda fulad
reformas da fasebis reformas. orive reforma Catarda TandaTanobiT, magram swrafi tempebiT. amasTan, faswarmoqmnis liberalizacias sayovelTao xasiaTi ar miuRia; saxelmwifom strategiul
produqciaTa fasebze kontroli SeinarCuna da sabazro urTierTobebze gadasvla marTvadi gaxada. rac mTavaria, germaniisaTvis
bazari TviTmizani ki araa, aramed socialuri miznebis miRwevis,
kerZod, sazogadoebaSi klasobriv gansxvavebaTa daZlevisa da qveynis
SemoqmedebiTi Zalebis maqsimaluri ganviTarebis, Tavisufali, kerZo
iniciativisa da konkurenciis ekonomikis aqtiur saxelmwifoebriv regulirebasTan Sexamebis fenomenad iyo imTaviTve miCneuli.
amJamad ki germanuli modeli socialurad orientirebuli
Sereuli ekonomikaa mewarmeTa sruli TavisuflebiT _ imuSaon
piradi sargeblobisaTvis. aq yvelasaTvis Seqmnilia TiTqmis
Tanaswori amosavali sastarto pirobebi. germanuli Sereuli
ekonomikuri sistema mimarTulia usamarTlobis aRkveTis, sayovelTao
harmoniisa da yvelasaTvis keTildReobis uzrunvelyofaze. swored
amis gamoa igi miCneuli yvelaze samarTlian da optimalur
modelad.
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leqcia 6. resursebis, produqtebisa
da Semosavlebis wrebrunva
msoflio arenaze amJamad Warbobs Sereuli ekonomikuri
sistemebi. amitom am Temis bolos Cven mTavar yuradRebas davuTmobT
sakiTxs imis Sesaxeb, Tu qveynebi rogor iyeneben bazrebsa da
samTavrobo politikas deficitis problemis gadasaWrelad. aq
Cveni mizani sakmaod mokrZalebulia: gadawyvetilebis mimRebi
ZiriTadi subieqtebisa da ZiriTadi bazrebis gamoyofa Sereul
ekonomikaSi.
amisaTvis Tavdapirvelad gamoviyenebT resursebis, produqtebisa (saqonlisa da momsaxurebis) da Semosavlebis wrebrunvis
sakvanZo models, romelic metad gamartivebulia (ix. nax. 2.1).
aq saojaxo meurneobebisa da sawarmoebis Sida urTierTqmedebebi
dafarulia, gadawyvetilebaTa mimRebi mniSvnelovani subieqti _
saxelmwifo da `mTeli danarCeni samyaro~ ugulvebelyofilia.
amasTan, aRniSnuli modeli gulisxmobs resursebis, produqtebisa
da Semosavlebis ucvlel nakadebs. dabolos, mocemuli modeli
ar xsnis, Tu rogor ganisazRvreba resursebisa da produqtebis
fasebi. es sakiTxi Semdegi ganyofilebis Seswavlis sagania.
naxazze warmodgenilia sabazro sistemaSi gadawyvetilebaTa
mimRebi subieqtebis ori jgufi _ saojaxo meurneobebi da
sawarmoebi.
saojaxo meurneobebi aerTianebs qveyanaSi mcxovereb yvela
adamians, romlebic: a) rogorc momxmareblebi, iyeneben sawarmoTa
mier warmoebul saqonelsa da momsaxurebas; b) rogorc resursebis
mepatroneni, floben ekonomikaSi arsebul yvela ZiriTad resurss.
sawarmoebi axorcieleben saqonlisa da momsaxurebis warmoebas.
sabazro sistema warmoadgens makoordinirebel meqanizms,
romelsac SesabamisobaSi mohyavs saojaxo meurneobaTa da sawarmoebis gadawyvetilebani resursebisa da produqtebis bazrebze.
resursebis bazrebze warmoebs sawarmoTa mier saojaxo meurneobebis
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nax. 2.1. resursebis, produqtebisa da Semosavlebis
wrebrunvis sakvanZo modeli
gankargulebaSi arsebuli resursebis SeZena. produqtebis bazrebi
_ es aris nebayoflobiTi gacvla momxmareblebsa (saojaxo
meurneobebs) da sawarmoebs Soris. momxmareblebi TavianT fulad
Semosavlebs cvlian sawarmoTa mier warmoebul saqonelsa da
momsaxurebaze.
naxazze warmodgenili sakvanZo modelis zeda nawili aRwers
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resursebis bazrebs. aq saojaxo meurneobebi TavianT gankargulebaSi arsebul yvela resurss awvdian sawarmoebs. sawarmoebi
moTxovnas ayeneben resursebze, romelTa gamoyenebiTac isini
awarmoeben saqonelsa da momsaxurebas. resursebze moTxovnisa
da miwodebis Tanafardoba gansazRvravs maT fass. sawarmoTa
mier ganxorcielebuli gadaxdebi warmoadgens danaxarjebs maTTvis
miwodebuli resursebisaTvis da, imavdroulad _ xelfasis, rentis,
sargeblisa da samewarmeo mogebis nakadebs am resursebis
mimwodebeli saojaxo meurneobebisaTvis.
sakvanZo modelis qveda nawilSi warmodgenilia produqtebis
bazrebi. saojaxo meurneobaTa mier resursebis gayidvidan miRebul
fulad Semosavlebs ar gaaCnia `WeSmariti~ naturaluri faseuloba,
rogorc aseTi; maT ar SeuZliaT miirTvan an Caicvan monetebi da
qaRaldis fulebi. amitom TavianTi fuladi SemosavlebiT isini
moTxovnas ayeneben sawarmoTa mier warmoebuli saqonlisa da
momsaxurebis uzarmazar mravalferovnebaze. imavdroulad, sawarmoebi saojaxo meurneobebisagan miRebuli resursebis iseTnair
kombinacias axdenen, rom uzrunvelyon saqonlisa da momsaxurebis
saWiro raodenobiT warmoeba da miwodeba produqtebis bazrebze.
saqonlis (momsaxurebis) moTxovnisa da miwodebis Tanafardoba
gansazRvravs maT fass. momxmarebelTa (saojaxo meurneobaTa)
samomxmareblo xarjebis nakadi maT mier SeZenil saqonelsa da
momsaxurebaze sawarmoTa fulad Semosavlebs warmoadgens.
wrebrunvis sakvanZo modeli asaxavs urTierTdakavSirebuli gadawyvetilebebisa da ekonomikur qcevaTa rTul
sistemas . SevniSnavT, rom sawarmoebi da saojaxo meurneobebi
moqmedeben orive ZiriTad bazarze, magram imyofebian maTs sxvadasxva
mxares. resursebis bazrebze sawarmoebi myidvelebi arian (uzrunvelyofen moTxovnas), xolo saojaxo meurneobebi _ gamyidvelebi
(uzrunvelyofen miwodebas). saqonlisa da momsaxurebis bazrebze
isini adgilebs cvlian: saojaxo meurneobebi gamodian momxmarebelTa
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rolSi (moTxovnis mxares), xolo sawarmoebi _ gamyidvelTa
rolSi (miwodebis mxares). maSasadame, gadawyvetilebis mimReb
subieqtTa orive jgufi erTdroulad yidis da yidulobs kidec.
ufro metic, zemoT aRniSnul urTierTgacvlebs `Tavs
dastrialebs~ ukmarisobis aCrdili. ramdenadac saojaxo meurneobebs
gaaCnia sawarmoTaTvis misawodebeli resursebis SezRuduli
raodenoba, momxmarebelTa fuladi Semosavlebic SezRudulia.
amitom fuladi Semosavlebis SezRuduli raodenoba saSualebas
ar iZleva SeZenil iqnas momxmareblisaTvis sasurveli yvela
saqoneli da momsaxureba. imavdroulad, resursebis ukmarisobis
gamo, momxmareblisaTvis saWiro saqonlisa da momsaxurebis warmoeba
aseve SezRudulia. ukmarisoba da arCevani ki, rogorc zemoT
ukve aRvniSneT, gansazRvravs yvela Cvens Semdgom msjelobas.
amrigad, ekonomikur sistemaSi, sadac fuli gamoiyeneba, saojaxo
meurneobebi, rogorc resursebis mflobelebi, sawarmoebze yidian
TavianT resursebs, xolo momxmarebelTa saxiT isini xarjaven
sawarmoebisagan miRebul fulad Semosavlebs saqonlisa da
momsaxurebis SesaZenad. sawarmoebi resursebs iZenen im saqonlisa
da momsaxurebis sawarmoeblad, romelsac Semdeg mihyidian saojaxo
meurneobebs TavianTi fuladi Semosavlebis (maT Soris, mogebis)
misaRebad. resursebisa da produqtebis nakadebi moZraobs saaTis
isris sawinaaRmdego mimarTulebiT, saojaxo meurneobebisa da
sawarmoTa fuladi Semosavlebi da danaxarjebi ki _ saaTis
isris mimarTulebiT. am nakadebis moZraoba erTdroulad ganmeorebadia.
axla droa ganvixiloT realuri Sereuli ekonomikuri sistema,
sadac wrebrunvis sakvanZo modelSi aqtiurad erTveba
saxelmwifo seqtori (ix. nax. 2.2).
am naxazze (1)-(8) nakadebi imeoreben 2.1 naxazs; (1) da (2)
nakadebi gviCveneben sawarmoTa xarjebs maTTvis saojaxo
meurneobebis mier miwodebul resursebze. es xarjebi sawarmoTa
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nax. 2.2. wrebrunvis sakvanZo modeli da saxelmwifo
seqtori
danaxarjebia, magram xelfass, rentas, sargebels da mogebas
warmoadgenen saojaxo meurneobebisaTvis _ (5) da (6) nakadebi.
(7) da (8) nakadebi asaxaven saojaxo meurneobaTa samomxmareblo
xarjebs sawarmoTa mier warmoebuli saqonlisa da momsaxurebis
SeZenaze, romlebic warmoadgenen fulad Semosavlebs sawarmoebisaTvis _ (3) da (4) nakadebi.
axla vnaxoT, wrebrunvis sakvanZo modelSi saxelmwifo
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seqtoris CarTvasTan dakavSirebuli cvlilebebi. (9) da (12)
nakadebi gviCveneben, rom mTavroba awarmoebs Sesyidvebs rogorc
resursebis, ise produqtebis bazrebze. kerZod, (9) da (10) nakadebi
asaxaven resursebis samTavrobo Sesyidvebs saojaxo meurneobebisagan,
xolo (11) da (12) nakadebi asaxaven saqonlisa da momsaxurebis
(qaRaldi, kompiuterebi, iaraRi da a.S.) samTavrobo Sesyidvebs
kerZo sawarmoebisagan.
imavdroulad, mTavroba sazogadoebriv saqonelsa da momsaxurebas sTavazobs saojaxo meurneobebsa da sawarmoebs, rasac asaxaven
(13) da (14) nakadebi. am saqonlisa da momsaxurebis warmoebis
dafinansebisaTvis saWiro saxsrebis mobilizebas mTavroba axorcielebs sawarmoebisa da saojaxo meurneobebis mier gadaxdili
gadasaxadebiT, romlebic naCvenebia (15) da (16) nakadebSi. am
nakadebs Cven wminda gadasaxadebi vuwodeT, ramdenadac isini
moicaven agreTve `piriqiT gadasaxadebs~ transfertul momsaxurebaTa saxiT saojaxo meurneobebisadmi da subsidiebis saxiT
sawarmoebisadmi. maSasadame, (15) nakadi niSnavs ara mxolod
sawarmoTa mier saxelmwifosaTvis gadaxdil gadasaxadebs, aramed
sxvadasxva samTavrobo subsidiebs sawarmoebze. zustad aseve,
(16) nakadi niSnavs ara mxolod saojaxo meurneobebis mier
saxelmwifosaTvis gadaxdil gadasaxadebs, aramed, agreTve, saojaxo
meurneobebisaTvis mTavrobis mier ganxorcielebul sxvadasxva
transfertul gadasaxdelebs.
wrebrunvis aRniSnuli modeli mkafio warmodgenas iZleva
imis Sesaxeb, Tu mTavroba Tavisi xarjebiT, gadasaxadebiT da
transfertuli gadasaxdelebiT ranairad cvlis Semosavlebis
ganawilebis struqturas, rogor gadaanawilebs resursebs da
aregulirebs ekonomikuri aqtiurobis dones. magaliTad, (16) nakadi
gviCvenebs, rom sagadasaxado sistema, romelSic gadasaxadebi
ZiriTadad maRalSemosavliani saojaxo meurneobebidan Semodis,
dabali Semosavlebis mqone saojaxo meurneobebze ganxorcielebul
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transfertul gadasaxdelebTan SexamebiT, met Tanasworobas iwvevs
Semosavlebis ganawilebaSi. amasve gviCvenebs (15) nakadi sawarmoTa
poziciidan. (10) da (12) nakadebi ki asaxavs mTavrobis rols
resursebisa da produqtebis ganawilebaSi da am ganawilebis
Taviseburebebs, mis gansxvavebas kerZo seqtorisaTvis damaxasiaTeblisagan.
dabolos, saxelmwifo seqtorTan dakavSirebuli yvela nakadi
asaxavs im meTodebs, romlebiTac mTavroba cdilobs ekonomikis
stabilizebas. Tuki ekonomikaSi umuSevroba SeiniSneba, mTavroba
adidebs saxelmwifo xarjebs, an saxelmwifo xarjebis mocemuli
donis pirobebSi amcirebs gadasaxadebs da adidebs transfertul
gadasaxdelebs. da piriqiT, inflaciis dros mTavroba mxars uWers
sapirispiro politikas: saxelmwifo xarjebis Semcirebas, gadasaxadebis gadidebas da transfertul gadasaxdelTa Semcirebas.
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?
testebi SeZenili codnis
SemowmebisaTvis
1. Tavisufal konkurenciaze dafuZnebuli sabazro
ekonomikuri sistema moicavs yvela elements qvemoT
CamoTvlilTagan, garda:
a. saxelmwifos SeuzRudavi rolisa;
b. mewarmeobisa da arCevanis Tavisuflebisa;
g. fasebis sistemisa;
d. piradi interesisa.
2. sabazro ekonomikaSi sawarmoTa umravlesoba, rogorc
wesi, mogebas Rebulobs:
a. momxmareblebTan warmatebuli konkurenciis wyalobiT;
b. metismetad maRali fasebis dawesebiT;
g. momxmarebelTa gemovnebis ignorirebiT;
d. iseTi saqonlis gayidviT, romlis yidvac momxmareblebs
surT fasad, romlis gadasaxdeladac isini mzad arian.
3. ekonomikur sistemaSi, sadac uamravi mewarmea, savaraudod:
a. adgili ar eqneba arsebiT cvlilebebs;
b. gamoCndeba mravali axali produqti da warmoebis
meTodi;
g. wrebrunva iqneba ufro neli, vidre im ekonomikur
sistemaSi, sadac cota mewarmea;
d. siaxleebisagan Tavis aridebiT miiRweva swrafi zrda.
4. resursebis bazrebze sawarmoebi konkurencias uweven:
a. saojaxo meurneobebs;
b. erTmaneTs;
g. resursebis kerZo mflobelebs;
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d. saqonlisa da momsaxurebis bazris monawileebs.
5. wrebrunvis modeli moicavs yvela subieqts qvemoT
CamoTvlilTagan, garda:
a. adamianebisa, vinc fuls gamoimuSavebs TavianTi resursebis
sawarmoebisaTvis miyidviT;
b. saojaxo meurneobebisa, romlebic gacvlas awarmoeben
sawarmoebTan resursebisa da produqtebis bazrebze;
g. sawarmoebisa, romlebic resursebs mihyidian saojaxo
meurneobebs;
d. momxmareblebisa, romlebic Semosavals moi poveben
saqonlisa da momsaxurebis warmoebaSi monawileobiT.
6. s abazro ekonomikis mier gegmiani sawyis ebis
gamoyenebis klasikur nimuSad iTvleba Sereuli ekonomikis:
a. iaponuri modeli;
b. samxreTkoreuli modeli;
g. franguli modeli;
d. amerikuli modeli.
7. maRalmwarmoebluri Sromis Sesabamisi stimulirebisa
d a s o cialur i garant ieb is har m oniuli ko m binacia
safuZvelia Sereuli ekonomikis:
a. amerikuli modelisaTvis;
b. iaponuri modelisaTvis;
g. Sveduri modelisaTvis;
d. germanuli modelisaTvis.
8. mewarmeobis Zlier mxardaWerazea agebuli da
mosaxleobis yvelaze aqtiuri nawilis gamdidrebas
eyrdnoba Sereuli ekonomikis:
a. samxreTkoreuli modeli;
b. iaponuri modeli;
g. Sveduri modeli;
d. amerikuli modeli.
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ganyofileba II
mikroekonomikis safuZvlebi
3
Tema
`mikroekonomikaSi Cven SeviswavliT... ara tyes, aramed xeebs. mikroekonomikuri analizi saWiroa imisaTvis, raTa yvelaze axlo manZilidan
davinaxoT ekonomikuri sistemis zogierTi specifikuri komponenti~.
k. r. makkoneli, s. l. briu
am ganyofilebaSi yuradRebis fokusSi movaqcevT mikroekonomikas. miuxedavad imisa, rom es aris `mcire ekonomika~, e.i. ekonomikis calkeuli sferoebis da ara mTlianad ekonomikis Semswavleli
ganyofileba, igi mainc Zalian mniSvnelovani problemebiTaa
dakavebuli.
qvemoT Cven vnaxavT, Tu ratom icvleba wamoebisa da moxmarebis
modeli droTa msvlelobaSi; ratom arian erTni mdidrebi, xolo
meoreni _ Raribebi; ratom axdens ekonomika aseT Zlier gavlenas
Cvens cxovrebaze; rogor funqcionireben sawarmoebi da bazrebi
mkacri konkurenciis pirobebSi. garda amisa, gavaanalizebT, Tu ra
gansazRvravs warmoebuli da moxmarebuli saqonlis raodenobas;
ratom izrdeba fasebi erTi dasaxelebis saqonelze, xolo meoreze
_ ecema. amasTan dakavSirebiT, Cven ganvixilavT ekonomikis erTerT umniSvnelovanes Teorias _ moTxovnisa da miwodebis Teorias.
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i nd i vi du a lu r i ba z ri s
analizi: bazari, fuli,
moTxovna, miwodeba da fasi
`arc erTi saxelmwifo ar SeiZleba iyos bazarze brZeni~.
a.smiTi
`aucilebelia aRmovfxvraT dabrkoleba bazrebze moTxovnisa da miwodebis
Tavisufali formirebisaTvis yvela
myidvelisa da gamyidvelis interesebis
gavleniT.~
i.lipsici
am TemiT daviwyebT bazrisa da fulis bunebis, fasebisa da
warmoeba-moxmarebis moculobaTa formirebis procesis Seswavlas.
me-2 TemaSi motanilma wrebrunvis modelma warmogvidgina
resursebisa da produqtebis bazrebi. magram iq davuSviT, rom
resursebisa da produqtebis fasebi ucvlelia (`mocemulia~).
axla, bazris cnebis ufro dawvrilebiT SeswavliT avxsniT, Tu
rogor dgindeba an wesdeba fasebi da rogoria isini bazris
sxvadasxva tipis pirobebSi.
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leqcia 7. bazris arsi, struqtura da
funqciebi
`bazari _ es aris meqanizmi, romelic saSualebas iZleva moabrunos
mwarmoebeli piriT momxmareblisaken,
S e q m n as q c e vis s a er T o m niS vne li
rogorc mwarmoebel-gamyidvelisa, ise
momxmarebel-myidvelisa sakuTrebis
formebis miuxedavad~.
n.bautina
`bazars aqvs Tavisi mkacri wesebi,
eTika, Rirsebis Tavisi kodeqsi. maTi
darRveva niSnavs saqmiani partniorebis
dakargvas~.
f.haieki
bazris arsi da damaxasiaTebeli niSnebi. Znelad
mosaZebnia ekonomikaSi cneba, romelic amJamad ise iyos gavrcelebuli
Cveni mosaxleobis farTo fenebSi, rogorc bazari da masTan
dakavSirebuli movlenebi.
sabazro urTierToba aRmocenda uZveles xanaSi, ramdenime
aTasi wlis winaT. bazris aRmocenebis uniSvnelovanesi faqtoria
Sromis sazogadoebrivi danawileba da misi meSveobiT gancalkevebul, warmoebis saSualebaTa kerZo-mesakuTre mewarmeebis
warmoSoba. sabazro meurneobis subieqtTa ekonomikuri gancalkevebuloba niSnavs imas, rom TiToeuli mewarme damoukideblad
wyvets ra awarmoos, ramdeni awarmoos, rogor awarmoos, visze da
sad gayidos. ekonomikuri gancalkevebulobis samarTlebrivi
aRiarebaa kerZo sakuTreba, rac, uwinares yovlisa, niSnavs
deficituri resursebis flobis, gamoyenebisa da Tavisufali
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gacvlis privilegias. sabazro gacvlis meSveobiT sakuTrebis
uflebis SeZena astimulirebs yidvasac da gayidvasac, e.i. vaWroba
ekonomikis funqcionirebis aucilebeli pirobaa.
sabazro ekonomikis, saerTod, sazogadoebis ekonomikuri cxovrebis ZiriTadi regulatoria bazari. bazari aris gamyidvelebisa
da myidvelebis Sexvedra saqonliTa da momsaxurebiT
vaWrobis mizniT . bazris meSveobiT myidvelebi da gamyidvelebi
ukavSirdebian erTimeores da vaWroben urTierTxelsayreli
pirobebiT.
xSirad, roca laparakia bazarze, pirvel rigSi, gulisxmoben
adgils, sadac gaiyideba da Seisyideba samomxmareblo saqoneli.*
magram bazris kategoria ufro farTo cnebaa.
Sesabamisi komunikaciebis saSualebaTa arsebobisas sruliadac
ar aris aucilebeli bazari iyos specifikuri geografiuli adgili.
sagazeTo Tu sxva reklamis meSveobiT yalibdeba, ase vTqvaT,
`satelefono~ bazari _ myardeba savaWro partnioroba gamyidvelsa
da myidvels Soris. Sesabamisad, bazari aris sfero, sadac mimdinareobs saqonelgacvla fulis meSveobiT, anu bazari momxmareblebTan mwarmoeblebis ekonomikuri kavSiris organizaciuli formaa .
bazari iTvaliswinebs ori mxaris arsebobas: saqonlis mwarmoeblisa (gamyidvelis) da misi momxmareblisa (myidvelis). mwarmoebeli cdilobs moaxdinos mis mier damzadebuli saqonlis gayidva
* Zvel saberZneTsa da Zvel romSi, Semdeg ki evropis Suasaukuneobriv
qalaqebSi bazrad iwodeboda savaWro moedani. igi, Cveulebriv, ganlagebuli
iyo qalaqis centrSi da yovelmxriv iyo garemoculi SenobebiT (iq
ganTavsebuli iyo saxelosnoebi, savaWro daxlebi, saxelmwifo dawesebulebebi
da sxv.). sxvadasxva saxeobis saqonlis gamyidvelebi ganlagebulni iyvnen
savaWro moedanze gansazRvrul, tradiciulad maTze mimagrebul adgilebze.
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xelsayreli pirobebiT. misi ekonomikuri qceva amerikelma ekonomistma p.samuelsonma daaxasiaTa Semdegi triadis meSveobiT: `ra
vawarmooT?~, `rogor vawarmooT?~, `visTvis vawarmooT?~. Cven
amas davupirispirebdiT momxmareblis dilemas: `ra SeviZinoT?~,
`rogor SeviZinoT?~.
ganvixiloT yvela warmodgenili princi pis Sinaarsi calcalke (ix. nax. 3.1).
`ra vawarmooT?~ _ am principis praqtikul realizaciasTan
dakavSirebiT, mwarmoebeli iZulebulia yoveldRiurad izrunos
iseTi dasaxelebis saqonlis gamovlenisaTvis, romelic maqsimalurad SesaZlo mokle vadebsa da xelsayrel fasebSi gasaRdeba.
gansakuTrebiT mwvaved dgas aRniSnuli problema damwyebi mewarmis
winaSe. davuSvaT, Cven gadavwyviteT mcire sawarmos daarseba.
rogori sawarmo ufro xelsayrelia saqarTvelos pirobebSi:
romelic amzadebs da yidis sakonditro nawarms, Tu sawarmoo
narCenebis gadamamuSavebeli sawarmo. miuxedavad amocanis amoxsnis
nax. 3.1. sabazro urTierTobaTa formirebis
ekonomikuri logika
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simartivisa, yvela individi Rebulobs mxolod misTvis misaReb
gadawyvetilebas. Sedegi saxezea: Warbobs sazogadoebrivi kvebisa
da vaWrobis kerZo sawarmoebi.
`rogor vawarmooT?~ _ am problemis gadawyvetis dros
mwarmoebeli azustebs Semdeg sakiTxebs: saqonlis damzadebisas
romeli nedleulis an teqnologiis gamoyeneba aris umjobesi _
samamulosi (ufro iafi, magram dabali xarisxis), Tu ucxouris
(ufro Zviri, magram maRali xarisxis); davamzadoT saqoneli
qalaqSi (sadac SedarebiT Wirs muSa-xeli), Tu raionSi (sadac
SeimCneva muSa-xelis siWarbe) da a.S.
`visTvis vawarmooT?~ _ aRniSnuli problemis warmatebiT
gadawyveta gulisxmobs nebismieri dasaxelebis saqonlis damzadebisas Sesaferisi myidvelis dadgenas. am SemTxvevaSi samkervalo
sawarmos mflobelma unda gamoicnos mosalodneli cvlilebebi
tansacmlis modaSi; saTamaSoebis damamzadebeli sawarmos mflobelma ki unda daazustos, Tu bavSvebis romel asakobriv jgufSi
ra saTamaSoebi sargeblobs mowonebiT _ miki mausis Tojina Tu
king-kongis niRabi, magidis fexburTi Tu TviTmfrinavis asawyobi
modeli. is mwarmoebeli, romelic ar miaqcevs saTanado yuradRebas
aRniSnul problemas, aRmoCndeba metad rTul mdgomareobaSi.
`ra SeviZinoT?~ _ am problemis praqtikulad ganxorcielebis
dros SeiZleba wamoiWras gansakuTrebuli sirTuleebi nebismier
ojaxSi.
`rogor SeviZinoT?~ _ aRniSnuli princi pis warmatebiT
realizacia momxmareblisaTvis yovelTvis warmoadgenda metad
mtkivneul sakiTxs, vinaidan sabazro urTierTobaTa pirobebSi
swored mas eniWeba gansakuTrebuli mniSvneloba. garigebis yvela
SemTxvevaSi momxmarebeli iZulebulia amoxsnas amocana: Zviria
Tu iafi is saqoneli, romelic unda SeiZinos. SemTxvevaSi, rodesac
SeZenil iqna, magaliTad, lado gudiaSvilis an sxva cnobili
mxatvris suraTi da amaSi gadaixades soliduri Tanxa, mogebuli
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rCeba momxmarebeli. cnobilia, rom mxatvruli nawarmoebis,
antikvaruli nivTis fasi droTa ganmavlobaSi sakmaod izrdeba.
aRniSnulis sapirispirod, zaraldebian im sawarmoTa SromiTi
koleqtivebi, romlebic iZenen mravali aTasi laris Rirebulebis
mowyobilobebs da amave dros cdiloben `dazogon~ mcireodeni
Tanxebi SeZenil mowyobilobaTa saTadarigo nawilebisaTvis. aseTi
gaumarTlebeli `dazogvis~ politikis wyalobiT amJamad mravali
mowyobiloba Cveni qveynis sawarmoebSi umoqmedodaa gaCerebuli.
sabazro ekonomikis pirobebSi sabazro kavSirebi moicavs
ekonomikur urTierTobaTa mTel sistemas da yvela subieqts.
sabazro meurneobis ZiriTadi subieqtebi iyofa sam jgufad: saojaxo
meurneobebi, sawarmoebi (biznesi) da mTavroba.
saojaxo meurneoba ekonomikis samomxmareblo sferoSi
funqcionirebadi ZiriTadi erTeulia. is Sedgeba erTi an meti
adamianisagan. saojaxo meurneobis farglebSi moixmareba saqoneli
da momsaxureba. isini arian warmoebis faqtorTa mesakuTreebi da
mimwodeblebi sabazro ekonomikaSi, ris safasuradac miRebul fulad
Semosavals xarjaven pirad moTxovnilebaTa dakmayofilebis da
ara mogebis gadidebisaTvis.
biznesi _ saqmiani sawarmoebia, romlebic funqcionireben
Semosavlis (mogebis) miRebis mizniT. is gulisxmobs saqmeSi
sakuTari an nasesxebi kapitalis dabandebas, romlidanac miRebuli Semosavali ixarjeba ara ubralod pirad moxmarebaze, aramed
sawarmoo saqmianobis gasafarToeblad. biznesi aris saqonlisa
da momsaxurebis momwodebeli sabazro meurneobaSi.
mTavroba ki umeteswilad warmodgenilia sxvadasxva sabiujeto
organizaciebiT, romelTa mizania ara mogebis miReba, aramed
ekonomikis saxelmwifoebrivi regulirebis funqciis ganxorcieleba.
mikroekonomikas ainteresebs ar mxolod bazarze gamotanili
saqonlis `bed-iRbali~, aramed gamyidvelebsa da myidvelebs Soris
bazarze warmodgenili saqonlis gacvlasTan dakavSirebuli
104
organizaciul-ekonomikur urTierTobaTa xasiaTi; amasTanave isic,
Tu rogoria wamoWrili problemebis warmatebiT gadawyvetis
saSualebebi, subieqtTa ekonomikuri qcevis logika. es urTierTobebi yalibdeba sabazro meurneobis subieqtTa Semdegi
ZiriTadi niSnebis gaTvaliswinebiT:
 yvela sawarmo Cveulebriv orientirebulia romelime erTi
saxeobis saqonlis damzadebaze. aseTi specializaciis ZaliT Cndeba
sasargeblo dovlaTis sasurveli saxeebiT maT Soris gacvlis
aucilebloba;
 mikroekonomikaSi, rogorc cnobilia, batonobs kerZo
sakuTreba. amitom saojaxo meurneobebsa da sawarmoTa mflobelebs Soris yalibdeba gansazRvruli qonebrivi urTierTobebi.
isini erTmaneTs gadascemen ekonomikur dovlaTs ara uangarod
(rogorc, vTqvaT, saCuqars), aramed im pirobiT, rom daxarjuli
resursebi sruliad iqneba aRdgenili mesakuTrisaTvis;
 saqonliT gacvlis urTierTobaSi Sedian damoukidebeli
fizikuri da iuridiuli pirebi. amitom maTi garigebebi Tavisufalia. garigebis monawileebi warmoebul gacvlas Tvlian dasabuTebulad da samarTlianad, Tu erTmaneTisaTvis gadacemuli qoneba
eqvivalenturi, Tanabarfaseulia.*
bazris ZiriTadi funqciebi. sabazro garigebaTa zemoT
aRniSnuli damaxasiaTebeli niSnebi SesaZleblobas aZlevs bazars
Seasrulos informaciuli, saSuamavlo, faswarmoqmnis, regulirebis,
kontrolis da sanitaris funqciebi (ix. nax. 3.2).
bazris informaciuli funqcia mdgomareobs SemdegSi: fa-
* sabazro garigebas safuZvlad edeba a.smiTis mier formulirebuli
wesi: `momeci is, rac me msurs da miiReb imas, rac Sen gsurs~.
105
nax. 3.2. bazris ZiriTadi funqciebi
sebis, sargeblis ganakveTis da sxva berketebis meSveobiT bazari
atyobinebs ekonomikis subieqtebs ra awarmoon, ra iyidon da
gayidon, fuli sad daabandon da a.S. bazari TiTqos giganturi
kompiuteria, romelic agrovebs, gadaamuSavebs da ekonomikis
subieqtebs awvdis im informacias, romlis gareSe maT ar SeuZliaT
swori gadawyvetilebebis miReba.
Suamavlis funqcia. bazari mowodebulia daakavSiros saqonlis warmoebisa da moxmarebis sferoebi. igi saSualebas aZlevs
mwarmoeblebsa da momxmareblebs monaxon erTmaneTi, moawyon
garigebani.
faswarmoqmnis funqcia . mimoqcevaSi myof yovel produqts,
rogorc wesi, mravali mwarmoebeli hyavs. es imas niSnavs, rom
gayidvaSi arsebuli erTi da imave saqonlis damzadebaze sxva106
dasxva mwarmoeblis mier sxvadasxva xarjebia gaweuli. bazari ki
cnobs mxolod sazogadoebrivad aucilebel danaxarjebs. maSasadame,
sabazro faswarmoqmna saqonelmwarmoebelTa mier gaweuli Sromis
sazogadoebrivi aRiarebaa.
regulirebis funqcia. bazari zemoqmedebas axdens sameurneo cxovrebis yvela mxareze. igi Tavis funqciebs asrulebs
konkurenciis meqanizmis daxmarebiT. fasis zrda warmoebis gadidebis
signalia, fasis daweva ki mwarmoebels ukarnaxebs Sekvecos warmoeba.
aseTia bazris `uxilavi xeli~, romelic aregulirebs ekonomikas.
sanitaris funqcia. bazrisaTvis ucxoa qvelmoqmedeba. igi
mkacri da ulmobelia sustebis mimarT. is, vinc CamorCeba _
kotrdeba, iRupeba. magaliTad, aSS-Si sacalo maRaziebis 30-35%
arsebobas wyvets daarsebidan 3 wlis ganmavlobaSi. maSasadame,
bazari axdens `bunebriv SerCevas~, sazogadoebas wmends susti,
CamorCenili, araefeqtiani sameurneo erTeulebisagan.
kontrolis funqcia. bazari asrulebs saqonelmwarmoebelTa
mier ZiriTadi amocanebis (ra? rogor? visTvis?) Sesrulebis
sisworis mTavari kontrolioris rols. swored bazarze xdeba
cxadi Tu ra, rogor da visTvis unda yofiliyo warmoebuli.
amasTan, sasaqonlo warmoeba materialurad ainteresebs gamyidvelebsa da myidvelebs. bazari ki, ase vTqvaT, gamocdas atarebs
ekonomikaSi: gamyidvelebisaTvis _ momgebiania Tu wamgebiani mocemuli
saqonlis gayidva? myidvelebisaTvis _ zaraliania YTu sargebliani
maTi SeZena?
bazrebis sistema da misi struqtura. sazogadoebis
wevrTa materialuri daintereseba saqonlis gayidviTa da yidviT
gamodis sabazro kavSirebis teritoriuli gafarToebisa da bazris
saxeobaTa gamravlebis mizezad.
sabazro urTierTobaTa Tanmimdevrulma teritoriulma gafarToebam warmoqmna sabazro ekonomikuri sivrcis sami zona. amis
107
Sesabamisad ganasxvaveben adgilobriv (lokalur), erovnul (saSinao)
da saerTaSoriso (msoflio) bazrebs.
adgilobrivi (lokaluri) bazari _ sabazro teritoriis
sastarto formaa, romelic, Cveulebriv, viTardeba soflis, qalaqis
farglebSi. warmoebis industriamdel stadiaze adgilobrivi bazrebi
arsebobda naturaluri meurneobis garemocvaSi. Sromis dargobrivi
da teritoriuli danawilebis arasakmarisi ganviTarebis, sasaqonlo
warmoebis susti ganviTarebis gamo adgilobriv bazrebze
realizdeboda produqtebis SedarebiT mcire tradiciuli anakrebi.
erovnuli (saSinao) bazari warmoiqmna warmoebis industriul stadiaze, rodesac ganviTarebul sasaqonlo warmoebasTan
erTad gaCnda sabazro sivrcis axali masStabebis Sesabamisi
satransporto saSualebebi. srulyofilma transportma, kavSiris
saSualebebma da reklamam xeli Seuwyo saqonlis realizacias
qveynis yvela regionSi. Sedegad, adgilobrivi bazrebi gadaiqcnen
saxelmwifos Sida bazris organul Semadgenel nawilebad.
msxvili manqanuri warmoebis mZlavri ganviTarebis, msxvili
aqcioneruli kapitalis gaCenis, Sromis saerTaSoriso danawilebis gaRrmavebisa da komunikaciebis axal saSualebaTa gaCenis
Sedegad ganviTareba miiRo saerTaSoriso (msoflio) bazarma .
amJamad, vTqvaT, evropis macxovreblebi kargad icnoben aSS-Si,
iaponiasa da msoflios mraval sxva qveyanaSi Seqmnil saqonels.
msoflio bazari ukve didi xania amaragebs yvela saxelmwifos
iseTi nedleuliT, rogoricaa navTobi, kauCuki, xorbali, Saqari,
yava, Cai. kavSiris uaxlesi saSualebebi SesaZleblobas iZleva
zustad vicodeT, Tu rogor icvleba saqonlis fasebi dedamiwis
sxvadasxva nawilSi. SesaZlebeli gaxda savaWro garigebaTa dadeba,
ucxouri valutis SeZena gamyidvelisa da myidvelis piradi
Sexvedris gareSe. sabazro kavSirebis internacionalizaciam
migviyvana iqamde, rom saqonelsa da momsaxurebaze msoflio fasebis
done gaxda mniSvnelovani orientiri ekonomikurad ganviTarebuli
108
qveynebis mewarmeTa udidesi nawilis sameurneo saqmianobisaTvis.
sabazro sivrcis cvlilebebi seriozulad Seexo ara mxolod
mis raodenobriv, aramed Tvisobriv mdgomareobasac. Tavdapirvelad adgilobrivi bazrebi iyo ganuviTarebel, daunawevrebel
mdgomareobaSi. es savsebiT Seesabameboda sasaqonlo warmoebaSi
Sromis danawilebis sust ganviTarebas. magram mdgomareoba
arsebiTad Seicvala gansakuTrebiT XX saukunis meore naxevarSi,
rodesac Sromis sazogadoebrivi danawileba imdenad gafarTovda
da gaRrmavda, rom sabazro sferoSi gaCnda msxvilmasStabiani
specializirebuli bazrebi, romlebsac dahyavT mravalferovani
saqoneli maT momxmareblamde. Sedegad, Camoyalibda bazrebis sistema
(ix. nax. 3.3).
bazrebis sistema aris sxvadasxva bazrebis erToblioba. masSi
gamoiyofa Semdegi msxvili dargebi:
 samomxmareblo saqonlis bazari (igi iyofa mraval qvedargad,
nax. 3.3. bazris dargobrivi struqtura
109
romlebic axorcieleben sasursaTo da arasasursaTo saqonlis,
sacxovrebeli binebis da a.S. realizacias);
 momsaxurebis bazari (aq Sedis komunaluri da sayofacxovrebo momsaxureba, finansuri da sadazRvevo operaciebi,
komerciuli, socialuri, sulieri, kulturuli d sxva momsaxureba);
 Sromis bazari (Sromis mimcemTaTvis da daqiravebuli
muSakebisaTvis);
 warmoebis saSualebaTa bazari (aq xorcieldeba mowyobilobis, satransporto saSualebebis, Senoba-nagebobebis, nedleulis,
saTbobis, eleqtroenergiis da sxv. yidva-gayidva);
 samecniero da sacdel-sakonstruqtoro damuSavebaTa bazari
(samecniero gamokvlevaTa Sedegebis yidva-gayidvis sfero);
 sasesxo kapitalis bazari (droebiT Tavisufali fuladi
saSualebebis yidva-gayidvis sfero);
 fasiani qaRaldebis bazari (Semosavlis momtani aqciebis,
obligaciebis da sxv. dokumentebis yidva-gayidvis sfero);
 valutis bazari (erovnuli da saerTaSoriso dawesebulebebi, romelTa meSveobiTac warmoebs ucxouri fuladi erTeulebis
SeZena, gayidva, gacvla da fuladi angariSsworeba sxva saxelmwifoebTan);
 sulieri dovlaTis bazari (mecnierTa, mweralTa, mxatvarTa
da sxv. inteleqtualuri saqmianobis produqtebis yidva-gayidvis
sfero).
sabazro urTierTobaTa farTo ganviTarebam kidev ufro aamaRla
bazrebis ekonomikuri roli. bazari uzrunvelyofs warmoebas
ganviTarebis subieqturi, materialuri, samecniero-teqnikuri,
inteleqtualuri da finansuri pirobebiT. yvela msxvili sawarmoo
erTeulebi Zlier arian damokidebuli specializirebuli sabazro
zegavlenisagan. aq saubari midis ekonomikis axali mdgomareobis
Sesaxeb, roca misi yvela ujredi ganicdis sabazro urTierTobaTa
zemoqmedebas.
110
bazris struqturas axasiaTeben agreTve vaWrobis organizaciuli formebis mixedviT: birJebi, auqcionebi, sabiTumo iarmarkebi,
gamofena-gayidvebi, internet-vaWroba da sxv.
sabazro ekonomikis qveynebSi farTodaa gavrcelebuli bazris
iseTi organizaciuli forma, rogoricaa saqonlis birJa .
klasikuri gagebiT, birJa aris adgili, sadac erTsa da imave
dros regularulad xdeba gansazRvruli saxeobis saqonliT
vaWroba .
istoriulad sabiTumo vaWroba iyo erTgvarovani saqonliT
vaWroba. am gagebiT, `sabirJo saqonelia~ marcvleuli, bamba, navTobi,
yava da sxv. rogorc wesi, saqonlis birJebi umeteswilad specializebulia. Tumca, dRevandel pirobebSi arseboben universaluri
birJebic.
sabirJo vaWrobis upiratesoba isaa, rom igi amcirebs yidvagayidvasTan dakavSirebul dros da xarjebs, aadvilebs saqonlis
realizebas. birJaSi gaerTianebuli vaWrebi da Suamavlebi
erToblivad anazRaureben vaWrobis organizaciis xarjebs, adgenen
vaWrobis wesebs, gansazRvraven sanqciebs maTi darRvevisaTvis.
birJis wevrebi Rebuloben sakomisio gasamrjelos imisaTvis, rom
isini klientebis davalebiT asruleben saSuamavlo operaciebs.
sabazro ekonomikis mniSvnelovani elementia Sromis bazari.
Sromis bazris organizaciuli formaa Sromis birJa _
dawesebuleba, romelic asrulebs Suamavlis funqcias
mewarmesa da samuSaos maZiebels Soris.
ekonomikis normaluri funqcionirebisaTvis aucilebelia
samuSao Zalis momzadeba, gadamzadeba, ganawileba, samuSaoze mowyoba,
profesiisa da adgilis gamocvla. SromiTi resursebis aseTi
moZraobis procesSi muSakTa nawili garkveuli droiT umuSevari
rCeba.
SromiTi resursebis moZraobis regulireba SeiZleba ori
gziT _ centralizebulad da Sromis bazris meSveobiT .
111
pirveli maTgani kargadaa cnobili ssr kavSiris praqtikidan,
sadac samuSao Zalis momzadebas da ganawilebas centralizebuli
wesiT aregulirebda saxelmwifo. sabazro ekonomikis pirobebSi
es procesebi xorcieldeba Sromis birJis meSveobiT. aseTi birJebi
gaCndnen jer kidev XIX saukunis pirvel naxevarSi. CvenSi Sromis
birJebi gauqmda XX saukunis 30-iani wlebis dasawyisSi, roca
sabWoTa xelisuflebam gamoacxada, rom ssr kavSirSi umuSevrobas
adgili ara aqvs.
Sromis birJa eweva umuSevarTa aRricxvas da samuSaoze
mowyobas; emsaxureba pirebs, romlebsac surT profesiis gamocvla;
swavlobs samuSao Zalaze moTxovnas; aqveynebs informacias samuSao
adgilebis Sesaxeb; organizacias ukeTebs umuSevrebisadmi daxmarebas
da a.S.
saqarTveloSi ramdenime wlis winaT gaxda SesaZlebeli Sromis
birJis aRdgena. Sromis saxelmwifo birJas gaaCnia regionuli
qvedanayofebi da warmomadgenlobani. birJa jer-jerobiT asrulebs
or ZiriTad funqcias:
umuSevarTa aRricxva da samuSaoze mowyoba;
fuladi Semweoba imaT mimarT, visac es ekuTvnis kanonis
Sesabamisad. Semweoba ki ekuTvnis imas, visac ganesazRvreba umuSevrobis statusi.
sabirJo vaWrobis mniSvnelovani organizaciuli formaa
safinanso birJa. es ukanaskneli warmoadgens fasiani qaRaldebis birJas, sadac yidva-gayidvis obieqtia fasiani qaRaldebi.
safondo birJebi XIX saukunis meore naxevramde ar asrulebdnen
mniSvnelovan rols ekonomikaSi, magram SemdgomSi, fasiani qaRaldebis
gamoSvebisa da yidva-gayidvis gafarToebasTan erTad, maTi rolic
gaizarda.
msoflioSi umsxvilesi safondo birJebia niu-iorkis, londonis,
parizis, frankfurtis da sxva birJebi. imasTan dakavSirebiT, rom
oficialur safondo birJebze daiSvebian mxolod msxvili kompaniebi,
112
TiTqmis yvela qveyanaSi gaCnda da funqcionirebs araoficialuri
safondo birJebic. oficialuri birJebis funqcionireba mkacrad
reglamentirebulia saxelmwifos mier damtkicebuli wesebiT, birJis
maklerTa did nawils niSnavs mTavroba.
safondo birJis xelmZRvaneli organoa birJis komiteti an
mmarTvelTa sabWo. masTan arseboben komisiebi, romelTac evalebaT
gadawyviton birJaze daSvebis sakiTxi, gamoaqveynon yoveldRiuri
biuletenebi gayiduli aqciebis raodenobisa da kursis Sesaxeb.
safondo birJis wevrebi iyofian maklerebad (brokerebad) da
dilerebad. es inglisuri warmoSobis sityvebi iTargmneba rogorc
komisioneri, Suamavali, romelic emsaxureba garigebebs myidvelTa
da gamyidvelTa Soris. eseni arian muSakebi, romlebic kargad
erkvevian koniunqturaSi, moqmedeben myidvelTa da gamyidvelTa
davalebiT, risTvisac iReben gansazRvrul gasamrjelos (garigebis
Tanxis 2-3%). maklerebi (brokerebi) ZiriTadad emsaxurebian gareSe
pirTa garigebebs, xolo dilerebi _ garigebebs mxolod birJis
wevrTa Soris. isini saqmianobas ewevian sakuTari xarjiT, maT
Semosavals ki Seadgens sxvaoba Sesasyid da gasayid kursebs
Soris.
Tanamedrove sakomunikacio saSualebebis da maT Soris
internetis damkvidrebasTan dakavSirebiT farTo gavrceleba hpova
internet-vaWrobam. internetSi gaxsnilia uamravi e.w. virtualuri
maRazia, rac niSnavs, rom internetis saSualebiT SegiZliaT mimarToT
maRazias, daaTvalieroT da airCioT saqoneli, iyidoT es saqoneli
da misceT misamarTi _ sad mogarTvan. Semdeg ki miiRoT pirdapir
saxlSi an uaxloes safosto ganyofilebaSi. aseT maRazias bevri
dadebiTi mxare aqvs:
 saqonlis arCevisas SegiZliaT daaTvalieroT misi dawvrilebiTi aRwera da zustad SearCioT is, rac gWirdebaT. rogorc
wesi, Cveulebriv maRaziaSi aseTi momsaxureba ar arsebobs;
 SeZenil saqonels miitanen Tqvens mier SerCeul misamarTze,
113
rac saSualebas gaZlevT saCuqrebi gaugzavnoT Tqvens megobrebs
da naTesavebs, gansakuTrebiT sazRvargareT;
 aseT maRaziaSi SegiZliaT ipovoT iseTi saqoneli, romelsac
ver aRmoaCenT Cveulebriv maRaziaSi. amasTan, aq saqonlis fasi
sabazroze dabalia.
marTalia, internetSi uamravi maRaziaa, magram sjobs endoT
Semdeg or cnobil maRazias: www.amazon.com da www.brandsnobile.com. es ori maRazia gTavazobT sakmaod did arCevans,
Tumca, orivem vaWroba daiwyo wignebiT. amitom orive maTgani
orientirebulia wignebiTa da lazeruli kompaqt-diskebiT vaWrobaze.
Tumca, dReisaTvis am saitebze SegiZliaT naxoT eleqtroteqnika,
kompiuterebi, saojaxo saqoneli, saTamaSoebi da sxv. aseve muSaobs
internet-maRaziebis umetesoba.
sabazro garigebebi gansxvavdebian gamyidvelTa da myidvelTa
urTierTqmedebis xasiaTiT. amasTan dakavSirebiT, arsebobs ori
ti pis bazrebi: a) Tavisufali da b) regulirebadi.
Tavisufal bazarze myidvels SeuZlia SearCios misTvis
sasurveli saqoneli SeTavazebul saqonelTa simravlidan.
momxmarebels aseve SeuZlia moZebnos is gamyidvelebi, romlebic
yidian misaRebi fasiT. gamyidveli Tavisufalia yvelaze misaRebi
myidvelis SerCevasa da gayidvidan miRebuli fulis Tavisi
Sexedulebisamebr gankargvaSi. myidvelsac da gamyidvelsac
SeuZliaT SeuzRudavad SearCion savaWro garigebis pirobebi.
miuxedavad garkveuli sicxadisa, `Tavisufali bazris~
ganmarteba moiTxovs dazustebas ori TvalsazrisiT (aspeqtiT):
visTvisaa igi Tavisufali da visgan. aseTi bazari Tavisufalia
mis monawileTaTvis. garda amisa, igi Tavisufalia saxelmwifos
Carevisa da mkacri samarTlebrivi regulirebisagan. WeSmaritebisaTvis saWiroa vcnoT, rom aseT Tavisuflebas xSirad aqvs sruliad
gauTvaliswinebeli mxare. bazris subieqtTa xasiaTidan da maT
mier `TamaSis wesebis~ daucvelobidan gamomdinare, bazris am
114
tipma miiRo `veluri~, `aracivilizebuli~ bazris saxelwodeba.
Tavisufali bazris ti pi farTod iyo gavrcelebuli XVXIX saukuneebSi. magram XX saukuneSi warmoiSva da ganviTarda
sabazro urTierTobaTa axali ti pi, romelic regulirdeba
saxelmwifos da samarTlis mier.
regulirebadi bazris pirobebSi misi monawileebisaTvis
dadgenilia qcevis erTiani wesebi. samarTlebrivi organoebi icaven
sabazro garigebaTa monawileebs da sjian damnaSaveebs samarTlebrivi
normebis darRvevisaTvis. bazris samarTlebrivi regulireba moicavs
sabazro urTierTobaTa mTel sistemas. mis safuZvels Seadgens
`ekonomikuri konstituciis~ rolis Semsrulebeli samoqalaqo
kodeqsi*. masSi gansakuTrebuli yuradReba eTmoba samoqalaqosamarTlebrivi xelSekrulebis _ sabazro urTierTobaTa
regulirebis saSualebis rolis daxasiaTebas. iuridiuli kanonebis
Sesabamisad, regulirebiT dakavebulia saxelmwifo kontrolisa
da marTvis organoebi: sanitaruli, ekologiuri da epidemiologiuri
kontrolis dawesebulebebi; sagadasaxado organoebi; saxelmwifos
safinanso-sakredito politikis organoebi.
saxelwifo da samarTali sabazro kavSirebze axdens garegan
zemoqmedebas. amasTan erTad, sabazro urTierTobebi viTardeba
Siga regulirebis safuZvelze, romelSic gansakuTrebiT mniSvnelovan rols asrulebs fuli.
* saqarTvelos samoqalaqo kodeqsSi detalurad da yovelmxriv
ganxilulia sabazro garigebaTa yvela samarTlebrivi piroba. kerZod,
kodeqsis specialur TavSi _ `yidva-gayidva~ daregulirebulia saqonlis
sacalo yidva-gayidvis Semdegi pirobebi da valdebulebebi: sacalo yidvagayidvis xelSekruleba da am xelSekrulebis forma; informaciis wardgena
myidvelisaTvis saqonlis Sesaxeb; saqonlis gayidva nimuSebis mixedviT da
avtomatebis gamoyenebiT; saqonlis fasi da misi anazRaureba; saqonelTa
gacvla; myidvelis uflebebi misTvis arasaTanado xarisxis saqonlis
miyidvis SemTxvevaSi da sxv.
115
leqcia 8. fulis arsi, funqciebi da
formebi
`fulia yvela moqmedebis saTave
da mizezi.~
ciceroni
`oqro! yviTeli, moelvare, Zvirfasi
oqro.. gonjs daamSvenebs, mdabios aqcevs
keTilSobilad...~
u.Seqspiri
`fuli , - yoveli `moneta~, romelsac
Cveulebriv viyenebT, CvenTvis sruliad
gaugebaria da seqsis msgavsad yovlad
absurduli fantaziebis sagans warmoadg en s ; s wo r e d s e q s i s m s g av s ad , i s
erTdroulad gvajadoebs, gvaognebs da
gangvizidavs.
fridrix a. fon haikeni
fulis istoria. fuli sazogadoebis civilizaciam
warmoSva. igi, erTi SexedviT, yvelasaTvis sakmaod cnobili da
martivi ekonomikuri cnebaa. magram, rac ufro SevecdebiT mis
samyaroSi SeRwevas, miT ufro davrwmundebiT, rom fuli gacilebiT
ufro rTuli Sinaarsisaa da umravlesobam cota ram Tu icis
mis Sesaxeb. es arcaa gasakviri _ fulis samyaro xom ekonomikuri
saqmianobis erT-erTi urTulesi sferoa.
Soreul warsulSi, rodesac pirvelad Caisaxa saqonluri
116
gacvla, pirvelyofili tomebis winaSe dadga, erTi SexedviT,
gadauWreli amocana: rogor, rogori sacvleli TanafardobiT
SeeZlo erT, vTqvaT, mesaqonleobiT dakavebul toms samarTlianad
gaecvala `Warbi~ xorci miwaTmoqmedi tomis mier moyvanil
marcvleulze? damakmayofilebeli pasuxis povna maSin SeuZlebeli
iyo. jer xom arc iyo sayovelTaod aRiarebuli eqvivalenti,
romlis meSveobiTac SesaZlebelia yvela sxva saqonelTa Rirebulebis gazomva. es ki swored isaa, rasac mogvianebiT uwodes
fuli .
fulis istoriaSi SeiZleba gamoiyos ori sruliad gansxvavebuli epoqa. pirveli _ esaa WeSmariti Rirebulebis mqone normaluri
fulis Ziebisa da gamoyenebis epoqa; meore ki _ Tanamedrove
fulis epoqa.
pirveli epoqisaTvis damaxasiaTebelia Semdegi niSnebi. es iyo saqonluri eqvivalentebis (e.w. `saqonluri fulis~)
epoqa. Tavdapirvelad, sasaqonlo warmoebis Casaxvisas gaCnda erTi
sasargeblo nivTis SemTxveviTi gacvla meoreze. rogorc wesi, es
gacvla iyo erTjeradi, magram droTa ganmavlobaSi ganviTareba
iwyo barterulma vaWrobam (erTi sasargeblo nivTis meoreze
regularulma gacvlam fulis gadaxdis gareSe). Semdeg sxvadasxva
regionsa da qveyanaSi SemoRebul iqna gacvlis adgilobrivi
eqvivalentebi _ saqoneli, romelic sargeblobda farTo da mudmivi
moTxovniT. aseTi saqonlis nusxa sakmaod vrcelia. CamovTvaloT
zogierTi maTgani: niJarebi _ dasavleT afrikaSi; qsovili da
kakaos Tesli _ maiasa da actekebSi; qeri da xorbali _ mesopotamiaSi; Tafli _ egvipteSi; abreSumi _ CineTSi; Cai _ monRoleTSi;
bewviani nadiris tyavi, Tevzi, marili, Tambaqo _ amerikis kontinentze
da a.S.
yvelaze gavrcelebul eqvivalentTa Soris TvalsaCino adgili
uWiravs msxvillfexa rqosan pirutyvs. magaliTad, homerosis
nawarmoebebSi saqonlis Rirebuleba ganisazRvreba xaris odenobis
meSveobiT. diomides iaraRi homeross Sefasebuli aqvs cxra xaris
117
odenobiT. vaJa-fSavelas monacemebiT, xevsurebSi adamianis
mkvlelobisaTvis safasurad SeiZleboda gadaxdiliyo oTxmoci
Zroxa an 360 cxvari.
laTinuri sityva pecunia (fuli) warmodgeba sityva pecus
(pirutyvi)-dan. Zvel ruseTSi Tavadebis xazinas ewodeboda neioieoa
(pirutyvis sadgomi). analogiurad, Zvel qarTulSi `xvastagi~
niSnavda fuls, dovlaTs, rqosan saqonels. dasavleT saqarTveloSi
amJamad `xvadagi~ aRniSnavs msxvilfexa pirutyvs. bevri qveynis
fulis niSnebze, maT Soris kolxur TeTrzec miniSnebulia xaris
Tavi.
bunebrivia, rom saqonlis mravali saxeobidan erTi dasaxelebis
gamoyofam eqvivalentis rolSi bevrad gaaadvila saqonelgacvlis
procesi, magram ara imdenad, rom es yofiliyo dasasruli am
mimarTulebiT arsebuli ZiebisaTvis. swored analogiuri siZneleebis
dasaZlevad jer kidev Cv. w/aR.-mde zogierT regionsa da
saxelmwifoSi daiwyes jer keTilSobili liTonebis zodebis, Semdeg
ki maTgan damzadebuli monetebis gamoyeneba (cnobilia agreTve
rkinis, spilenZis, tyviisa da spilenZis Senadnobis gavrcelebis
magaliTebic). xangrZlivi periodis ganmavlobaSi gamoiyeneboda
vercxli da oqro. mxolod XIX saukunis meore naxevridan
monopolia gadadis oqroze. keTilSobili liTonebisagan monetebis
moWras gaaCnda mravali mizezi. CamovTvaloT zogierTi maTgani:
maTi erTgvarovneba, magaliTad, ori tyavi (maTi eqvivalentad gamoyenebis SemTxvevaSi) gansxvavdeba damuSavebis xarisxiT, ori oqros an vercxlis zodi mxolod woniT;
gaadvilebulia maTi umtkivneulod danawileba, rasac ver
vityviT, magaliTad, pirutyvis Sesaxeb;
keTilSobili liTonebi gamoirCeva portatulobiT, rac
mosaxerxebelia transportirebisaTvis;
aseTi liTonebi praqtikulad ar fuWdeba da ar kargavs
faseulobas.
pirveli monetebi gaCnda CineTsa da lidiis samefoSi (Cv.
118
w/aR-mde VII saukuneSi). daaxloebiT 500 wels Cv. w/aR-mde
sparseTis mefem dariosma Tavis saxelmwifoSi monetebis mimoqcevaSi
SetaniT Secvala barteri. Semdeg monetebis moWra gavrcelda
xmelTaSua zRvisa da Savi zRvis sanapiro saxelmwifoebSi, uwinares
yovlisa, Zvel saberZneTsa da romSi.
saberZneTSi monetebis moWra daiwyes VIII-VII saukuneebSi Cv.
w/aR-mde. romSi pirveli zarafxana Seiqmna iunon-monetis taZarTan,
saidanac warmoiSva am terminis saxelwodeba. romaelebma monetebis
moWris teqnika berZnebisagan iswavles da mimoqcevaSi gamouSves
vercxlisa da oqros monetebi Cv. w/aR-mde III saukuneSi. gansakuTrebuli adgili kacobriobis ganviTarebis istoriaSi Seasrula oqrom,
romelsac xSirad uwodeben yviTel eSmaks, demons. jer kidev
romaeli poeti vergiliusi aRniSnavda `auri saerafames~ oqros
wyeuli wyurvilis Sesaxeb, romelic gabatonebulia zogierTi
adamianis sulSi. vulkan vezuvis ferfliT dafaruli midamoebis
arqeologiuri gaTxrebisas aRmoCenilia adamianis gaqvavebuli
ConCxi, romelsac muWSi aqvs oqros grova.
interess moklebuli ar iqneba zogierTi istoriuli cnoba
qarTuli fulis Sesaxeb . sazRvargareTTan saqarTvelos
istoriul kavSirebs mowmobs is Zveli monetebi, romlebic moWrilia
sxva saxelmwifoebSi, napovnia saqarTvelos teritoriaze da daculia eTnografiul muzeumebSi. antikuri periodis monetebidan
aRsaniSnavia kolxuri TeTra, romelic moWrilia Cv. w/aR-mde VIIII saukuneebSi. paralelurad saqarTveloSi aRmoCenilia berZnuli,
egviptis, bosforis samefos, parTiuli, sasanuri monetebi. saqarTvelosaTvis gansakuTrebiT mniSvnelovania daviT aRmaSeneblis
mefobis periodi. daviTis mefobis dasawyisSi saqarTveloSi iWreboda
bizantiuri tipis vercxlis monetebi. saqarTvelo daviT aRmaSeneblis dros eweoda gacxovelebul vaWrobas sazRvargareTis qveynebTan (arabeTTan, bizantiasTan, italiasTan, egviptesTan, iranTan,
indoeTTan). gahqondaT Sali, bamba, abreSumis nawarmi, xaliCebi,
keramikuli da saoqromWedlo nawarmi. TbilisSi vaWrobisaTvis
119
gavrcelebuli iyo seljukebis, jalaledinis monetebi, agreTve
dukati, drama, dangi. Tavis mxriv, TbilisSi moWrili fuli napovnia
CrdiloeT ruseTSi, skandinaviis qveynebSi, aRmosavleT germaniaSi,
rac kidev erTxel miuTiTebs saqarTvelos aqtiur savaWro
kontaqtebze sazRvargareTTan.
daviT aRmaSeneblis dros ganxorcielda fulis reforma
aRmosavlur yaidaze, vinaidan im periodSi aRmosavlur qveynebTan
kontaqtebs gadamwyveti mniSvneloba eniWeboda. Seicvala fulis
garegani saxe, monetaze gamosaxuli iyo cxenosani mefe da arabuli
warwera: `mefeTa mefe daviT giorgis Ze mesiis maxvili~. amiT
qarTveli mefe xazs usvamda qarTveli xalxis erTgulebas
qristianuli sarwmunoebisadmi. daviT aRmaSeneblis dros vercxlis
fuli Seicvala spilenZis monetebiT.
paralelurad, saqarTveloSi mimoqcevaSi gamoSvebuli iyo
spilenZis moneta, romelsac amSvenebda warwera qarTul enaze:
`qriste, daviT mefe afxazTa, qarTvelTa, ranTa, kaxTa da somexTa~.
aseTi ti pis unikaluri moneta amJamad daculia didi britaneTis
erovnul muzeumSi. aRniSnuli saxis moneta umTavresad gamoiyeneboda qveynis farglebSi vaWrobisaTvis.
quTaisis eTnografiuli muzeumis numizmatikis fondSi moTavsebulia spilenZis moneta, romelzec ikiTxeba Tamar mefisa da
misi meuRlis daviT soslanis saxeli. monetaze arabul enaze
ikiTxeba: `dedofali dedofalTa, Sveneba qveynisa da sarwmunoebisa,
Tamari, asuli giorgisa, mesiis Tayvanismcemeli~.
monetebis istoriaSi fuli _ moneta TandaTanobiT gamoikveTa simdidris simbolod. es imaze miuTiTebda, rom monetis
dasamzadeblad gamoyenebuli liToni SeiZleba monetaze aRniSnul
Rirebulebaze naklebi yofiliyo, magram mainc Seesrulebina Tavisi
funqcia. am SesaZleblobam safuZveli Cauyara `monetis waxdenis~
praqtikas. ase ewodeboda im monetis moWris process, romlis
Rirebuleba nominalze naklebi iyo. pirvelad arasrulfasovani,
yalbi fuli mimoqcevaSi gamouSves Cv. w/aR-mde VI saukuneSi.
120
mogvianebiT vercxlis monetebSi gauries spilenZi 50-60%-is
odenobiT.
safrangeTis mefe filipe IV ki cnobilia istoriaSi rogorc
yalbi fulis mkeTebeli. ruseTis imperatorma petre I-ma orjer
gaaufasura rublis Rirebuleba, radgan rublis monetis moWraze
daxarjuli vercxlis raodenoba, imave nominalis SenarCunebiT,
orjer Seamcira. ufro meti `moqniloba~ gamoiCina petre I-is
mamam, aleqsim, romlis brZanebiT (1659 w.) mimoqcevidan amoiRes
yvela vercxlis moneta da mis nacvlad moiWra imave nominalis
spilenZis monetebi. mefis aseTi fuladi eqsperimenti moskovSi
ajanyebiT damTavrda. ajanyeba damarcxda, magram gaufasurebuli
spilenZis monetebi mainc amoiRes mimoqcevidan da aRadgines
vercxlis monetebi.
oqrosa da vercxlis monetebis realuri Rirebulebis
dacilebam misi nominalisagan ganapiroba am monetebis Secvlis
SesaZlebloba naklebad Zvirfasi liTonebiTa (spilenZi, nikeli)
da qaRaldis fuliT.
qaRaldis fuli pirvelad gaCnda CineTSi (VIII saukuneSi).
es fuli did STabeWdilebas axdenda im adamianebze, romlebmac
CineTSi am periodSi imogzaures. magaliTad, didi mogzauri marko
polo werda, rom `qaRaldis fulis gamoSveba im miznis miRwevis
axali saSualebaa, romlisken ase miiswrafodnen alqimikosebi~.
XIII saukuneSi Cingiz-xani qaRaldis fuls Seuferxeblad cvlida
oqroze, amitom fulis gayalbeba mkacr danaSaulad iTvleboda.
1500 wlisaTvis CineTis mTavrobam, fulis inflaciasTan dakavSirebiT,
Sewyvita qaRaldis fulis gamoSveba, magram im dros arsebuli
kerZo bankebi agrZelebdnen qaRaldis fulis emisias.
dasavleTis qveynebSi pirveli qaRaldis fuli gamouSva aSS-s
mTavrobam (1862 w.). dasawyisSi igi gaTvaliswinebuli iyo
samoqalaqo omis warmarTvis dasafinanseblad da `gribenkis~
saxelwodeba miiRo. manamde mimoqcevaSi arsebuli qaRaldis fuli
ZiriTadad iTvleboda Statebis banknotebad, romlebsac kerZo
121
bankebi uSvebdnen Statis mTavrobasTan SeTanxmebiT. pirveloba aq
ekuTvnoda masaCusetsis Stats (1690 w.). evropaSi amerikuli
gamocdileba pirvelma safrangeTma gamoiyena. 1716-1720 wlebSi
cnobilma bankirma, jon lom , daiwyo samefo bankis banknotebis
beWdva. ruseTSi qaRaldis fuli pirvelad damkvidrda 1769 wels.
ase gavrcelda msoflioSi qaRaldis fuli, romelmac TandaTanobiT
gamodevna mimoqcevidan monetebi.
amrigad, daaxloebiT 7 aTasi weli dasWirda imas, rom bolos
da bolos monaxuliyo erTaderTi, yvela xalxebis mier aRiarebuli
sayovelTao eqvivalenti _ oqros fuli. aseTi fulis aRmoCena _
es aris movlena, romelsac hqonda ara naklebi mniSvneloba, vidre,
vTqvaT, damwerlobis gaCenas. bazarma SeiZina `Tavisi ena, Tavisi
damwerloba~ _ axsna iwyo mokled da gasagebad fulis enaze.
XVIII-XIX saukuneebSi dadga oqros standartis dro. oqros
standarti _ es aris oqros gamoyeneba sayovelTao eqvivalentis
rolis Semsrulebeli fuladi saqonlis saxiT. maSin fulis
saxiT gamoiyeneboda oqros monetebi an fuladi niSnebi (qaRaldis
fuli), romelTa gadacvla SeiZleboda oqroze.
magram 1929-1933 wlebis msoflio ekonomikuri krizisis
Semdeg moxda qaRaldis fulis kolosaluri gaufasureba, romelmac,
bunebrivia, dakarga oqros monetebze gadacvlis unari. Sedegad,
oqros standartma saxelmwifos SigniT Sewyvita arseboba. 1971
wlis dekembridan Sewyda qveynebs Soris savalo valdebulebaTa angariSsworeba oqros daxmarebiT. ase dasrulda
saqonluri fulis epoqa. igi Secvala Tanamedrove qaRaldis
fulma. aman gamoiwvia fulis arsis, daniSnulebisa da
funqciebis Secvla.
fulis arsi da funqciebi. Tanamedrove fuladi saSualebebi gansxvavdebian saqonluri (gansakuTrebiT oqros) fulisagan
rigi TaviseburebebiT.
saqonlur fuls gaaCnda namdvili Rirebuleba, ramdenadac
122
maTze daxarjulia Sromis eqvivalenturi raodenoba. Tanamedrove
qaRaldis fuls, arsebiTad, ara aqvs Sinagani Rirebuleba. Rirebulebis es niSani aranairad ar Seesabameba mis damzadebaze gaweul
danaxarjebs. magaliTad, inglisSi ramdenime funti sterlingis
Rirsebis TiToeuli dabeWdili banknoti saxelmwifos 2 pensi
(0,02 funti sterlingi) ujdeba.
saqonluri fuli Tavisi bunebiT iyo misi meSveobiT SeZenili
saqonlis bunebrivi eqvivalenti. magram Tanamedrove fuladi
saSualebebi ar Seesabamebian am ekonomikur bunebas. amJamad fulis
Rirebulebis qveS igulisxmeba saqonlisa da momsaxurebis is
raodenoba, romelic SeiZleba gaicvalos fulad erTeulze (larze,
evroze, dolarze da a.S.). magram aseTi ganmarteba ver xsnis
saqmis arss. gaugebaria mTavari: qaRaldis fuliT (romelic
uzrunvelyofili araa oqroTi da saerTod sxva raimeTi) mainc
ratomaa SesaZlebeli nebismieri saqonlis da maT Soris oqros
nakeTobaTa SeZena?
Tanamedrove fulis mTeli xelovnuroba mdgomareobs imaSi,
rom igi warmoadgens saxelmwifos bankebis, Semnaxveli dawesebulebebis savalo valdebulebas. es valdebulebebi asruleben fulis
rols saxelmwifos iZulebiT-samarTlebrivi zomebis Sedegad.
saxelmwifo sakanonmdeblo wesiT adasturebs, rom naRdi fuli _
esaa kanonieri sagadamxdelo saSualeba (qaRaldis fuli miRebul
unda iqnas valis dafarvisas). sxva sityvebiT, fuls pirobiTad
SeiZleba vuwodoT mowmoba `saqonlis miRebaze uflebis~ Sesaxeb.
oqros monetebi normalurad asrulebda maTTvis damaxasiaTebel xuT funqcias: Rirebulebis sazomis, mimoqcevis saSualebis,
ganZis Seqmnis saSualebis, gadaxdis saSualebis da msoflio
fulis funqcias. magram oqros standartis gauqmebam migviyvana
iqamde, rom amovarda ori funqcia, romelTa ganxorcieleba ukve
SeuZlebelia fulis rolSi oqros gareSe. esenia: ganZis Seqmnis
da msoflio fulis funqciebi. Tanamedrove pirobebSi fuli
asrulebs Semdeg sam funqcias: mimoqcevis saSualebis (romelSic
123
gaerTianebulia Rirebulebis sazomis funqciac), gadaxdis
saSualebis da dazogvis (dagrovebis) saSualebis funqcias.
mimoqcevis saSualebis funqcia uSualod produqtis
yidva-gayidvasTanaa dakavSirebuli. produqti gamyidvelidan
myidvelis xelSi rom gadavides, saWiroa fulma mimoqcevis
saSualebis funqcia Seasrulos.
Tavdapirvelad erTi saqoneli uSualod icvleboda meore
saqonelze. aseT gacvlas barteruli gacvla ewodeba. fulis
warmoSobis Semdeg gacvlis es forma Seicvala: jer saqoneli
iyideba fulze _ igi fulad gadaiqceva, Semdeg yiduloben axal
saqonels, anu fuli isev saqonlad gadaiqceva. fuli am procesSi
Suamavalia.
yidva-gayidvis aqtebi drosa da sivrceSi xSirad erTmaneTs
ar emTxveva. magaliTad, saqonelmwarmoebels SeuZlia Tavisi saqoneli
gayidos dRes, magram saWiro saqoneli iyidos imave dRes, erTi
kviris an erTi Tvis Semdeg; mas aseve SeuZlia saqoneli gayidos
erT bazarze, xolo SeiZinos sxva bazarze.
fulis gamoyeneba amcirebs mimoqcevis xarjebs, radgan
SesamCnevad mcire Zalisxmevasa da dros moiTxovs.
fuli agreTve asrulebs gadaxdis saSualebis funqcias .
sasaqonlo mimoqcevaSi saqonlis miwodeba da am saqonelze
safasuris gadaxda xSirad droSi erTmaneTs ar emTxveva anu
saqoneli iyideba ganvadebiT. am SemTxvevaSi saqonlis gamyidveli
mevale (kreditori) xdeba, xolo misi myidveli _ movale
(debitori). valis gadaxda ki aucilebeli raodenobis fulis
dagrovebas moiTxovs.
dazogvis (dagrovebis) saSualebis funqciis aspeqtiT
fuli ganixileba axlandeli yidvis momavalSi gadatanis saSualebad.
Tu dRes gamovimuSaveb 10 lars, me am fuliT SemiZlia sasurveli
saqoneli viyido meore dRes, erTi kviris, an ufro xangrZlivi
drois Semdeg. ra Tqma unda, fuli ar aris dazogvis erTaderTi
da yvelaze saimedo saSualeba. sazogadoebis wevrebi simdidres
124
floben sxvadasxva formiT (miwa, saxli, avtomobili, koleqciebi
da a.S.), magram simdidris arc erTi dasaxelebuli forma ar
SeiZleba maSinve gardaiqmnas pirveladi aucileblobis produqtad.
amisaTvis gansazRvruli droa saWiro. am mxriv fuli gamonaklisia.
swored amis gamo adamianebi dainteresebuli arian danazogis
saSualebad gamoiyenon naRdi fuli da misi daxmarebiT SeiZinon
sasurveli produqti.
fuladi masa da misi agregatebi. oqros monetebs
da oqroze gadasacvlel qaRaldis fuls gaaCnda sruli likviduroba _ unari swrafad gacvliliyo saqonelsa da momsaxurebaze.
amJamad ki fulad saSualebebs gaaCniaT sxvadasxvanairi likviduroba, ramdenadac maTTan dakavSirebulia bankebisa da saxelmwifos
sxvadasxva savalo valdebulebebi. aseTi gansxvavebuloba safuZvlad
udevs mTeli fuladi masis dayofas urTierTTan dakavSirebul
agregatebad.
fuladi agregatebi _ esaa Tanamedrove fuladi saSualebebis
saxeebi, romlebic gamoiyeneba fuladi mimoqcevisa da gadaxdisaTvis. isini aerTianeben sxvadasxva savalo valdebulebebs maTi
likvidurobis xarisxidan da xasiaTidan gamomdinare. es gasaerTianebeli nawilebi Tanmimdevrulad moicaven sul ufro nakleb
likvidur agregatebs, romlebic daniSnulia fulis faseulobis
SenaxvisaTvis.
sxvadasxva qveyanaSi mTeli fuladi masa iyofa agregatebis
sxvadasxva saxeebad, rac didadaa damokidebuli sakredito urTierTobebisa da fuladi bazris ganviTarebis donisagan.
yvelaze metad gavrcelebulia sami fuladi agregati, romlebic
iwodeba M1-ad, M2-ed da M3-ed. saqarTveloSi M1-Si Sedis yvelaze
metad likviduri fuli (naRdi fuli, mosaxleobis anabrebi
moTxovnamde Semnaxvel da komerciul bankebSi, Cekebi, mosaxleobisa
da sawarmoTa fuladi saSualebebi saangariSsworebo da mimdinare
angariSebze). M2-sa da M3-Si CarTulia, ase vTqvaT, `TiTqmis
125
fuli~ _ finansuri (fuladi) saSualebebi, romlebic daniSnulia
faseulobaTa (vadiani anabrebi Senaxvel bankebSi, saxelmwifo sesxis
obligaciebi da sxv.) SesanarCuneblad.
fulis Tanamedrove formebi da maTi ganviTarebis ZiriTadi mimarTulebani. fulad saSualebaTa ganax-
lebis nakadi ar Sewyvetila XX-XXI saukuneebis mijnaze. is
midis Semdegi ZiriTadi mimarTulebebiT:
 gza fulad saSualebaTa axali saxeebisaken gulisxmobs
sul ufro farTo gadasvlas naRdi fuladi saSualebebidan
unaRdosaken. amJamad ekonomikurad ganviTarebul qveynebSi mTeli
fuladi brunvis 1/2-ze meti sruldeba naRdi fulis monawileobis
gareSe. am SemTxvevaSi bankis klientebi awarmoeben garigebaTa
anazRaurebas, urTierTangariSsworebas fulad saSualebaTa
gadaricxvis meSveobiT erTi saangariSsworebo angariSidan meoreze.
 sul ufro mzardi masStabebiT gamoiyeneba plastikuri
fuli. igi gamoiyeneba rogorc gadaxdis saSualeba saqonelsa da
momsaxurebaze unaRdo angariSsworebisaTvis, da agreTve naRdi
fulis miRebisaTvis. sagadamxdelo baraTebi gansxvavdeba
daniSnulebis, garegnuli saxis, gamoyenebis wesisa da damzadebis
masalis mixedviT. samagaliTod SeiZleba davasaxeloT plastikuri fulis zogierTi saxeoba:
sakredito baraTi _ es aris saxelobiTi sagadamxdelosaangariSsworebo dokumenti plastikuri baraTis saxiT, romelsac banki gascems Tavis meanabreebze unaRdo angariSsworebisaTvis. baraTi SesaZleblobas iZleva kompiuteruli qselis
daxmarebiT Catardes aucilebeli angariSsworebani banksa da
maRaziebs Soris saqonlis SeZenasTan dakavSirebiT;
saerTaSoriso baraTi daniSnulia sagadamxdelo saSualebis saxiT gamosayeneblad ara mxolod qveynis farglebSi, aramed
sazRvargareTac;
diskonturi baraTi SesaZleblobas iZleva ganxorcieldes
126
fasdakleba saqonelsa da momsaxurebaze baraTis mflobelisaTvis
ZviradRirebuli SenaZenis gakeTebisas;
debeturi baraTi _ es aris sagadamxdelo baraTi, romelic
SesaZleblobas iZleva miRebul iqnas naRdi fuli bankomatebSi
(TviTmomsaxurebis eleqtronul sabanko aparatebSi), gatardes
unaRdo angariSsworebani.
 sruliad perspeqtiuls warmoadgens eleqtronuli fuli.
sityvis farTo gagebiT, es aris fulad angariSsworebaTa sistema,
romelic xorcieldeba eleqtronuli teqnikis gamoyenebiT. aq
mxedvelobaSia unaRdo angariSsworebaTa iseTi sistema, romelic
moicavs bankebs, sacalo vaWrobisa da momsaxurebis sferos
sawarmoebs. moqalaqeebi da sawarmoebi Rebuloben SesaZleblobas
Soreuli terminalebidan TavianT bankebSi gadagzavnon gankargulebebi saqonlisa da momsaxurebis anazRaurebis Taobaze. am SemTxvevaSi
angariSsworeba xorcieldeba kompiuteruli qselis meSveobiT.
Tanamedrove fuls gaaCnia garkveuli Rirseba da naklovanebani saqonlur fulTan SedarebiT. unaRdo fulad saSualebaTa
upiratesoba mdgomareobs imaSi, rom maTi meSveobiT SesaZlebeli
xdeba ufro moxerxebulad da swrafad ganxorcieldes sabazro
garigebani. magram saxelmwifos bankebisa da Semnaxveli dawesebulebebis savalo valdebulebebs, uaxles fulad saSualebebs TavianTi
funqciebis normalurad ganxorcieleba SeuZliaT mxolod Semdegi
pirobis SemTxvevaSi: Tu saxelmwifo mxars uWers ucvlel msyidvelobiT unarianobas. am pirobis daucvelobas mivyavarT inflaciasTan. inflacia _ es aris fulis gaufasureba, romelic gamowveulia mimoqcevaSi arsebuli fulis gadametebiT saqonelTa mTeli
jamis Rirebulebaze.
mimoqcevisaTvis saWiro fulis raodenoba. fulis
gamoyenebis praqtika cxadyofs, rom arsebobs fuladi masis formirebis obieqturi faqtorebi, romelTa Soris aRsaniSnavia Semdegi:
qveynis Siga bazarze gasayidi saqonlis (momsaxurebis)
127
moculoba;
fasebis done saqonelze (momsaxurebaze);
fulis brunvis siCqare.
dasaxelebuli faqtorebi saSualebas iZleva advilad CavwvdeT
gacvlis kanonis arss, romlis formulireba mogvca amerikelma
mecnierma irvin fiSerma.
am kanonis Tanaxmad, mimoqcevisaTvis saWiro fulis raodenoba
unda Seesabamebodes wlis ganmavlobaSi Sesrulebuli savaWro
garigebebis moculobas da erovnuli valutis brunvis siCqares.
fiSeriseuli gacvlis kanoni gantolebis saxiT Semdegnairad
gamoiyureba:
MV=PQ,
sadac M aris mimoqcevisaTvis saWiro fulis raodenoba
(fulis masa);
V _ fulis brunvis siCqare;
P _ saqonlis (momsaxurebis) saSualo fasi;
Q _ gayiduli saqonlis (momsaxurebis) raodenoba.
Tu formulaSi V (brunvis raodenoba) da Q (gayiduli
saqonlis, momsaxurebis raodenoba) ar icvleba, maSin fulis
raodenobis cvlileba pirdapir gavlenas axdens fasebze (P).
fulis miwodebis gadideba Seamcirebs fulis yidviTunarianobas
da gamoiwvevs fasebis zrdas da, piriqiT, Tu fulis miwodebis
gadidebis paralelurad imave an meti moculobiT produqtis
gamoSveba gaizrdeba, maSin fasi ucvleli darCeba.
mocemuli gantolebidan miiReba mimoqcevisaTvis saWiro fulis
raodenobis formula:
M=
PQ .
V
igi gviCvenebs, rom mimoqcevisaTvis saWiro fulis raodenoba
128
damokidebulia qveyanaSi Seqmnili mTliani produqtisa (saqonlisa da momsaxurebis jami) da fulis brunvaTa raodenobis
Tanafardobaze. magaliTad, Tu gasayidi saqonlis (momsaxurebis)
fasebis jami 1 miliardi laria, xolo maTi realizaciis procesSi
lari 10 brunvas asrulebs, maSin am saqonlis (momsaxurebis)
sarealizaciod saWiro iqneba 100 milioni (1 mlrd : 10) lari.
amrigad, mimoqcevisaTvis saWiro fulis raodenoba tolia
saqonlis (momsaxurebis) fasebis jami gayofili fulis erTeulis brunvaTa ricxvze.
qveynebis
umsravlesobas Tavisi erovnuli fuladi sistema aqvs, romelic
istoriulad Camoyalibebuli da kanoniT dadgenili fulis mimoqcevis organizebuli formaa.
fuladi sistemis elementebia:
 fulis erTeuli. yovel qveyanas Tavisi fulis erTeuli
aqvs. fulis erTeulis saxelwodebas saxelmwifo adgens. magaliTad,
aSS-is fulis erTeulia dolari, inglisis _ girvanqa sterlingi;
ruseTis _ rubli, azerbaijanis _ manaTi, iaponiis _ ieni, saqarTvelos
_ lari da a.S.;
 fasebis masStabi, romelSic igulisxmeba fulis danawevreba erTeulebad. magaliTad, 1 lari danawevrebulia 100 TeTrad,
aSS-is dolari _ 100 centad da a.S.;
 saxelmwifo fuladi niSnebi, rogorc gadaxdis kanonieri
saSualebebi. magaliTad, aSS-Si aseTi niSnis matarebelia federaluri sarezervo bileTebi: 10000, 5000, 1000,500, 100, 50,20, 10,
5, 2, 1 dolaris saxiT (500 dolaris an meti kupiura mimoqcevaSi
ar gamoiyeneba); saqarTveloSi gamoiyeneba 100, 50, 20, 10, 5, 2 da
1 lariani kupiurebi;
 saxelmwifo aparati (centraluri (erovnuli) banki,
finansTa saministro), romelic qveyanaSi fulis mimoqcevas marTavs;
 fulis emisia (fulis damatebiTi dabeWdva), romelsac
fuladi sistema da misi elementebi.
129
axorcielebs centraluri (erovnuli) banki.
saqarTvelos fulis erTeulia lari. lari warmoadgens
gadaxdis erTaderT kanonier saSualebas saqarTvelos teritoriaze.
saqarTvelos erovnuli banki adgens da aregulirebs laris
gacvlis kurss ucxouri valutis mimarT. Tu erovnuli banki ar
gamoacxadebs laris kurss ucxouri valutis mimarT, maSin kursi
ganisazRvreba birJaze Tavisufali moTxovnisa da miwodebis
safuZvelze.
lari (mimoqcevaSi arsebuli naRdi fuli, mimdinare, vadiani
da sabanko angariSi) uzrunvelyofilia oqros maragiT, ucxoeTis
qveynebis savaluto kreditebiT da saqarTvelos erovnuli bankis
sxva aqtivebiT.
saqarTvelos erovnul banks eqskluziuri ufleba aqvs
ganaxorcielos banknotebisa da monetebis, rogorc saqarTvelos
teritoriaze gadaxdis kanonieri saSualebebis, emisia.
saqarTvelos teritoriaze gadaxdis kanonier saSualebad
miCneuli banknotebisa da monetebis nominali, wona, gaformeba da
sxva maxasiaTeblebi ganisazRvreba erovnuli bankis normatiuli
aqtebiT.
saqarTvelos erovnuli banki uzrunvelyofs banknotebis
beWdvas da monetebis moWras, mimoqcevaSi gasaSvebi banknotebis
saimedo Senaxvas, agreTve sabeWdi formebis, Stampebisa da
mimoqcevidan amoRebuli banknotebisa da monetebis Senaxvas da,
aucileblobis SemTxvevaSi, maT ganadgurebas.
erovnuli banki mimoqcevidan amoiRebs da gaanadgurebs Semdgomi
gamoyenebisaTvis uvargis fulis niSnebs da cvlis maT axliT. igi
uSualod akontrolebs naRdi fulis marags, adgens misi emisiis
gegmebs, banknotebiT da monetebiT uzrunvelyofs saqarTvelos
ekonomikas.
130
leqcia 9. moTxovna da miwodeba.
sabazro faswarmoqmnis meqanizmi
`saqonlis miwodeba warmoSobs masze moTxovnas~.
J.b.sei
`aswavleT TuTiyuSs ori sityva _
`moTxovna~ da `miwodeba~ da Tqvens
winaSe ekonomistia~! am geslian xumrobaSi simarTlis didi nawilia, vinaidan,
arsebiTad, am umartives ekonomikur
berketebs (moTxovnas da miwodebas)
SeuZliaT mogvcen safuZvliani warmodgena ara mxolod calkeul ekonomikur
problemaTa, aramed mTlianad ekonomikuri sistemis funqcionirebis Sesaxeb~.
k.r.makkoneli, s.l.briu
sabazro garigeba SeiZleba warmovidginoT Semdegi formulis
saxiT _ `gamyidveli _ saqoneli _ sabazro fasi _ fuli _
myidveli~. mocemul formulas SeiZleba mieces ufro martivi
saxe: `miwodeba (S) _ fasi (P) _ moTxovna (D)~.
konkurenciul bazarze wonasworoba, uwinares yovlisa, fasebiT myardeba. sabazro fasebis cvlileba mwarmoeblisaTvis warmoebis moculobis gansazRvris ZiriTadi orientiria. Tavis mxriv,
bazarze sarealizacio saqonelTa fasebi arsebiTad sabazro
faqtorebiT _ moTxovniTa da miwodebiT ganisazRvreba.
qvemoT Cven SevecdebiT sabazro faswarmoqmnis meqanizmSi
garkvevas. am miznis misaRwevad Tanmimdevrulad iqneba ganxiluli
Semdegi ZiriTadi sakiTxebi:
 moTxovna da misi ganmsazRvreli faqtorebi;
131
 miwodeba da misi ganmsazRvreli faqtorebi;
 fasi da sabazro wonasworoba.
moTxovna da misi ganmsazRvreli faqtorebi.
moTxovna ewodeba saqonlisa da momsaxurebis im raodenobas,
romlis SeZena surT da SeuZliaT momxmareblebs (myidvelebs)
bazarze Camoyalibebuli fasebiT drois gansazRvrul monakveTSi.
saWiroa yuradReba mivaqcioT sityvebs: `surT~ da `SeuZliaT~.
saqme isaa, rom survili erTia, xolo realuri moTxovna _ meore.
moTxovna ewodeba im survils, romelsac zurgs umagrebs myidvelis
jibe, yidvisunarianoba. gamyidvels myidvelis survili (moTxovnileba) ki ara, aramed `gadaxdisunariani moTxovnileba~ ainteresebs, romelic saTanado fuladi TanxiTaa uzrunvelyofili. maSasadame, moTxovna aris gadaxdisunariani moTxovnileba. am cnebiT
ingliseli ekonomisti Tomas robert malTusi erTmaneTisagan
ganasxvavebda adamianis mxridan raime dovlaTis miRebis survils
da am dovlaTis miRebis realur SesaZleblobas.
yuradRebis Rirsia agreTve sityvebi: `drois gansazRvrul
monakveTSi~. amis gareSe moTxovnis sididis Sesaxeb msjeloba
azrs kargavs. magaliTad, imis Tqma, rom momxmarebels SeuZlia
SeiZinos 10 kg. vaSli, Tu erTi kg-is fasi 0.20 laria, arsebiTad
uSinaarsoa, radgan garkveuli araa im drois xangrZlivoba, romlis
ganmavlobaSic apirebs igi vaSlis am raodenobis SeZenas. winadadeba
azriani gaxdeba mxolod maSin, Tu vityviT: momxmarebels SeuZlia
kviris (Tvis, wlis) ganmavlobaSi iyidos 10 kg vaSli, Tu erTi kgis fasi 0.20 laria.
moTxovna im saqonels (momsaxurebas) Seexeba, romlis yidvis
survili da unari aqvs momxmarebels. yidvis moculoba (masa),
anu moTxovnis sidide uSualod gasayidi saqonlis fassa da
momxmareblis Semosavalzea damokidebuli.
moTxovnasa da fass Soris damokidebuleba aseTia: sxva Tanabar
pirobebSi, fasis daweva iwvevs moTxovnis sididis zrdas da,
132
piriqiT, fasis zrda amcirebs moTxovnis sidides. maSasadame,
moTxovnasa da fass Soris arsebobs uaryofiTi, anu ukuproporciuli damokidebuleba; isini sxvadasxva mimarTulebiT icvlebian.
fasisa da moTxovnis aseT urTierTdamokidebulebas moTxovnis
kanoni ewodeba.
ganvixiloT martivi pirobiTi magaliTi imis sailustraciod,
Tu sxvadasxva fasis pirobebSi ramden kg vaSls yiduloben
momxmareblebi kviraSi (ix. cxrili 3.1).
cxrili 3.1.
fasis gavlena moTxovnis sidideze
(hi poTezuri monacemebi)
1 kg vaSlis fasi
(larebSi)
kvireuli moTxovna
vaSlze (kg-ebSi)
0.00
12
0.20
10
0.33
8
0.60
6
1.00
4
1.80
2
3.00
0
rogorc cxrilidan Cans, fasis yovel dones Seesabameba
moTxovnis gansazRvruli sidide: Tu vaSls ufasod daarigeben,
momxmareblebi kviraSi, vTqvaT, 12 kg-s SeiZenen. 20 TeTris fasis
pirobebSi momxmareblebi kviraSi 10 kg vaSls yiduloben. vaSlze
fasis zrda mis yidvas amcirebs, xolo rodesac fasi 3 lars
133
aRwevs, momxmareblebi vaSls saerTod aRar yiduloben.
moTxovnis kanonis, anu moTxovnisa da fasis urTierTdamokidebulebis gamoxatva SeiZleba grafikuladac (ix. nax. 3.4.).
Tu organzomilebian marTxkuTxa koordinatTa sistemaSi vertikalur (ordinatTa) RerZze vaSlis fass, xolo horizontalur
(abscisaTa) RerZze vaSlze moTxovnas aRvniSnavT, movnaxavT
`fasi_moTxovnis~ Svidive variantis Sesabamis wertilebs da
SevaerTebT, miviRebT DD wirs, romelsac moTxovnis mrudi
ewodeba. moTxovnis mrudi daRmavalia, eSveba zemodan (CrdilodasavleTidan) qvemoT (samxreT-aRmosavleTisaken). igi gviCvenebs,
rom rac ufro maRalia vaSlze fasi, miT ufro dabalia masze
moTxovna da, piriqiT.
moTxovnis mrudi SesaZleblobas iZleva vupasuxoT or kiTxvas:
jer erTi, rogori iqneba moTxovnis sidide gansxvavebuli fasebis
pirobebSi? da meore, rogor Seicvleba moTxovnis sidide fasebis
garkveuli cvlilebis dros?
mrudze yoveli wertili fasis garkveuli donis pirobebSi
mocemul saqonelze moTxovnis sidides gviCvenebs. moTxovnis mrudi
moTxovnis sididis yvela variants aRwers, rac bazarze drois
mocemul momentSi SeiZleba arsebobdes. grafikulad, saqonlis
fasis cvlilebis zemoqmedeba am saqonlis moTxovnis sidideze
moTxovnis mrudis sxvadasxva wertilze gadaadgilebiT gamoixateba.
Cven gavarkvieT sakiTxi imis Sesaxeb, Tu ra gavlenas axdens
fasis cvlileba moTxovnaze. magram unda aRiniSnos, rom fasis
cvlilebaze moTxovnis reagirebis xarisxi saqonelTa mixedviT
gansxvavebulia. moTxovnis raodenobrivi cvlilebis xarisxi fasebis
cvlilebis sapasuxod axasiaTebs moTxovnis elastikurobas
(moqnilobas). am terminSi igulisxmeba moTxovnis cvlilebis
(misi moculobis `mgrZnobiarobis~) xarisxi fasis cvlilebis
mimarT.
ufro martivad Tu vityviT, saqme exeba Semdegs: zogierTi
saqonlis fasis umniSvnelo cvlilebac ki mniSvnelovnad cvlis
am saqonelze moTxovnas. aseT SemTxvevaSi ityvian, rom mocemul
saqonelze moTxovna elastikuria (an SedarebiT elastikuria).
aris sawinaaRmdego SemTxvevebic: _ zogierTi saqonlis fasis
SesamCnevi cvlilebac ki TiTqmis araviTar gavlenas ar axdens
moTxovnis moculobaze. aseT SemTxvevaSi amboben, rom moTxovna
araelastikuria (an SedarebiT araelastikuria).
moTxovnis elastikurobis xarisxis gasazomad iyeneben
moTxovnis fasiseuli elastikurobis koeficients. igi iangariSeba
formuliT:
nax. 3.4. moTxovnis mrudi
134
135
Ed =
moTxovnis sididis procentuli cvlileba
fasis procentuli cvlileba
Tu, magaliTad, A saqonlis fasis 5%-iT Semcirebis Sedegad
masze moTxovna gaizarda 10%-iT, maSin am saqonelze moTxovnis
elastikurobis koeficienti iqneba 2-is toli. Tu B saqonlis
fasi Semcirda 3%-iT, magram masze moTxovna gaizarda mxolod
1%-iT, maSin elastikurobis koeficienti iqneba 1/3. es imas niSnavs,
rom A saqonelze moTxovna elastikuria, xolo B saqonelze _
araelastikuri.
moTxovna elastikuria im SemTxvevaSi, roca saqonelze moTxovnis procentuli zrda metia fasis procentul
Semcirebaze, xolo Tu fasis Semcirebas mosdevs moTxovnis
moculobis naklebi procentuli mateba, moTxovna araelastikuria. sxva sityvebiT rom vTqvaT, moTxovna elastikuria, Tu
moTxovnis elastikurobis koeficienti 1-ze metia. Tu es
koeficienti 1-ze naklebia, moTxovna araelastikuria. aris
gansakuTrebuli SemTxvevebic, rom koeficienti 1-is tolia da
mas ewodeba moTxovnis erTeuli elastikuroba .
rogorc wesi, elastikuroba SefardebiTi xasiaTisaa :
absoluturi elastikuroba da araelastikuroba ukiduresi
SemTxvevebia. magaliTad, Tu adamianisaTvis aucilebelia apendicitis operacia, man es operacia unda gaikeTos miuxedavad imisa,
Tu ra eRireba igi. diabetikma insulini unda iyidos fasis
miuxedavad. aRniSnul SemTxvevebSi moTxovna araelastikuria.
moTxovnis elastikuroba-araelastikurobis Sesaxeb msjelobisas SegviZlia vixelmZRvaneloT Semdegi zogadi debulebebiT:
 rac ufro meti kargi Semcvleli (substituti) gaaCnia
mocemul produqts, miT metia masze moTxovnis elastikuroba.
aseTi produqtis fasis umniSvnelo momatebac ki iwvevs masze
moTxovnis mniSvnelovan Sekvecas (momxmareblebi daiwyeben Sem136
cvlelebis Zebnas), xolo fasis yoveli dakleba zrdis masze
moTxovnas (momxmareblebi moumateben mis yidvas sxva Semcvlelebis
nacvlad);
 aucilebeli moTxovnilebis sagnebze moTxovna araelastikuria, xolo fufunebis sagnebze _ elastikuri. ase, magaliTad,
puris fasis Secvla naklebad moqmedebs moTxovnis sidideze,
magram sunamos fasis momateba didad Seamcirebs masze moTxovnas;
 moTxovnis fasiseuli elastikurobis sidide yovelTvis
uaryofiTi ricxvia, ramdenadac wiladis mricxvelsa da mniSvnels
yovelTvis sxvadasxva niSnebi gaaCniaT. aSS-Si gamocdili gziT
iqna miRebuli moTxovnis fasiseuli elastikurobis (`minusniSniani~)
Semdegi Sefasebebi: sakancelario daniSnulebis saqonelze _ 0,6;
benzinze _ 1,5; sacxovrebel binaze _ 1,9; kinos bileTebze _ 3,9.
amrigad, moTxovnis elastikurobis koeficientis codnas didi
mniSvneloba aqvs mosaxleobis moTxovnis prognozirebisaTvis
sabazro fasebis donis cvlilebis pirobebSi.
moTxovnis mrudis agebisas navaraudevia, rom moTxovnas gaaCnia
mxolod erTi determinanti _ fasi. magram, realurad, arseboben
sxva, arafasismieri faqtorebic, romlebic gavlenas axdenen
moTxovnaze. maT miekuTvneba: myidvelTa raodenoba, momxmarebelTa
gemovneba, maTi Semosavlebis sidide, fasebis momavali cvlilebis
molodini da sxv. bunebrivia, am faqtorebis zemoqmedebis Sedegad
moTxovnis mrudis mdebareoba Seicvleba: igi gadaadgildeba marjvniv
(Tu moTxovna izrdeba) an marcxniv (Tu moTxovna mcirdeba).
miwodeba da misi ganmsazRvreli faqtorebi.
miwodeba aris saqonlisa da momsaxurebis is raodenoba, romlis
warmoeba da miwodeba SeuZliaT mwarmoeblebs (gamyidvelebs)
bazarze Camoyalibebuli fasebiT drois gansazRvrul monakveTSi.
bazarze saqonlis miwodeba ZiriTadad damokidebulia am saqonlis fasze. fasebis done gansazRvravs miwodebuli saqonlis
137
moculobas.
miwodebasa da fass Soris urTierTdamokidebulebis daxasiaTebis mizniT isev aviRoT pirobiTi cifrobrivi monacemebi, romlebic
gviCveneben, Tu rogor icvleba miwodebis moculoba fasis donis
SecvlasTan erTad (ix. cxrili 3.2).
cxrilidan Cans, rom saqonlis (am SemTxvevaSi _ vaSlis)
fassa da miwodebas Soris damokidebuleba dadebiTi, anu
pirdapirproporciulia; isini erTi da imave mimarTulebiT icvlebian.
es gasagebicaa: fasis zrda mogebas adidebs, rac aZlierebs
mwarmoeblis dainteresebas meti awarmoos da miawodos bazars.
aRniSnuli kanonzomiereba ekonomikaSi miwodebis kanonis
saxelwodebiTaa cnobili.
cxrilSi motanili monacemebis safuZvelze marTxkuTxa
koordinantTa sistemaSi Tu movnaxavT `fasi-miwodebis~ Svidive
variantis Sesabamis wertilebs da SevaerTebT, miviRebT SS wirs,
nax. 3.5. miwodebis mrudi
cxrili 3.2.
fasis gavlena miwodebis sidideze
(hi poTezuri monacemebi)
1 kg vaSlis fasi
(larebSi)
138
vaSlis kvireuli
miwodeba (kg-ebSi)
0.00
0
0.20
2
0.33
4
0.60
6
1.00
8
1.80
10
3.00
12
romelsac miwodebis mrudi ewodeba.
gansxvavebiT moTxovnis mrudisagan, miwodebis mrudi aRmavalia
(miemarTeba samxreT-dasavleTidan Crdilo-aRmosavleTisaken), radgan
fassa da miwodebas Soris damokidebuleba dadebiTia (ix. nax. 3.5.).
mrudze yoveli wertili fasis garkveuli donis pirobebSi
mocemuli saqonlis miwodebis sidides gviCvenebs. miwodebis mrudi
miwodebis yvela variants aRwers, rac bazarze drois mocemul
momentSi SeiZleba arsebobdes. grafikulad, saqonlis fasis
cvlilebis zemoqmedeba am saqonlis miwodebis sidideze miwodebis
mrudis sxvadasxva wertilze gadaadgilebiT gamoixateba.
miwodebis raodenobrivi cvlilebis xarisxi fasebis cvlilebis
sapasuxod axasiaTebs miwodebis elastikurobas . miwodebis
elastikurobis cnebaSi igulisxmeba misi cvlilebis xarisxi
fasebis dinamikisagan damokidebulebiT. am cvlilebis gasazomad
iyeneben miwodebis elastikurobis koeficients . igi iangariSeba
139
formuliT:
E s=
miwodebis sididis procentuli cvlileba
fasis procentuli cvlileba
miwodeba fasis mimarT aris elastikuri an araelastikuri.
es gansxvaveba gansakuTrebiT mniSvnelovania saqonlis mwarmoebelTaTvis, romlebic winaswar akeTeben axal nakeTobaTa elastikurobis xarisxis prognozs.
miwodeba elastikuri xdeba maSin, rodesac misi sidide
icvleba ufro didi procentiT, vidre fasi. rogorc mravali
qveynis gamocdileba gviCvenebs, miwodebis elastikurobis koeficients _ grZelvadian periodSi fasebis wonasworobis pirobebSi
_ gaaCnia zrdis tendencia, e.i. fasebis zrda gansazRvrul sididemde
ramdenadme ufro meti xarisxiT iwvevs warmoebisa da miwodebis
gadidebas.
miwodeba araelastikuria maSin, Tu igi ar icvleba
fasebis amaRlebis an Semcirebis sapasuxod. es damaxasiaTebelia mravali saqonlisaTvis moklevadian periodSi. magaliTad,
dabalia elastikurobis xarisxi malfuWebadi produqtebisaTvis,
romelTa didi raodenobiT Senaxvac SeuZlebelia. amasTan, miwodeba
nela icvleba moTxovnasTan SedarebiT. marTlac, xom sakmaod
Znelia warmoebis gadarTva axal nakeTobaTa gamoSvebaze, resursebis
gadanawileba gamosaSveb saqonelTa raodenobis SecvlisaTvis.
amrigad, miwodebis elastikurobis koeficientis dinamikis
codnas didi mniSvneloba aqvs saqonlis warmoebisa da gayidvis
moculobaTa winaswar gansazRvrisaTvis fasTa cvlilebisagan
damokidebulebiT.
miwodebis mrudis agebisas daSvebulia, rom miwodeba mxolod
faszea damokidebuli. sinamdvileSi masze gavlenas axdens sxva,
arafasismieri faqtorebic. maT miekuTvneba: warmoebis xarjebi,
teqnologia, gadasaxadebi, fasis momavali cvlilebis molodini,
140
gamyidvelTa raodenoba da sxv. cxadia, am faqtorebis zemoqmedeba
iwvevs miwodebis mrudis Sesabamis gadaadgilebas marjvniv (Tu
miwodeba izrdeba) an marcxniv (Tu miwodeba mcirdeba).
fasi da sabazro wonasworoba. fasi (P) saqonlis
Rirebulebis fuladi gamoxatulebaa, romelsac adgens bazari
miwodeba-moTxovnis safuZvelze. wonasworoba bazarze iseT
mdgomareobas ewodeba, rodesac moTxovna da miwodeba gaTanabrebulia. moTxovna da miwodeba bazarze erTmaneTisagan damoukideblad
ar arsebobs. Cven cal-calke isini imitom ganvixileT, rom
TiToeulis Sinaarsi ufro kargad gagvego.
axla saWiroa erTmaneTs davukavSiroT moTxovna da miwodeba
da davakvirdeT _ maTi rogori kombinacia gansazRvravs sabazro
nax. 3.6. sabazro wonasworoba
141
fass da yidva-gayidvis moculobas (ix. nax. 3.6).
Tu Cvens mier motanili pirobiTi magaliTebis mixedviT
vimsjelebT, amocana aseTia: 1kg vaSlis Svidi SesaZlebeli fasidan
romelia sabazro fasi? SeiZleba Tu ara sabazro fasi iyos 3
lari, e.i. SesaZlebeli fasebidan yvelaze maRali fasi?
rogorc cnobilia, maRali fasi iwvevs mwarmoebelTa dainteresebas meti awarmoon da miawodon bazars. miwodebis gadideba
droTa ganmavlobaSi iwvevs siWarbes, rasac Sedegad mosdevs
gamyidvelTa Soris konkurenciis gamwvaveba da fasis daweva.
amrigad, saqonlis yvelaze maRali fasi didxans ver `gaZlebs~,
konkurenciis Sedegad klebas iwyebs.
axla gadavinacvloT joxis meore boloSi: SeiZleba Tu ara
sabazro fasi iyos SesaZlebeli fasebidan erT-erTi yvelaze
dabali 0.20 lari? didxans es fasic ver `gaZlebs~, radgan
siiafis pirobebSi saqonlis myidvelTa ricxvi gaizrdeba, maT
Soris konkurencia gaZlierdeba, rasac Sedegad mohyveba fasis
mateba. dabali fasi asustebs mwarmoebelTa dainteresebas mocemuli
produqtis warmoebiT, rasac droTa ganmavlobaSi mosdevs deficiti.
fasis aseTi moZraoba gagrZeldeba manamde, sanam moTxovna da
miwodeba erTmaneTs ar gautoldeba da grafikze maTi mrudebi ar
gadaikveTeba.
grafikze moTxovnisa da miwodebis mrudebs mxolod erTi
gadakveTis wertili aqvs, rasac sabazro wonasworoba ewodeba.
fass, romelic am wertilSi (e.i. bazarze moTxovnisa da miwodebis
tolobisas) yalibdeba, wonasworobis fasi, xolo yidva-gayidvis
raodenobas wonasworobis moculoba ewodeba.
amrigad, wonasworobis fasi saqonlis fasia, romliTac
moTxovnis raodenoba emTxveva miwodebis raodenobas; wonasworobis
moculoba saqonlis is raodenobaa, romelic SesaZlebelia gaiyidos
wonasworobis, anu sabazro fasiT. Cvens mier ganxilul magaliTSi
wonasworobis fasi 0.60 lars, xolo wonasworobis moculoba 6
kg vaSls Seadgens.
142
wonasworobis fasi bazris yvela monawiles akmayofilebs:
myidvelebi maTTvis sasurvel produqts yiduloben, xolo
gamyidvelebi yvela warmoebul produqts maTTvis misaReb fasebSi
yidian.
gamyidvelebisa da myidvelebis moqmedeba bunebrivad ubiZgebs
bazars wonasworobisaken. ganvixiloT situacia, rodesac sabazro
fasi wonasworobis fasis toli ar aris.
davuSvaT, rom sabazro fasi wonasworobis fasze metia. am
SemTxvevaSi vaSlis miwodeba masze moTxovnas aWarbebs. warmoiqmneba saqonlis siWarbe: gamyidvelebs am raodenobis produqciis
realizeba ar SeuZliaT. aseT situacias Warbi miwodeba ewodeba.
am pirobebSi vaSlis gamyidveli iZulebulia sakuTar produqciaze
fasi im dromde Seamciros, vidre bazari wonasworobis mdgomareobas
ar daubrundeba (grafikze amas uCvenebs qvemoT mimarTuli isrebi).
ganvixiloT sapirispiro situacia. davuSvaT, rom vaSlze
sabazro fasi wonasworobis fasze naklebia. am SemTxvevaSi
warmoiSoba daukmayofilebeli sabazro moTxovna . vinaidan
sabazro fasi wonasworobis fasze naklebia, moTxovnis moculoba
miwodebis moculobas aRemateba. da radgan myidvels meti vaSlis
SeZena surs, mimwodeblebi sargebloben bazris deficitiT da
zrdian fasebs (grafikze amas uCvenebs zemoT mimarTuli isrebi).
orive SemTxvevaSi fasis cvlileba bazars moTxovnisa da miwodebis
wonasworobisaken ubiZgebs.
amrigad, sxva Tanabar pirobebSi, mravalricxovani gamyidvelisa da myidvelis erToblivi moqmedeba sabazro fass avtomaturad wonasworobis fasisaken ubiZgebs. rodesac bazarze wonasworoba myardeba, gamyidvelebi da myidvelebi kmayofildebian da
fasze zewola qreba.
Tavisufali konkurenciis pirobebSi bazarze Warbi miwodeba
an daukmayofilebeli moTxovna droebiTi movlenebia, radganac
fasebi yovelTvis wonasworobisaken miiswrafian. am movlenas
moTxovna-miwodebis kanons uwodeben, romlis mixedviTac
143
saqonlis fasi im donisaken miiswrafis, sadac saqonlis miwodeba
da masze moTxovna wonaswordeba.
moTxovnisa da miwodebis kanonebis, sabazro fasis Camoyalibebis
meqanizmis codna saSualebas gvaZlevs ufro Rrmad CavixedoT
sabazro ekonomikis funqcionirebaSi da vupasuxoT kiTxvas: ra
aregulirebs sabazro ekonomikas?
sazogadoebis ekonomikuri cxovrebis ukan dgas resursebis
iSviaTobis aCrdili. iSviaToba rom ar arsebobdes, e.i. adamianebs
rom SeeZloT sasurveli resursi da saqoneli miiRon msxverplis
gaRebis gareSe, maSin moTxovna-miwodebis Tanafardobaze, fasze
msjeloba yovelgvar azrs dakargavda.
swored iSviaToba ayenebs kiTxvebs: rogor ganawildes deficituri resursebi? vin da ra unda gaakeTos imisaTvis, rom
adamianebma gamoiyenon SezRuduli SesaZleblobani da ukeT
daikmayofilon moTxovnilebani? es aris arCevanis, SeTanxmebis,
TanamSromlobis sagani. magram TaTbirebi, romelTa Sedegadac
miiRweva SeTanxmeba da TanamSromloba, ewyoba ara sxdomaTa
darbazebsa da komitetebSi, aramed bazarze, xolo molaparakebis
enaa ara inglisuri, rusuli an franguli, aramed yvela enas
Soris yvelaze saerTaSoriso ena _ fasi. miwodeba da moTxovna
(anu mwarmoebeli da momxmarebeli, gamyidveli da myidveli)
erTmaneTs elaparakebian fasebis meSveobiT, fasebis eniT.
ufro zustad rom vTqvaT, isini arc elaparakebian erTmaneTs,
magram SesaniSnavad esmiT erTmaneTisa. maRaziaSi Sesuli myidveli,
gamofenili saqonlisa da maTze aRniSnuli fasebis gacnobis
Semdeg, gamyidvels aniSnebs, esa da es nivTi Semixvieo. gamyidveli
mas ar ekiTxeba, Tanaxma xar Tu ara gadaixado fasi, romelic am
saqonels aweriao. yvelaferi isedac gasagebia. Tu myidvels ar
awyobs romelime saqonlis fasi, man unda eZios misi substitutebi.
Tu mwarmoebels epataraveba bazarze Camoyalibebuli fasi, mas
rCeba erTaderTi gza: Tavi mianebos am saqonlis warmoebas da
sxva saqme eZios. roca ama Tu im saqonlis miwodeba sWarbobs
144
masze moTxovnas, misi fasi klebas iwyebs, mogeba mcirdeba da amiT
signals aZlevs mwarmoebels Tavi Seikavos am saqonlis warmoebisagan. piriqiT, Tu saqoneli cotaa, misi fasi matulobs, riTac
bazari atyobinebs mwarmoebels meti awarmoos. aqedan gamomdinareobs
fasis makoordinirebeli roli sabazro ekonomikaSi. swored
fasis meSveobiT myardeba wonasworoba moTxovnasa da miwodebas
Soris.
sabazro fasebis cvlilebaze sazogadoebis wevrTa reagirebis
procesSi xdeba maTi kerZo interesebis gardaqmna, gadaxarSva
TanamSromlobad. fasebis cvlilebaze mwarmoebelTa (myidvelTa)
reagirebas safuZvlad udevs kerZo interesebi, yvela cdilobs
Secvlili fasebis pirobebSi ise moiqces, rom maqsimaluri
Semosavali miiRos: myidveli adidebs im saqonlis SeZenas, romlis
fasi klebulobs, xolo mwarmoebeli zrdis im saqonlis miwodebas,
romlis fasi matulobs. amrigad, fasebis moZraoba da miwodebisa da moTxovnis urTierTzemoqmedeba _ esaa urTierTSeguebis, SeTanxmebis, TanamSromlobis procesi .
moTxovnisa da miwodebis kanonebi, sabazro faswarmoqmnis
meqanizmi yvelaze efeqtianad wminda anu srulyofili konkurenciis
pirobebSi moqmedebs. magram wminda (srulyofili) konkurenciuli
bazari realurad ar arsebobs; is mxolod Teoriuli abstraqciaa
da realur cxovrebaSi gzas didi siZneleebiT ikafavs.
145
leqcia 10. sabazro struqturis
ZiriTadi ti pebi da maTi
daxasiaTeba
`konkurencia aris individTa saqmianobis marTvis saukeTeso wesi.~
a.f.haieki
`konkurenciis arasrulyofilebaTa
Sesamcireblad mTeli eri unda ibrZodes
da mudam sifxizles inarCunebdes.~
p.samuelsoni
sabazro struqturis arsi da misi ZiriTadi
ti pebis zogadi daxasiaTeba. sportuli metoqeoba TamaSs
sainteresos xdis da sportsmenebs sakuTar SesaZleblobaTa
maqsimumis gamovlenas aiZulebs. magram mZafri metoqeobis garda,
yoveli TamaSi koordinaciis magaliTsac gviCvenebs. es exeba rogorc
calkeul sportsmenebs, romlebic urTules moZraobebs Zaladautaneblad da moxdenilad asruleben, ise Tavad gundebs, romelTa
warmatebac moTamaSeebis erTobliv moqmedebazea damokidebuli.
mokled, saWiroa calkeuli sportsmenebis monacemTa koordinacia
rogorc gundebis, ise im ligis doneze, sadac isini asparezoben.
bevri ram ekonomikaSic swored asea. ekonomikur saqmianobaSi
calkeul adamianTa an maTi jgufis interesebi xSirad erTmaneTs
upirispirdeba da maT Soris Cndeba metoqeoba TavianTi SezRuduli resursebis ufro momgebiani gamoyenebis mizniT. amasTan,
metoqeobis xasiaTze didadaa damokidebuli misi Sedegic.
Tavisufali mewarmeobis ekonomikaSi metoqeobas sabazro
konkurencia ewodeba. aq yvela cdilobs warmatebas miaRwios
146
iseTi saqonlisa da momsaxurebis warmoebiT, romelsac, maTi varaudiT,
sxvebi SeiZenen. amiT isini am saqonlisa da momsaxurebis sanacvlod
fuls Rebuloben. imisaTvis, raTa warmatebiT gaarTvan Tavi
konkurencias, adamianebi da sawarmoebi nebayoflobiT TanamSromloben erTmaneTTan da koordinirebuli moqmedebiT momxmareblisaTvis saWiro ufro met saqonelsa da momsaxurebas awarmoeben.
faqtobrivad, sabazro konkurencia erTi ZiriTadi aspeqtiT
gansxvavdeba sportuli metoqeobisagan, sadac gamarjveba aucileblad gulisxmobs sxvis damarcxebas. ekonomikaSi aucilebeli
ar aris yvelam gaimarjvos, magram yvelas SeuZlia gamarjveba
da erTis gamarjvebis SedegebiT sargeblobis miReba. sabazro
konkurencia emsaxureba rogorc myidvelebis, aseve gamyidvelebis
interesebs, anu orive mxarisaTvis momgebiania. amis gamo konkurencia
Tavisufali mewarmeobis ekonomikis qvakuTxedia.
es imiT aixsneba, rom mogebis gazrdis survili mewarmeebs
aiZulebs siaxleTa danergvas, ufro meti da ukeTesi xarisxis
saqonlis warmoebas, meti maRalanazRaurebadi samuSao adgilebis
Seqmnas, resursebis ufro efeqtian gamoyenebas, warmoebis muSakTa
kvalifikaciis amaRlebas da Sromis organizaciis srulyofas.
misi Sedegia produqciis erTeulze sawarmos danaxarjebis Semcireba,
rac iZleva fasis Semcirebis SesaZleblobas. es aCqarebs warmoebuli
saqonlis realizacias da zrdis sawarmos mogebas. sabolood,
mocemuli sawarmos konkurentunarianoba bazarze gamovlindeba.
maSasadame, konkurencia sawarmos mogebis maqsimizaciis erT-erTi
pirobaa.
amrigad, Tavisufali mewarmeobis ekonomikaSi mwarmoeblebs
Soris konkurencia xels uwyobs saqonlis xarisxis amaRlebas
da masze SedarebiT dabali fasis dawesebas. radgan TiToeuli
Cvengani (gamyidveli Tu myidveli) momxareblebi varT, amdenad,
konkurencia yvelasaTvis sasargebloa.
zogierTi warmatebuli sawarmo mimarTavs fasobriv konkurencias, inarCunebs ra sawarmoo danaxarjebisa da fasebis maqsimalurad
147
dabal dones. magram, fasis garda, konkurenciis sxva meTodebic
arsebobs. Tu waikiTxavT Jurnals, uyurebT televizors an
gaiseirnebT savaWro centrSi, Tqven aRmoaCenT sawarmoebs, romlebic
konkurencias sul sxvadasxva meTodebiT ewevian. magaliTad, zogierTi
kompania sakuTari saqonlis gansakuTrebuli Tvisebebis reklamiT
eweva konkurencias. sxvebi yuradRebas amaxvileben gansakuTrebuli
saxis momsaxurebaze, romelsac isini momxmareblebs sTavazoben.
zogierTebi xazs usvamen, konkurentebTan SedarebiT, ukeTesi
masalebisa da warmoebis meTodebis gamoyenebas, rac ufro maRali
xarisxis produqcias niSnavs.
bevri kompania Tavisi saqmianobis ramdenime momentze amaxvilebs
yuradRebas. rogorc kalaTburTelTa maRali klasis mwvrTneli
Zalebs ar iSurebs asparezobisas Tavisi gundis upiratesobis
gasazrdelad metoqe gundebTan SedarebiT, zustad aseve mewarmeebi
da sawarmoTa xelZRvanelebi eZeben iseT strategiebs, romelic
maT bazarze konkurenciisas warmatebas moutans.
`fasis mimRebni~ da `fasis maZiebelni~ ganasaxiereben
ekonomistebis mier aRweril ori saxis strategias. fasis mimRebni
Rebuloben bazris mier gansazRvrul fass da Semdeg wyveten,
ramdeni awarmoon am fasad. fasis maZiebelni ki eZeben Sesaferis
fass, romelic Tavisi saqonlisaTvis unda moiTxovon. is, Tu
romeli strategiaa saukeTeso ama Tu im sawarmosaTvis,
damokidebulia im bazris organizaciaze (struqturaze), sadac
mimdinareobs konkurencia.
bazris struqturis ti pebi, faswarmoqmnis pirobebi da
nairsaxeobani praqtikulad amouwuravia; isini erTmaneTSi gadadian,
erTmaneTs avseben, sufTa saxiT ar arseboben. miuxedavad amisa,
ekonomikuri mecniereba mainc axerxebs gamoyos sabazro struqturis
ramdenime ZiriTadi ti pi (modeli), romelTa meSveobiT xdeba
warmoebis moculobis gansazRvra, miwodebisa da moTxovnis
Tanafardobis damyareba da sabazro fasebis Camoyalibeba.
bazris struqtura sxvadasxvagvaria, dawyebuli srulyo148
fili anu `wminda~ konkurenciiT da damTavrebuli absoluturi anu `wminda~ monopoliiT . Tanamedrove realur
ekonomikur sistemebSi, da saerTodac, srulyofili anu `wminda~
konkurencia, iseve rogorc absoluturi anu `wminda~ monopolia
Teoriuli abstraqciaa, romlebic gamoxataven or polarul sabazro
situacias, or logikur zRvars. es modelebi, TiToeuli am situaciis
pirobebSi, Teoriulad asaxaven mogebis maqsimizaciis mimarTulebiT
individualur sawarmoTa SesaZlo saqmianobis ZiriTad kanonzomierebebs. realur sinamdvileSi maT Soris `Tavsdeba~ anu funqcionirebs arasrulyofili konkurencia, rodesac kompaniebi monopolisturi konkurenciis an oligopoliis pirobebSi ewevian
konkurencias.
qvemoT mocemulia sabazro struqturis CamoTvlili tipebisaTvis damaxasiaTebel niSanTa sqematuri cxrili, romelic
zogad warmodgenas gvaZlevs TiToeul maTganze (ix. cxrili 3.3).
magram sakiTxSi meti sicxadis SetanisaTvis saWiroa maTi detaluri
ganxilva.
Tavdapirvelad Cven ganvixilavT polarul sabazro struqturebs: srulyofil anu wminda konkurencias da absolutur anu
wminda monopolias. aseTi dapirispireba ufro reliefurad
warmoaCens kontrastebs da amiT gviadvilebs maTs gagebas. Semdeg
mivubrundebiT Sualedur sabazro situaciebs _ monopolistur
konkurenciasa da oligopolias (romlebic zogjer wodebulia
arasrulyofili konkurenciis modelebad).
wminda konkurencia. wminda konkurenciuli bazris Ziri-
Tadi niSania damoukideblad moqmed mwarmoebelTa (gamyidvelTa)
da momxmarebelTa (myidvelTa) didi raodenoba. aseTi bazris
magaliTebia: soflis meurneobis produqtebis bazari, fasiani qaRaldebis bazari (safondo birJa), ucxo qveynebis valutaTa bazari
da sxv.
aseTi bazrebi imiT gamoirCevian, rom aq iyideba standartuli
149
cxrili 3.3.
bazris oTxi ZiriTadi modeli da maTi
damaxasiaTebeli niSnebi
bazris modelebi
damaxasiawm in da
monop oTebeli
k onk u - l i s t u r i
ni Sne bi
ren ci a konkurencia
wm in da
monop o li a
1
2
4
5
firmaTa
raodenoba
Zalian
bevri
bevri
ramdenime
erTi
produqtis
tipi
standartuli
diferencirebuli
standartuli
an diferencirebuli
unikaluri,
ar aris
uaxloesi
Semcvleli
kontroli
fasze
ar aris
zogierTi,
magram sakmaod
viwro
farglebSi
urTierTdamokidebulebiT
SezRuduli,
mniSvnelovani
faruli
SeTanxmebisas
mniSvnelovani
dargSi
Sesvlis
pirobebi
Zalian
ioli,
Seferxeba
araa
SedarebiT
ioli
arsebiTi
Seferxeba ar
aris
blokirebulia
arafasobrivi
konkurencia
ar
arsebobs
magaliTebi
150
3
ol i g op o li a
mniSvnelovani Zalze ti piuri,
dayrdnoba
gansakuTrebiT
reklamaze,
produqtTa
savaWro
diferenniSnebze,
ciaciisas
markebze da a.S.
soflis
sacalo
meurneobis
vaWroba,
produqciis tanscmlis,
bazari fexsacmlis da
sxva saqonlis
bazrebi
umTavresad
sazogadoebriv
organizaciebTan
kavSiris
reklama
foladis,
sazogadoebavtomobilebis,
rivi
sasoflosaqonlisa
sameurneu
da
inventaris,
momsaxurebis
mravali
mwarmoebel
sayofacxovrebo sawarmoTa
eleqtronul
produqciis
xelsawyoTa
bazari
bazrebi
anu erTgvarovani produqcia . es imas niSnavs, rom erTi da
imave fasis dros myidvelisaTvis sul erTia, Tu romeli gamyidvelisagan SeiZens produqts. es imasac niSnavs, rom aseT bazrebze
arsebobs mxolod fasiseuli konkurencia , e.i. adgili ara
aqvs konkurencias produqtis xarisxis, reklamis an momsaxurebis
mixedviT. gamyidveli ver axdens fasebze gavlenas , mas ar
SeuZlia myidvels Tavisi (momatebuli) fasi ukarnaxos, radgan
mis gverdiT imave saqonlis uamravi gamyidvelia. igi emorCileba,
egueba bazarze Camoyalibebul fass. wminda konkurenciis pirobebSi
dargSi Sesvla (axali sawarmos gaxsna, bazarze adgilis dakaveba)
da dargidan gasvla arafriT araa SezRuduli, Tavisufalia.
aseTia wminda konkurenciuli bazris ZiriTadi niSnebi. ekonomistTa udidesi nawili im azrisaa, rom aseTi ekonomika uzrunvelyofs sawarmoo resursebis yvelaze efeqtian gamoyenebas,
TviTregulirebadia, unari Seswevs Seaxamos kerZo da sazogadoebrivi
interesebi.
wminda monopolia. wminda, absoluturad monopoliuri
bazari gvaqvs maSin, rodesac erTi firma aris erTaderTi
mwarmoebeli produqtisa, romelsac kargi Semcvleli ar
gaaCnia. am SemTxvevaSi dargi da sawarmo sinonimebia. produqtis unikalurobis gamo momxmarebels arCevanis saSualeba
ara aqvs; man an unda SeiZinos es produqti monopolistisagan, an
mis gareSe darCes. monopolisti bazars (myidvels) karnaxobs
Tavis fass . amis SesaZlebloba mas eZleva imis gamo, rom
konkurentebi ar hyavs.
wminda monopoliis pirobebSi dargSi Sesvla (axal
sawarmoTa gaxsna) blokirebulia . dargSi Sesvlas SeiZleba
eRobebodes ekonomikuri, teqnikuri da iuridiuli barierebi. saqme
isaa, rom wminda monopolisti, rogorc wesi, msxvili sawarmoa,
romelsac axalbeda mewarmeebi konkurencias ver uweven.
wminda monopoliis magaliTia agreTve sawarmoebi, romlebsac
151
mfarvelobs saxelmwifo. eseni arian, umTavresad, e.w. `bunebrivi
monopoliebi~: eleqtro- da gazmomaragebis kompaniebi, wyalsadenisa
da kavSirgabmulobis sawarmoebi, Tavdacvis obieqtebi da a.S.
am dargebSi axali sawarmoebis gaxsnas saxelmwifo aregulirebs patentebisa da licenziebis gacemiT.
absolutur monopolists Tavisi mdgomareoba saSualebas
aZlevs fasebi xelovnurad gaadidos da am gziT uzrunvelyos
maRali mogebis miReba. imave mizezis gamo, mas ar gaaCnia avtomaturi stimuli siaxleTa danergvisa, maSin rodesac konkurenciuli
bazris pirobebSi gakotrebis SiSi mwarmoebels ubiZgebs siaxleTa
gamoyenebisaken. magram naTqvami imas ar niSnavs, rom monopolisti
sruliad Tavisufalia Tavis moqmedebebSi. sabazro Zalebi masac
garkveul CarCoebSi ayenebs.
monopolisturi konkurencia. rogorc saxelwodeba
gviCvenebs, bazris es tipi warmoadgens monopoliisa da konkurenciis
_ am ori urTierTgamomricxavi sawyisis _ narevs.
monopolisturi konkurencia gulisxmobs iseT sabazro situacias, rodesac SedarebiT saSualo sawarmoTa sakmaod
didi ricxvi awarmoebs da yidis msgavs, magram ara identur produqtebs . aseTi sabazro situaciis Sesaqmnelad sakmarisia 25, 35, 60, 70 sawarmo.
aqedan gamomdinareobs monopolisturi konkurenciis ramdenime
Tavisebureba:
 TiToeuli sawarmo awarmoebs produqciis mTeli moculobis SedarebiT mcire nawils da, amdenad, Zalze SezRudulia
misi SesaZlebloba _ gavlena moaxdinos bazris fasebze;
 faqtobrivad gamoricxulia faruli SeTanxmebebi sawarmoTa
Soris;
 TiToeuli sawarmo sakmaod Tavisufalia gadawyvetilebis
miRebaSi.
wminda konkurenciuli bazrisagan gansxvavebiT, monopolis152
turi konkurenciis erT-erTi niSania produqtis diferenciacia
_ saqonlis an momsaxurebis gansakuTrebuli TaviseburebebisaTvis
xazgasma. magaliTad, `uendisis~, `makdonaldsis~, `karls junioris~
da sxva restornebis hamburgerebi SeiZleba didad ar gansxvavdebodes erTmaneTisgan, magram yoveli kompania iyenebs gansakuTrebul
sawebelebs Tu damzadebis meTodebs, anda yvels an lors amatebs
Tavisi hamburgerebis diferencirebis mizniT. arsebobs bevri sxva
saSualebac, rasac sawarmoebi iyeneben sakuTari produqtebis
diferencirebis gziT klientebis mozidvisaTvis. maT Soris umTavresia:
 klientTa momsaxureba . warmoidgineT, rom uaxlovdebiT
gzajvaredins, sadac ori benzingasamarTi sadguria. TiToeuli
erTsa da imave fass iTxovs erTnairi xarisxis benzinSi. ris gamo
mianiWebdiT upiratesobas erT-erT maTgans?
erTi maTgani, albaT, benzinis yoveli Casxmis dros klients
manqanis ufasod garecxvas sTavazobs, meore ki _ manqanaSi zeTs
SegimowmebT da saqare minas gagirecxavT. es aris gansakuTrebuli momsaxurebis magaliTebi, riTac sawarmoebi klientTa
yuradRebas ipyroben.
 garantia da teqnikuri uzrunvelyofa . vinc kompiuterul programas yidulobs, xSirad im kompanias mimarTavs xolme,
romelic momxmarebels saukeTesi teqnikur uzrunvelyofas sTavazobs. dRes kbilis pastasac ki zed telefonis nomeri aweria,
romelzec myidvels SeuZlia darekos, Tu raime SekiTxva daebadeba.
xSirad swored garantia garwmunebT erT romelime produqts
mianiWoT upiratesoba meoresTan SedarebiT. manqanebiT movaWre
sawarmos teqnikuri momsaxurebis ganyofilebis reputacias ki
SeuZlia gavlena moaxdinos ama Tu im markis avtomobilis SeZenis
gadawyvetilebaze.
 prestiJi. mravali sawarmo sakuTari produqciis diferencirebis mizniT TvalSi sacem etiketebs iyenebs. Tqven, albaT, odesme
giyidiaT perangi, halstuxi, qudi an CanTa mxolod imitom, rom
153
mas gansakuTrebuli safirmo niSani an emblema hqonia. kompaniebi
bevrs muSaoben dadebiTi imijis Sesaqmnelad. vinc cnobili firmis
mier warmoebul mzis saTvales yidulobs, xSirad marto Tvalebis
mzisagan dacviT ar aris dainteresebuli.
monopolisturi konkurenciis dros dargSi (bazarSi) Sesvla da iqidan gamosvla SedarebiT iolia, radgan sawarmoebi
maincdamainc didebi ar arian da, amdenad, axali efeqturi sawarmoebis mowyoba ar moiTxovs did kapitaldabandebebs. magram
konkurencia aq mZafria da sawarmoebma Zalebi ar unda daiSuron
sakuTari produqciisaTvis gansakuTrebuli adgilis (niSis)
mosapoveblad.
oligopolia. bazris oligopoliuri struqtura romelime
dargSi ramdenime msxvili sawarmos (daaxloebiT 3-5) Soris
SeiZleba arsebobdes, rac gulisxmobs SeTanxmebas fasebsa da
bazris gayofaze.
oligopoliis rolis Sesaxeb garkveul warmodgenas gviqmnis
Semdegi monacemebi. 2000 wels aSS-Si oTxi firmis xvedriTi
wona qvemoT dasaxelebuli produqtebis erovnul warmoebaSi
Seadgenda: saojaxo macivrebi _ 94%, motoriani satransporto
saSualebebi _ 92%, saojaxo sarecxi manqanebi _ 91%, sigaretebi
_ 90%; gluvi SuSa _ 85%, telefonis aparatebi _ 76% da sxv.
ratom xdeba ase? ra iwvevs imas, rom zogierTi dargi Sedgeba sul ramdenime firmisagan? amis mTavari mizezia danaxarjTa
ekonomia. `masStabis efeqti~ swored is aris, rom arsebobs
dargebi, romlebSic yvelaze efeqtiani warmoebis mowyoba didi
masStabis pirobebSia SesaZlebeli. magaliTebad gamogvadgeba zemoT
dasaxelebuli produqtebis mwarmoebeli sawarmoebi.
ra Tqma unda, es ar exeba yvela dargs. piriqiT, bevr SemTxvevaSi
gacilebiT efeqtiania SedarebiT mcire sawarmoebi. am safuZvelze
xdeba e.w. `mcire biznesis~ ganviTareba.
154
oligopoliur firmebSi iwarmoeba rogorc standartuli, ise diferencirebuli produqtebi (standartuli:
foladi, rkina, cinki, spilenZi, cementi da sxv.; diferencirebuli:
avtomobilebi, saburavebi, sigaretebi da sxv.).
oligopolia, ra Tqma unda, konkurencias ar spobs: is
ramdenime giganturi firma, romlebic warmoadgenen mocemul dargs,
erTmaneTisaTvis saSiSi da yovlisSemZle konkurentebi arian.
magram imave dros oligopolia warmoSobs axal fenomens, romelic
ar axasiaTebs bazris sxva ti pebs, _ esaa sayovelTao damokidebuleba erTmaneTze .
es urTierTdamokidebuleba Zneli warmosadgeni araa. vTqvaT,
dargSi gabatonebulia sami firma, romelTagan TiToeuls ekuTvnis
produqtis erovnuli warmoebis mesamedi. aseT viTarebaSi verc
erTi firma ver miiRebs gadawyvetilebas ise, rom ar gaiTvaliswinos
danarCeni oris reagireba am gadawyvetilebaze.
mcirericxovnoba da erTmaneTze damokidebuleba nayofieri
niadagia oligopolistebs Soris saidumlo SeTanxmebaTa misaRwevad. SeTanxmebani (rogorc gaformebuli, ise jentlmenuri)
SeiZleba exebodes fasebis dafiqsirebas, bazrebis ganawilebas da
sxv. SeTanxmebaTa mizania firmebs Soris konkurenciis simZafris
SezRudva _ Serbileba.
oligopolias axasiaTebs lideroba fasebSi . arsebobs
praqtika: mTavari firma (lideri) cvlis saqonlis fass, xolo
sxvebi avtomaturad misdeven am cvlilebas (e.i. TviTonac am
fasebiT iwyeben gayidvas). es aris meTodi, romlis daxmarebiTac
oligopolistebs SeuZliaT fasebis politikis koordinireba ise,
rom ar mimarTon aSkara molaparakebas fasebis sakiTxSi.
fasebsa da bazris gayofaze SeTanxmebis xelmomwer sawarmoTa jgufs ewodeba karteli. am SemTxvevaSi ramdenime sawarmo
gamodis rogorc erTi mTliani da mas SeiZleba jgufuri monopolia ewodos.
155
karteli arastabiluri gaerTianebaa da igi Semdegi Siga
winaaRmdegobebiT xasiaTdeba:
 pirveli problema, romelic warmoiSoba kartelis winaSe,
esaa bazarze kontroli. ramdenadac kartelis mizania konkurentul
doneze fasis zrda, igi magnitiviT izidavs axal kompaniebs mocemul
bazarze. magram bazarze warmoebis didi raodenoba amcirebs
TiToeulis wils mTlian SemosavalSi da araefeqtianad aqcevs
kartelur SeTanxmebas;
 meore, ufro seriozuli problema, kvotis problemaa.
TiToeuli subieqti (sawarmo) Tavisi kvotis* gazrdas cdilobs.
am aspeqtSi farTod cnobilia navTobis eqsportiori qveynebis
organizaciis (OPEC)** magaliTi, romelmac 1973-1981 wlebSi
10-jer gazarda fasebi navTobze (1 bareli _ 40 aSS dolari).
fasebis aseTma matebam organizaciis wevri qveynebis mogeba swrafad
gazarda, magram navTobze maRali fasis dawesebam navTobis mopovebis
gadideba ganapiroba im qveynebSi, romlebic OPEC-is SemadgenlobaSi
ar Sediodnen. ufro metic, moTxovna navTobze perspeqtivaSi
ufro elastikuri aRmoCnda, ramdenadac energiadamzogi mowyobilobisa da ufro ekonomiuri avtomobilebis warmoeba daiwyo.
amis Sedegad OPEC-ma dakarga bazarze Tavisi adrindeli wilis
naxevari, xolo fasi 4-jer Semcirda (1983 w.).
bazarze sawarmoTa jgufis SesaZlebeli kontrolis xarisxi
bazris koncentraciis maCvenebliT ganisazRvreba. bazris kon-
* kvota _ laT. quota, quot _ (ramdeni) _ ekonomikaSi karteluri
SeTanxmebis CarCoSi masSi Semavali monawilis wili mTlian warmoebaSi an
gasaRebaSi.
** OPEC _ (ing. Organization of the Petroleum Exporting Countries) _
Seiqmna 1960 wels (baRdadi), aerTianebs navTobis mompovebel 12 qveyanas.
156
centraciis cneba mWidrodaa dakavSirebuli bazarze arsebuli
konkurentuli sawarmoebis raodenobasTan. ganasxvaveben sabazro
koncentraciis dargobriv da agregatul maCveneblebs.
sabazro koncentraciis dargobrivi maCvenebeli gamoiTvleba, rogorc 4 an 8 umsxvilesi sawarmos wili dargis
produqciaSi. zogierT qveyanaSi es wili sakmaod maRalia. magaliTad,
aSS-is saavtomobilo mrewvelobaSi koncentraciis koeficienti
90%-s aRemateba, sigaretis warmoebaSi es maCvenebeli 85%-ia,
ludis damzadebaSi _ 70% da a.S. samagierod, koncentraciis
done sakmaod dabalia komerciul liTografiaSi (5%), rZis
mrewvelobaSi (14%), gazeTis beWdvaSi (15%) da ualkoholo
sasmelebis warmoebaSi (16%).
zogadad miRebuli kriteriumis mixedviT, Tu dargSi 4 umsxvilesi sawarmos (kompaniis) wilad modis 50%-ze meti
dargobrivi produqcia, maSin aseTi dargi iTvleba Zlier koncentrirebul dargad, romlisTvisac damaxasiaTebelia Zlieri oligopoliuri situacia. aSS-is gadamamuSavebel mrewvelobaSi aseT
dargebs miekuTvneba: liTondamuSaveba (50%), sasoflo-sameurneo
manqanaTmSenebloba (53%), parfiumeriis mrewveloba (60%),
salteebis mrewveloba (66%), TviTmfrinavmSenebloba (72%), fotomowyobiloba (72%), ludis mrewveloba (77%) da saavtomobilo
mrewveloba (92%).
im SemTxvevaSi, roca koncentraciis done 25-ze naklebia,
maSin bazari met-naklebad Tanabrad gayofilia calkeul mwarmoeblebs Soris. aseT bazrebze sawarmos ekonomikuri saqmianoba
ufro metad Seesabameba srulyofili an monopolisturi
konkurenciis modelebs.
dargobrivi koncentraciis erT-erTi mizezia bazarze Sesvlis barieris arseboba. igi iTvaliswinebs arsebul bazarze
axali firmebis Sesvlis winaaRmdeg dabrkolebis Seqmnas. im bazarze,
sadac ar arsebobs arsebiTi ekonomia warmoebis masStabze da
aseve ar arsebobs bazarze Sesvlis mniSvnelovani barierebi ,
157
dargis produqcia ZiriTadad izrdeba axali sawarmoebis bazarze
Sesvlis xarjze. es ki, saboloo jamSi, koncentraciis dacemas
gamoiwvevs. Sesasvleli barierebis arsebobis pirobebSi lider
sawarmoebs TavianTi wili dargis gafarToebiT SeuZliaT gazardon.
zogjer barierebi iqmneba xelovnurad, mTavrobis an adgilobrivi
organoebis mier, roca xelisufleba mxolod erT an ramdenime
sawarmos aZlevs bazarze Sesvlis SesaZleblobas.
sabolood, rogor SevafasoT oligopolia? aris Tu ara igi
efeqturi bazris sxva ti pebTan SedarebiT? am sakiTxSi urTierTsawinaaRmdego mosazrebebi arsebobs. erTni amtkiceben, rom ufro
efeqturia Tavisufali konkurencia. sxvebis azriT, oligopolias
teqnikuri progresis meti daintereseba da saxsrebi gaaCnia, vidre
wvril konkurentul firmebs.
Cven am davas axla ver gadavwyvetT. amitom davkmayofildeT
Semdegi informaciiT: marTalia, oligopoliaSi mimdinareobs farTo
masStabis mecnierul-kvleviTi muSaoba, inergeba siaxleni, magram
faqtia, rom XX saukunis umniSvnelovanesi gamogonebebi ganxorcielda ara oligopoliebSi, aramed SedarebiT mcire firmebsa da,
gansakuTrebiT, damoukidebel gamomgonebelTa TavebSi. kerZod, iseTi
epoqaluri siaxleni, rogoricaa kondicioneri, sareleo marTva,
burTuliani sawerkalami, celofani, reaqtiuli Zravi, qseroqsi,
personaluri kompiuteri, Sveulmfreni da sxva mravali daibada
damoukidebel gamomgonebelTa TavebSi.
axla amiT davasruloT bazris ti pebis daxasiaTeba. kidev
erTxel gavimeoroT da davimaxsovroT: mTavari, riTac bazris
CamoTvlili ti pebi gansxvavdebian erTmaneTisagan, _ esaa
is meqanizmi, romlis meSveobiTac xorcieldeba faswarmoqmna
da ganisazRvreba ama Tu im produqtis warmoebis (miwodebis) moculoba.
arasrulyofili konkurenciis bazris xarvezebi
da antimonopoliuri politika. Tanamedrove sabazro
158
ekonomikis qveynebis meurneobis zogierT dargSi Zalze maRalia
koncentraciis done. koncentrirebul dargebSi ki gabatonebulia
monopoliuri Zala, romelic aferxebs jansaR konkurencias.
saxelmwifos erT-erTi umniSvnelovanesi funqciaa ekonomikaSi
konkurenciis SenarCuneba . am mxriv yvelaze meti gamocdileba
dagrovda aSS-Si, sadac XIX saukunis dasasruls Camoyalibda
antimonopoliuri kanonmdebloba . masSi igulisxmeba kanonTa
paketi, romelic moicavs kanonebis, sasamarTlo gadawyvetilebebisa
da samarTlebrivi normebis Zalze rTul da ganStoebul qsels,
romelic amerikis istoriaSi Seiqmna ukanaskneli 100 wlis
ganmavlobaSi.
istoriulad, amerikis ekonomika, romelic ZiriTadad iziarebda
Tavisufali konkurenciis filosofias, uaryofiTad uyurebda
monopoliebis aRmocenebas da ganviTarebas. amave dros am qveyanaSi
aqcioneruli sazogadoebis swrafma zrdam mZlavri zemoqmedeba
moaxdina `trestebis~ ganviTarebaze. samoqalaqo omis Semdgom
periodSi trestebi aRmocenda navTobis mrewvelobaSi, konservirebuli xorcis warmoebaSi, Saqris, tyviis, naxSiris, viskis da Tambaqos
nawarmis warmoebasa da sxva dargebSi. isini TavianTi nebiT warmarTavdnen bazars. aman gamoiwvia fermerebisa da wvrili mewarmeebis,
momxmareblebisa da profkavSirebis aRSfoTeba. ukmayofilebas ki
mohyva politikuri xelisuflebis nabiji. man 1890 wels miiRo
Sermanis antitrestuli kanoni , romlis Tanaxmad yoveli
SeTanxmeba trestis an sxva formaSi, romlis mizani iyo warmoebis
an vaWrobis SezRudva, CaiTvala ukanonod, xolo is piri, romelic
daarRvevda am kanonis moTxovnebs, CaiTvleboda damnaSaved.
am kanonis gviandel SesworebaSi (1974 w.) misi moTxovnebis
darRveva kvalificirebulia rogorc `danaSauli~.
Sermanis antitrestuli kanoni Seadgens aSS-is ekonomikur
saqmianobaSi antimonopoliuri politikis birTvs. am kanonis
Sesabamisad, federalur mTavrobas ufleba aqvs sasamarTloze
159
gadasces kanonis damrRvevi sawarmoebi. amasTan, sawarmoebze
dawesebuli sasjeli Zalze mravalferovania: fuladi jarimidan
_ dapatimrebamde. es ukanaskneli gansakuTrebiT gavrcelda kanonis
1974 wlis Sesworebis Semdeg. damnaSave sawarmoebis mimarT
sasamarTlos SeeZlo gamoetana maTi decentralizaciis ganaCeni,
rogorc es ganxorcielda uzarmazari koncernis `amerikan telefon
end telegrafis~ (AAT) mimarT. garda amisa, sasamarTlos SeeZlo
damnaSave sawarmoebisaTvis daekisrebina samjeradi kompensacia
yvela im mxaris sasargeblod, vinc izarala.
1914 wels miiRes kleitonis kanoni, romlis paragrafebs
unda daezustebina Sermanis kanonis Sinaarsi. magaliTad, aikrZala
myidvelTa fasismieri diskriminacia; aseve aikrZala gansakuTrebuli anu `iZulebiTi~ SeTanxmeba, romlis Tanaxmad, mwarmoebeli
raime saqonels myidvels im SemTxvevaSi miawodebda, Tuki
momxmarebeli sxva saqonelsac amave mwarmoeblisagan SeiZenda;
aikrZala sawarmoebis Serwyma konkurent sawarmoTa aqciebis SeZenis
xarjze, Tuki aseTi moqmedeba Seasustebda konkurentul brZolas;
aikrZala Tanamdebobis SeTavseba sxvadasxva sawarmos direqtorTa
sabWoebSi, Tu mas Semdgom mohyveboda konkurenciis Semcireba.
kleitonis kanoni cdilobda kanongareSe gamoecxadebina yvela is
saSualeba, romlebic xels Seuwyobdnen monopoliebis ganviTarebas.
misgan gansxvavebiT, Sermanis kanoni ufro metad mimarTuli iyo
arsebuli monopoliebis winaaRmdeg.
XX saukunis 70-ian wlebSi aSS-Si miiRes ori mniSvnelovani
antitrestuli kanoni. pirveli (1974 w.) exeboda demonopolizaciis proceduras da jarimebs. magaliTad, Sermanis kanonis
darRveva zrdida sajarimo Tanxas asi aTas dolaramde individualuri sawarmosaTvis da 1 mln dolaramde korporaciisaTvis.
garda amisa, am kanonis darRveva ganixileboda rogorc sisxlis
samarTlis danaSauli. meore kanoni miiRes 1976 wels, romelic
kompaniebs avaldebulebda federaluri savaWro komisiisaTvis
160
ecnobebinaT mosalodneli Serwymis (gaerTianebis) Sesaxeb.
1982 da 1984 wlebSi iusticiis saministrom gamoaqveyna
axali instruqciebi, romlebic gansazRvravdnen sawarmoTa Serwymis
kanonierebis kriteriums. 1990 wels kongresma miiRo Sesworeba,
romelSic antitrestuli jarimebi 1 mln dolaridan gaizarda
10 mln dolaramde. yovelive amas mravali xmauriani dava mohyva
aSS-Si.
saqarTveloSi samewarmeo saqmianobis xelSewyobas, konkurenciuli garemos Seqmnas da momxmarebelTa uflebebis dacvas
emsaxureba saqarTvelos kanoni `monopoliuri saqmianobis da konkurenciis Sesaxeb~ (1999 w.). es kanoni gansazRvravs mewarme
subieqtebis pasuxismgeblobas maT mier monopoliuri mdgomareobis borotad gamoyenebis, arakeTilsindisieri konkurenciisa
da sxva qmedebisaTvis, romelsac SeuZlia gamoiwvios konkurenciis
SezRudva an aRkveTa bazarze.
161
?
testebi SeZenili codnis
SemowmebisaTvis
1. Tanamedrove ekonomikaSi fuli warmoadgens:
a. Rirebulebis sazoms;
b. dazogvis saSualebas;
g. gadaxdis saSualebas;
d. yvela zemoTxsenebuls.
2. qvemoT CamoTvlilTagan fasebis gazrdis Sedegad
yvelaze metad mogebulni darCebian:
a. fiqsirebuli Semosavlis mqoneni;
b. obligaciaTa mflobelebi;
g. sesxis amRebni;
d. fulis gamsesxebelni.
3. saCeko angariSi fulad iTvleba, vinaidan:
a. bankSi Cekis miReba advilia;
b. Ceki sayovelTaod miiReba, rogorc saqonlisa da
momsaxurebis safasuri;
g. Cekis Tan tareba ufro advilia, vidre liTonis monetebisa;
d. Ceki garegnulad qaRaldis fuls waagavs.
4. qvemoT CamoTvlilTagan brunvaSi arsebuli fulis
yvelaze didi komponentia:
a. qaRaldis fuli;
b. monetebi;
g. saCeko angariSebi;
d. Semnaxveli angariSebi.
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5. im SemTxvevaSi, rodesac saqonelze moTxovna ufro
swrafad izrdeba, vidre miwodeba:
a. fasebi izrdeba;
b. arsebobs danaxarjebis zrdiT gamowveuli inflacia;
g. adgili aqvs saqonlisa da momsaxurebis Warb miwodebas;
d. fasebi mcirdeba.
6 . q v em o T Ca m o T vl il T a g an m an q an eb is r e c x vi s
momsaxurebis miwodebis mruds marjvniv ar gadaswevs:
a. sawarmoTa mier ufro efeqtiani sarecxi da saSrobi
mowyobilobis gamoyenebis dawyeba;
b. manqanebis mrecxavebis mier saaTSi ufro meti manqanis
garecxvis moxerxeba;
g. wylis fasis gazrda;
d. manqanebis mrecxav sawarmoTa ricxvis gadideba.
7. boulingis saTamaSo burTi fulad ver gamodgeba,
radgan qvemoT CamoTvlil TvisebaTagan mas ar gaaCnia:
a. stabiluroba;
b. portatuloba;
g. gamZleoba;
d. sacnobeloba.
8. qvemoT dasaxelebuli faqtorebidan Zroxis xorcze
moTxovnis mrudis marcxniv gadaadgilebas gamoiwvevs:
a. Zroxis xorcze fasis Semcireba;
b. Roris xorcze fasis gadideba;
g. momxmarebelTa Semosavlebis Semcireba;
d. Zroxis xorcis miwodebis gadideba.
9. im ESemTxvevaSi, rodesac saqonlis sabazro fasi
izrdeba, masze moTxovna:
163
a. rCeba ucvleli;
b. gadaaWarbebs miwodebas;
g. izrdeba;
d. mcirdeba.
10. im SemTxvevaSi, rodesac giorgi gaerTianebul
qarTul bankSi xsnis sadepozito angariSs, fuli asrulebs:
a. Rirebulebis sazomis funqcias;
b. mimoqcevis saSualebis funqcias;
g. ganZis Seqmnis funqcias;
d. danazogis (dagrovebis) funqcias.
11. qvemoT dasaxelebuli faqtorebidan televizorebis
miwodebis mrudis marjvniv gadaadgilebas gamoiwvevs:
a. televizorebis warmoebisaTvis aucilebel masalebze
fasebis gadideba;
b. televizorebis damamzadebel sawarmoSi mwarmoeblurobis
amaRleba;
g. televizorebis fasis Semcireba;
d. damatebuli Rirebulebis gadasaxadis gadideba.
12. im SemTxvevaSi, rodesac saqonlis sabazro fasi
mcirdeba, misi miwodeba:
a. rCeba ucvleli;
b. izrdeba;
g. gadaaWarbebs moTxovnas;
d. mcirdeba.
164
4
Tema
warmoebis faqtorTa bazrebi
da fa qtorul i Sem osa vle bi
`adamianebi Tavisuflebi da araTanasworni ibadebian.~
grant aleni
adamianTa saarsebo moTxovnilebebis dasakmayofileblad mravali
saxeobis materialuri da sulieri dovlaTia saWiro. es dovlaTi,
yovel SemTxvevaSi misi udidesi nawili mainc, bunebaSi mzamzareuli
saxiT ar moi poveba, is adamianebma unda awarmoon da gamodis
`ekonomikuri dovlaTis~ saxelwodebiT. amitom warmoeba
sazogadoebis arsebobisa da ganviTarebis safuZvelia.
ekonomikur resursebs, romlebic ekonomikuri dovlaTis
warmoebaSi monawileoben, warmoebis faqtorebi ewodeba.
zogadad Tu vityviT, warmoeba, anu Sromis procesi _ esaa
bunebis nivTierebis gardaqmna da miTviseba adamianis mier.
warmoeba zogadad _ es mecnieruli abstraqciaa, romelSic
dafiqsirebulia is saerTo niSnebi, romlebic axasiaTebs warmoebas
miuxedavad imisa, Tu romel epoqas da qveyanas miekuTvneba igi.
sazogadoebrivi warmoeba _ esaa erToblioba im SromiTi procesebisa,
romelTa Sedegad sazogadoeba Rebulobs misTvis sasicocxlod
aucilebel dovlaTs.
ekonomikuri mecniereba sazogadoebriv warmoebas ganixilavs
165
viwro da farTo gagebiT.
viwro gagebiT, warmoebaSi igulisxmeba konkretuli dovlaTis
Seqmnis procesi.
farTo gagebiT , sazogadoebrivi warmoeba _ esaa sakuTriv
warmoebis, ganawilebis, gacvlisa da moxmarebis erTianoba.
warmoeba, anu Sromis procesi _ esaa amosavali punqti,
sadac iqmneba sasicocxlod aucilebeli dovlaTi. am procesSi
xorcieldeba warmoebis faqtorTa uSualo SeerTeba; adamiani
gardaqmnis ara marto Sromis sagans, aramed sakuTar Tavsac:
agrovebs Sromis Cvevebsa da gamocdilebas, imaRlebs kvalifikacias.
ganawileba _ esaa sazogadoebrivi produqtis moZraobis
erT-erTi aucilebeli faza, romelic erTmaneTTan akavSirebs
warmoebas da moxmarebas. igi gulisxmobs, jer erTi, warmoebis
resursebis ganawilebas warmoebis dargebs Soris, sawarmoebsa da
regionebs Soris, sazogadoebis wevrebs Soris da, meore, warmoebuli
produqtis ganawilebas sazogadoebaSi. Tu warmoebuli araa, raimes
ganawilebaze laparakic zedmetia.
magram problemaa ara marto is, Tu ra ganawildes, aramed
isic, Tu rogor ganawildes, vis ra da ramdeni Sexvdeba Seqmnili
dovlaTidan. produqtis ganawileba socialuri samarTlianobis
erT-erTi umTavresi elementia. araswori, usamarTlo ganawileba
warmoebis ganviTarebas aferxebs. magaliTad, gaTanabrebiTma
ganawilebam, rac farTod iyo gavrcelebuli yofil ssr kavSirSi,
Seasusta adamianTa SromiTi aqtivoba da, amdenad, xeli SeuSala
ekonomikur progress.
gacvla gulisxmobs, jer erTi, SromiTi saqmianobis gacvlas
sawarmos SigniT da, meore, produqtTa gacvlas sazogadoebis
wevrTa Soris. pirvel SemTxvevaSi TavianT Semoqmedebas da unars
erTmaneTs ucvlian muSakebi, romlebic erTmaneTTan dakavSirebulni
arian Sigasawarmoo Sromis danawilebiT. meore SemTxvevaSi adgili
aqvs Sromis sazogadoebrivi danawilebis realizacias, rac
166
xorcieldeba produqtebis gacvliT sazogadoebis wevrebs Soris,
sawarmoebs Soris, regionebsa da qveynebs Soris. sabazro ekonomikis
pirobebSi gacvla xdeba fulis meSveobiT. gacvlas (vaWrobas)
gaaCnia Sesabamisi organizaciuli formebi. kargad organizebuli
gacvla xels uwyobs ekonomikur progress.
moxmareba produqtis moZraobis damamTavrebeli fazaa.
moxmareba ori saxisaa: sawarmoo da piradi. sawarmoo moxmareba
_ esaa warmoebis faqtorebis (ekonomikuri resursebis) gamoyeneba
axali produqtebis sawarmoeblad. am gagebiT, moxmareba da warmoeba
erTmaneTs emTxveva. magaliTad, tyavis moxmareba imavdroulad
fexsacmlis warmoebaa. piradi moxmareba aris saarsebo saSualebaTa gamoyeneba adamianis mier Tavisi moTxovnilebebis dasakmayofileblad. am procesSi adamiani `awarmoebs~ sakuTar samuSao
Zalas, anu Sromis unars.
rogorc aRiniSna, sazogadoebrivi warmoeba, farTo gagebiT,
esaa dovlaTis warmoebis, ganawilebis, gacvlisa da moxmarebis
erTianoba. saboloo moxmarebisaTvis gankuTvnili sazogadoebrivi
produqti iqmneba warmoebis procesSi, romelSic xorcieldeba
warmoebis faqtorTa SeerTeba da urTierTqmedeba. magram sanam
saboloo moxmarebaSi Sevidodes, sazogadoebrivi produqti gaivlis
ganawilebisa da gacvlis stadiebs. ganawilebis Sedegad igi iqceva
ekonomikis subieqtTa Semosavlebad (faqtorul Semosavlebad).
ra saxisaa warmoebis faqtorebi, rogor funqcionireben
warmoebis faqtorTa bazrebi, ra aris da ramdeni saxisaa faqtoruli
Semosavali, rogor warmoiqmneba da ra meqanizmis saSualebiT
xdeba TiToeuli maTganis miTviseba _ ai kiTxvebi, romlebsac
pasuxi unda gavceT am Temis Seswavlisas.
167
leqcia 11. warmoebis faqtorTa arsi
da saxeebi, maTi urTierTganpirobebuloba da urTierTqmedeba
`Sroma aris simdidris mama da gamdidrebis aqtiuri saSualeba, xolo miwa
_ misi dedaa.~
uiliam peti
`adamiani yvelaze mniSvnelovani resursia.~
li iakoka
`kapitalis mniSvneloba ZiriTad ad
mimdinare warmoebasa da momavali warmoebisaTvis dagrovebis unarSi mdgomareobs.~
a.marSali
`mewarme _ ekonomikis mTavari Zravaa.~
i.Sumpeteri
`bunebas rom imdeni kanoni hqondes,
ramdenic saxelmwifos aqvs, maSin RmerTi
mis marTvas ver SeZlebda.~
ludvig berne
warmoebis faqtorTa gansxvavebuli interpretaciebi. adamianTa saarsebo moTxovnilebebis dakmayofilebisaTvis
saWiro sazogadoebrivi dovlaTis warmoebam ganviTarebis xangrZlivi istoriuli gza ganvlo _ pirvelyofili adamianis mier
elementaruli iaraRebiT sakvebis mopovebidan Tanamedrove teqnologiebis funqcionirebamde. miuxedavad amisa, yovelgvari warmoeba,
maT Soris Tanamedrove, xasiaTdeba zogierTi saerTo niSniT. maT,
168
princi pSi, aqvT erTnairi ZiriTadi komponentebi, ramdenadac
saboloo angariSiT, warmoeba aris bunebis sagnebsa da Zalebze
adamianis zemoqmedebisa da maTi ama Tu im moTxovnilebaTa dakmayofilebisaTvis misadagebis procesi.
warmoeba yovelTvis gulisxmobs sami ZiriTadi faqtoris _
adamianis samuSao Zalis, Sromis sagnebisa da Sromis saSualebebis
urTierTqmedebas.
samuSao Zala adamianis fizikur da gonebriv SesaZleblobaTa
erTobliobaa, Sromisadmi misi unaria da warmoadgens warmoebis
mTavar pirobas nebismier sazogadoebaSi. igi gamodis rogorc
warmoebis pirovnuli faqtori.
Sromis sagania yvelaferi is, riskenac mimarTulia adamianis
Sroma da rac Seadgens momavali produqtis materialur safuZvels.
Sromis saSualebaa yovelive is, risi meSveobiTac adamiani
zemoqmedebs Sromis sagnebze.
Sromis sagnebi da Sromis saSualebebi erTobliobaSi Seadgenen
warmoebis saSualebebs . samuSao Zalisagan gansxvavebiT, isini
warmoqmnian warmoebis nivTobriv faqtors.
magram warmoeba aRniSnuli martivi momentebis martooden
meqanikuri SeerTeba rodia, is urTierTdamokidebulebisa da
urTierTqmedebis rTuli sistemaa, romelic dakavSirebulia
warmoebis organizaciasa da teqnologiasTan. teqnologia ki
gamoxatavs rogorc warmoebis ZiriTad faqtorebs Soris
urTierTdamokidebulebas, ise Sromis sagnebze adamianTa zemoqmedebis
xerxebs.
aRniSnuli urTierTqmedebis Sedegia Sromis produqti, rac
adamianis ama Tu im moTxovnilebas akmayofilebs, xolo Sroma ki
gamodis rogorc mwarmoebluri Sroma.
Sromis mwarmoebluroba Cveulebriv gaizomeba drois
erTeulSi SromiT Seqmnili dovlaTis raodenobiT. am mtkicebis
sisworeSi dagvarwmunebs Semdegi martivi magaliTi:
169
vTqvaT, ori muSa A da B erTsa da imave mowyobilobaze
amzadebs erTgvarovan nakeTobas. amasTan, 40-saaTiani kviris
ganmavlobaSi A muSa amzadebs 400 nakeTobas, B muSa ki _ 600
nakeTobas.
A muSis mwarmoebluroba =
400 nakeToba
= 10 nak./sT-Si
40 saaTi
B muSis mwarmoebluroba =
600 nakeToba
= 15 nak./sT-Si
40 saaTi
es martivi magaliTi gviCvenebs, rom Sromis mwarmoeblurobis
gansazRvrisaTvis saWiroa ori sidide:
 warmoebis moculoba (mocemul SemTxvevaSi warmoebul
nakeTobaTa raodenoba);
 danaxarjebi (mocemul SemTxvevaSi gamomuSavebuli saaTebis
raodenoba).
analogiurad gamoiangariSeba warmoebis nivTobrivi faqtoris
mwarmoeblurobis maCvenebelic. amitom ubralod:
mwarmoebluroba =
produqtis moculoba
danaxarjebi
amrigad, drois gansazRvrul monakveTSi gamoSvebuli produqciis moculobis gaangariSeba warmoebis romelime faqtoris
mimarT aris am faqtoris mwarmoeblurobis Sefasebis erT-erTi
meTodi.
warmoebis saSualebebi RirebulebiTi gamoxatulebiT
da maTi momsaxure muSakebis xelfasi kapitalis saxiT
gvevlineba. magram kapitals rogorc ekonomikur kategorias
170
sxvadasxva ganmarteba aqvs _ klasobrivi da araklasobrivi.
araklasobrivi ganmartebiT, kapitali zogadsakacobrio kategoriaa,
anu warmoebis faqtoria. bevri cnobili ekonomistis azriT, kapitali
aucilebelia nebismieri ekonomikisaTvis.
klasobriv-marqsistuli gansazRvrebiT, kapitali nivTi ki ar
aris, aramed sazogadoebrivi, eqsploataciis gamomxatveli urTierTobaa. aqedan gamomdinare, gansxvavebulia warmoebis faqtorTa
marqsistuli interpretaciac. k.marqsis mixedviT, kapitalisti
warmoebaSi abandebs fulis gansazRvrul Tanxas, romlis erTi
nawili ixarjeba warmoebis saSualebaTa sayidlad, meore _ muSaTa
dasaqiraveblad. magram warmoebis procesidan kapitalisti iRebs
dabandebulze met Rirebulebas. es xdeba imitom, rom is samuSao
Zalas yidulobs erTi RirebulebiT, xolo misi moxmarebis procesSi
iqmneba imaze meti Rirebuleba, vidre mas aqvs, rac aunazRaurebeli
Sromis Rirebulebis, anu zedmeti Rirebulebis saxiT gamodis.
amis wyaroa is, rom samuSao Zalas, rogorc yovelgvar saqonels,
aqvs Rirebuleba da saxmari Rirebuleba. pirveli ganisazRvreba
sazogadoebrivad aucilebeli Sromis raodenobiT, rac aucilebelia
misi kvlavwarmoebisaTvis. meore ki, e.i. samuSao Zalis saxmari
Rirebuleba, aris unari Tavisi SromiT Seqmnas axali da Tanac
meti Rirebuleba, vidre Tavisi Rirebulebaa. swored esaa zedmeti
Rirebulebis wyaro, rac kapitalisturi warmoebis mizania.
aseTi interpretaciiT, warmoebis nivTobrivi da pirovnuli
faqtorebi, anu kapitalis Sesabamisi nawilebi araerTgvarovan
rols asruleben Rirebulebisa da zedmeti Rirebulebis SeqmnaSi.
maSin, roca warmoebis saSualebaTa Rirebuleba SromiT mxolod
gadaitaneba mza produqtze, samuSao Zala qmnis axal Rirebulebas. kapitalis nawili, romelic ixarjeba warmoebis saSualebaTa
SeZenaze, ar icvlis Tavis RirebulebiT sidides. amitom k.marqsma
mas uwoda mudmivi kapitali. kapitalis meore nawili, daxarjuli
samuSao Zalis SeZenaze, warmoebis procesSi icvlis Tavis sidides,
171
is izrdeba, ris gamoc mas cvalebadi kapitali ewodeba. kapitalis
dayofa mudmiv da cvalebad kapitalad naTlad aCvenebs, rom
zedmeti Rirebulebis Seqmnis wyaroa samuSao Zalis yidvaze
avansebuli kapitali.
magram igive kapitali, romelic monawileobs warmoebis procesSi, iyofa ZiriTad kapitalad da sabrunav kapitalad. kapitalis
is nawili, romelic warmoebaSi xangrZlivad monawileobs da
romlis Rirebulebac produqtze gadaitaneba ara erTbaSad, aramed
TandaTanobiT, cveTis kvalobaze, ZiriTadi kapitalia (Senobebi,
nagebobebi, mowyobilobebi da a.S.). kapitalis meore nawili, romlis
Rirebulebac erTi sawarmoo ciklis manZilze mTlianad gadaitaneba
produqtze, sabrunavi kapitalia (Sromis sagnebi).
unda aRiniSnos, rom sabrunav kapitals miekuTvneba is nawilic,
rasac kapitalisti xarjavs samuSao Zalis yidvaze. Tavisi moZraobis
wesiT, cvalebadi kapitali ar gansxvavdeba sabrunavi kapitalis
danarCeni elementebisagan _ samuSao Zalis Rirebulebis eqvivalenti
mTlianad ubrundeba kapitalists warmoebuli produqtis realizaciis Sedegad. amasTan, kapitalisti iRebs zedmet Rirebulebas,
muSa ki _ xelfass. magram es xelfasi samuSao Zalis Rirebulebis
gardaqmnili formaa. saqme isaa, rom kapitalisti muSas qiraobs
mTeli samuSao dRis manZilze gansazRvruli TanxiT. magram aq
dafarulia saqmis realuri mxare: muSa samuSao dRis garkveul
nawilSi qmnis Tavisi samuSao Zalis Rirebulebas, meore nawilSi
_ ufasod muSaobs da qmnis zedmet Rirebulebas. es ki garegnulad
ar Cans. garegnulad gamodis, rom is iRebs Sromis fass. amitom
k.marqsma xelfass uwoda samuSao Zalis Rirebulebis (fasis)
gardaqmnili forma.
imis asaxsnelad, Tu ra udevs safuZvlad aRniSnul moCvenebiTobas, k.marqsma ganasxvava Sromisa da samuSao Zalis kategoriebi, romlebic praqtikaSi xSirad sinonimebad gamoiyenebian. Sroma
adamiansa da bunebas Soris ganxorcielebuli procesia, riTac is
172
bunebis produqtebs Tavis moTxovnilebebs miusadagebs. sxvanairad,
Sroma adamianis mizanSewonili saqmianobaa. amis igiveobrivi aris
samuSao Zala. is Sromisadmi unaria, rasac muSa garkveuli droiT
hyidis, xolo kapitalisti maqsimalurad iyenebs mas da masve
ekuTvnis am droSi muSis mier warmoebuli produqtebi. magram
muSis Sromis danaxarjebiT Seqmnili Rirebuleba imaze metia,
rasac kapitalisti mas xelfasis saxiT uxdis. es zedmeti produqtia, rac mxolod kapitalizmis dros iqceva zedmet Rirebulebad,
rogorc burJuaziis mier muSakTa qsploataciis Sedegi. aq warmoebis
faqtorebi gadaiqcevian kapitalis elementebad da es xdeba ara
maTi nivTobrivi bunebis gamo, aramed warmoebis saSualebaTa
mesakuTre kapitalistebsa da amas moklebul daqiravebul muSaTa
Soris Camoyalibebul urTierTobaTa gamo.
magram es mxolod warsulia da ara Tanamedroveoba. postindustriul sazogadoebaze gadasvlam bevri axali ekonomikuri da
socialuri problema wamoWra. mewarmeebi xarjaven did saxsrebs
manqana-mowyobilobaTa SeZenaze da TiToeul muSaze sul zrdadi
kapitali modis, warmoeba TiTqmis mTlianad avtomatizebulia da,
Sesabamisad, Tu mxedvelobaSi ar miviRebT `TeTrsayeloian~ muSakebs,
Sromis rogorc subieqturi faqtoris rolic Semcirebulia.
aqedan gamomdinare, Tanamedrove ganawilebiTi Teoriis Suqze,
muSaTa eqsploataciis marqsistuli doqtrinac yavlgasulia, xolo
zedmeti Rirebulebis nacvlad mogebis kategoria figurirebs.
mogebis, rogorc zedmeti Rirebulebis gardaqmnili formis
Taviseburebaa is, rom mogeba ara mxolod cvalebadi, aramed
mTeli avansebuli kapitalis funqcionirebis Sedegia. mogebis
formirebaSi, met-naklebi zomiT, warmoebis yvela faqtori
monawileobs, e.i. Rirebulebis wyaro mxolod cocxali Sroma ki
ar aris, aramed, agreTve, warmoebis yvela sxva faqtoric.
Tanamedrove sabazro ekonomikis pirobebSi aseT SexedulebaSi asaxvas poulobs warmoebis ganviTarebis iseTi axali faqtorebi,
173
rogoricaa: mecnierul-teqnikuri progresi, informacia, samewarmeo
unari, saxelmwifos ekonomikuri unari da sxv. Sesabamisad, gansakuTrebiT dReisaTvis, savsebiT misaRebia warmoebis faqtorebisadmi ara klasobrivi, aramed zogadsakacobrio midgoma,
dawyebuli warmoebis `samfaqtoriani~ TeoriiT (miwa,
kapitali, Sroma) da damTavrebuli `xuTfaqtorianiT~ (miwa,
kapitali, Sroma, samewarmeo unari, saxelmwifos ekonomikuri
unari). ganvixiloT TiToeuli maTgani cal-calke.
miwa, rogorc warmoebis faqtori. miwa da masTan
dakavSirebuli bunebrivi simdidreebi warmoebis bunebrivi faqtoria.
miwa _ soflis meurneobaSi ZiriTadi warmoebis faqtori da,
saerTod, yovelgvari warmoebis safuZveli _ raodenobrivad
SezRudulia. sakmarisia iTqvas, rom dedamiwis zedapiris mxolod
30%-mdea gamosadegi adamianTa cxovrebisaTvis. amasTan, gamoyenebuli
miwebis nawilic, sxvadasxva mizezTa gamo, mwyobridan gamodis,
ramac zogierTi mkvlevari kacobriobis gardauvali ekonomikuri
katastrofis mosalodnelobis pesimistur prognozebamde miiyvana,
Tu kontrzomebi ar iqneboda miRebuli (malTusis Teoria).
sabednierod, Tanamedrove mecnierul-teqnikurma progresma
dadebiTad gadaWra es problema; gamosayeneblad vargisi miwebis
raodenobam ara Tu iklo, aramed aTvisebuli iqna axali miwebi.
amasTan, Tanamedrove agronomiuli mecnierebis miRwevebisa da
uaxlesi teqnologiebis danergviT ramdenjerme gaizarda miwis
ekonomikuri nayofiereba (mwarmoebluroba). dRes miwasTan, rogorc
warmoebis faqtorTan, dakavSirebuli ZiriTadi problema aris ara
imdenad gamosayenebeli miwebis SezRuduloba, ramdenadac maTi
optimaluri gamoyenebiTi struqturis dacva. amocana is aris,
rom maqsimalurad gamoiricxos sasoflo-sameurneo savargulebis
aradaniSnulebisamebr gamoyeneba, miwis erozia da a.S. Tu es
ganxorcieldeba, aseve, Tu gaviTvaliswinebT imas, rom jer kidev
174
bevria auTvisebeli miwa da miwis nayofierebis zrdis mravali
rezervi arsebobs, farTo gza exsneba maRalkaloriuli kvebis
produqtebis warmoebas, Tamamad SeiZleba davaskvnaT, rom kacobriobas
(SimSilis garkveuli safrTxeebis miuxedavad) araviTari
ekonomikuri katastrofis safrTxe ar emuqreba.
miwasTan erTad saTuT mopyrobas da racionalur gamoyenebas
saWiroebs sxva bunebrivi (wiaRiseuli, klimaturi, wylis, mcenareuli
da faunisturi, atomuri da planetur-kosmosuri) resursebic.
warmoebis ganviTarebasTan erTad mimdinareobda bunebrivi resursis
elementebis ganuxreli zrda da misi struqturuli cvlileba.
Sesabamisad, icvleba bunebrivi resursis calkeuli elementis
sazogadoebrivi sargeblianobac.
adamiani Tavisi ekonomikuri saqmianobiT zemoqmedebs bunebriv
garemoze. es aisaxeba reliefze, hidrografiul qselze, mikroklimatur pirobebze, mcenareul da cxovelTa samyaroze. es zemoqmedeba
SeiZleba iyos uSualo an SemovliTi, dadebiTi an uaryofiTi.
magaliTad, tyis gaCexva uSualo da uaryofiTi movlenaa, Waobis
daSroba ki uSualo da dadebiTi. samagierod, tyis gaCexviT
gamowveuli niadagis Camorecxva aris SemovliTi da uaryofiTi
Sedegi, xolo tyis gaSenebiT mewyerebisa da Rvarcofebis Sesusteba
_ SemovliTi da dadebiTi.
adamianma bunebrivi resursi SeiZleba gamoiyenos racionalurad an araracionalurad . bunebis racionaluri gamoyeneba
gulisxmobs bunebrivi resursis gonivrul xarjvasa da bunebis
dacvas. jerjerobiT ki adamianis, kacobriobis zemoqmedeba bunebaze uaryofiTia. bunebis ganadgureba gansakuTrebiT gaZlierda
bolo 100 wlis ganmavlobaSi. es aixsneba bunebrivi resursis
gadaWarbebuli xarjviTa da msoflio mosaxleobis zrdiT.
teqnologiurma progresma ganapiroba bunebrivi resursis intensiuri
moxmareba.
saxelwifoebrivad Camoyalibebuli yoveli eri ganlagebulia
175
gansazRvrul teritoriaze, romelic istoriulad ucvleli ar
aris. aRvniSnavT, rom axlandeli damoukidebeli saqarTvelos
teritoria 69.5 aTasi kv.km-a, xolo misi mosaxleoba Seadgens 4.4
mln kacs (2002 wlis aRweriT). am Semofarglul teritoriaze
arsebobs warmoebisaTvis aucilebeli SezRuduli raodenobis
bunebrivi resursi (wiaRiseuli, wyali, niadagi, mcenareuli, fauna,
klimati...). teritoriuli SezRuduloba da gansxvavebuli bunebrivi
resursi ki imaze miuTiTebs, rom warmoebis sawyisi etapi TiToeuli
erisaTvis mkveTrad gansxvavebulia.
am aspeqtSi saqarTvelo sakmaod maRali ekonomikuri potencialis mqone qveyanaa. es gansakuTrebiT exeba mis bunebriv resurss.
sakmarisia iTqvas, rom saqarTvelos mcire teritoriaze mkveTrad
gansxvavebuli havaa. es ZiriTadad aixsneba saqarTvelos geografiuli mdebareobiT da misi reliefis gansakuTrebulobiT.
saqarTvelosaTvis gansakuTrebuli adgili ukavia Sav zRvas;
es aris erT-erTi umniSvnelovanesi ganmsazRvreli qveynis geopolitikuri mdgomareobisa, romelic qmnis msofliosTan, gansakuTrebiT
ki evropis qveynebTan, saqarTvelos ekonomikuri kavSirebis
gafarToebis SesaZleblobas. Savi zRva saqarTvelos aqcevs mniSvnelovan satranzito qveynad, rac dakavSirebulia qveynis ekonomikur
da politikur interesebTan. saqarTvelos zRvispireTs agreTve
aqvs rekreaciuli daniSnuleba da igi qmnis saqarTvelos sanapiro
zolSi saerTaSoriso sakruizo ti pis turizmis ganviTarebis
SesaZleblobas, romelic iqneba qveynis savaluto Semosavlis
mniSvnelovani wyaro.
saqarTvelos bunebriv resurss Soris gansakuTrebuli
mniSvneloba aqvs mineralur resurss, romlis maragi, nedleulis
ZiriTadi ti pebis mixedviT, Sefasebulia 90 mlrd amerikul
dolarad. yvelaze maRali geoekonomikuri SefasebiT gamoirCeva
sawvavi da energoresursi (30.3 mlrd aSS dolari) da mineraluri da Termuli miwisqveSa wylebi (19.8 mlrd aSS
176
dolari). saqarTvelos aqvs sakmarisi mravali saxeobis energoresursi, magram aTeuli wlebis ganmavlobaSi ar hqonda energetikis
ganviTarebis erovnuli politika da arc misi damuSavebis
gamocdileba. es mdgomareoba aisaxa kidevac seriozul energetikul
krizisSi. es maSin, roca naxSiris prognozuli maragi aRemateba
700 mln tonas, xolo hidroenergetikuli resursebis sruli
potenciali wliurad 159.4 mlrd kilovat/saaTia. saqarTvelos
energoresursebis am or saxeobas Tavisuflad SeuZlia aanazRauros
navTobisa da bunebrivi airis ukmarisoba. saWiroa mxolod
gansakuTrebuli yuradReba mieqces naxSiris mrewvelobis aRdgenasa
da misi kompleqsurad gamoyenebis saxelmwifo programis
damuSavebas. paralelurad unda damuSavdes hidroenergetikuli
resursebisa da sxva saxeobis energoresursis (mzis, qaris, biomasis,
geoTermuli...) efeqtiani aTvisebis programa.
saqarTvelos mineralur simdidreTa Soris mniSvnelovani
adgili ukavia mineralur da Termul miwisqveSa wylebs. maT
resursebze sagrZnoblad aris damokidebuli mrewvelobisa da
soflis meurneobis ganviTareba, agreTve mosaxleobis wyalmomarageba. isini energetikuli TvalsazrisiTac perspeqtiulia.
mtknari miwisqveSa wylebis jamobrivi bunebrivi debeti
sakmaod maRalia (560 m3/wm) da Seadgens saqarTvelos teritoriaze mosuli naleqebis 20%-s. didi mravalferovnebiT gamoirCeva mineraluri wylebi. gansakuTrebuli mniSvneloba eniWeba
mineralur wylebSi, maT Soris navTobiani raionebisa, zogierTi
iSviaTi elementis mopovebas.
mineraluri da Termuli miwisqveSa wylebis racionaluri
gamoyeneba saqarTvelos savaluto Semosavlis saimedo wyaro
unda gaxdes.
kapitali, rogorc warmoebis faqtori. kapitalis
mravali ganmarteba arsebobs. a.smiti kapitals ganixilavda rogorc
177
dagrovil Sromas. d.rikardo miiCnevda, rom kapitali warmoebis
saSualebaa. marqsistuli gansazRvrebiT, rogorc zemoT aRvniSneT,
kapitali nivTi ki ara, aramed eqsploataciis gamomxatveli
sazogadoebrivi urTierTobaa. Tanamedrove, zogadsakacobrio gagebiT,
kapitalSi igulisxmeba ekonomikuri sistemis mier samomxmareblo
saqonlis sawarmoeblad Seqmnili xangrZlivi moxmarebis dovlaTi*.
es aris kapitalis wminda ekonomikuri gansazRvra. finansuri
gansazRvriT, kapitalSi igulisxmeba sawarmos yvela aqtivi.
realuri (fizikuri) kapitali iyofa or nawilad: ZiriTad da
sabrunav kapitalad. ZiriTadi kapitali moicavs xangrZlivi
sargeblobis materialur dovlaTs, romelic warmoebaSi monawileobs mravali warmoebrivi ciklis ganmavlobaSi. aseTia: Senoba-nagebobani, manqanebi, mowyobiloba da sxv.
sabrunavi kapitali ewodeba kapitalis im nawils, romelic
mTlianad ixarjeba warmoebis yoveli ciklis ganmavlobaSi. aseTia:
nedleuli, saTbobi, energia, masalebi, naxevarfabrikatebi, dausrulebeli warmoeba.
sawarmos danaxarjSi gaTvaliswinebulia wlis ganmavlobaSi
gacveTili ZiriTadi kapitalis nawili yovelwliuri amortizaciuli anaricxebis saxiT. sabrunavi kapitalis Rirebuleba
ki mTlianad Sedis sawarmos danaxarjSi.
ZiriTadi kapitali icvleba investirebis anu kapitaldabandebis procesSi. investireba maSin xdeba, roca mimdinare
warmoebis nawili gamoiyeneba ZiriTadi kapitalis gazrdi-
* kapitalur Tu samomxmareblo saqonelze ama Tu im dovlaTis
mikuTvnebas bevr SemTxvevaSi safuZvlad udevs Tavad maTi gamoyenebis wesi.
magaliTad, Sin tansacmlis an sxva saojaxo nivTebis Sesakerad gamoyenebuli
sakeravi manqana samomxmareblo saqonelia, magram Tu mas gamoiyeneben samkervalo
fabrikaSi, igi ukve kapitalur saqonels miekuTvneba.
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saTvis .
finansuri gansazRvriT, investicia aris Semosavlis miRebis mizniT aqtivis CarTva ekonomikur saqmianobaSi. ekonomikurad ki investicia ase ganisazRvreba: es aris danaxarji
ZiriTadi kapitalis Seqmnaze, gafarToebaze, rekonstruqciasa da
teqnikur gadaiaraRebaze, agreTve, masTan dakavSirebuli sabrunavi
kapitalis cvlilebaze. danaxarji kapitalur remontze investiciaSi ar igulisxmeba.
kapitali aseve SeiZleba iyos arainvestirebuli fuladi
resursebi. Sesabamisad, kapitali saqonlisa da momsaxurebis
sawarmoeblad da momxmareblebze maT dasayvanad gamoyofili
sainvesticio resursia.
erTmaneTisagan unda ganvasxvaoT mTliani saxalxomeurneobrivi investiciebi, aRdgeniTi investiciebi da axali anu wminda
investiciebi. mTliani investiciebis moculoba ganisazRvreba im
kapitaldabandebaTa RirebulebiT, rasac adgili aqvs ama Tu im
qveynis ekonomikaSi mTlianad*. aRdgeniTi investiciebi mTliani
investiciebis is nawilia, romelic gamoiyeneba warmoebis procesSi gacveTil ZiriTad saSualebaTa nawilis aRsadgenad (amortizaciis fondi). mTlian investiciebsa da aRdgeniT investiciebs
Soris sxvaoba wminda investiciebia, rac kapitalis, rogorc
warmoebis faqtoris zrdisken aris mimarTuli. swored wminda
investiciebis odenobiT ganisazRvreba qveynis ekonomikis per-
* ekonomikis kursSi sityva `investicia~ ar gulisxmobs safondo
birJaze aqiebis SeZenas an Semnaxvel bankebSi fulis Setanas. es termini
ixmareba realuri kapitaluri saqonlis warmoebis aRsaniSnavad. investireba
xdeba maSin, roca iwarmoeba kapitaluri saqoneli. mTliani investiciebi _
esaa drois garkveul monakveTSi, vTqvaT, wlis ganmavlobaSi, kapitalur
saqonelTa warmoebis saerTo moculoba.
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speqtivebi. igi gviCvenebs Tu rogoria mocemuli saxelmwifos
ZiriTadi kapitalis matebis zoma. momavali mwarmoeblurobis
done mniSvnelovnad damokidebulia mimdinare periodis wminda
investiciebis normaze.
ama Tu im qveynis mTavroba arc Tu iSviaTad awydeba dilemas:
rogori Tanafardoba iyos sainvesticio saqonlebsa da samomxmareblo saqonlebs Soris. Tu samomxmareblo saqonelTa warmoebas
daeTmoba meti yuradReba, mas garkveulwilad `ewireba~ kapitalinvesticiebi da, piriqiT, kapitaluri saqonlis warmoeba potenciurad
amcirebs samomxmareblo saqonlis gamoSvebas. Cven mzad varT
daveTanxmoT mimdinare periodSi cxovrebis donis erTgvar Semcirebas kapitaluri saqonlis warmoebis sasargeblod mxolod imitom,
rom momavalSi es ukanaskneli saSualebas mogvcems arsebiTad
gavzardoT samomxmareblo saqonlis gamoSveba.
kapitaliT warmoebis uzrunvelyofa bevradaa damokidebuli
imaze, Tu sazogadoeba mimdinare periodSi ramdenad aris mzad
samomxmareblo saqonlis msxverplad gaRebisaTvis. Tanamedrove
sazogadoebaSi `gadadebuli~ moxmareba Rebulobs dazogvis formas.
dazogvis zogierTi saxeebi uzrunvelyofen kapitalur saqonelTa
warmoebis dafinansebas.
Sroma, rogorc warmoebis faqtori. Sroma, rogorc
mizanSewonili saqmianoba, gulisxmobs yovelgvari saxeobis fizikur
Tu gonebriv, kvalificiur Tu arakvalificiur samuSaoTa Sesrulebas
adamianTa mier. es faqtori, uwinares yovlisa, damokidebulia
qveynis mosaxleobis, maT Soris gansakuTrebiT Sromisunariani
mosaxleobis da sakuTriv dasaqmebuli mosaxleobis raodenobaze.
bunebrivia, muSakTa raodenobasTan erTad, Sromis rogorc warmoebis
faqtoris funqcionirebisaTvis, gansakuTrebuli mniSvneloba aqvs
Sromis efeqtian gamoyenebas, Sromis mwarmoeblurobas. am ukanasknelze zemoqmedebs mravali faqtori, rogoricaa, magaliTad: warmo180
ebis meqanizacia da avtomatizacia, Sromisa da saerTod warmoebis
progresuli organizacia, Sromisadmi qmediTi materialuri stimulebi.
samewarmeo unari, rogorc warmoebis faqtori.
samewarmeo unari Tanamedrove sabazro ekonomikis ganuyreli nawilia. i.Sumpeteri mewarmed miiCnevs adamians, romelic xels
hkidebs warmoebis faqtorTa axali kombinaciis organizacias da
uzrunvelyofs ekonomikur ganviTarebas. mewarmeobis obieqtia
warmoebis daxasiaTebuli sami faqtoris yvelaze efeqtiani kombinaciis ganxorcieleba Semosavlebis maqsimizaciis mizniT.
saqme isaa, rom warmoebisaTvis aucilebel sam faqtors (miwa,
kapitali, Sroma) TavisTavad, damoukideblad, TiTqmis arafris
Seqmna ar SeuZlia. saWiroa gansazRvrul sawarmoo erTeulSi
maTi Tavmoyra da organizacia; isini vinmem (mewarmem) unda SeaerTos
da Camoayalibos sawarmoo erTeuli. amiT mewarme garkveul risks
eweva warmoebis SedegisaTvis _ mogebis Tu zaralis miRebisaTvis.
swored mis samewarmeo unarzea damokidebuli warmoebis efeqtianoba.
Tu is zaraliT daamTavrebs warmoebis process, mainc valdebulia
aanazRauros warmoebis faqtorTa xarjebi. maRali mogebis miRebisas
ki riskis dadebiTi safasuri mniSvnelovania rogorc mewarmis,
ise warmoebis sxva faqtorTa mflobelTaTvis.
maSasadame, adamiani, romelic Tavis Tavze iRebs miwis, kapitalisa
da Sromis gamoyenebis pasuxismgeblobas da risks, aseve wyvets
sakiTxs aRniSnuli resursebis gamoyenebis wesis Sesaxeb, iwodeba
mewarmed.
aqedan gamomdinare, naTelia, rom sanam saqmes mohkidebdes
xels, mewarmem yovelnairad unda awon-dawonos Tavisi unari da
SesaZleblobani, raTa warmoebis maRal efeqtianobas miaRwios,
TviTonac moigos da sxva warmoebis faqtorTa mflobelebic
jerovnad daakmayofilos. amitom samewarmeo unari miCneulia
181
warmoebis meoTxe faqtorad.
saxelmwifos ekonomikuri unari, rogorc warmoebis faqtori. gansxvavebiT mewarmisagan, romelic erT sawarmoo
erTeulSi uyris Tavs warmoebis faqtorebs da organizacias
ukeTebs warmoebis process, saxelmwifo* qveynis masStabiT
uzrunvelyofs erovnuli meurneobis normalur funqcionirebas.
is, uwinares yovlisa, qmnis mewarmeobisaTvis aucilebel sakanonmdeblo bazas, adgens ekonomikuri TamaSis wesebs da akontrolebs
mis ganxorcielebas. amitom saxelmwifos ekonomikuri unaris,
rogorc warmoebis globaluri faqtoris, funqciaa qveynis
ekonomikuri stabilizaciisaTvis xelSewyoba, optimaluri zemoqmedeba inflaciasa da umuSevrobaze da, saerTod, mxardaWera
sabazro ekonomikis normaluri funqcionirebisaTvis.
samewarmeo unarisa da saxelmwifos ekonomikuri unaris
arsebuli garegnuli msgavsebis miuxedavad, maT Soris Sinaganad
mainc princi puli gansxvavebaa:
 mewarmes saqme rogorc materialur (miwa, kapitali), ise
SromiT resursebTan aqvs, romelTac igi Tavs warmoebis erTian
procesSi uyris. saxelmwifo ki erovnuli ekonomikis farglebSi
mewarmeebs aerTianebs;
 biznesis warmarTvis procesSi gadawyvetilebebis miRebiT
mewarme mocemuli konkretuli sawarmos saqmianobis kurss gansaz-
Rvravs. saxelmwifos mier miRebuli gadawyvetilebebi ki erovnuli
ekonomikis Semadgeneli yvela sawarmos ganviTarebis strategiaze
axdens gavlenas;
 mewarme, rogorc novatori, axali produqtebis warmoebis
dawyebaze zrunavs; axali teqnologiebi, biznesis organizaciis
axali formebi da meTodebi Semoaqvs. saxelmwifos, rogorc
ekonomikaSi novators, axali safinanso-sakredito da sagadasaxado
sistemebi (an am sistemebis axali elementebi) Semoaqvs, axal
institucionalur struqturebs ayalibebs da a.S.;
 biznesis warmarTvis procesSi mewarme sakuTar Tavze
risks da misi gamarTlebis Sesabamisad `jildosac~ iRebs; movlenaTa
ganviTarebis yvelaze `savalalo~ varianti SeiZleba iyos misi
gakotreba. erovnuli ekonomikis xelmZRvanelobisas risks Tavis
Tavze saxelmwifoc iRebs, magram igi ramdenadme gansxvavebuli
xasiaTisaa: saxelmwifos amgvari `gakotrebis~ ufleba ara aqvs,
radganac maSin mas TviTdaSla (Tumca istoriaSi aseTi SemTxvevebicaa cnobili) emuqreba. Tanac, Tu aRebuli dauzRveveli riskisaTvis
mewarmis yvelaze mniSvnelovani jildo rac SeiZleba meti mogebis
miRebaa, saxelmwifo xelisuflebis ganmxorcielebeli pirebisaTvis
jildo arCevnebSi gamarjveba, xelisuflebaSi yofnis vadis
gagrZelebaa.
warmoebis faqtorTa urTierTganpirobebuloba
da urTierTqmedeba. warmoebis faqtorTa ganxilvis Semdeg
* dasavlur ekonomikur literaturaSi Camoyalibebuli tradiciis
Tanaxmad, termin `saxelmwifos~ (`State~) nacvlad, rogorc wesi, termini
`mTavroba~ (`Government~) ixmareba. Cvens mier gamoyenebuli termini
`saxelmwifo~ `mTavrobas~ (aRmasrulebel xelisuflebas), rogorc mis
Semadgenel nawils, moicavs.
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upriania warmoebis procesis, rogorc warmoebis faqtorTa
urTierTganpirobebulobisa da urTierTqmedebis ganxilva.
termini `warmoeba~, rogorc aRvniSneT, Cveulebriv niSnavs ama
Tu im materialuri dovlaTis warmoebas. magram misi Sinaarsi
ufro farTo da tevadia. is, aRniSnulTan erTad, moicavs sawarmoo
saqmianobis yvela saxeobas, romlis Sedegebic akmayofilebs adamianis
sxvadasxva moTxovnilebas, e.i. momsaxurebasac. Sesabamisad, warmoebis
183
mizania adamianTa uzrunvelyofa saqonliTa da momsaxurebiT, romelic akmayofilebs maT moTxovnilebebs.
ama Tu im qveynis sami didi seqtori moicavs mTel ekonomikur
saqmianobas. esaa: pirveladi dargebi (soflis meurneoba, metyeveoba,
nadiroba da meTevzeoba), romlebic uzrunvelyofen sawarmoo
procesis pirvel etaps nedli masalebis warmoebiT;
meoradi dargebi (mopovebiTi da gadamamuSavebeli dargebi),
romlebic uzrunvelyofen sawarmoo procesis meore etaps _
nedleuls gardaqmnian mza produqciad an naxevarfabrikatebad;
mesameuli dargebi (bankebi, sadazRvevo kompaniebi, transportis,
kavSirgabmulobis, sabiTumo da sacalo vaWrobis sawarmoebi,
ganaTleba, samedicino momsaxureba, sazogadoebrivi kveba, turizmi
da a.S.), romlebic sxvadasxva saxeobis momsaxurebas uweven pirvelad da meorad dargebs da uSualod momxmareblebs.
qveynis ekonomikis pirvelad, meorad da mesameul seqtorebSi
dasaqmebul muSakTa raodenobis xvedriTi wili erTimeorisagan
mkveTrad gansxvavebulia. sakmarisia aRvniSnoT, rom zog maRalganviTarebul qveyanaSi muSakTa naxevarze meti dasaqmebulia momsaxurebis sferoSi. kanonzomiereba ki isaa, rom aRniSnul seqtorebSi
dasaqmebulTa xvedriTi wili icvleba ekonomikis ganviTarebis
kvalobaze: soflis meurneobidan mrewvelobaSi, mrewvelobidan _
momsaxurebis sferoSi. aseTia samuSao Zalis moZraobis progresuli
tendencia. amis kvalobaze dinamikurad icvleba warmoebis
faqtorebze moTxovnac, rac sawarmoo funqciis saxiT determindeba.
yovel calkeul periodSi warmoebis faqtorTa SesaZlo
mocemuli danaxarjebiT produqciis maqsimalur warmoebas sawarmoo funqcia ewodeba. sxvanairad, sawarmoo funqcia gamoxatavs
produqciis SesaZlo maqsimalur warmoebasa da mocemul produqciaze yvela warmoebis faqtoris danaxarjebs Soris teqnologiur
urTierTkavSirs. sawarmoo funqciis mniSvneloba ganisazRvreba
imiT, rom is avlens alternatiul SesaZleblobebs, romlis drosac
184
warmoebis faqtorTa sxvadasxva Sexameba produqciis erTi da
igive moculobis gamoSvebas uzrunvelyofs, e.i. avlens warmoebis
faqtorTa optimaluri Sexamebis variants.
sawarmoo funqcia aCvenebs warmoebis faqtorTa urTierTSenacvlebis SesaZleblobas. warmoebis faqtorebze moTxovnis ZiriTadi
Tavisebureba ganpirobebulia teqnologiuri procesis TaviseburebiT
_ isini cal-calke ar gamoiyeneba. warmoebis moculoba warmoebis
procesisaTvis yvela aucilebeli faqtoriT ganisazRvreba. Tavis
mxriv, warmoebis faqtorTa urTierTkavSiri ganapirobebs TiToeul
maTganze moTxovnis sididis yvela danarCenis fasze damokidebulebas. sawarmoo funqciis arsSi garkveva SesaZleblobas gvaZlevs
gavigoT `damatebiTi produqtis~, anu zRvruli produqtis raoba.
zRvruli produqti, warmoebis sxva faqtorebis ucvlelobisas,
erTi romelime faqtoris gadidebis Sedegad miRebuli damatebiTi
produqtia. zRvruli produqtis Teoriis avtoria j.klarki.
sailustraciod ganvixiloT Sromis faqtori. Tu mTlian
produqtad miviRebT wlis manZilze muSakTa gansazRvruli
raodenobis mier warmoebuli produqtis mTlian moculobas,
zRvruli produqti iqneba erT muSakze gaangariSebiT mTliani
produqtis cvlileba dasaqmebulTa ricxvis cvlilebisas. magaliTad,
Tu davuSvebT, rom dasaqmebul muSakTa raodenobis 4-dan 5-mde
gadidebisas mTliani produqti 1000 laridan 1500 laramde
izrdeba, mexuTe (damatebuli) muSakis zRvruli produqti 500
lari iqneba (1500-1000). es maSin, roca saSualo produqti
(produqtis mTliani moculoba gayofili muSakTa raodenobaze)
_ 300 lari (1500:5) mniSvnelovnad CamorCeba zRvrul produqts
(500 lars).
magram dasaqmebul muSakTa raodenobis zrdas garkveuli zRvari
aqvs, romlis iqiT Sromis mwarmoebluroba ecema, Tumca, SeiZleba
mTliani produqti izrdebodes. es xdeba imitom, rom warmoebis
sxva faqtorebis ucvleli moculoba ukve aRaraa sakmarisi imisaTvis,
185
rom yvela muSaki sruli ukugebiT muSaobdes. Sromis mwarmoeblurobis done dacemis tendenciiT xasiaTdeba aseve maSinac, roca
saWiroze gacilebiT naklebi muSakia dasaqmebuli gansazRvruli
raodenobis warmoebis sxva faqtorebis momsaxurebaze. es xdeba
imitom, rom warmoebis sxva faqtorebi gamoiyeneba arasrulad,
maTi momsaxurebisaTvis aucilebel muSakTa ukmarisobis gamo.
is, rac iTqva Sromis, rogorc warmoebis erT-erTi faqtoris,
zrdiT gamowveuli zRvruli produqtis gadidebis Sesaxeb,
vrceldeba warmoebis sxva faqtorebzec. magaliTad, miwis zRvruli
produqti, rac aseve saerTo produqtis moculobis nazrdia,
miiReba mxolod damuSavebuli miwis farTobis gadidebiT, warmoebis
yvela danarCeni faqtoris sididis ucvlelobisas. magram, Tu
miwis nakveTis sidide ucvlelia da, mxolod Sromis raodenoba
izrdeba, saerTo produqti sul ufro nela izrdeba, rac
p.samuelsonis mixedviT, saboloo angariSiT, zRvruli produqtis
kanonis saxiT vlindeba.
dabolos, zRvrul sargeblianobasTan dakavSirebiT xazi unda
gaesvas imas, rom is gamoiyeneba, jer erTi, mxolod warmoebis
faqtorTa urTierTSenacvlebis pirobebSi da, meorec, roca warmoebaSi ama Tu im resursis CarTvis (an amoRebis) Sesaxeb gadawyvetileba SeiZleba moqnilad Seicvalos.
186
leqcia 12. warmoebis faqtorTa
Semosavlebis formirebis sabazro
meqanizmi
`TiToeuls kuTvnili, xolo sxvas
_ sxvisi.~
emil krotki
Semosavlebis formirebisa da ganawilebis problema. Semosavlebis formirebis (ganawilebis) problemas didi
xnis istoria aqvs rogorc ekonomikur mecnierebaSi, ise filosofiaSi.
ganawilebis Teoriam unda dagvanaxos, sworad pasuxobs Tu ara
sazogadoeba sami mTavari kiTxvidan erT-erTs: `visTvis vawarmooT?~.
Semosavali ewodeba fulad Tanxas, romelsac Rebulobs
ekonomikuri subieqti saqonlisa da momsaxurebis realizaciisaTvis.
principSi, naturaluri Semosavalic dasaSvebia, magram Tanamedrove
sabazro ekonomikis pirobebSi, es gamonaklisia. roca laparakia
Semosavlebze, rogorc wesi, igulisxmeba fuladi Semosavali.
marTalia, yvelas surs _ rac SeiZleba meti iyos misi
Semosavali, magram Semosavlis miRebisaTvis survili sakmarisi
araa. Semosavlis miReba da misi sidide damokidebulia mraval
obieqtur da subieqtur garemoebaze: unarze, mowadinebaze, saerTo
stabilizaciaze da a.S. Semosavali bunebis wyaloba ki ara, aramed zemoT dasaxelebuli pirobebis Sedegia da icvleba am pirobebis
SecvlasTan erTad.
ekonomikuri mecniereba Semosavals miiCnevs miwodebisa da
moTxovnis Sedegad, ufro zustad, ekonomikuri resursebisa da
sawarmoo momsaxurebis miwodebisa da maTze moTxovnis Sedegad.
sxvanairad rom vTqvaT, warmoebuli produqtis ganawileba
(Semosavlebad gadaqceva) damokidebulia imaze, Tu vis ekuTvnis
da ra moculobisa da xarisxisaa resursebi, romelTa miwodeba
187
SeuZliaT ekonomikur subieqtebs.
aqedan aSkarad ikveTeba kavSiri sakuTrebasa da Semosavlebs Soris . Semosavlis sidide, saboloo jamSi, damokidebulia
imaze, Tu risi patroni xarT, ra SegiZliaT SesTavazoT sxvebs.
rac ufro meti da maRali xarisxisaa is ekonomikuri resursebi
da momsaxureba, romlebsac Tqven flobT, miT meti iqneba Tqveni
Semosavalic. maSasadame, gamodis, rom dRevandeli Semosavlebis
ganawileba damokidebulia imaze, Tu rogoraa ganawilebuli
ekonomikuri resursebi.
unda iTqvas, rom konkurenciul sabazro ekonomikaSi Semosavlebs aravin ar anawilebs. aseT ekonomikaSi Semosavlebi warmoiqmneba konkurenciuli meqanizmis moqmedebis Sedegad, xarjebisa da
fasebis sabazro ryevebis Sedegad. ganawilebas, am sityvis pirdapiri
gagebiT, adgili aqvs centralizebulad marTul administraciulmbrZaneblur ekonomikaSi.
pirdapir unda iTqvas isic, rom dRevandel sazogadoebaSi
Semosavlebi metismetad uTanabrodaa ganawilebuli.
ojaxebs Soris Semosavlebis ganawilebis analizis mizniT
gamoiyeneba jinis koeficienti. igi aris Semosavlebis koncentraciis maCvenebeli, romelic gviCvenebs Semosvlebis faqtobrivi
ganawilebis gadaxras maTi Tanabari ganawilebis xazidan. Tanabari
ganawilebisas jinis indeqsi 0-is tolia, xolo absoluturi
uTanabrobisas ki _ 1-is.
jinis koeficienti, rogorc Semosavlebis uTanabro ganawilebis sazomi, iangariSeba Semdegnairad:
G=1+
1
2
- 2 - y = [y1+2y2+3y3+...+nyn],
n n
sadac y1, ..., yn warmoadgens individis (ojaxis) Semosavlebs
klebadi rigiT;
188
y _ saSualo Semosavals;
n _ individebis (ojaxebis) raodenobas.
jinis koeficienti saqarTveloSi regularulad yovelwliurad (kvartalurad) gaiangariSeba fuladi Semosavlebisa da
mTliani Semosavlebis mixedviT. man 2003 wels saSualod Seadgina
fuladi Semosavlebis mixedviT 0,56, xolo mTliani Semosavlebis
mixedviT _ 0,49.
gasaTvaliswinebelia, rom jinis koeficienti SedarebiTi sididea.
amasTan, erTsa da imave SualedSi erTi ganawileba SeiZleba iyos
ufro Tanabari, vidre meore, da naklebad Tanabari sxva romelime
SualedSi, magram miuxedavad amisa, jinis koeficients SesaZlebelia
mainc erTi da igive mniSvneloba mieniWos. jinis koeficients
sxva SezRudvebic aqvs: rodesac mTeli mosaxleobisaTvis
gaiangariSeba, is ar uCvenebs uTanabrobis saxes, anu imas, rom
uTanabroba Rarib mosaxleobaSia ufro meti, Tu mdidar mosaxleobaSi.
amdenad, mxolod jinis indeqsi ver gvawvdis amomwurav
informacias mosaxleobis ekonomikur keTildReobaze.
Semosavlebis ganawilebaSi arsebuli uTanabrobis xarisxis
dasaxasiaTeblad iyeneben e.w. lorencis mruds. am mizniT ojaxebs
yofen ricxobrivad tol xuT jgufad (kvintilad), e.i. 5-jer
20%-ad. pirveli kvintili _ esaa ojaxebis pirveli 20% (yvelaze
dabalSemosavlianebi), xolo mexuTe kvintili _ ukanaskneli 20%
(yvelaze maRalSemosavlianebi). 2008 wlis monacemebiT, saqarTveloSi pirvelma kvintilma miiRo mTeli Semosavlebis 4,5%,
meorem _ 10,8%, mesamem _ 16,9%, meoTxem _ 24,1% da mexuTem _
43,7%. am monacemebis safuZvelze agebuli lorencis mrudi
asaxulia 4.2 naxazze.
Teoriulad rom dagveSva Semosavlebis absoluturad Tanabari ganawileba, maSin misi maCvenebeli mrudi daemTxveoda biseqtrisas. es imis maCvenebeli iqneboda, rom ojaxebis nebismieri
procenti miiRebda imdenive procent Semosavals (ojaxebis 20%
189
nax. 4.2. lorencis mrudis
praqtikuli gamoyenebis magaliTi
miiRebda Semosavlebis 20%-s, ojaxebis 40% _ Semosavlebis
40%-s da a.S.).
magram realuri mdgomareoba sxvanairia: mrudi, romelic
wamodgenilia naxazze, biseqtrisas ar emTxveva. masze A wertili
gviCvenes, rom ojaxebis pirvelma 20%-ma miiRo Semosavlebis
saerTo moculobis 4,5%. B wertili imas aRniSnavs, rom ojaxebis
pirvelma 40%-ma miiRo Semosavlebis 15,3% (4,5+10,8) da a.S.
are, romelic moqceulia biseqtrisasa da lorencis mruds Soris,
gviCvenebs Semosavlebis ganawilebaSi arsebuli uTanasworobis
xarisxs. rac ufro didia es are, miT metia uTanasworoba.
Semosavlebis ganawilebis problema sabazro ekonomikis
190
damcvelTa da mowinaaRmdegeTa davaSi figurirebs, rogorc erTerTi mTavari argumenti. mecnierTa erTi nawili amtkicebs, rom
Semosavlebis ganawilebaSi dRes metismetad didi uTanabrobaa,
rac saSiSroebas Seicavs, mxolod ufro Tanabari ganawileba
gadaarCens kacobriobas. meoreni, piriqiT, Tvlian, rom gaTanabrebiTi
ganawileba daRupavs sazogadoebas. es ukanasknelni gamodian iqidan,
rom ganawilebis wesi warmoebis gadidebis mZlavri faqtoria.
isini msjeloben Semdegnairad: Semosavlebis gaTanabreba niSnavs
imas, rom saxelmwifom gadasaxadebis meSveobiT gamomuSavebis
(mogebis) nawili waarTvas imas, vinc ukeT muSaobs (da amitom
meti Semosavalic miiRo) da gadasces imas, vinc uaresad muSaobs
(da amitom naklebi Semosavali miiRo). aseTi ganawileba ukeT
muSaobis stimuls ukargavs yvelas.
amrigad, polemika Semosavlebis ganawilebis garSemo gadaizarda
polemikaSi imis Sesaxeb, Tu ra kavSiria warmoebis efeqtianobasa
da ganawilebis wess Soris. gamodis, rom arsenas princi pi (`mdidars arTmevs, Raribs aZlevs, RmerTi rodi waaxdensa~) efeqtianobis
TvalsazrisiT miuRebelia, sabazro ekonomikas ar Seesatyviseba.
faqtia, bazari araa is adgili, sadac Tanasworoba sufevs.
piriqiT, sabazro ekonomika, konkurencia ulmobelia: mas uZlebs
mxolod is, vinc ufro efeqtianad muSaobs. bazarze mowyalebas
ki ar unda elodo, aramed warmatebas unda miaRwio. swored esaa
winsvlis safuZveli, sxvanairi cxovreba ar arsebobs.
faqtoruli Semosavlebis arsi da formirebis
Teoriuli safuZvlebi. rogorc ukve iTqva, Semosavals
Rebuloben ekonomikuri subieqtebi Tavis gankargulebaSi arsebuli
resursebis miwodebisaTvis. warmoebis yovel faqtors Seesabameba specifikuri Semosavali (faqtoruli Semosavali).
sagulisxmoa, rom j.klarkis mier Camoyalibebuli zRvruli
produqtis Teoria warmoebis sxvadasxva faqtorze sabazro fasis
formirebis, misi meqanizmis funqcionirebis arsis gasaRebia. mogebis
191
maqsimizaciis mizniT, mwarmoeblebi urTierTkonkurenciaSi myof
warmoebis faqtorTagan romelimes moTxovnas im pirobiT wauyeneben,
Tu warmoebis procesSi misi CarTviT miiReba damatebiTi produqti.
amasTan dakavSirebiT, gasaTvaliswinebelia Semdegi kanonzomiereba: warmoebaSi, mis faqtorTa damatebiT CarTvis Sedegad mwarmoeblis mogebis maqsimizaciis aucilebeli pirobaa is, rom warmoebis
romelime faqtoris damatebiTi dabandebis Sedegad miRebuli
zRvruli produqtis Semosavali am faqtoris sabazro fasis
toli unda iyos. es ki imas niSnavs, rom warmoebis faqtorebi
udanakargod gamoiyeneba da warmoeba efeqtiania.
saerTod, warmoebis faqtorTa bazrebze faswarmoqmna mniSvnelovan rols asrulebs ekonomikaSi. is gansazRvravs sabazro
ekonomikis TiToeuli subieqtis wvlils warmoebul produqtSi,
Semosavlisa da keTildReobis doneSi da, saerTod, Semosavlebis
gadanawilebaSi. sabazro sistemaSi ganawilebis ekonomikuri meqanizmia resursTa anu warmoebis faqtorTa fasebi, rac gansazRvravs
momxmarebelTa Semosavlebis odenobas.
warmoebis faqtorTa fasebi srulyofili konkurenciis
pirobebSi ganisazRvreba moTxovnisa da miwodebis TanafardobiT.
amasTan, xazi unda gaesvas im garemoebas, rom warmoebis faqtorebze
moTxovna da maTi fasi samomxmareblo moTxovnaze damokidebulebiTaa warmoebuli. es bunebrivicaa, ramdenadac warmoebis
faqtorebi aucilebelia piradi moxmarebisaTvis saWiro dovlaTis
sawarmoeblad.
maSasadame, warmoebis faqtorebze moTxovna yovelTvis warmoebuli moTxovnaa. sxvanairad, ekonomikur resursebze moTxovna
meoradia da ganisazRvreba samomxmareblo saqonelze moTxovniT.
sxva Tanabar pirobebSi, rac maRalia samomxmareblo saqonelze
moTxovna, miT metia resursebze moTxovnac.
amasTan, warmoebis yvela faqtoris ekonomikuri da teqnologiuri urTierTdamokidebulebis gamo, TiToeul faqtorze moTxovna
maTsave faszea damokidebuli. amitomac, roca erTi faqtoris
192
fasi izrdeba, masze moTxovna mcirdeba, sxvaze ki _ izrdeba.
maSasadame, aq gadamwyvet rols asrulebs faqtorTa urTierTSenacvlebis SesaZlebloba.
konkurenciuli brZolis msvlelobaSi, moTxovnisa da miwodebis
ryevis meSveobiT, saqonelTa fasebis cvlilebiT Semosavlebi
nawildeba warmoebis faqtorTa mesakuTreebs Soris. Semosavlebis
aseTi ganawileba xSirad xasiaTdeba arsebiTi uTanasworobiT,
magram misi met-naklebi zomiT daZleva xdeba mTavrobis socialuri
programebiT.
erTmaneTisagan unda ganvasxvavoT ekonomikur resursTa anu
warmoebis faqtorTa srulyofili da arasrulyofili bazrebi.
warmoebis faqtorTa srulyofil bazarze funqcionirebs resursTa bevri, urTierTkonkurenciaSi myofi myidveli,
romelTac resursebs awvdian aseTsave urTierTkonkurenciaSi myofi
gamyidvelebi. amasTan, arcerT momxmarebels (resursTa myidvels)
ar SeuZlia moixmaros (SeiZinos) miwodebuli resursebis imdeni
wili, rom Secvalos sabazro moTxovna. igive mdgomareobaSi
imyofebian resursTa gamyidvelebic, ris gamoc maT ar SeuZliaT
Seqmnan warmoebis faqtorTa deficiti fasebze zemoqmedebis mizniT.
yovelive es TavisTavad gulisxmobs resursTa bazarze myidvelTa
da gamyidvelTa Sesvlisa da gamosvlis Tavisuflebas, agreTve
imas, rom srulyofili konkurenciis bazarze resursTa fasebi
met-naklebad `mocemulia~, SemoTavazebulia, wonasworobis fasia,
rasac myidvelebic da gamyidvelebic unda miesadagon.
srulyofili konkurenciis pirobebSi arsebobs TiToeuli tipis
da xarisxis resursis calke bazari, sadac resursis esa Tu is
saxeoba standartizebulia. ganvixiloT warmoebis faqtorTa
ZiriTadi Semosavlebis formirebis sabazro meqanizmebi cal-calke.
renta, rogorc miwis faqtoruli Semosavali.
zogadad, rentul Semosavals Rebulobs ekonomikuri resursebis
mflobeli, romelic TviTon ki ar iyenebs am resursebs, aramed
193
sxvas gadascems maTi gamoyenebis uflebas. Cveulebriv, es xdeba
ijaris saxiT. rentuli Semosavlis yvelaze gavrcelebuli da
ti piuri saxeobaa miwis renta. amitom mizanSewonilia rentis
warmoqmnisa da miTvisebis meqanizmi ganvixiloT miwis rentis
magaliTze.
adamianis SromiTi saqmianoba yovelTvis miwasTanaa dakavSirebuli, soflis meurneobisaTvis ki miwa warmoebis umTavresi
faqtoria. miwis farTobi bunebrivad gansazRvrulia. miwis nakveTebi
erTmaneTisagan gansxvavebulia nayofierebisa da adgilmdebareobis
mixedviT, rac imas ganapirobebs, rom erTi da imave kapitalis
daxarjviT ukeTesi nayofierebisa da moxerxebuli mdebareobis
nakveTebze miiReba damatebiTi Semosavali. aRniSnuli damatebiTi
Semosavali fiqsirdeba, rogorc rentuli Semosavali, romelic
ar warmoadgens imaT damsaxurebas, vinc am miwebs amuSavebs.
is, rom yvela SemTxvevaSi warmoebrivi sivrcis Seqmna
iTvaliswinebs mwarmoeblebis mier miwis gansazRvruli nawiliT
sargeblobas, imas niSnavs, rom miwis bazari yovelTvis iTvleba
umniSvnelovanes bazrad. am bazris normaluri funqcionireba im
SemTxvevaSia SesaZlebeli, roca warmoebis am faqtorze sakuTrebis
ufleba kanonmdeblobiT ganisazRvreba. mis gareSe SeuZlebelia
miwis yidva-gayidvis garigebis ganxorcieleba. amasTan, calkeuli
qveynebis mixedviT, miwis bazris Camoyalibebis meqanizmebi gansxvavebulia.
rogorc aRiniSna, warmoebis faqtorTa Soris miwa unikaluria, rac misi uZraobiT da ama Tu im adgilas raodenobrivi
fiqsirebulobiT xasiaTdeba. sxvanairad, miwis saerTo miwodebas
cotaT Tu bevrad buneba zRudavs da ar SeiZleba Seicvalos
fasebis moZraobis gavleniT. es ara mxolod mimdinare periodis,
aramed xangrZlivvadiani problemacaa, rac vlindeba fermeruli
fasebisa da Semosavlebis CamorCenaSi mTlianad ekonomikaSi fasebisa
da Semosavlebis cvlilebaTa tendenciebisagan. am problemis
realuri suraTi dgindeba moTxovnisa da miwodebis instrumentebis
194
daxmarebiT, romelTa meSveobiTac vlindeba sasoflo-sameurneo
produqtebze moTxovnis araelastikuroba, rac aisaxeba drois
monakveTSi sasoflo-sameurneo produqtebis moTxovnisa da
miwodebis mrudSi.
saqme imaSia, rom ganviTarebul qveyanaTa umravlesobaSi sasoflo-sameurneo produqtebze moTxovnis fasobrivi elastikuroba
dabalia. magaliTad, miaxloebiTi gaangariSebiT, aSS-is sasoflosameurneo produqtebisaTvis elastikurobis koeficienti 0,20dan 0,25-mde Seadgens, rac imas niSnavs, rom sasoflo-sameurneo
produqtebis fasebi 40-50%-iT unda Semcirebuliyo, raTa
momxmareblebs TavianTi Sesyidvebi sul raRac 10%-iT gaedidebinaT.
sxvanairad rom vTqvaT, sasoflo-sameurneo produqtebze fasebis
Zalian didi Semcirebaa saWiro moxmarebis (Sesabamisad, Sesyidvebis)
Tundac mcire zrdisaTvis. mdidar sazogadoebaSi sasoflosameurneo produqtebze moTxovnis aseTi araelastikuroba aixsneba
imiT, rom fasebis Semcirebis sapasuxod saojaxo meurneobebi
ubralod ar gadadian samjeradidan xuTjerad an metjer kvebaze,
e.i. sazogadoebis moTxovnileba am mxriv sakmaod gajerebulia da
soflis meurneobis produqtebis damatebiTi warmoeba iwvevs
zRvruli sargeblianobis swraf klebas.
soflis meurneobis produqtebze araelastikuri moTxovnis
daregulireba xdeba saxelmwifos e.w. fermeruli politikiT,
romelSic mTavaria fermaTa produqciis fasebisa da Semosavlebis gadideba da stabiluroba. Sesabamisad, soflismeurneobrivi
politikis qvakuTxedia soflis meurneobis regulirebis Sesaxeb
1933 wlis kanoniT gansazRvruli fasebis paritetis koncefcia.
misi arsi isaa, rom yovel wels produqtebis warmoebis realurma
moculobam fermerisaTvis yovelTvis erTi da igive realuri
Semosavali uzrunvelyos.
nominalur gamoxatulebaSi paritetis koncefcia gulisxmobs,
rom Tanafardoba fermerTa produqciis fasebsa da maT mier
moxmarebul saqonelTa da momsaxurebis fasebs Soris ucvlelia.
195
magaliTad, Tu perangis fasi gansazRvrul droSi 3-jer gaizarda,
xorblis fasic 3-jer unda gaizardos. dReisaTvis fasebis paritetis
koncefcia modificirdeba iqiTken, rom politika fermerTa
Semosavlebis gadidebidan misi stabilizaciis amocanaze gadaerTos.
bazarze orientirebuli Semosavlebis stabilizaciis amocanaa
Seamciros fermeruli Semosavlebi da fasebis meryeoba wlebis
mixedviT.
swored aRniSnulis prizmiT unda ganvixiloT miwis, rogorc
warmoebis faqtoris, bazris problema.
sabazro ekonomikis pirobebSi miwa saqonlur formas iRebs _
is yidva-gayidvis obieqtia. miwis mesakuTre Tavis miwas mxolod
gansakuTrebuli pirobebiT hyidis, kerZod maSin, Tu miwis gayidviT
miRebuli Tanxa, bankSi moTavsebuli an sesxad gacemuli, mas
procentis saxiT moutans imave miwis nakveTidan miRebuli rentis
tol (an met) Semosavals. meore mxriv, sanam miwas iyidides,
myidveli Seutolebs mis mier misaRebi miwis rentis Tanxas im
procents, rasac is miiRebda Tavisi fulis bankSi moTavsebiT.
Sesabamisad, miwis fasi aris kapitalizebuli renta. amrigad,
miwis fasi =
100 x renta
bankis procentis normasTan
miwis fasi sasesxo procentis ukuproporciuli da rentis
pirdapirproporciulia. amrigad, rac ufro meti renta moaqvs
nakveTs, miT ufro Zviria is sasesxo procentis mocemuli sididis
pirobebSi.
Tavis mxriv, miwis rentis sidide Camoyalibdeba miwaze
moTxovnisa da miwodebis wonasworobis wertilSi. miwa iqneba
moTxovnaze naklebi, Tu rentis sidide Warbobs wonasworobis
dones.
zemoT aRniSnulidan gamomdinare, sakuTriv renta, rogorc
196
ekonomikuri kategoria, niSnavs ara ubralod warmoebis faqtorul
Semosavals, aramed Semosavals warmoebis iseTi faqtorisagan,
romlis miwodebac araelastikuria. miwa rom uZravi ar iyos,
miwis mflobelebi mas saukeTeso adgilas ganalagebdnen da met
rentas miiRebdnen, sxvadasxva adgilas miwis miwodeba da mis
kvalobaze rentac gamoTanabrdeboda. magram es SeuZlebelia, ramdenadac miwa fiqsirebulia da ar SeiZleba misi gadaadgileba.
miwis bazrisaTvis gansxvaveba miwis rentaSi wesia da ara gamonaklisi. TiToeul nakveTs Tavisi adgilmdebareobiT da
nayofierebiT gaaCnia rentaze da, Sesabamisad, miwis fasze zemoqmedi
unikaluri maxasiaTeblebi. rentis sididis Secvla ki mxolod
miwaze moTxovnis Secvlas SeuZlia.
magram miwis araelastikuroba rentis donis ganmsazRvreli
erTi problemaa. sxva problema isaa, rom sasoflo-sameurneo
miwaze moTxovna _ warmoebuli moTxovnaa (msgavsad sxva faqtorebisa). magaliTad, Tu meCaieobis produqciaze fasebi Semcirdeba,
maSin Cais kulturis mosayvanad saWiro miwaze warmoebuli
moTxovnac mcirdeba, rac, Tavis mxriv, rentis Semcirebas ganapirobebs.
sargebeli, rogorc kapitalis faqtoruli Semosavali. ekonomikaSi dagrovili fizikuri kapitalis mTliani
maragi (kapitaluri dovlaTi) produqtis miwodebis aucilebeli
pirobaa. magram kapitalis bazarze yidva-gayidvis obieqtia ara
ekonomikaSi arsebuli yvela fizikuri kapitali, aramed axali
kapitalis nakadi, romelic momavalSi warmoebis gafarToebisa
da, maSasadame, mogebis gazrdis SesaZleblobas iZleva. axali
kapitalis mosazidad ki sawarmos fuli sWirdeba. amasTan
dakavSirebiT, sawarmoebis moTxovna arsebobs droebiT Tavisufal
fulze, romelic saWiroa axali kapitaluri dovlaTis SesaZenad.
nasesxebi fuli sawarmom unda daabrunos momavalSi investiciis
Sedegad miRebuli mogebis nawilis xarjze.
kapitalze Semosavlebi ganisazRvreba mogebis normiT, rac
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drois garkveul monakveTSi (rogorc wesi, erT weliwadSi) miRebuli
wminda Semosavalia sargeblis saxiT. mTlian investiciebTan
mimarTebiT fuliT gamoxatuli sargebeli faqtoruli Semosavalia.
kapitali sargeblobs moTxovniT imitom, rom is mwarmoebluria, ramdenadac misi meSveobiT SeiZleba miRebul iqnas produqtis
namati anu gaizardos Semosavali. ufro zustad, kapitals gaaCnia
wminda mwarmoeblurobis unari, rac vlindeba imiT, rom warmoebaSi
kapitalis gamoyenebiT SeiZleba miRebul iqnas damatebiTi produqti,
rac rCeba amortizebuli fondebis yovelgvari anaricxebis Semdeg.
kapitalis swored es wminda mwarmoebluroba, gamosaxuli
procentobiT, warmoadgens damatebiT Semosavals, ris gamoc bazarze
kapitalis fasi `kapitalizebuli Rirebulebis~ saxiT gamodis.
rogorc cnobilia, kapitali xangrZlivi momsaxurebis resursia,
romlis meSveobiTac saqonelTa da momsaxurebaTa gadidebuli
raodenoba iwarmoeba. kapitalis SeqmnisaTvis aucilebelia garkveuli
dro, romlis ganmavlobaSic sawarmoebs sWirdebaT kapitalis
warmoebis danaxarjTa dafinansebis saSualebani. am saSualebebs,
rasac isini xSirad sesxad iReben, xarjaven dRes, momaval mogebaze
gaangariSebiT. gansazRvruli periodiT nasesxeb saSualebaTa
sargeblobisaTvis isini kapitalis mflobelebs uxdian garkveul
procents, rac srulyofili konkurenciis bazarze sasesxo
sargeblis wonasworobiTi ganakveTis saxiT gamodis, romlis
drosac SemoTavazebul sasesxo saSualebaTa moculoba utoldeba
maTze gadaxdisunarian moTxovnas.
konkurenciul bazarze kapitalis arc calkeul gamsesxeblebs da arc calkeul msesxeblebs ar SeuZliaT zemoqmedeba
moaxdinon sasesxo procentis sabazro ganakveTze. isini aRiareben
(iReben) bazarze arsebul fasebs, ramdenadac TiToeuli maTganis
wili moTxovnasa da miwodebaSi SedarebiT umniSvneloa. da mainc,
aq gadamwyvetia sasesxo kapitalze norma, rac aris gasesxebul
kapitalze miRebuli Semosavlis Sefardeba aRniSnuli kapitalis
odenobasTan, gamoxatuli procentobiT. magaliTad, Tu gasesxebulia
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10000 lari, romelzec wliuri Semosavali 1000 lars Seadgens,
maSin procentis norma iqneba:
100 x 1000
10000
= 10%
sabazro norma mniSvnelovan rols asrulebs sainvesticio
gadawyvetilebaTa miRebaSi. investicia _ kapitaluri fondebis
Sevsebis anu kapitalis damatebis procesia. investirebisas sawarmom
unda gadawyvitos gansazRvrul droSi axali dabandebebi moitans
Tu ara danaxarjebze met axal Rirebulebas.
am mizniT didi mniSvneloba eniWeba diskontirebis proceduras, rac gamoixateba imiT, rom sainvesticio proeqtebis
ganxorcielebisas aucilebelia erTimeores Seufarddes mimdinare
(dRevandeli) danaxarjebisa da momavali Semosavlebis sidideebi.
amisaTvis aucilebelia dadgindes momavlis fuladi Tanxis dRevandeli Rirebuleba, rasac diskontireba ewodeba da gamoisaxeba
formuliT:
Vp =
V1
(1+r)t
sadac Vp _ momavali fuladi Tanxis dRevandeli Rirebulebaa;
V1 _ dRevandeli Tanxis momavali Rirebuleba;
t _ wlebis raodenoba;
r _ procentis ganakveTi.
diskontirebis procesi metad rTulia, magram misi gaiolebisaTvis arsebobs specialuri cxrilebi, romliTac SeiZleba
swrafad gaangariSdes momavali Semosavlebis dRevandeli Rirebuleba da, Sesabamisad, miRebul iqnas optimaluri gadawyvetileba.
amrigad, srulyofili konkurenciis bazarze kapitaluri resu199
rsebis (ZiriTadi fondebis) fasi ganisazRvreba drois garkveul
monakveTSi maT mier Semosavlis motanis mimdinare da samomavlo
unariT da sasesxo procentis sabazro ganakveTiT.
kapitalis bazarze, srulyofili konkurenciiT, ZiriTadi kapitalis fasi maTi mimdinare Rirebulebis toli unda iyos. Tu
ZiriTadi kapitalis sabazro fasi naklebia, vidre momavali
Semosavlebis Rirebuleba, maSin maTi yidviT SesaZlebelia mogebis
miReba. es adidebs moTxovnas ZiriTad fondebze da zrdis maTs
fass mimdinare Rirebulebis tol sididemde.
grZelvadiani planiT, ZiriTadi kapitalis fasi unda udrides
maTs mimdinare Rirebulebasac da maTi warmoebis saSualo
danaxarjebsac im varaudiT, rom kapitali iyideba konkurenciul
bazarze.
im SemTxvevaSi, Tu fasi warmoebis danaxarjebze dabali iqneba,
axali ZiriTadi fondebis mwarmoeblebi ver dafaraven am kapitalur
saqonelTa alternatiul Rirebulebas. Sedegad, kapitalur
saqonelTa warmoeba Semcirdeba da fasebi gaizrdeba. analogiurad,
Tu fasebi saSualo danaxarjebze maRali iqneba, axali sawarmoebi
gazrdian kapitalur saqonelTa miwodebas da maTi fasebi kvlav
daiwevs. da bolos, yvela ZiriTadi kapitalis fasi damokidebulia
sasesxo sargeblis sabazro ganakveTze. rac maRalia es ukanaskneli,
miT dabalia ZiriTadi kapitalis fasi da, piriqiT.
xelfasi, rogorc Sromis faqtoruli Semosavali. Sromis bazari aris samuSao Zalis moTxovnisa da miwodebis
Camoyalibebis sfero. Sromis bazarze iyideba adamianTa fizikuri
da gonebrivi unari anu samuSao Zala. Sromis bazris roli
TiToeuli qveynis ekonomikaSi Zalze didia.
Sromis bazris Semadgeneli nawilebia Sromis miwodeba da
Sromaze moTxovna . samuSao Zalis mflobelebi qmnian daqiravebul muSakTa jgufs. Sromis bazarze gamyidvelTa wre mravalferovania. sazogadoebas SromiT momsaxurebas sTavazobs:
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damlagebeli, ministri, momRerali, mSenebeli, durgali, maswavlebeli
da a.S. yvela isini Sromis bazarze myidvelebs (damqiraveblebs )
miawodeben sakuTar Sromas sxvadasxva fasSi. zogjer es fasi
maRalia, zogjer ki _ sakmaod dabali. samuSao Zalis fasi
ganisazRvreba Sromis miwodebisa da Sromaze moTxovnis TanafardobiT.
Sromis fasSi arsebuli didi gansxvaveba imiT aixsneba, rom
Sromis mimwodebel adamianTa SesaZlebloba Zalze gansxvavebuli
da mravalferovania. marTlac, mecnierisa da damlageblis Sroma
ar SeiZleba erTnairad Sefasdes. mecnieris SromiTi saqmianoba
sakmaod rTulia, igi moicavs adamianis bunebriv talantTan erTad
sakmaod xangrZliv dros da gansazRvruli raodenobis fulsac.
damlageblis Sroma ki SedarebiT martivia.
Sromis bazris warmatebiT funqcionireba ekonomikaSi damokidebulia samuSao Zalis mobilurobaze. ganasxvaveben profesiul da teritoriul mobilurobas. profesiul mobilurobaSi
igulisxmeba adamianis unari ekonomikuri situaciis cvlilebis
an ufro maRali Semosavlis misaRebad daeuflos sxvadasxva
profesias an aimaRlos kvalifikacia. rac ufro swrafia profesiuli
mobiluroba, miT ufro uadvildeba adamians samuSaos povna da,
piriqiT. mraval industriulad ganviTarebul qveyanaSi profesias
icvlian umaRlesi ganaTlebis mqone pirebic ki. analogiuri
situacia Camoyalibda 90-iani wlebis saqarTveloSi, rac dRemde
grZeldeba. qveyanaSi Seiqmna ucxo enebis Semswavleli, kompiuteruli swavlebis, auditTa mravalricxovani mosamzadebeli kursebi,
romelTa gavla sagrZnoblad aiolebs SedarebiT maRalSemosavliani
samuSaos povnas.
samuSao Zalis teritoriul mobilurobaSi igulisxmeba
adamianis unari da mzadyofna samuSaos misaRebad an ufro
Semosavliani samuSaos mosaZebnad Seicvalos sacxovrebeli adgili,
qveynis SigniT teritoriulad gadaadgildes.
Sroma, ise rogorc miwa da kapitali, warmoebis faqtoria.
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mewarmis danaxarji mxolod daqiravebul muSakze xelfasis gacemiT
ar amoiwureba. xelfasis sidide SemosazRvrulia mTliani
Semosavlis moculobiT, xelfasis gazrda SeiZleba rentis an
sargeblis sididis Semcirebis xarjze. sxva SemTxvevaSi ki xelfasis
gazrda SesaZlebelia mxolod Sromis mwarmoeblurobis zrdis,
anda warmoebuli produqciis sabazro fasis zrdis SemTxvevaSi.
Sromis bazarze miwodebis formireba dakavSirebulia mraval
faqtorTan. Sromis miwodeba izrdeba xelfasis donis, agreTve
Sromis prestiJulobisa da moraluri dakmayofilebis gavleniT.
Sromis miwodebis kanonis Tanaxmad, rac ufro maRalia Sromis
safasuri, miT ufro meti adamiani Seecdeba am samuSaos
Sesrulebas .
ra Tqma unda, es kanoni vlindeba mxolod sxva Tanabar
pirobebSi. magaliTad, Zalze maRalia profesional fexburTelTa
Sromis anazRaureba, magram ar arsebobs imis saSiSroeba, rom
xvalve fexburTis TamaSis msurvelTa ricxvi mniSvnelovnad
gaizrdeba. es imiT aixsneba, rom fexburTelis maRali klasi
dakavSirebulia rogorc bunebriv monacemebTan, aseve daxelovnebasTan, rasac fexburTelTa mxolod mcire raodenoba flobs
da xelfasis maRal dones aq arafris Secvla ar SeuZlia.
Sromisadmi interesis Sesustebis sxva faqtoria Sromis
simZime. rac ufro damqancvelia Sroma, miT ufro meti Zalisxmevaa saWiro da adamianebic met anazRaurebas moiTxoven.
Sromis miwodebaze gavlenas axdens agreTve Sromis sirTule. Sromis mravali saxis Sesasruleblad aucilebelia
gansakuTrebuli unaris floba da xangrZlivi swavla (magaliTad,
mecnieris Sroma). magram es unari yvela adamians rodi gaaCnia
da arc yvelas aqvs xangrZlivi swavlis survili.
erTi garemoebac unda gaviTvaliswinoT. marTalia, maRali
xelfasi Sromis miwodebis zrdis mastimulirebelia, magram xelfasis
arsebiTi zrdis pirobebSi Sromis miwodeba SeiZleba Semcirdes
Semosavlis efeqtis gavleniT. es paradoqsi imiT aixsneba, rom
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Semosavlis gajerebis kvalobaze sustdeba Sromisadmi interesi
da Zlierdeba Tavisufali drois zrdis survili.
Sromis bazarze moTxovnisa da miwodebis urTierTqmedeba
eqvemdebareba zogad sabazro kanonzomierebas. xelfasis ganakveTi
maSin aris Sromis wonasworobis fasi, roca xelfasis donis
arsebul pirobebSi erTmaneTs emTxveva adamianTa raodenoba, romelic
mzad aris Seasrulos gansazRvruli samuSao da damqiravebelTa
mier miwodebuli samuSao adgilebi.
Tu, vTqvaT, manqanebis saburavebze moTxovna gaizrdeba, maSin
mosalodnelia saburavebis warmoebis gasafarToeblad meti adamianis
daqiraveba. Tu Sromis bazarze damatebiTi muSaxeli arasakmarisia,
am SemTxvevaSi saburavebis mwarmoebel sawarmoSi damatebiTi samuSao
Zala SeiZleba sxvagan ukve dasaqmebulTa gadmobirebiT moxdes,
Tu maT ufro maRal xelfass SesTavazeben. sawinaaRmdego
mdgomareoba Seiqmneba saburavebze moTxovnis Semcirebis SemTxvevaSi.
am situaciaSi xelfasi, rogorc wesi, Semcirdeba, an warmoeba
Seikveceba dasaqmebulTa nawilis ganTavisuflebis xarjze.
xelfasi diferencirebulia qveynebis, regionebis, saqmianobis
saxeebisa da calkeuli pirebis mixedviT. magaliTad, germaniaSi
xelfasi ufro maRalia, vidre ungreTSi, ungreTSi ki ufro maRalia,
vidre saqarTveloSi. igive SeiZleba iTqvas sxvadasxva produqtis
mwarmoeblebze. Tambaqos warmoebaSi xelfasis done ufro maRalia,
vidre limonaTis warmoebaSi da a.S.
xelfasis zogadi anu saSualo done moicavs xelfasis
sxvadasxva konkretuli ganakveTebis farTo diapazons. qveynebisa
da regionebis mixedviT xelfasis saSualo doneebs Soris gansxvaveba
aixsneba ekonomikuri ganviTarebis miRweuli doniT, xolo sxva
Tanabar pirobebSi _ Sromaze moTxovnisa da miwodebis TanafardobiT.
xelfasi aris Sromis fuladi anazRaureba. gamoiyofa:
nominaluri xelfasi da realuri xelfasi
fulSi gamosaxul muSakis Sromis anazRaurebas ewodeba
nominaluri xelfasi. rac ufro maRalia muSakis nominaluri
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xelfasi, miT ufro maRalia misi cxovrebis done. magram nominaluri xelfasi TavisTavad ar iZleva swor warmodgenas muSakis
Sromis anazRaurebis faqtobriv mdgomareobaze. mTavaria nominaluri xelfasis yidviTunarianoba , misi realuri Sinaarsi.
ukanaskneli gviCvenebs, Tu muSakis niminaluri xelfasiT ra
raodenobis produqtis SeZena SeiZleba. es ki, Tavis mxriv, ZiriTadad
damokidebulia sabazro fasebsa da gadasaxadebis moculobaze.
realuri xelfasi aris im produqtTa erToblioba, romlis
SeZena SeuZlia muSaks Tavisi nominaluri xelfasiT.
realuri xelfasi ganisazRvreba cxovrebis Rirebulebis
indeqsiT. am mizniT nominaluri xelfasis indeqsi iyofa cxovrebis
Rirebulebis indeqsze. cxovrebis Rirebuleba damokidebulia
saqonlisa da momsaxurebis fasis doneze, gadasaxadebis moculobaze, saxelmwifo daxmarebis sidideze da sxv. Tu cxovrebis
Rirebulebis zrda uswrebs nominaluri xelfasis zrdas, maSin
adgili aqvs realuri xelfasis Semcirebas da, piriqiT. mraval
qveyanaSi muSakebma cxovrebis miRweuli donis SesanarCuneblad
xelfasis moZravi skala SemoiRes. igi iTvaliswinebs xelfasis
avtomatur matebas cxovrebis Rirebulebis Sesabamisad.
rac Seexeba Sromis anazRaurebis formebs, xelfass aqvs ori
ZiriTadi forma: droiTi da sanardo. droiT formas safuZvlad
udevs samuSao dro (saaTi, kvira, Tve). sanardo formaSi ki
warmoebuli produqciis raodenoba daxarjuli Sromis gazomvis
safuZvelia. xelfasis droiTi forma im SemTxvevaSi gamoiyeneba,
roca mocemul warmoebaSi gaZnelebuli an SeuZlebelia calkeuli
muSakis daxarjuli Sromis aRricxva (magaliTad, warmoebaSi
konveieruli sistemis an avtomatizebuli sistemis gamoyenebis
dros). droiT xelfass iReben agreTve warmoebis xelmZRvanelebi
da sxva muSakebi Sromis anazRaurebisas.
xelfasis sanardo forma gamoiyeneba warmoebis im sferoebSi,
sadac Sroma normirebulia da SesaZlebelia TiToeuli muSakis
Sromis aRricxva.
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mosaxleobis sxvadasxva jgufs Soris xelfasSi gansxvaveba
yovelTvis iarsebebs. xelfasis ganakveTi diferencirebulia muSakebis
sxvadasxva kategoriisa da Sromis saxeobebis mixedviT. Sromis
anazRaurebaSi gansxvaveba damokidebulia ara mxolod Sromis
xarisxze, aramed imazec, Tu ramdenad sasurvelia mocemuli samuSaos
Sesruleba. xarjebi xelfasze izrdeba, Tu saWiro xdeba muSakebis
mozidva `araprestiJuli~ samuSaos Sesasruleblad.
xelfasis sidideze moqmedebs muSakTa organizebulobis
xarisxic. did sawarmoebSi, sadac Seqmnilia profkavSirebi, xelfasi,
rogorc wesi, gacilebiT maRalia, vidre mcire sawarmoebSi. xelfasSi
gansxvaveba ganpirobebulia agreTve TviT Sromis xasiaTis
kompensirebis aucileblobiT, magaliTad, Ramis cvlaSi muSaobiT,
zeganakveTuri samuSaos Sesrulebis SemTxvevaSi da a.S.
xelfasSi aseTi gansxvaveba unda aixsnas imiT, rom adamianebi
dajildovebulni arian gansxvavebuli unariT da, Sesabamisad,
gansxvavebuli wvlili SeaqvT sawarmos SemosavalSi. xelfasSi
gansxvavebis ganmsazRvrel faqtorebs warmoadgenen ganaTlebisa
da profesiuli momzadebis done. magaliTad, eqimebi, iuristebi,
ekonomistebi didi raodenobis saxsrebsa da energias xarjaven
TavianT ganaTlebaze. am saxis investicias momavalSi SeuZlia
didi Semosavlis motana.
bazari, srulyofili konkurenciis pirobebSi, miiswrafvis iseTi
wonasworobis damyarebisaken, romlis drosac erToblivi moTxovna
Sromis TiToeul kategoriaze daemTxveva masze arsebul miwodebas.
mxolod am SemTxvevaSi miiRweva zogadi wonasworoba, romelic
ar warmoSobs xelfasis zrdis an Semcirebis tendenciebs.
amrigad, xelfasis gansxvaveba warmoiSoba obieqturi faqtorebiT, magram aranaklebia subieqturi faqtorebis gavlenac.
aseTi faqtorebia: erovneba, sqesi, religia, rasa. roca am niSnebis
gaTvaliswinebiT dgindeba xelfasis ganakveTi, maSin saqme gvaqvs
diskriminaciasTan. adamianTa garkveuli jgufebi gamoiyeneba
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dabalkvalificiur SromaSi. diskriminaciis aRkveTis SemTxvevaSi
gaizrdeba am kategoriis muSakTa xelfasi mTliani Sida produqtis
im nawilis xarjze, romelic Seiqmneba muSakTa ufro maRalmwarmoebluri Sromis Sedegad.
resursebis sxva bazrebisagan gansxvavebiT, Sromis bazari
xasiaTdeba moTxovnasa (mwarmoeblebs) da miwodebas (daqiravebul
muSakebs) Soris gansakuTrebuli urTierTobiT. kerZod, saukuneebis ganmavlobaSi isini erTmaneTs mtrulad upirispirdebodnen
da es dapirispireba arc XXI saukunis dasawyisSi damcxrala. es
aixsneba mewarmeTa miswrafebiT, SesaZleblobis farglebSi, rac
SeiZleba dabali xelfasi daaweson, maSin roca daqiravebulebi
maqsimalurad maRali xelfasis miRebas cdiloben.
istoriulad am or jgufs Soris dapirispireba warmoadgenda klasobriv brZolas, romelic xSirad SeiaraRebul ajanyebaSi
gadaizrdeboda. am brZolaSi muSebi da mewarmeebi sxvadasxva
saSualebebs iyenebdnen. magaliTad, XVIII-XX saukuneebSi
gansakuTrebiT aqtiuri muSebisaTvis mewarmeebi farTod iyenebdnen
e.w. `Sav siebs~. am siaSi Seyvanili muSebi iSviaTad Tu axerxebdnen
samuSaos povnas.
damqiravebelTa erT-erTi strategia iyo mcire xniT sawarmos
daxurva da saSimSilod ganwiruli muSebis `Wkuaze moyvana~.
aranakleb mniSvnelovani iyo Streik-breherebis sistemis danergva,
romelic gaficuli muSebis sanacvlod droebiT sxva muSebis
daqiravebas gulisxmobda.
Sromis bazarze moTxovnis am strategias upirispirdeboda
daqiravebul muSakTa sxvadasxva strategia:
 gaficva _ muSaobis Sewyveta xelfasis gazrdis an Sromis
pirobebis gaumjobesebis moTxovniT;
 muSaobis wesebis mkacri dacva _ am SemTxvevaSi
muSebi formalurad agrZeleben muSaobas, magram moiTxoven Sromis
pirobebis mkacr dacvas, Senelebulia muSaobis tempi da sxv.;
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yvela es, erTad aRebuli, aqveiTebs Sromis mwarmoeblurobas da
auaresebs warmoebuli produqtis konkurentunarianobas;
 politikuri partiebis Seqmna _ XIX saukunis ukanasknel mesamedSi evropisa da amerikis qveynebSi muSaTa partiebis
erTdroulad warmoqmnisa da maTi gavlenis gaZlierebasTan erTad
gaizarda sagaficvo brZolis masStabebi. muSaTa klasi ufro
organizebuli gaxda, xolo ekonomikuri da politikuri moTxovnebi
_ ufro mkacri;
 profesiuli kavSirebis organizaciebis Seqmna _ es
organizaciebi Seiqmna kapitalistTa TviTnebobis winaaRmdeg muSaTa
brZolis procesSi. Tavdapirvelad profesiul kavSirebs hqonda
urTierTdaxmarebis sazogadoebis xasiaTi, magram sul male Caebnen
sagaficvo moZraobaSi. pirveli profkavSiri anu `tred-iunioni~
(ing. trade union) lankaSiris bambis feiqrebma Seqmnes 1792 wels.
msgavsi organizacia (`winaaRmdegobis sazogadoeba~) Camoyalibda
safrangeTSi. male am da msgavsma organizaciebma daiwyes aralegaluri saqmianoba. mewarmeebma sakanonmdeblo wesiT SeZles maTi
saqmianobis akrZalva. aSS-Si profkavSiri, rogorc saidumlo
organizacia, Seiqmna `Sromis raindebis~ saxelwodebiT. am
organizaciaSi Sesvla ar SeeZloT `advokatebs, bankirebs, birJis
an spirtis spekuliantebs da pinkertonis deteqtivebs~.
saqarTveloSi, ise rogorc ruseTSi, profkavSirebi Camoyalibda
XX saukunis dasawyisSi. Tavidanve masSi Zlieri iyo socialdemokratiuli ideologiis gavlena. dasavleTisagan gansxvavebiT,
sadac profkavSirebi aRmocenda muSaTa partiebis Seqmnamde, ruseTis
imperiaSi, romlis SemadgenlobaSi saqarTveloc Sedioda,
profkavSirebis warmoSobas uswrebda social-demokratiuli
partiebis Seqmna. 1905 wlis oqtombris gaficvis Semdeg (noemberdekemberi) TbilisSi e.w. `gamocxadebis wesiT~ muSaTa da mosamsaxureTa mitingebsa da krebebze gamohqondaT dadgenilebebi profesiuli kavSirebis Seqmnaze, iqmneboda saorganizacio komisiebi,
207
irCevdnen kavSiris sabWoebs da sxva xelmZRvanel organoebs.
1905 wlis 6 noembers TbilisSi, xolo Semdeg quTaissa da baTumSi,
Seiqmna sruliad ruseTis fosta-telegrafisa da telefonis
muSakTa profkavSirebis saolqo biuroebi. mTavrobam gankarguleba
gasca am profkavSirebis akrZalvis Sesaxeb, ris gamoc 15 noembridan
kavSirma gaficva gamoacxada. TbilisSi ramdenjerme moewyo
gaficulTa mitingi. dekembris dasawyisSi igi SeuerTda sruliad
ruseTis sayovelTao politikur gaficvas, romelic SeiaraRebul
ajanyebaSi gadaizarda.
1907 wlis maisSi aralegalurad Catarda Tbilisis profkavSirebis konferencia. es profkavSiri 35 profesiul kavSirs iTvlida
da 10 aTas muSa-mosamsaxures aerTianebda. konferenciam gaiziara
profkavSirebis Sesaxeb social-demokratiuli koncefcia (gaficvebis
organizacia, 8-saaTiani samuSao dRis daweseba, xelfasis momateba,
weliwadSi erTTviani anazRaurebuli Svebulebis micema, avadmyofobis
dros 3 Tvis ganmavlobaSi sruli xelfasis gacema, presis sruli
Tavisufleba...). konferenciam airCia Tbilisis profkavSirTa
centraluri biuro, romelmac 24 ivnisidan daiwyo yovelkvireuli
gazeTis `axali qveyana~-s gamocema.
ruseTis 1905-1907 wlebis revolucis damarcxebam Seaviwrova
profkavSiruli moZraoba saqarTveloSi: daixura mravali kavSiri,
daapatimres da gadaasaxles profesiuli moZraobis beladebi da
aqtivistebi. es mdgomareoba 1912 wlis Semdeg Seicvala. 1917
wlis maisSi TbilisSi funqcionirebda 35 kavSiri, romlebic 10200
kacs aerTianebda. Tbilisis profkavSirebis centraluri sabWo
Tavidanve gaemijna bolSevikebs da qarTvel social-demokratebs
uWerda mxars. 1917 wlis 26-31 dekembers qarTvel socialdemokratTa xelmZRvanelobiT TbilisSi Catarda kavkasiis profkavSirebis I konferencia.
damoukidebel saqarTveloSi (1918-1921 w.w.) 1919 wlis 1116 aprils TbilisSi Catarda saqarTvelos profkavSirebis I
208
yriloba. am dros saqarTveloSi moqmedebda 87 profkavSiruli
organizacia (54701 wevriT). saqarTvelos gasabWoebis Semdeg
(1921 w.) Zveli profkavSirebis nacvlad Seiqmna axali kavSirebi,
romlebic mTlianad eqvemdebareboda komunisturi partiis direqtivebs. profkavSirebi saxelmwifo organizaciad gadaiqca da
faqtobrivad dRemde ver ganTavisuflebula sabWouri ideologiisagan.
yovel qveyanaSi, maT Soris saqarTveloSic, saarsebo minimumisa da minimaluri xelfasis Tanafardobis sakiTxi
metad aqtualuria. es imiTac aixsneba, rom TiToeul qveyanaSi
gansxvavebulia inflaciuri procesebi, rac met-naklebad zrdis
fulSi gamosaxuli saarsebo minimumis Rirebulebas. es ki moiTxovs
minimaluri xelfasis gadasinjvis aucileblobas.
Sromis bazris kidev erTi arsebiTi Taviseburebaa miwodebuli saqonlis _ samuSao Zalis fasis dacemis zRvris arseboba.
marTlac, Tu romelime sxva saqonelze moTxovna Semcirdeba, misi
mflobeli (gamyidveli) iZulebuli xdeba am saqonlis fasi manamde
Seamciros, sanam igi ar gaiyideba. am SemTxvevaSi mewarmem, mogebis
nacvlad, SeiZleba izaralos. aq fasis dacemis raime zRvari ar
arsebobs. sul sxva mdgomareobaa Sromis bazarze. aq samuSao
Zalis fasi (xelfasis ganakveTi) misi dacemis obieqturi zRvaria.
am fasma unda uzrunvelyos muSis da misi ojaxis Senaxva anu
samuSao Zalis kvlavwarmoeba .
fulad Semosavals, romelic uzrunvelyofs individisaTvis
fiziologiuri normebiT gansazRvruli sursaTis SeZenas, agreTve
tansacmliT, sacxovrebliT, transportis momsaxurebiT, sanitariisa
da higienis sagnebiT aucilebeli moTxovnilebis dakmayofilebas,
ewodeba saarsebo minimumi.
saarsebo minimumis gansazRvra qveynebis mixedviT gansxvavebulia.
es sxvadasxva mizeziT aixsneba. kerZod, siRaribis mijna sakmaod
SefardebiTi cnebaa. is, rac erT qveyanaSi siRaribed miiCneva,
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SeiZleba sxva qveynisaTvis sasurveli da misaRwevi done iyos.
magaliTad, aSS-Si 1938 wlidan, roca miiRes kanoni daqiravebis
samarTliani pirobebis Sesaxeb, arsebobs xelfasis federaluri
minimumi. es minimumi meryeobs industriaSi Camoyalibebuli saSualo
xelfasis 40-50%-is farglebSi. aSS-Si ki industriaSi saaTobrivi
anazRaureba 18 dolaria. es imas niSnavs, rom aSS-Si xelfasis
saaTobrivi anazRaurebis minimumi 7-9 dolaris farglebSi meryeobs,
anu amerikeli moqalaqis kvireuli anazRaureba ar SeiZleba iyos
280-360 dolarze naklebi.
damqiraveblebsa da profkavSirebs Soris gansxvavebuli Tvalsazrisi arsebobs imis Sesaxeb, Tu ra produqcia unda Seitanon
saarsebo minimumSi (e.w. `samomxmareblo kalaTaSi~) da ra SeiZleba
miviCnioT moxmarebis minimalur doned.
saarsebo minimumis gaangariSebisas moxmarebis naturaluri
normebi mravldeba maT mimdinare fasebze. es fasebi ki gansxvavebulia qveynis teritoriul WrilSi.
yvela qveyanaSi Sromis Tanamedrove bazarze xelfasis minimaluri ganakveTis gansazRvris safuZvelia saarsebo minimumi.
Sromis bazarze moTxovnasa da miwodebas Soris garigeba
daideba SromiTi kontraqtebisa da SeTanxmebis formebSi. SromiTi
kontraqti aris SeTanxmeba Sromis pirobebisa da Sinaarsis Sesaxeb . igi moicavs agreTve Sromis anazRaurebis sididesa
da Sromis bazris or monawiles Soris urTierTvaldebulebebs.
SromiTi kontraqti SeiZleba iyos rogorc individualuri, aseve
koleqtiuri, romelic SeiZleba vrceldebodes rogorc erT
sawarmoze, aseve mTlian sferoze. aseTi SeTanxmebis umaRlesi
formaa generaluri SeTanxmeba , romelSic monawileobs sami
mxare: saxelmwifo, mewarmeTa gaerTianeba da profkavSirebi.
samewarmeo mogeba, rogorc samewarmeo unaris
faqtoruli Semosavali. rogorc aRiniSna, adamians, romelic
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Tavis Tavze iRebs pasuxismgeblobas miwis, kapitalisa da Sromis
gamoyenebaze da wyvets rogor gankargos es resursebi, ewodeba
mewarme. swored mewarme iRebs warmoebis procesze pasuxismgeblobas, eweva risks. riski ki gardauvalia, ramdenadac mewarmeni
yiduloben da gamoiyeneben warmoebis faqtorebs, romelTa gamoyenebiT
miRebuli Sedegebis sruli ganWvreta faqtobrivad SeuZlebelia.
Sesabamisad, mewarmeebs mxolod mogebis miRebis varaudi ubiZgebT
ganaxorcielon warmoebis procesi. samewarmeo unari, romlis
safuZvelzec mewarmeni Tavis Tavze iReben pasuxismgeblobas,
aorganizeben da uZRvebian warmoebas, iTvleba warmoebis erT-erT
faqtorad.
sabazro meurneobaSi mogeba gasamrjeloa swored iseTi
specifikuri faqtorisa, rogorc samewarmeo unaria. misi specifikuroba isaa, rom miwis Tu kapitalisagan gansxvavebiT mas ver
Seexebi, aseve warmoebis sxva faqtoruli Semosavlebisagan gansxvavebiT, mogebas ver gansazRvravT, rogorc wonasworobis fass.
mogeba Cveulebriv ganisazRvreba, rogorc sxvaoba sawarmos mTlian
Semosavlebsa da srul danaxarjebs Soris.
samewarmeo unari, miwis, kapitalisa da Sromis msgavsad, iSviaTi
resursia da, Sesabamisad, mas aqvs Tavisi fasi. amitom warmoebis
xarjebSi unda Sevides rogorc renta miwaze, sargebeli kapitalze
da xelfasi Sromaze, aseve gadasaxdelebi mewarmeobisaTvis maT
mier warmoebis organizaciis, warmoebis yvela faqtoris SeerTebisaTvis. mewarmis mier Sesrulebuli funqciisaTvis am gadasaxdels
(Semosavals) ewodeba normaluri mogeba .
Sesabamisad, saqoneli iwarmoeba mxolod maSin, roca mTliani
Semosavali misi realizaciidan imdenad didia, rom SeiZleba
gadaxdil iqnas renta, sargebeli, xelfasi da normaluri mogeba.
Tuki saqonlis realizaciidan mTliani Semosavali aRemateba yvela
sawarmoo danaxarjs normaluri mogebis CaTvliT, es nameti
grovdeba mewarmesTan, romelmac Tavis Tavze aiRo riski da
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Seasrula sawarmos operaciaTa ZiriTadi organizatoris funqcia.
am namet Tanxas ewodeba wminda anu ekonomikuri mogeba .
swored aseTi mogebiTaa dainteresebuli mewarme, rogorc warmoebis
umniSvnelovanesi faqtori.
saxelmwifos mogeba, rogorc misi ekonomikuri
unaris faqtoruli Semosavali. sayovelTaod miRebuli
mosazrebis Tanaxmad, saxelmwifos saqmianoba bazris Sinagani
Semadgeneli nawili ki araa, aramed mas avsebs. sxva sityvebiT rom
vTqvaT, saxelmwifos `daniSnuleba~ im ekonomikuri amocanebis
gadawyvetaa, romelTa gadaWra bazars ar ZaluZs, ris gamoc
saxelmwifos ekonomikuri saqmianoba bazris iZulebiTi damatebis
rolSi gamodis.
Cveni mizani im dasabuTebis aRiarebaa, rom saxelmwifos
ekonomikuri saqmianoba bazris Sinagani imanenturi nawilis saxiTac
SeiZleba iqnas ganxiluli. sakiTxis aseTi dasmidan gamomdinare,
SeuZlebelia saxelmwifos ekonomikuri saqmianobis formebisa da
meTodebis problemis principulad gansxvavebuli gziT gadawyveta,
roca isini ekonomikis sxva agentebis saqmianobis formebisa da
meTodebisagan praqtikulad arafriT iqneba gansxvavebuli. es,
Tavis mxriv, sabazro sistemaSi saxelmwifos rolze sayovelTaod
miRebuli Sexedulebis nawilobriv gadasinjvas mainc moiTxovs.
sabazro sistemaSi saxelmwifos rolis gadasinjvis mizniT,
warmoebis faqtorebisa da faqtoruli Semosavlebis tradiciuli
sqemis axleburi gaazrebaa saWiro.
amJamad, arc erTi ekonomikuri skolis (marqsistebis gamoklebiT)
warmomadgeneli sadaod ar xdis im Teziss, rom saqonlisa da
momsaxurebis realizaciiT miRebuli Semosavali am Semosavlis
Semqmneli oTxi faqtoris (miwa, kapitali, Sroma, samewarmeo unari)
mixedviT nawildeba. amasTan, saqonlisa da momsaxurebis realizaciiT miRebuli Semosavali ise nawildeba, rom warmoebis yovel
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faqtors misi mflobelisaTvis Sesabamisi Semosavali (renta,
sargebeli, xelfasi, samewarmeo mogeba) moaqvs.
CamoTvlili faqtoruli Semosavlebis garda, saqonlisa da
momsaxurebis realizaciiT miRebuli Semosavali biznesze arapirdapir gadasaxadebsa da gadasaxdelebs (damatebuli Rirebulebis
gadasaxadi, aqcizi, qonebis gadasaxadi, salicenzio da sabaJo
gadasaxdelebi) Seicavs. es ukanasknelni literaturaSi saxelmwifos daumsaxurebel (gamoumuSavebel) Semosavlad iwodebian.
es ki, Tavis mxriv, warmoebis faqtorebis Teoriis mTlianobas
nawilobriv saeWvod xdis, romlis Tanaxmadac saqonlisa da momsaxurebis fasi faqtorul Semosavlebad iyofa. realurad ki, Semosavlis
iseTi saxe (biznesze arapirdapiri gadasaxadebi da gadasaxdelebi)
Cndeba, romelsac ekonomikuri dasabuTeba ar gaaCnia. am winaaRmdegobis dasaZlevad saWiroa pasuxi gaeces Semdeg kiTxvas:
warmoebis yvela faqtori da Sesabamisi Semosavlebi aris ki
srulad gaTvaliswinebuli?
am kiTxvaze pasuxi dadebiTi iqneboda, ekonomikur subieqtebs
Soris yvela urTierToba rom Tavisufali bazrisa da wminda
konkurenciisaTvis damaxasiaTebeli pirobebiT ganisazRvrebodes,
rac imavdroulad gulisxmobs ekonomikaSi saxelmwifos Carevis
saWiroebis ararsebobas, realurad ki saqme Semdegnairadaa:
 Tu mewarme saqonlis an momsaxurebis warmoebis erTian
procesSi miwis, kapitalisa da Sromis CarTvas axorcielebs, maSin
saxelmwifo Tavis Tavze erovnuli ekonomikis CarCoebSi mewarmeTa
am saqmianobis regulirebis iniciativas Rebulobs;
 Tu mewarme garkveuli saqonlis an momsaxurebis warmoebas
uZRveba, saxelmwifo erovnuli ekonomikis farglebSi ukeTebs
organizacias saqonlisa da momsaxurebis mTeli masis warmoebas;
 Tu mewarme ama Tu im gadawyvetilebas (magaliTad, riskis
Tavis Tavze aRebis, Tu siaxleebis gamoyenebis Sesaxeb) sakuTari
biznesis warmarTvis procesSi Rebulobs, saxelmwifo Tavis
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gadawyvetilebebs mTeli erovnuli ekonomikis ganviTarebis
magistraluri gzebis Sesaxeb (ekonomikuri politikis SemuSavebiT) Rebulobs.
Tanamedrove ekonomikisa da biznesis ganviTarebaSi bevri ram
imazea damokidebuli, Tu xelisuflebis saTaveSi rogori politikuri Zalebia moqceuli. magaliTad, XX saukunis 70-iani wlebis
bolos da 80-iani wlebis dasawyisSi aSS-sa da didi britaneTis
xelisuflebaSi konservatorebis mosvlam am qveynebSi ekonomikuri
aqtiurobis zrdas Seuwyo xeli, xolo yofil sabWoTa kavSirSi
komunistebis 70-wlianma batonobam sabazro urTierTobebi
iatakqveSeTSi arsebobisaTvis gawira da qveyana uRrmes krizisamde
miiyvana.
radgan saxelmwifos ekonomikuri unari warmoebis faqtoria,
man saxelmwifos garkveuli Semosavalic unda moutanos. swored
esaa is Semosavali, rasac amJamad biznesze arapirdapir gadasaxadebsa
da gadasaxdelebs uwodeben. saxelmwifos ekonomikuri unaris
warmoebis faqtorad aRiareba, Tavis mxriv, biznesze arapirdapir
gadasaxadebsa da gadasaxdelebs, samewarmeo mogebis analogiiT,
saxelmwifos mogebis statusis miRebis uflebas aniWebs.
faqtorul Semosavlad biznesze arapirdapiri gadasaxadebisa
da gadasaxdelebis miCnevis SemTxvevaSi SeiZleba sakiTxi imis
Sesaxeb wamoiWras, rom saxelmwifo Tavisi ekonomikuri unaris
sanacvlod pirdapir gadasaxadebsac iRebs. sinamdvileSi es
ukanaskneli sxva faqtoruli Semosavlebis SemadgenlobaSi Sedis
da maTgan, roca saxelmwifos xelSi gadadis, mxolod mas Semdgom
gamoiqviTeba. pirdapirisagan gansxvavebiT, arapirdapiri gadasaxadebi,
zemoT ganxiluli momsaxurebis sanacvlod, saxelmwifos
gankargulebaSi uSualod eqceva. biznesze arapirdapiri gadasaxadebi
da gadasaxdelebi, sxva faqtorul SemosavlebTan erTad, pirveladi
Semosavlebia, pirdapiri gadasaxadebi ki _ warmoebuli.
sagulisxmoa, rom saxelmwifos mogebis, anu biznesis arapir214
dapiri dabegvrisagan miRebuli Semosavlis odenoba Sesabamisi
sagadasaxado ganakveTebis doniT ganisazRvreba. es ganakveTebi
saxelmwifos mogebis zrdaze gavlenas imis mixedviT axdenen, Tu
legalur bizness ramdenad astimulireben an xels uSlian.
warmoebis `dominirebadi~ faqtorebis koncefcia
da faqtoruli Semosavlebis dominirebadoba. warmo-
ebis faqtorebis Teorias sakmaod didi xnis istoria aqvs da man
adam smiTisa da Jan batist seis droidan moyolebuli mniSvnelovani
cvlilebebi ganicada. warmoebis `dominirebadi~ faqtorebis
koncefcia misi erT-erTi Tanamedrove versiaa.
aRniSnuli koncefciis Tanaxmad, saqonlis yoveli konkretuli saxeobis warmoebaSi warmoebis yvela faqtori ki aris
gamoyenebuli, magram warmoebis Sedegianobis zrdis ganmsazRvreli
da, amdenad, `dominirebadi resursi~ mxolod erT-erTi maTgania.
koncefciis avtorebi (s.eiloni, b.goldi da i.sezani) faqtorebis
`dominirebidan~ gamomdinare, sami saxeobis warmoebas ganasxvaveben:
`kapitaldominirebads~, `masaladominirebadsa~ da `Sromadominirebads~.
aseTi midgomis Tanaxmad, warmoebis iseTi procesebia `kapitaldominirebadi~ (mas sxvanairad `manqanadominirebadsac~ uwodeben),
romlebsac muSebi mxolod akontroleben da amiT manqanebisa da
sxva ZiriTadi mowyobilobis funqcionirebas, teqnologiuri
procesis dadgenil ritms uzrunvelyofen.
`masaladominirebads~ warmoebis iseTi procesebi miekuTvneba,
romlebSic warmoebrivi SesaZleblobebi nedleulsa da masalebze,
miwaze da sxva bunebriv resursebzea damokidebuli, xolo Sroma,
nagebobebi, manqanebi da mowyobiloba arsebuli warmoebrivi potencialis realizacias mxolod da mxolod xels uwyobs.
`Sromadominirebadi~ warmoebis is procesebia, romlebSic xeliT
Sromasa da muSebis kvalifikacias pirvelxarisxovani mniSvneloba
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eniWeba, ris gamoc Carxebi, mowyobiloba da ZiriTadi kapitalis
nebismieri sxva elementi muSebisaTvis damxmare funqcias asrulebs.
ganxiluli koncefciis avtorebi `kapitaldominirebadi~
saxeobis warmoebas, magaliTad, eleqtrosadgurebs, cementis qarxnebsa
da brZmedebs, `masaladominirebads~ _ soflis meurneobasa da
TevzWeras, xolo `Sromadominirebads~ ki _ aguris wyobas, SekveTiT
kervas da xuros samuSaos miakuTvneben.
iseTi warmoebis magaliTebis moyvanis dros, romlebSic esa
Tu is faqtori `dominirebs~, avtorebi angariSs imas uweven, rom
arsebuli sinamdvilis didi mravalferovnebis gamo warmoebis ama
Tu im faqtoris aSkarad gamoxatuli `dominirebis~ mqone ukiduresi
variantebi Tanamedrove warmoebrivi procesebis SezRudul wres
Seadgens. magram ukanasknelTa amgvar klasifikacias gamoyenebiTi
analizis miznebisaTvis didi mniSvneloba mainc aqvs.
cxadia, sanimuSod iseTi SemTxvevis ganxilvac SeiZleba,
romelSic faqtorebis `dominirebadoba~ warmoebrivi procesis
msvlelobaSi icvleba; kerZod, aseTi SemTxvevis magaliTi aviasatransporto gadazidvebia, roca afrenisa da dafrenis dros warmoebis
procesi `Sromadominirebadia~, simaRlis aRebis Semdeg (avtopilotis
gamoyenebis dros) ki igi ukve `kapitaldominirebadi~ xdeba.
warmoebis `dominirebadi~ faqtorebis koncefciis am mokle
daxasiaTebis Semdeg SesaZlebelia warmoebis sxva faqtorebis _
samewarmeo unarisa da saxelmwifos ekonomikuri unaris _
gaTvaliswinebiT zogierTi ganzogadebis gakeTeba.
warmoebis `mewarmedominirebad~ procesebs iseTebi unda mivakuTvnoT, romlebSic pirvelxarisxovani mniSvneloba im inovaciebs
aqvT, romelTa ganxorcielebac, rogorc wesi, mewarmis iniciativasTanaa dakavSirebuli da warmoebis sxva faqtorebi mewarmis inovaciuri saqmianobis mimarT damxmare funqcias asruleben. konkretuli
garemo xels uwyobs mocemuli konkretuli saxeobis inovaciebis
gavrcelebas, ris Sedegadac maTi siaxle nivelirdeba da sxva
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mniSvnelovani inovaciebis uqonlobis SemTxvevaSi Sesabamisi procesi
`mewarmedominirebadobas~ kargavs da samewarmeo unaris `dominirebuli~ mdgomareoba warmoebis romelime sxva faqtoris `dominirebuli~ mdgomareobiT icvleba.
warmoebis sxva faqtorebis analogiiT SesaZlebelia warmoebis
iseTi procesebis gamoyofa, romlebSic saxelmwifos ekonomikuri
unari iqneba `dominirebuli~. `saxelmwifodominirebadi~ warmoebis
is procesia, romelSic ganmsazRvreli mniSvneloba saxelmwifos
ekonomikur unars aqvs, xolo warmoebis yvela danarCeni faqtori
masze daqvemdebarebul funqcias asrulebs. warmoebis `saxelmwifodominirebadi~ procesebis ricxvs, bunebrivia, sazogadoebrivi da
kvazisazogadoebrivi dovlaTis warmoeba miekuTvneba.
sagulisxmoa, rom komunisturi tipis ekonomikaSi warmoebis
faqtorebs Soris samewarmeo unari mxolod `iatakqveSeTSi~
arsebobda. is legalurad saxelmwifos ekonomikuri unariT iyo
Canacvlebuli, ris gamoc mewarmeTa nacvlad saqmosanTa kasta
Camoyalibda. postkomunisturi ti pis ekonomikisaTvis ki saxelmwifos ekonomikuri unaris mizanmimarTuli SezRudvis pirobebSi
samewarmeo unaris yovelmxrivi ganviTarebis xelSewyobaa damaxasiaTebeli.
warmoebis romelime procesSi ama Tu im faqtoris `dominirebadoba~ am faqtoris mier motanili Semosavlis warmoebis sxva
faqtorebis meSveobiT miRebul SemosavalTan SedarebiT `dominirebadobas~ gansazRvravs. kerZod, `kapitaldominirebad~ warmoebaSi
`dominirebuli~ Semosavali _ sargebeli, `masaladominirebad~
warmoebaSi _ renta, `Sromadominirebad~ warmoebaSi _ xelfasi,
`mewarmedominirebad~ warmoebaSi _ samewarmeo mogeba, xolo
`saxelmwifodominirebad~ warmoebaSi _ saxelmwifos mogeba unda
iyos.
217
?
1.
testebi SeZenili codnis
SemowmebisaTvis
sazogadoebrivi warmoeba, farTo gagebiT, es aris:
a. konkretuli dovlaTis Seqmnis procesi;
b. bunebis nivTierebis gardaqmna da miTviseba adamianis
mier;
g. sakuTriv warmoebis, ganawilebis, gacvlisa da moxmarebis
erTianoba;
d. SromiTi saqmianobis gacvla sawarmos SigniT.
2. zRvruli produqtis Teoriis avtoria:
a. goldi;
b. klarki;
g. Sumpeteri;
d. eiloni.
3. Semosavlebis ganawilebaSi arsebuli uTanabrobis
xarisxis dasaxasiaTeblad iyeneben:
a. laferis mruds;
b. fili psis mruds;
g. lorencis mruds;
d. engelsis mruds.
4. rentas, rogorc faqtorul Semosavals, Rebulobs:
a. samuSao Zalis mflobeli;
b. miwis mflobeli;
g. kapitalis mflobeli;
d. mewarme.
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5. bankis saprocento ganakveTis mocemuli sididis
pirobebSi miwis nakveTi miT ufro Zviria, rac ufro:
a. patara zomisaa;
b. didi zomisaa;
g. meti renta moaqvs;
d. meti subieqtis gankargulebaSia.
6. sargebeli, rogorc faqtoruli Semosavali, ekuTvnis:
s. mewarmes;
b. saxelmwifos;
g. kapitalis mflobels;
d. miwis mflobels.
7. konkurenciuli bazris pirobebSi sasesxo sargeblis
sabazro ganakveTze zemoqmedebas axdenen:
a. kapitalis calkeuli gamsesxeblebi;
b. kapitalis calkeuli msesxeblebi;
g. kapitalis calkeuli gamsesxeblebi da msesxeblebi;
d. sasesxo kapitalze procentis norma.
8. saqonlisa da momsaxurebis realizaciiT miRebuli
Semosavali nawildeba am Semosavlis Semqmneli:
a. ori faqtoris mixedviT;
b. sami faqtoris mixedviT;
g. oTxi faqtoris mixedviT;
d. xuTi faqtoris mixedviT.
9. `masaladominirebadi~ warmoebis iseTi procesebia,
romlebSic pirvelxarisxovani mniSvneloba eniWeba:
a. xeliT Sromasa da muSakTa kvalifikacias;
b. manqanebisa da sxva ZiriTadi mowyobilobebis
219
funqcionirebas;
g. nedleuls, miwasa da sxva bunebriv resursebs;
d. mewarmis inovaciur saqmianobas.
10. `kapitaldominirebad~ warmoebaSi dominirebuli
Semosavalia:
a. renta;
b. sargebeli;
g. mogeba;
d. biznesze arapirdapiri gadasaxadebi da gadasaxdelebi.
5
Tema
biznesis
(sa me wa rm eo s aq mi an ob is )
e kon omi kur i sa fuZ v l eb i
`droeba biznesis humanizaciis mimarTulebiT icvleba. patiosani da urTierTsasargeblo garigeba _ Tanamedrove mewarmeobis mniSvnelovani funqciaa. sxva elementebTan SeerTebiT igi
warmoadgens mewarmeobis filosofiis
mniSvnelovan praqtikul gamoyenebas,
romlis arsi sazogadoebis samsaxuria.~
j.peki
wina or TemaSi ganxiluli sabazro urTierTobebi da biznesi
ganuyreladaa dakavSirebuli erTmaneTTan. sabazro kavSirebi
istoriulad win uswrebda biznesmenTa samewarmeo saqmianobis
ganviTarebas, romelmac Tvisobrivad Secvala es urTierTobebi.
amitom sabazro kavSirebis codna saSualebas gvaZlevs CavwvdeT
biznesis (samewarmeo saqmianobis) ekonomikur safuZvlebs.
220
221
leqcia 13. biznesi da samewarmeo
saqmianoba
`biznesi sabazro ekonomikis sulia.~
b. Carlzi
`biznesi _ es aris momxmareblis
Seqmna.~
h.drukeri
`biznesi _ es aris TamaSi, udidesi TamaSi msoflioSi, _ Tu iciT, rogor iTamaSoT.~
T.uotsoni
`mewarmeoba sazogadoebrivi ganviTarebis sakvanZo fenomenia... mewarme
_ ekonomikis mTavari Zravaa.~
i.Sumpeteri
biznesis (samewarmeo saqmianobis) arsi da ganmsazRvreli niSnebi. biznesi ewodeba kanonieri gziT mogebis
miRebis mizniT warmarTul samewarmeo saqmianobas . biznesmeni
inglisuri warmoSobis sityvaa da pirdapiri gagebiT `saqmian
adamians~ niSnavs. sabazro urTierTobaTa sistemaSi biznesisa da
samewarmeo saqmianobis Sinaarsobrivi datvirTva arsebiTad
erTnairia. biznesze msjelobisas samewarmeo saqmianoba igulisxmeba
da, piriqiT, samewarmeo saqmianobaze msjelobisas _ biznesi. Tumca,
movlenebis Rrmad gaanalizebisas SeiZleba gamoikveTos maT Soris
gansxvaveba garkveul niuansebSi. magaliTad, aris iseTi samewarmeo
222
saqmianoba, romelic ar isaxavs miznad mogebis miRebas da,
tradiciuli gagebiT, ar ganekuTvneba bizness.
naTqvamis dasadastureblad aucilebelia samewarmeo saqmianobis
arsis ganxilva. `mewarmeTa Sesaxeb~ saqarTvelos kanonis Tanaxmad:
`samewarmeo saqmianobad miiCneva marTlzomieri da araerTjeradi saqmianoba, romelic xorcieldeba mogebis mizniT,
damoukideblad da organizebulad.~
ganmartebidan gamomdinare, unda ganvixiloT samewarmeo
saqmianobis ganmsazRvreli Semdegi ZiriTadi niSnebi:
 marTlzomiereba. aRniSnul niSanSi igulisxmeba, rom
samewarmeo saqmianoba ar unda ewinaaRmdegebodes samarTlis moqmed
normebs, zneobis sayovelTaod aRiarebul princi pebs da sajaro
wesrigs;
 araerTjeradoba . samewarmeo saqmianoba unda xorcieldebodes sistematurad da profesionalurad. mravaljeradobas
gansazRvravs ara mxolod moqmedebaTa raodenoba, aramed agreTve
am moqmedebaTa umTavresi mizani _ mogebis miReba;
 organizebuloba, rac imas niSnavs, rom mewarme unda
`moergos~ kanoniT gaTvaliswinebul erT-erT organizaciulsamarTlebriv formas, hqondes kanonmdeblobiT dadgenili marTvis
organoebi da, rac mTavaria, iyos registrirebuli samewarmeo
reestrSi;
 damoukidebloba. samewarmeo saqmianoba, rogorc damoukidebeli saqmianoba, sxva araferia, Tu ara kanonier, mewarmeTa
nebaze damyarebul moqmedebaTa erToblioba. masSi igulisxmeba
samarTlebrivi damoukidebloba, romelic, Tavis mxriv, moicavs
qonebriv damoukideblobas (rac gancalkevebuli qonebis arsebobas
niSnavs) da organizaciul damoukideblobas (rac mewarmis mier
organizaciul-samarTlebrivi formisa da saqmianobis saxis
Tavisuflad arCevas gulisxmobs);
 swrafva mogebis miRebis miznisaken . sabazro ekonomikis
223
224
nax. 5.1. samewarmeo saqmianobis ganmsazRvreli
ZiriTadi niSnebis savaraudo sqema
airCios erT-erTi
org a n iza c i u lsamarTlebrivi forma
org a n i za c i u li
iqonios kanoniT
g a n s a zR v ru li
marTvis organoebi
gaiaros registracia
organizebuloba
qonebrivi
d am ou k id e bloba
araerTjeradoba
mogebis miReba
marTlzomie reba
samewarmeo saqmianobis niSnebi
pirobebSi samewarmeo saqmianobis mizans warmoadgens ara imdenad
saqonlis (momsaxurebis) realuri warmoeba, ramdenadac am
saqmianobiT mogebis miReba. magram mogebis miReba mewarmis saboloo
mizani ar aris. misi saqmianobis mTavari misiaa ama Tu im geografiuli
sazRvrebis mqone bazarze sazogadoebriv moTxovnilebaTa dakmayofileba. mxolod moTxovnilebaTa dakmayofilebiT SeiZleba marTlzomieri mogebis miReba. swored amaSi mdgomareobs samewarmeo
saqmianobis Tavisebureba. SeiZleba iTqvas, rom samewarmeo saqmianobis
warmateba igivea, rac bazarze konkurenciaSi warmateba.
qvemoT motanil 5.1 naxazze sqematuradaa asaxuli samewarmeo saqmianobis ganmsazRvreli ZiriTadi niSnebi.
moqmedi kanonmdeblobiT legalizebulia samewarmeo saqmianobis
mizani _ sazogadoebriv moTxovnilebaTa dakmayofileba da mis
safuZvelze mogebis sistematiuri da profesionaluri miReba.
amis gaTvaliswinebiT, ekonomikis nebismier sferoSi warmoebuli
marTlzomieri saqmianoba, mimarTuli mogebis miRebisaken,
aris samewarmeo saqmianoba .
zogadad, samewarmeo saqmianoba sameurneo saqmianobis nairsaxeobaa. cneba _ `sameurneo saqmianoba~ _ praqtikaSi gacilebiT
ufro farTo mniSvnelobiT ixmareba, vidre samewarmeo saqmianoba.
sameurneo saqmianoba mimarTulia produqciis warmoebis, samuSaos
Sesrulebis an momsaxurebis gawevisaken. mocemuli definiciidan
Cans, rom Tanamedrove pirobebSi igi sul ufro metad uaxlovdeba
samewarmeo saqmianobis formulirebas, magram srulad ar axasiaTebs
samewarmeo saqmianobis Cvens mier zemoT dasaxelebuli niSnebi.
sameurneo saqmianoba SeiZleba iyos socialur-kulturuli,
sazogadoebrivi, religiuri da sxva saxis arasamewarmeo xasiaTis
saqmianoba, romelsac aqvs damxmare xasiaTi da emsaxureba Sesabamisi
organizaciebis sawesdebo miznebis miRwevas.
`mewarmeTa Sesaxeb~ saqarTvelos kanonis Tanaxmad: `samewarmeo
saqmianobad ar CaiTvleba fizikuri pirebis saxelovnebo, samecniero,
225
samedicino, arqiteqturuli, saadvokato an sanotaro, saaudito,
sakonsultacio (maT Soris, sagadasaxado konsultantTa), sasoflosameurneo an satyeo-sameurneo saqmianoba~. yuradsaRebia, rom Tu
zemoT aRniSnuli saqmianoba ganxorcieldeba iuridiuli piris
mier, maSin igi ganixileba samewarmeo saqmianobad. rac Seexeba
sasoflo-sameurneo an satyeo-sameurneo saqmianobas, maTi registracia savaldebuloa, Tu warmoebaSi mudmivad dasaqmebulia ojaxis
arawevri xuTi piri mainc. sagulisxmoa, rom saqarTvelos
sagadasaxado kodeqsis Tanaxmad, zemoT aRniSnuli saqmianoba
ganixileba, rogorc arasamewarmeo ekonomikuri saqmianoba.
mewarmeobis saxeebi. samewarmeo saqmianobis Sinaarsis
mixedviT ganasxvaveben mewarmeobis Semdeg saxeebs: sawarmoo,
komerciuli, safinanso-sakredito, sadazRvevo da saSuamavlo.
sawarmoo mewarmeobis safuZvelia nebismieri mimarTulebis
sawarmoo saqmianoba. igi yvelaze sapasuxismgeblo da rTuli
biznesia. mas ise swrafad ar moaqvs mogeba, rogorc biznesis sxva
saxeebs. amitomac biznesmenebi samewarmeo saqmianobis am saxes
naklebad etanebian. mas miekuTvneba samewarmeo saqmianoba mrewvelobaSi, soflis meurneobaSi, mSeneblobaSi, transportze, sayofacxovrebo momsaxurebaSi da sxv.
komerciul mewarmeobaSi biznesmeni, rogorc komersanti,
gamodis Suamavlis rolSi mwarmoebelsa da momxmarebels Soris;
igi mWidrod ukavSirdeba mwarmoebels, iZens misgan saqonels da
yidis momxmarebelze. komerciuli mewarmeoba ufro martivia, vidre
sawarmoo mewarmeoba. masze moqmedi faqtorebi SezRudulia, amitom
riski naklebia, xolo Semosavali _ ufro stabiluri. amis gamo
mravali mewarme cdilobs Caebas, upiratesad, komerciul
saqmianobaSi.
safinanso-sakredito mewarmeoba _ es aris biznesis gansakuTrebuli saxe, romelSic yidva-gayidvis sagania fuli, sazRvar226
gareTis valuta da fasiani qaRaldebi. mewarmis mogeba iqmneba
safinanso-sakredito resursebis ufro met fasSi gayidviT, vidre
man igi SeiZina.
sadazRvevo mewarmeobis arsi mdgomareobs imaSi, rom mewarme
aZlevs damzRvevs garantias _ misi qonebis, faseulobis da sacxovreblis gauTvaliswinebeli zaralis SemTxvevaSi gasces garkveuli
kompensacia. ufro metad gavrcelebulia sadazRvevo mewarmeobis
iseTi formebi, rogoricaa qonebis dazRveva, sicocxlisa da janmrTelobis dazRveva, riskisa da pasuxismgeblobis dazRveva. socialur dazRvevas ara aqvs pirdapiri kavSiri biznesTan. biznesi
dakavSirebulia mxolod nebayoflobiT dazRvevasTan, romlis
bazarze iyideba momsaxureba _ sadazRvevo dacva. aseTi samewarmeo
saqmianoba SeiZleba mivakuTvnoT safinanso-sakredito mewarmeobis
saxesxvaobas imdenad, ramdenadac mewarme Rebulobs sadazRvevo
sawevros da ubrunebs mas mxolod gansakuTrebul SemTxvevaSi _
sadazRvevo SemTxvevis dadgomisas. sxvaoba sadazRvevo Senatanebsa
da mewarmis mier sadazRvevo SemTxvevaSi gacemul Tanxas Soris
Seadgens mewarmis Semosavals.
saSuamavlo mewarmeoba mWidrod ukaSirdeba samewarmeo
saqmianobis iseT saxeebs, rogoricaa sawarmoo, komerciuli, safinansosakredito da sadazRvevo mewarmeoba. gansxvaveba isaa, rom Suamavali
ar awarmoebs da ar vaWrobs saqonliT, fasiani qaRaldebiT, ar
iZleva fulad kredits da sadazRvevo poliss. igi mxolod eweva
saSuamavlo momsaxurebas saqonlis (momsaxurebis) mwarmoebelsa
da myidvelebs Soris. Suamavali biznesmeni Rebulobs Tavisi
mogebis wils imisaTvis, rom man moZebna da daakavSira erTmaneTTan
saWiro adamianebi, Tumca misi roli meorexarisxovania. Suamavlis
riski sakmaod didia, ramdenadac Sexvda ra myidveli da gamyidveli
erTmaneTs, maTTvis ukve saWiro aRaraa Suamavali. nebismier momentSi
maT SeuZliaT uari Tqvan SuamavlisaTvis informaciis anazRaurebaze,
Tu igi dafiqsirebuli araa Sesabamisi xelSekrulebiT an kon227
traqtiT.
samewarmeo saqmianobis yvela zemoT CamoTvlili saxeebi mWidro
kavSirSia erTmaneTTan. sawarmoo mewarmeobas agrZelebs komerciuli
mewarmeoba. Tavisi saqmianobisaTvis orive saWiroebs safinansosakredito mewarmeobas. zogjer erTmaneTSi erTdroulad Serwymulia mwarmoebeli, komersanti da finansisti (bankiri). sadazRvevo
mewarmeoba ki SeiZleba mivakuTvnoT warmoebasa da momsaxurebas.
samewarmeo saqmianobis aRniSnuli saxeebis SerwymiT warmoiSoba
biznesis kombinirebuli saxeebi.
samewarmeo saqmianobas warmarTavs mewarme* _ individi, romelic
mogebis miRebis mizniT uZRveba saqmes.
mewarmisaTvis damaxasiaTebeli ZiriTadi Tvisebebi. cxovrebiseuli gamocdileba cxadyofs, rom Rirseuli
biznesmeni (mewarme) yvela msurveli ver gaxdeba. bevri sxva
saqmianobis analogiurad, esec erTgvari xelovnebaa da vinc uxvadaa
dajildovebuli saamiso TvisebebiT, warmatebac mas eqneba. imisaTvis,
raTa maRal doneze ganaxorcielos dasaxuli miznebi, mewarme
(biznesmeni) unda iyos:
 iniciativiani, fxiani, komerciul niuansebSi safuZvlianad garkveuli. bazarze myarad imkvidrebs adgils is
mewarme, romlis produqcia maRalxarisxovani, moduri, esTetikurad mimzidveli da iafia. Seunelebeli zrunva nawarmis momxmarebelTa gazrdili moTxovnebis gaTvaliswinebiT miwodebisaTvis
* klasikuri gagebiT, `mewarme~ erTdroulad moicavs rogorc sawarmos
mesakuTris, ise misi administratoris, mmarTvelis cnebas. Tumca, warmoebis
ganviTareba-garTulebis Sedegad es ori funqcia gaiyo da Camoyalibda e.w.
menejerTa anu mmarTvelTa fsiqologiurad gansxvavebuli fena.
228
mewarmis is arsebiTi Tvisebaa, romelic mas sxva Cveulebrivi
meurnisagan ganasxvavebs;
 gabeduli, zomierad riskiani . biznesi (mewarmeoba)
Tavisi bunebiT azartul TamaSs waagavs, sadac mosalodnelia ara
marto mogeba, aramed wagebac. amitom biznesSi, Cveulebriv, warmatebas
aRwevs is mewarme, romelic winaswar gaazrebulad SearCevs
saqmianobas da ise gaakeTebs mis organizacias, rom riskis done
ar aRematebodes gonivrulobis zRvars;
 mtkice nebisyofiani, dasaxuli miznis SesrulebisaTvis Seupovari mebrZoli . Cveulebriv, maRal warmatebebs
aRwevs is mewarme, romelsac xasiaTsa da gunebas ki ar gaufuWebs
funqcionirebis gzaze Sexvedrili pirvelive siZneleebi da dabrkolebebi, aramed ganawyobs mas iqiTken, rom maqsimaluri mobilizacia gaukeTos Tavis SesaZleblobebs da swrafad (magram
auCqareblad) moiZios optimaluri gzebi da SesaZleblobani maT
dasaZlevad. mewarme unda iyos bunebiT optimisti, organizebulad
winmswrafi, Tavisi samewarmeo saqmianobis sasurvel saboloo
SedegebSi imTaviTve darwmunebuli da TviTdajerebuli;
 gulwrfeli, patiosani da sando partniori . es
iseTi Tvisebebia, romelTa gareSe ar arsebobs normaluri biznesi.
ganviTarebuli sabazro ekonomikis qveynebSi mewarmeebi xelmZRvaneloben ara marto dawerili, aramed dauwereli kanonebiTac,
romelTac `TamaSis wesebs~ uwodeben. maT mSvenivrad ician, rom
am wesebis darRvevas, gardauvlad mosdevs TamaSidan gaZeveba.
klientebTan da partniorebTan saxelis gatexas, rogorc ityvian,
Tavis gatexa sjobia. magaliTad, mewarmis mier sxva firmis saqonluri niSnis miTviseba, gadasaxadisagan Tavis arideba, Semosavlis
gadamalva, xelSekrulebiT nakisri valdebulebis Seusrulebloba,
klientis motyueba da a.S. iTvleba erT-erT yvelaze did zneobriv
da moqalaqeobriv codva-danaSaulad da isjeba rogorc biznesis
samyaroSi prestiJis dakargviT, ise sisxlis samarTlis wesiT.
229
erTguli, saimedo da piriani kacis saxeli mewarmisaTvis yvelaze
saukeTeso savizito baraTia. mewarmis sityva gacilebiT Zvirad
fasobs, vidre nebismieri xelmowera, beWedi Tu Tamasuqi;
 dauzareli, Sromismoyvare. uSromelad, cxadia, arasdros
arc erTi saqme ar gakeTebula, magram mewarmeoba mainc iseTi
saqmianobaa, romelic warmoudgenelia titanuri Sromis gareSe.
profesiuli specifikidan gamomdinare, mewarme unda iyos dauRalavi,
sistematurad moZravi. sxvanairad misi biznes-saqmianoba normalurad
ver warimarTeba;
 adamianebTan urTierTobaSi zomieri, Tavaziani da
megobruli. biznesis warmatebaSi am Tvisebebs, SeiZleba iTqvas,
lomis wili udevs. igulisxmeba mewarmis urTierToba mimwodeblebTan, klientebTan, partniorebTan, bankirebTan, saqmianobis mravali
sxva sferos warmomadgenlebTan. aRniSnuli Tvisebebis floba
biznesis yvela warmomadgenels moeTxoveba, magram gansakuTrebiT
aucilebelia sawarmos xelZRvanelTaTvis, saerTod, SromiTi
koleqtivis saqmianobis organizebulad warmarTvisaTvis. vinc
dajildoebulia organizatoruli niWiT da amave dros dinji,
taqtiani da adamianebTan urTierTobis xelovnebas dauflebulia,
swored mas ZaluZs lideris rolis warmatebiT Sesruleba;
 qvelmoqmedi, gulmowyale . ganviTarebuli sabazro
ekonomikis qveynebSi mdidari biznesmeni, rogorc wesi, Tavmdabali,
Rimiliani da qvelmoqmedia. amas is akeTebs ara iZulebiT, aramed
nebayoflobiT, Tavisi Sinagani bunebidan gamomdinare. mokled rom
vTqvaT, qvelmoqmedeba damokidebulia mewarmis ara marto
materialur SesaZleblobaze, aramed sulier simdidrezec. amis
naTeli magaliTia Cveni saxelovani Tanamemamulis d.sarajiSvilis
mier qarTuli erovnuli universitetis mSeneblobaSi Setanili
wvlili da didZali saxsrebis daxarjva niWieri qarTveli
axalgazrdebis dasavleT evropis mecnierebisa da kulturis
centrebSi codnis miRebis mizniT misavlineblad.
230
upovarTa da gaWirvebulTa mimarT gulmowyaleba srulebiT
ar niSnavs imas, rom mewarme Tavis qonebas haiharad flangavdes.
ai, ras wers amis Taobaze amerikeli miliardeli menejeri l.
iakoka: `dagrovili fulidan TveSi milioni dolaric rom davxarjo,
mTeli cxovreba meyofa, magram, axlac ver vitan mflangvelobas.
SevZeli, aseTi cxovrebis wesi Semeswavlebina Cemi qaliSvilebisaTvisac, romlebic, vatyob, fuls aqeT-iqiT ar fantaven da saWiro
nivTebs Camofasebuli saqonlis maRaziebSic yiduloben~;
 saidumloebis Semnaxveli . firmis saidumloeba SeiZleba
dakavSirebuli iyos mecnierul-teqnikur progresTan, teqnologiur
procesebTan, marTvasTan, finansebTan, saqonlis realizaciasTan da
a.S. imisaTvis, rom Tavi daicvas konkurentebisagan, mewarme
ufrTxildeba agreTve ama Tu im saxeobis produqciis damzadebis
originaluri teqnologiisa da qimiuri Semadgenlobis saidumloebas.
amis sailustraciod sakmarisia Tundac mitrofane laRiZis _ am
cnobili qarTveli mewarmis _ teqnologiiT damzadebuli sayovelTaod aRiarebuli `laRiZis wylebis~ dRemde Semonaxuli saidumloebis gaxseneba;
 mgrZnobiare da alRoiani . namdvili biznesmeni unda
iyos araordinaruli, originaluri pirovneba. igi Tavis irgvliv
myofebisagan gansxvavebulad unda iqceodes. roca bernard baruks
hkiTxes, rogor miaRwie esoden didZal simdidresa da warmatebaso,
man ase upasuxa: `es Zalian iolia. iyideT maSin, roca irgvliv
yvela yidis da gayideT, roca yvelani mxolod yiduloben~.
gaxsovdeT: namdvili mewarme cdilobs mivides iq, saidanac
sxvebi gamorbian; Sromobs, roca sxvebs sZinavT; mgzavrobs, roca
sxvebi sadilad sxedan; gegmavs, roca sxvebi erTobian. igi TiTqmis
ar ganasxvavebs erTmaneTisagan samuSao da gamosasvlel dReebs
Tu Tqven gadawyvetili gaqvT momavalSi biznesis sferoSi
moRvaweoba, magram ar iciT, ramdenad pasuxobT mis moTxovnebs,
mizanSewonilia gaiaroT testireba. misi Sinaarsi daaxloebiT
aseTnairad SeiZleba warmovidginoT (ix. nax. 5.2).
231
qu le bi
Tv is ebebi
iniciativianoba
gabeduleba da
riskianoba
Seupovroba
5
gamorCeulad
iniciativiani,
mudam
siaxlisaken
mswrafi
zusti, swrafi
da gaazrebulad riskiani
4
3
zomierad
iniciativiani
naklebad
iniciativiani
uiniciativo
gabeduli,
magram
frTxili
naklebad
riskiani,
gaubedavi
metismetad
frTxili,
mSiSara
saSualod
Seupovari
mxdali,
araTviTdajerebuli
maqsimalurad
Seupovari,
zomierad
mtkiced
Seupovari
TviTdajerebuli
organizatoruli eqstraklasis
unari
organizatori
2
unariani
organizatori
damakmayofile- susti
beli
organizatori
organizatori
gamorCeuli
lideri
kompetenturi
lideri
saSualo
arafriT ar
donis lideri gamoirCeva
kolegebisagan
gansakuTrebuli TviTpasuxismgeblobis
mqone
davalebaTa
normaluri
Semsrulebeli
yovelTvis ver
iCens jerovan
pasuxismgeblobas
xSirad
gaurbis
davalebaTa
Sesrulebas
gulwrfeloba da sayoelTaod
patiosneba
aRiarebuli
saimedo
partniori
`TamaSis
wesebisadmi~
erTguli
ZiriTadad
uRalato
partniori
sruli ndoba
sariskoa
Sromisunarianoba
da
Sromismoyvareoba
zedmiwevniT
Sromismoyvare,
uSreti
energiis
patroni
dauzareli,
saqmis
gulisxmierad
mkeTebeli
dakisrebuli
movaleobis
Semsrulebeli
dabali
Sromisunariani
kolegialoba
Sinagani
bunebiT
kolegialuri
TanamosaqmeebTan adamianebTan
Tavaziani da
urTierTobaSi
erTguli
metwilad
zomieri
Znelad egueba
koleqtivs
qvelmoqmedeba
da
gulmowyaleba
sayovelTaod
cnobili
qvelmoqmedi
zomieri
qvelmoqmedi
da
gulmowyale
cdilobs
Tavidan
aicilos
qvelmoqmedeba
lideroba
pasuxismgebloba
ar gaurbis
qvelmoqmedebas
nax. 5.2. mewarmeobrivi Tvisebebis gansazRvris testi
232
testirebis Sedegad qulebis maqsimaluri odenoba SeiZleba
iyos 50, minimaluri _ 20. realurad, albaT, erTic gamoricxulia
da meorec, ramdenadac iSviaTi iqneba ara marto iseTi adamiani,
romelic testSi aRniSnul yvela Tvisebas maqsimalurad flobs,
aramed iseTic, romelic yvela maTganisadmi mwyralad gamoiyureba.
am momentebis gaTvaliswinebiT, pirobiT, qulebis gansazRvrul
odenobas SeiZleba Semdegnairi Sefaseba mivceT: saukeTeso(50-46),
kargi(45_36), saSualo(35-26), cudi(25 da naklebi). testirebis
safuZvelze, vTqvaT, aRmogaCndaT ramdenime susti Tviseba da miiReT
dabali Sefaseba, magram mainc ar gsurT Tqveni gadawyvetilebis
Secvla. am SemTxvevaSi arsebobs orgvari gamosavali: jer-erTi,
intensiurad izrunoT am susti mxareebis dasaZlevad, da meore,
SemoikriboT iseTi partniorebi romlebic Seavseben Tqvens
naklovanebebs.
warmatebuli mewarmeebi amerikuli sinamdvilidan. biznesmeni (mewarme) SemoqmedebiTi da individualuri
bunebis, kritikulad moazrovne piria, romelic ideebs saqonlad
da momsaxurebad gardaqmnis. qvemoT motanilia zogierTi mewarmis
ramdenime magaliTi da maTi damaxasiaTebeli Tvisebebi amerikuli
sinamdvilidan. zogierTi mewarme :
saqmianobas adreul asakSi iwyebs . skolaSi swavlis
periodSi bad hedfilds Tavis sardafSi stamba hqonda mowyobili,
romelsac `saojaxo axali ambebi~ uwoda, igi kardakar yidda
sareklamo prospeqtebs, savizito baraTebs da sxv. saxis nabeWd
produqcias. 1967 wels man daaarsa `kvik kopi~ da dRes ukve
poligrafiuli korporaciebis msoflioSi udidesi aliansis
Tavmjdomarea.
Cveulebriv produqcias srulyofs da yidis . ed
lou fiqrobda Tixis im granulebis axlebur gamoyenebaze, rasac
benzingasamarT sadgurebze zeTisa da sapoxi nivTierebis absor233
birebisaTvis iyeneben. man `fisunias sagebis~ saxeliT daiwyo
granulebis SefuTva da daaarsa axali kompania, romelic yovelwliurad milionobiT dolaris mogebas Rebulobs.
saqonlis gayidvis axal gzebs miagnebs xolme . lein
nemetma saganmanaTleblo saTamaSoebis gavrcelebisa da gayidvis
unikalur meTods miagno. am qalbatonma aRmoaCina, rom amgvari
saTamaSoebi yovelTvis rodi iyideba Cveulebrivi saTamaSoebis
maRaziebSi. man ver moaxerxa sakuTari maRaziis gasaxsnelad
sakmarisi Tanxis Segroveba da Tavis mier Seqmnil nimuSebs yidda
saxlSi mowyobil `saTamaSoebis wveulebebze~, romlebsac misi
megobrebi uZRvebodnen. nemetis firmas (`diskaveri toi~) amJamad
aSS-Si aqvs amgvari samarketingo strategiiT moqmedi sakuTari
savaWro agenturis farTo qseli. am TvalsazrisiT, sayuradReboa
isic, rom maikl delma myidvelebs pirvelma SesTavaza kompiuteruli
teqnika internetiT.
axal bazrebs `aRmoaCens~ xolme da maTTvis axal
produqcias qmnis . eqvsma dam, gvarad ieim yuradReba miaqcia
imas, Tu raoden rTulia azieli qalebisaTvis maTi kanis Sesaferisi
kosmetikis tonis SerCeva. ase daaarses maT firma `Jen kosmetiksi~.
im ideaTa srulyofaze muSaobs, romlebsac wlobiT
atarebda gulSi. jer kidev kolejSi swavlisas fred smiTs
sjeroda, rom sahaero transportiT tvirTebis gadazidvis bizness
SeeZlo warmatebiT emuSava msxvili aviakompaniebis gareSe. man
daadgina erT RameSi werilebisa da mcire amanaTebis gadatanis
bazari, daeyrdno sakuTar energiasa da SorsmWvretelobas da
daaarsa firma `federal eqspresi~.
ukve moqmed sawarmoebSi muSaoben . kompania `3m~-i,
mkvlevarTa SemoqmedebiTi unaris gamovlenis wasaxaliseblad nebas
rTavs Tavis muSakebs samuSao drois 15% saintereso proeqtebs
dauTmon. art fraim _ `3m~-Si momuSave mecnierma gamoiyena
Tavisi TanamSromlis uxarisxo webovani lenti, daaweba is qaRaldis
234
patar-patara furclebze da daiwyo maTi wignis saniSnad da
baraTebis misawerad gamoyeneba. miRebul produqcias `post-iti~
ewoda da msoflioSi erT-erTi yvelaze cnobili saqoneli gaxda.
mewarmeTa strategiebi. mewarmeebs SemoqmedebiTi ideebis
mqone iRblian adamianebad Tvlian. diax, maT marTlac aqvT Wkvianuri
ideebi da bevri maTgani iRblianicaa, magram, amave dros, isini
Semdegi strategiuli gegmebis mixedviT moqmedeben:
 moulodnelad gamoCenili xelsayreli SesaZleblobebi. cxovelebisaTvis gankuTvnili medikamentebis msxvilma
mwarmoebelma saqmianoba XX saukunis 50-ian wlebSi daiwyo, rodesac
adamianebisaTvis antibiotikebis mwarmoebel kompaniebs ar surdaT
TavianTi produqcia veterinarebisaTvis mieyidaT.
 cvalebadi sabazro pirobebi. adamianebis zrunvam sakuTar
janmrTelobaze xelsayreli sabazro SesaZleblobebi Seqmna kurortebisa da sanatoriumebis gansaviTareblad, savarjiSo trenaJorebis,
xolo sul bolo xans, mcenareuli preparatebisa da vitaminebis
warmoebisaTvis. garda amisa, saojaxo meurneobebis raodenobis
zrdam gamoiwvia personaluri kompiuterebis reklamaciis gadideba.
amasTan dakavSirebiT, iseTma kompaniebma, rogoricaa `kompuservi~,
`emerika onlaini~ da `netskeip komunikeiSensi~, SeimuSaves momsaxurebis iseTi forma da programuli uzrunvelyofa, rac qmnis
saSinao pirobebSi internetiTa da sxva operatiul, anu onlain
reJimSi moqmedi momsaxurebiT sargeblobis saSualebas.
 produqciis an procesis gaumjobeseba . pirveli
kamerebiT fotosuraTebis gadasaRebad Znelad saxmari da advilad
msxvrevadi minis firfitebi iyo saWiro. kompania `istmen-kodakis~
TanamSromelma jorj istmenma SeimuSava iafi da msubuqi, magram
mtkice celuloidis firi, romelmac mTlianad Secvala fotografia.
cifruli fotografiis gamoCenasTan erTad ki Cven morigi
siaxleebis momswreni vxdebiT.
235
 alternatiuli saqonlis an momsaxurebis miwodeba
momxmareblisaTvis . `tailenoli~ da aspirinis sxva Semcvlelebi adamianTa im mcire jgufisaTvis Seiqmna, visac aspirinis
gamoyeneba ar SeeZlo. dRes es alternatiuli medikamentebi `Tavis
tkivilis wamlebis bazarze~ dominireben. zemoT xsenebuli `federal eqspresi~ da tvirTebis sahaero gadazidvebis biznesSi Cabmuli
sxva firmebi (iu-pi-esi~, `di-eiC-eli~, `earborn eqspresi~ da a.S.)
momxmarebels uzrunvelyofen momsaxurebiT, rac Tavis droze
mxedvelobidan gamorCa aSS-is safosto samsaxurs _ paketebis
adresatebisaTvis mitana erT RameSi.
 sazogadoebrivi tendenciebis gansazRvra . sazogadoebrivi tendenciebis cvlileba bevr axal xelsayrel SesaZleblobas qmnis. momuSave dedaTa ricxvis zrdam moiTxova meti
baga-baRi. specialuri kontraqtis safuZvelze moqmed sawarmoTa
jgufebi, rogoricaa `kinderkeari~ da sxv. amisi TvalsaCino
magaliTia.
biznes-gegmis arsi, daniSnuleba da struqtura.
biznesi (samewarmeo saqmianoba), ise rogorc nebismieri sxva saqmianoba,
moiTxovs winaswar gaazrebas, e.i. mewarmem Tavisi konkretuli
saqmianobis dawyebamde mizanSewonilia Seqmnas Tavisi Canafiqris
monaxazi. man winaswar qaRaldze unda asaxos, Tu risi gakeTeba
surs da rogor apirebs amis ganxorcielebas. mxolod amis Semdeg
unda Seudges igi Canafiqris praqtikul realizacias.
rogorc okeaneSi mocurave gemisaTvisaa aucilebeli kompasi,
ise sabazro ekonomikis oromtrialSi moqmedi sawarmosaTvis _
gegma. diax, biznes-gegma sWirdeba, uwinares yovlisa, TviT
biznesmenebs, raTa imoqmedon ara stiqiurad, inerciiT, aramed
gaazrebulad, mizanswrafulad. Semdeg, aseTi `gegma-scenari~ saWiroa
kreditorisaTvis, vinc unda gasces sesxi mewarmis Canafiqris
realizaciisaTvis, agreTve mocemuli sawarmos TanamSromlebisaTvis,
236
romelTac surT icodnen sakuTari sawarmos miznebi, amocanebi da
perspeqtivebi.
biznes-gegma, romelic, Cveulebriv, dgeba 3-5 wlis vadiT, moicavs
Semdeg ZiriTad ganyofilebebs:
reziume. masSi daxasiaTebulia SemoTavazebuli warmoebis mizani, siaxle, produqciis asortimenti, moculoba, amonagebi,
danaxarjebi, mTliani mogeba, warmoebis rentabeloba da sxv.;
saqoneli (momsaxureba). am ganyofilebaSi aRwerilia
proeqtiT gaTvaliswinebuli saqonlis (momsaxurebis) samomxmareblo
Tvisebebi, arsebiTi gansxvavebani konkurentebis nawarmisagan,
mosalodneli danaxarjebi da fasis prognozi;
gasaRebis bazari. igi biznes-gegmis umniSvnelovanesi
nawilia da moicavs im bazris koniunqturis daxasiaTebas, sadac
mocemuli firmis mier gamoSvebulma nawarmma unda ipovos myidveli;
konkurencia. masSi ganisazRvreba mTavari konkurentebis
produqciis realizaciis moculoba, Semosavali, axali modelebis
danergvis perspeqtivebi, ZiriTadi nawarmis xarisxi da dizaini,
agreTve fasebis politika da done;
marketingis strategia . gegmis es nawili moicavs iseTi
problemebis gadawyvetas, rogoricaa: saqonlis gavrcelebis sqema,
faswarmoqmna, reklama, realizaciis stimulirebis meTodebi, saqonlis
gayidvis Semdgomi momsaxurebis organizacia, firmisa da saqonlis
Taobaze sazogadoebrivi azris formireba;
warmoebis gegma. misi mTavari amocanaa saTanado gaangariSebiT imis dasabuTeba, Tu mocemul firmas realurad risi,
ranairi xarisxis, ra raodenobiT da rogor vadebSi SeuZlia
warmoeba da momxmareblisaTvis miwodeba;
organizaciuli gegma. masSi aRwerilia firmis saqmianobis marTvis organizaciis sistema. aqve miTiTebulia mocemuli
firmis Statiani specialistebiT uzrunvelyofis wyaroebi, maTi
da xelmZRvaneli muSakebis xelfasis done, StatgareSe eqspertebis
237
mozidvis SesaZleblobani;
iuridiuli gegma. am ganyofilebaSi ganisazRvreba firmis
organizaciis forma sakuTrebis TvalsazrisiT, romelic, Tavis
mxriv, gansazRvravs mis samarTlebriv statuss. miRebuli gadawyvetilebis Tanaxmad SemdgomSi muSavdeba dokumenti, romelic
uzrunvelyofs firmis momavali saqmianobis regulirebas.
samewarmeo saqmianobis ZiriTadi struqturuli erTeulia
sawarmo . igi meurneobrivi subieqtia, romelic uzrunvelyofs
warmoebis faqtorTa kombinirebis safuZvelze saqonlis (momsaxurebis) warmoebisa da gasaRebis meSveobiT sakuTari interesebis realizacias. sawarmos Sinaarsis identuri gagebiT xSirad
moixsenieba firma. sinamdvileSi sawarmos aqvs safirmo saxelwodeba,
romliTac igi funqcionirebs. ase, magaliTad, individualuri mewarmis
safirmo saxelwodeba SeiZleba iyos misi saxeli da gvari, sawarmos
safirmo saxelwodeba ki SeiZleba misi saqmianobis specifikidanac
SeirCes.
238
leqcia 14. samewarmeo saqmianobis
ganmxorcielebeli subieqtebi da
organizaciul-samarTlebrivi
formebi
`gamdidrebis kargi saSualebaa amxanagobebi, Tu saqme gaqvs sando adamianebTan.~
f.bekoni
samewarmeo saqmianobis ganmxorcielebeli subieqtebi. samewarmeo saqmianobis subieqtebi arian fizikuri da
iuridiuli pirebi, romlebsac TavianTi saqmianobis ganxorcielebisa
da regulirebis sferoSi aqvT garkveuli uflebebi da movaleobebi,
amasTan, samewarmeo urTierTobebSi gamodian sakuTari saxeliT.
fizikuri piria moqalaqe, romelic, iuridiuli piris statusis miuReblad, erTpirovnulad eweva samewarmeo saqmianobas.
samewarmeo saqmianobis ufleba ZalaSi Sedis individualur mewarmed
registraciis momentidan.
iuridiuli piria, uwinares yovlisa, organizacia an gansazRvruli formiT organizebuli gaerTianeba, romelsac: aqvs
gamocalkevebuli qoneba; SeuZlia am qonebiT pasuxi agos Tavis
valdebulebebze; Tavisi saxeliT miiRos da ganaxorcielos qonebrivi
da araqonebrivi uflebebi; ikisros valdebulebebi, aRZras sarCeli
(an, piriqiT, mis winaaRmdeg aRiZras sarCeli) sasamarTloSi da
xeli moaweros kontraqtebs; hqondes damoukidebeli balansi an
xarjTaRricxva.
mewarme subieqtis gansazRvrebas gvTavazobs saqarTvelos 2005
wlis kanoni `Tavisufali vaWrobis da konkurenciis Sesaxeb~. am
kanonis Tanaxmad, ekonomikuri agenti (mewarme, subieqti) aris
iuridiuli an fizikuri piri, romelic, ganurCevlad sawarmos
organizaciul-samarTlebrivi da sakuTrebis formisa, eweva
239
samewarmeo saqmianobas. es termini moicavs agreTve mogebaze
araorientirebul asociaciebs, fondebsa da sxva gaerTianebebs,
romlebic warmoadgenen bazris monawileebs, an moqmedeben mewarmeebis,
saqvelmoqmedo organizaciebisa da profesiuli gaerTianebebis
interesebis Sesabamisad.
`mewarmeTa Sesaxeb~ saqarTvelos kanonSi mocemulia samewarmeo
saqmianobis ganmxorcielebel organizaciul-samarTlebriv formaTa
amomwuravi CamonaTvali. esenia: individualuri sawarmo, solidaruli
pasuxismgeblobis sazogadoeba, komandituri sazogadoeba,
SezRuduli pasuxismgeblobis sazogadoeba, saaqcio sazogadoeba
da kooperativi. aqedan yvela, garda individualuri sawarmosi,
iuridiuli piris statusiT sargeblobs.
samarTlebrivi doqtrina pirobiTad sawarmoebs personaluri
(amxanagobis) da kapitaluri tipis sazogadoebebad yofs. pirvel
jgufs miekuTvneba solidaruli pasuxismgeblobis sazogadoeba
da komandituri sazogadoeba, sadac pirovnul elements gacilebiT
ufro prioritetuli adgili uWiravs. meore jgufs ki ekuTvnis
SezRuduli pasuxismgeblobis sazogadoeba, saaqcio sazogadoeba
da kooperativi, sadac prioritetulia partniorTa mier Senatanebis
ganxorcieleba. aseTi sazogadoebebis saqmianobis operatiul
marTvasa da warmomadgenlobas axorcieleben amisaTvis specialurad Seqmnili organoebi.
marTalia, amgvar dayofas aqvs praqtikuli mniSvneloba, magram
igi mainc pirobiTia, ramdenadac yoveli partnioris ukan yovelTvis
dgas garkveuli moculobis kapitali.
amxanagobisa da kapitaluri ti pis sazogadoebebs aqvs rogorc msgavsi, ise ganmasxvavebeli niSnebi. msgavsebis TvalsazrisiT,
uwinares yovlisa, aRsaniSnavia rom nebismieri tipis sazogadoeba
warmoadgens samewarmeo organizacias; maT gaaCniaT gankerZoebuli
qoneba; dabolos, maTi dafuZneba monawileTa SeTanxmebazea
damokidebuli.
rac Seexeba maT Soris arsebul gansxvavebas, aRsaniSnavia
240
Semdegi: amxanagobis ti pis sazogadoebebTan mimarTebaSi moqmedi
kanonmdebloba ar moiTxovs sawesdebo kapitalis arsebobas maSin,
roca kapitaluri tipis sazogadoebisaTvis mkacrad ganisazRvreba
sawesdebo kapitalis minimumi; amxanagobis ti pis sazogadoebis
wevrs ufleba ara aqvs iyos sxva amxanagobis wevri (garda
komanditisa), kapitaluri tipis sazogadoebis partniorTa mimarT
ki aseTi SezRudva ar arsebobs (garda direqtorebisa, romlebzec
vrceldeba konkurenciis akrZalva); yvelaze mniSvnelovani
gansxvaveba pasuxismgeblobis moculobaSia: kapitaluri ti pis
sazogadoebaTa partniorebis pasuxismgebloba mxolod maT mier
sawesdebo kapitalSi ganxorcielebuli Senatanis odenobiT
ganisazRvreba maSin, roca amxanagobis ti pis sazogadoebaTa
monawileni (garda komanditisa) pasuxs ageben mTeli Tavisi qonebiT,
pirdapir da uSualod.
qvemoT motanil 5.3 naxazze sqematurad warmodgenilia
samewarmeo saqmianobis ganmxorcielebeli subieqtebi.
rig SemTxvevaSi samewarmeo saqmianobis subieqtad SeiZleba
gamovidnen iseTi iuridiuli pirebi, romelTa ZiriTadi mizania
arakomerciuli saqmianoba, Tumca, sawesdebo miznis misaRwevad
aseTi organizaciebi uflebamosilni arian ganaxorcielon samewarmeo
saqmianoba. aseT SemTxvevaSi isini monawileoben samewarmeo
urTierTobaSi da moqmedeben rogorc samewarmeo saqmianobis
subieqtebi (kavSirebi da fondebi).
samewarmeo saqmianobis subieqtTa Semdeg jgufs miekuTvneba
subieqtebi, romlebic axorcieleben samewarmeo saqmianobis regulirebas, rig SemTxvevaSi _ kontrols. esenia: saxelmwifo da
municipaluri organoebi, aseve, zogierT SemTxvevaSi _ TviT sawarmo.
samewarmeo saqmianobis subieqtTa dayofa samewarmeo saqmianobis warmmarTvelad da samewarmeo saqmianobis maregulireblad , ra Tqma unda, ar aris absoluturad zusti. zogierT
SemTxvevaSi xdeba am ori funqciis Serwyma. magaliTad, saxelmwifos,
romelic axorcielebs samewarmeo saqmianobis samarTlebriv
241
nax. 5.3. samewarmeo saqmianobis ganmxorcielebeli ZiriTadi subieqtebi
s aa q ci o
sa zoga doeba
S e z R u d u li
pasuxismgeblobis
sa zoga doeba
s o li d a ru li
pasuxismgeblobis
sa zoga doeba
k om a nd i turi
sa zoga doeba
k oop e ra ti v i
k a p i ta lu ri
ti pis
sa zoga doeba
amxanagobis
ti pis
sa zoga doeba
i n d i v i d u a lu ri
sawarmo
i u ri d i uli p i ri
f izi ku ri p iri
samewarmeo saqmianobis
ganmxorcielebeli subieqtebi
242
regulirebas, SeuZlia Tavad ganaxorcielos samewarmeo saqmianoba.
meore mxriv, sawarmo, aris ra samewarmeo saqmianobis ganmxorcielebeli subieqti, uflebamosilia hqondes Svilobili sawarmoebi
da aregulirebdes maT saqmianobas.
zemoT CamoTvlil subieqtTagan yvelaze mniSvnelovania
uSualod samewarmeo saqmianobis ganmxorcielebeli subieqtebi
(sawarmoebi), romlebic Sinaarsobrivad erTsa da imave saqmianobas
axorcieleben, Tumca, maT regulirebaSi arsebobs zogierTi saxis
gansxvavebebi.
sawarmos arsi da klasifikaciis ZiriTadi niSnebi. sawarmos cneba postsabWour qveynebSi mravali wlis
ganmavlobaSi yalibdeboda. magaliTisaTvis SeiZleba davasaxeloT
1923 da 1927 wlis debulebebi `saxelmwifo samrewvelo trestebis
Sesaxeb~. mogvianebiT, 1965 wels sakavSiro mTavrobis mier miRebul
iqna debuleba `saxelmwifo samrewvelo sawarmoebis Sesaxeb~,
1987 wels ki _ kanoni `saxelmwifo sawarmoebis (gaerTianebebis)
Sesaxeb~. sagulisxmoa, rom es iyo mcdeloba, ekonomikis sferos
miuxedavad, yvela sawarmos saqmianobisaTvis daedginaT erTiani
regulireba. ra Tqma unda, es exeboda mxolod saxelmwifo
sawarmoebs, xolo kooperativebis saqmianoba ganisazRvreboda 1988
wlis kanoniT `kooperaciis Sesaxeb~.
sabWoTa sistemis ngrevis Semdeg, saqarTveloSi jer 1991,
Semdeg 1994 wels miRebul iqna sakanonmdeblo aqtebi, romlebmac
sawarmo kidev ufro meti srulyofilebiT warmogvidgina.
sawarmos cneba `mewarmeTa Sesaxeb~ saqarTvelos kanonis erTerT fuZemdeblur cnebad iqca. am kanonis mixedviT, `sawarmo aris
pirTa da qonebis organizaciul-ekonomikuri erTianoba. sawarmos
miekuTvneba aseve sawarmoTa da muSa-mosamsaxureTa saqmianobac.
garda amisa, mas ganekuTvneba aramaterialuri faseulobani,
faqtobrivi urTierTobebi, sawarmoo saidumloebani. sawarmos cneba
moicavs aseve materialur faseulobebsa da uflebebs, agreTve
243
valdebulebebs~. sxva sityvebiT, sawarmo aris sawarmoo-sameurneo
da socialuri sistema, romlis mTavar mizans warmoadgens
gansazRvruli saxis saqonliT (samuSaoTi, momsaxurebiT)
sazogadoebis moTxovnilebaTa dakmayofileba da amis safuZvelze
mogebis miReba, aseve samuSao adgilebis SeTavazeba, rac, Tavis
mxriv, adamianTa materialuri uzrunvelyofis wyaros warmoadgens.
mxedvelobaSi misaRebia is faqti, rom termini `sawarmo~
ekonomikur Teoriasa da sameurneo praqtikaSi sxvadasxva gagebiT
gamoiyeneba. erT SemTxvevaSi masSi moiazreba sazogadoeba (kompania,
korporacia), anu aRniSnavs samewarmeo saqmianobis ganmxorcielebel
subieqts, sxva SemTxvevaSi ki masSi igulisxmeba sameurneo miznis
misaRwevad Seqmnili sawarmoo-sameurneo erTeuli, rogorc
materialuri saSualebebisa da adamianTa gansazRvruli erTianoba.
klasikuri gagebiT, sawarmo aris garkveuli saxis produqciis warmoebis, samuSaoTa Sesrulebis an momsaxurebis gawevis mizniT Seqmnili damoukidebeli sameurneo
erTeuli.
sawarmoTa klasifikacias axdenen saqmianobis xasiaTis,
sakuTrebis formebis, sididis, organizaciuli agebisa da sxva
niSnebis mixedviT.
saqmianobis xasiaTis mixedviT gamoyofen: samrewvelo,
sasoflo-sameurneo, samSeneblo, satransporto, savaWro, komunaluri
momsaxurebisa da sxva sawarmoebs;
sakuTrebis formebis mixedviT arsebobs: kerZo, koleqtiuri,
saxelmwifo da Sereuli sawarmoebi;
sididis mixedviT ansxvaveben: msxvil, saSualo da mcire
sawarmoebs.
organizaciuli agebis mixedviT gamoiyofa sawarmoTa
Semdegi ZiriTadi ti pebi: erTpirovnuli mflobeloba, amxanagoba
(anu partnioroba) da korporacia.
erTpirovnuli mflobeloba (individualuri sawarmo)
_ esaa erTi piris damoukidebeli sawarmoo saqmianoba sakuTari
244
interesebis Sesabamisad: mflobels gaaCnia materialuri saSualebebi,
rac saWiroa mocemuli saqmianobisaTvis, da uSualod TviTon
akontrolebs sawarmoo process.
samewarmeo saqmianobis organizaciis am umartives tips gaaCnia
Semdegi ZiriTadi upiratesobani:
* misi organizeba (daarseba) advilia. amisaTvis araa saWiro
wesdebis (debulebis) an sxva iuridiuli sabuTebis SemuSavebadamtkiceba. Tu amgvari wamowyeba grZelvadiania, maSin aucilebelia
licenzia an patenti;
* ramdenadac mflobeli TviTonaa Tavisi Tavis ufrosi,
gamoirCeva TavisuflebiT, damoukideblobiT da moqmedebis
operatiulobiT. gadawyvetilebis miRebisaTvis ar saWiroebs arc
direqtorTa sabWosadmi mimarTvas da arc partniorebTan SeTanxmebas
(aseTTa ararsebobis gamo). es forma gansakuTrebiT kargad esadageba
mkveTrad gamokveTili individualisturi Tvisebebis mqone adamianebs;
* ramdenadac mTeli Semosavali (mogeba) individualuri
mewarmis sakuTrebaa, igi maqsimalurad dainteresebulia warmoebis
maRali efeqtianobiT, gadawyvetilebaTa miRebaSi iCens did sifrTxiles da gulmodgineT axorcielebs TviTkontrols. cdilobs,
SesaZleblobis farglebSi, saqmiani operaciebis maqsimalurad
gafarToebas;
* erTpirovnuli mflobeloba firmis saidumloebaTa dacvis
saukeTeso garantiaa;
* erTob moqnili da mobiluria. mas, bazris koniunqturis
gaTvaliswinebiT, SeuZlia swrafad Secvalos moqmedebis mimarTulebebi;
* erTpirovnuli mflobeloba mewarmes aZlevs gamocdilebis
SeZenis saSualebas, rac SemdgomSi SeiZleba man ufro didi
samewarmeo saqmianobisaTvis gamoiyenos.
magram erTpirovnul mflobelobas gaaCnia seriozuli naklovanebebic :
Tu mxedvelobaSi ar miviRebT iSviaT gamonaklisebs, erTpi245
rovnuli mewarmis finansuri SesaZleblobani SezRudulia. imis
gamo, rom aseTi sawarmoebis gakotreba xSiria, bankebi maT ar
aZleven msxvil da grZelvadian kredits, xolo sakuTari saxsrebi
sakmarisi araa teqnikur-teqnologiur siaxleTa dasanergad. amis
gamo samewarmeo saqmianobis masStabi ramdenadme SezRudulia;
erTpirovnuli mewarme iZulebulia Seasrulos marTvis
yvela funqcia, miiRos yvela gadawyvetileba (organizaciuli,
finansuri, teqnikuri, komerciuli, sakredito da a.S.). amitom
erTpirovnuli sawarmo moklebulia im sikeTes, romelsac iZleva
marTvis specializacia;
SeuzRudavi pasuxismgeblobis gamo, didi zaralis dafarvam
an valis gadaxdis saWiroebam SeiZleba individualur mewarmes
daakargvinos mTeli piradi qoneba (saxli, miwis nakveTi, avtomanqana,
danazogi da a.S.);
erTpirovnuli biznesi SeiZleba Sewydes mflobelis
dainvalidebis, dapatimrebis an gardacvalebis SemTxvevaSi. qoneba
SeiZleba gadavides memkvidris xelSi da es ukanaskneli gaxdes
moqmedi piri, magram iuridiulad (da realuradac) biznesi arsebiTad
kvdeba mflobelTan erTad.
amxanagoba (partnioroba) _ esaa samewarmeo saqmianobis
organizaciis iseTi forma, roca ori an meti piri SeTanxmdebian
warmoebis erToblivi flobisa da marTvis Sesaxeb. Cveulebriv,
isini aerTianeben TavianT finansur resursebs da saqmis gaZRolis
unars. es imas niSnavs, rom isini inawileben risks, mogebas da
zarals. monawileobis xasiaTis mixedviT partnioroba sxvadasxvagvaria: SeiZleba yvela partniori aqtiurad monawileobdes sawarmos
saqmianobaSi, xolo zogierTi maTgani _ pasiur rols asrulebdes.
amxanagobas gaaCnia Semdegi ZiriTadi upiratesobani:
* erTpirovnul mflobelobaTa msgavsad, amxanagobebi advili
Sesaqmnelia da arc specialuri gadasaxadebiT ibegreba. werilobiT
SeTanxmebas partniorobis Sesaxeb, romelic yvela partniors
Soris ideba, SeuZlia gaarkvios, Tu sakuTari droisa da energiis
246
ra nawils moaxmars sawarmos saqmianobas TiToeuli maTgani;
* monawileTa simravle saSualebas iZleva moxdes marTvis
specializacia, e.i. sawarmos saqmianobis yvela ubans saTaveSi
Caudges am saqmis specialisti;
* partniorTa simravlis gamo amxanagobis finansuri SesaZleblobani gacilebiT didia, vidre erTpirovnuli mflobelobisa.
amxanagobis naklia Semdegi:
amxanagobis marTvaSi monawileobs mravali partniori, ris
gamoc araiSviaTad Tavs iCens interesTa da mosazrebaTa daumTxvevloba, rac aZnelebs gadawyvetilebis miRebas;
amxanagobis arsebobis xangrZlivoba alalbedzea damokidebuli:
romelime wevris gasvlam an gardacvalebam SeiZleba gamoiwvios
partniorobis nawilobrivi an sruli reorganizacia, daSla;
fuladi saxsrebis raodenoba, romlis mobilizebac amxanagobas
SeuZlia, SezRudulia partniorTa simdidriTa da fulis sesxad
aRebis SesaZleblobiT;
SeuzRudavi pasuxismgebloba iseve emuqreba amxanagobas,
rogorc erTpirovnul mflobelobas: faqtobrivad yvela partniori
pasuxismgebelia ara marto sakuTari moqmedebis, aramed nebismieri
sxva partnioris moqmedebis gamoc.
calkeul gamonaklisebs Tu ar miviRebT mxedvelobaSi, arc
partniorobaze damyarebuli firmebis masStabebia didi da isini,
erTpirovnul mflobelobaSi myof sawarmoebTan erTad, metwilad
mcire biznesis sferos ganekuTvnebian.
sabazro ekonomikis qveynebSi aRiarebulia mcire biznesis
Semdegi aTi Rirseba:
 damoukidebloba moqmedebaSi . mcire firmebSi, rogorc
wesi, mmarTvelobiTi ierarqia araa daculi, rac energiul da
iniciativian mewarmeebs moqmedebis Tavisuflebas aZlevs;
 operatiuloba gadawyvetilebebis miRebaSi . msxvil
firmebTan SedarebiT, mcire biznesSi gamartivebulia mmarTvelobiTi gadawyvetilebebis miReba, rac koniunqturul cvlilebebze
247
swrafi reagirebis SesaZleblobas iZleva;
 adgilobrivi pirobebis TaviseburebebTan adaptacia .
mcire bizness SedarebiT eadvileba produqciis warmoebisa da
realizaciis adgilobrivi specifikuri pirobebis gaTvaliswineba
da maTTan Segueba, rac warmatebis mniSvnelovani garantiaa;
 sazogadoebrivi aRiareba . mcire biznesi, roca igi
funqcionirebs `TamaSis wesebis~ dacviT, sazogadoebrivi azris
Zlieri simpaTiebiT sargeblobs. es, nawilobriv, SeRavaTian
dabegvraSic vlindeba;
 ekonomiuroba. SedarebiT mcirea danaxarjebi mowyobilobebze, gaTboba-ganaTebaze, mmarTvelobaze da a.S.;
 swrafSedegianoba . mcire biznesi (msxvil kapitalur
dabandebebTan SedarebiT) ufro swrafad iZleva mogebas;
 xangrZlivvadianoba . biznes-saqmianobis normalurad
warmarTvisas firmas SeuZlia xangrZlivad funqcionireba,
realizaciis Sedegad sxvis xelSi gadasvlis Semdegac;
 profesiaTa SeTavsebadoba . mcire firmebSi dasaqmebuli
biznesmeni erTsa da imave dros aris teqnologi, finansisti,
menejeri da a.S., riTac mas mTeli Tavisi potenciuri SesaZleblobebis gamovlenis saSualeba eZleva;
 moqniloba da swrafi manevrirebis unarianoba . msxvil
firmebTan SedarebiT, mcire firma maRali manevrirebis unarianobas
iCens, gansakuTrebiT maSin, roca bazari xasiaTdeba mkafiod
gamokveTili sezonurobiT;
 mewarmuli suliskveTeba . rogorc praqtika gviCvenebs,
mcire firmebSi ufro mkveTrad vlindeba inovaciuri, mewarmuli
suli. albaT, amitom Tu amboben aSS-Si, rom swored mcire mewarmeebs
axasiaTebT odesRac ti piuri amerikuli mewarmeobisaTvis Cveuli
romantizmi.
mcire biznesis masobrivi xasiaTisa da firmebis saerTo ricxovnobaSi maRali xvedriTi wonis miuxedavad, Tanamedrove ekonomikaSi
gansakuTrebiT didia korporaciebis roli da mniSvneloba. magali248
Tad, amerikul korporaciebze, romlebic aSS-is sawarmoTa saerTo
ricxovnobis mxolod 20%-s Seadgenen, warmoebuli mTliani
erovnuli Semosavlis 90%-ze meti modis. erT-erTi amerikeli
mkvlevaris xatovani gamoTqmiT, amerikis ekonomikis xerxemalia
msxvili korporaciebi, xolo misi kunTebi _ mcire kompaniebi,
romlebsac moZraobaSi mohyavT mcire biznesi.
korporacia _ esaa samewarmeo saqmianobis organizaciis
iseTi forma, rodesac sawarmo gamoyofilia misi mflobelebisagan
da mTavrobis mier miniWebuli aqvs iuridiuli piris statusi.
korporacias gaaCnia sakuTari aqtivebi da ufleba aqvs SeiZinos
resursebi, awarmoos da gayidos produqcia, aiRos da gasces
kreditebi, aRZras sarCeli da sxv.
erTpirovnul mlobelobasa da amxanagobasTan SedarebiT,
korporacias gaaCnia Semdegi upiratesobani:
* korporaciisaTvis damaxasiaTebelia fuladi kapitalis
mozidvis yvelaze unikaluri da efeqtiani wesi _ aqciebisa da
obligaciebis gayidva. es saSualebas iZleva uamravi kerZo piris,
organizaciis, sawarmos danazogTa `nakadulebi~ erT did mdinared
iqces. garda amisa, korporaciebs bankebi kredits aZleven ufro
iolad da meti xalisiT, vidre individualur da partniorul
sawarmoebs: korporaciebi ufro konkurenciamedegni arian da amitom
met ndobas imsaxureben bankebis mxriv;
* korporaciis meore da arsebiTi upiratesobaa SezRuduli
pasuxismgebloba. korporaciis mflobelebi (aqcionerebi) risks
ewevian mxolod im TanxiT, rac aqciebis yidvisas gadaixades,
gakotrebis SemTxvevaSi ki maTs sxva qonebas araviTari saSiSroeba
ar emuqreba. kreditorebs SeuZliaT sarCeli aRZran korporaciis
mimarT, magram ara aqcionerTa mimarT. swored esaa erT-erTi
mizezi imisa, rom korporaciaTa aqciebis gayidva problemas ar
warmoadgens, rac maT uadvilebs fuladi kapitalis mozidvas;
* fuladi kapitalis Tavmoyris unikaluri wesi korporaciebs
saSualebas aZlevs gaafarToon warmoeba, danergon uaxlesi teqnika
249
da teqnologia, sruli zomiT isargeblon masiuri warmoebis
upiratesobebiT. yovelive amis gamo korporacia ufro
konkurentunariania, vidre sxva saxis sawarmoebi;
* ramdenadac korporacia iuridiuli piria, igi arsebobs misi
mflobelebisagan (aqcionerebisagan) damoukideblad: aqcionerTa
mier aqciebis gayidva ar emuqreba mis arsebobas. amiT igi gansxvavdeba
partniorobisagan, sadac romelime monawilis mier sakuTrebis
uflebis sxvisTvis gadacema saSiSroebas uqmnis mis arsebobas.
amgvarad, korporaciis upiratesobani aSkara da mniSvnelovania. magram es imas ar niSnavs, rom maT araviTari nakli ar
gaaCniaT. korporaciis naklovanebebia:
korporaciis wesdebis registracia dakavSirebulia biurokratiul procedurasTan da moiTxovs iuridiuli momsaxurebis
xarjebis gadaxdas;
samewarmeo saqmianobis organizaciis korporaciul formaSi Cadebulia zogierTi borotebis SesaZlebloba: arakeTilsindisier pirebs korporaciis safariT SeuZliaT Caidinon saeWvo
sawarmoo saqmianoba (gamouSvan yalbi aqciebi da a. S.), xolo
piradi pasuxismgebloba Tavidan aicilon;
msxvil korporaciebSi, romelTa aqciebi gafantulia aTeul
da aseul aTasobiT mesakuTreTa Soris, erTmaneTs scildeba
mesakuTrisa da warmoebis saqmianobisadmi kontrolis funqciebi.
aqciebis mflobelTa didi nawili ar iyenebs Tavis uflebas
monawileoba miiRos marTvaSi. es korporaciis mmarTvelebs
saSualebas aZlevs TavianTi Sexedulebis mixedviT gamoiyenon
Tavmoyrili saxsrebi, xolo mmarTveli aparatisa da aqcionerTa
interesebi yovelTvis rodi emTxveva erTmaneTs.
korporaciul gaerTianebaTa saxeebi. komerciuli
xasiaTis organizaciebi, samewarmeo saqmianobis koordinaciis, saerTo
qonebrivi da sxva strategiuli interesebis warmodgenisa da
dacvis mizniT, xelSekrulebis safuZvelze erTiandebian sxvadasxva
250
korporaciul gaerTianebaSi. maTSi Tavmoyrili subieqtebi ZiriTadad
inarCuneben avtonomiurobasa da organizaciul-samarTlebrivi
formis arCevis Tavisuflebas. gaerTianebis wevrTa urTierTobis
mTavari principi Tavisufali nebis gamovlenaa, misi gamoxatulebis
samarTlebrivi forma ki sadamfuZneblo xelSekruleba.
msoflio praqtikaSi korporaciuli gaerTianebebis farTo
speqtria warmodgenili, rac, Tavis mxriv, teqnikuri progresiTa
da kapitalis koncentraciiTaa ganpirobebuli. qvemoT ganxilulia
zogierTi maTgani.
kavSirebi _ sawarmoTa dargobrivi, teritoriuli an sxva
niSnis mixedviT Seqmnili gaerTianeba, romlis ZiriTad mizans
masSi Tavmoyril subieqtTa saxelmwifo, saerTaSoriso da sxva
saxis organizaciebSi saerTo interesTa gatareba warmoadgens.
kavSiris wevrebi ar ewevian erTobliv sameurneo saqmianobas. misi
ZiriTadi funqciebia: ekonomikuri da iuridiuli xasiaTis prognozebis SemuSaveba, saWiroebis SemTxvevaSi Tematuri konferenciebis
mowveva, mowinave gamocdilebis gaziareba-ganzogadeba, kavSiris
wevrTa interesebis gaTvaliswinebiT sagamomcemlo saqmianobis
warmoeba.
kavSiri uflebamosilia regionebSi Seqmnas Tavisi warmomadgenlobebi da specialuri fondebi. misi saqmianoba ZiriTadad
sawevro Senatanebis da nebayoflobiTi Semowirulobebis xarjze
xorcieldeba.
sameurneo asociaciebi _ kavSirebis msgavsad, warmoadgenen
TavianTi wevrebis interesebs saxelmwifo, saerTaSoriso an sxva
saxis organizaciebSi. asociaciebSi umTavresia ara warmomadgenlobiTi, aramed sawarmoo xasiaTis funqcia, romelSic asociaciis
monawileTa Soris sawarmoo saqmianobis koordinaciis, maT Soris
specializaciis gaRrmavebis, kooperaciis, gansazRvrul funqciaTa
Sesrulebis centralizaciis da sxva saxis funqciebi moiazreba.
asociaciis mTavari mizani axali sawarmoebis Seqmnaa.
koncernebi _ gacilebiT centralizebuli struqturis mqone
251
gaerTianebebia. isini sawarmoo funqciebis, samecniero-teqnikuri
politikis, investiciebis, safinanso da teqnikuri politikis, sagareoekonomikuri saqmianobis centralizaciis safuZvelze iqmnebian.
koncerni, Seqmnili sistemis CarCoebSi, Tavis monawile subieqtebs
gadascems sakuTari uflebamosilebisa da funqciebis mniSvnelovan
nawils. koncerns axasiaTebs: kombinirebuli warmoebis princi pi,
konkurentunariani produqciis gamoSvebis survili, axali teqnologiebisa da teqnikis danergva, samecniero potencialis koncentracia.
koncerni erTgvarad monopolisturi gaerTianebaa, romelsac
konglomeratisagan gansxvavebiT axasiaTebs sakuTrebisa da kontrolis erTianoba, monawile sawarmoTa Soris teqnologiuri da
sawarmoo kavSirebis arseboba, naklebi diversifikacia.
samarTlebrivi doqtrinidan gamomdinare, koncerni SeiZleba
iyos vertikaluri da horizontaluri. vertikaluri rTuli
struqturisaa da mrewvelobis sxvadasxva sferoSi dasaqmebul
sawarmoebs aerTianebs. horizontaluri korcerni gacilebiT
martivia da erT konkretul sferoSi dasaqmebul sawarmoTa
gaerTianebas warmoadgens. qarTuli kanonmdeblobis Tanaxmad,
korcerni ar aris sawarmos organizaciul-samarTlebrivi forma.
koncerni aris faqtobrivi mdgomareoba, roca sawarmo flobs
wilTa gansazRvrul nawils sxva sawarmoSi. koncerni ewodeba
iseT faqtobriv mdgomareobas, rodesac erTi sawarmo flobs sxva
sawarmos wilTa ormocdaaT procentze mets. aseT SemTxvevaSi
ZiriTad sawarmos ekisreba ganacxados araZiriTad sawarmoSi
monawileoba samewarmeo reestrSi registraciisaTvis.
koncerni sawarmoTa kavSiris formaa. imis mixedviT, Tu rogoria
es kavSiri, kanoni erTmaneTisagan ganasxvavebs sawarmoTa urTierTkavSirebis ramdenime formas:
 5%-iani monawileoba sxva sawarmoSi;
 50%-ze meti wilobrivi monawileoba sxva sawarmoSi;
 75%-ze metis monawileoba sxva sawarmoSi.
miuxedavad imisa, rom koncernSi wilTa umravlesoba ZiriTadi
252
sawarmos xelSia, faqtobrivad xorcieldeba araZiriTadi sawarmos mimarT ZiriTadi sawarmos politika, Tumca mmarTvelobis
organoebi iuridiulad damoukidebelia. ZiriTad sawarmos SeuZlia, rom misi wilis Sesabamisad daniSnos direqtorebi araZiriTad
sawarmoSi, miiRos gadawyvetilebebi.
konsorciumi _ sapaio safuZvelze Seqmnili droebiTi kavSiria,
romlis mizani erToblivi samewarmeo saqmianobis koordinaciaa,
kerZod: sesxebis erToblivi ganTavseba, didi masStabis erToblivi
finansuri da komerciuli operaciebis gatareba da a.S.
konsorciumi, rogorc wesi, maSin iqmneba, roca gansaxorcielebeli globaluri proeqti erTi bankis finansuri SesaZleblobebis farglebs scdeba. aseTi gaerTianebis mizani xSirad
konkretuli problemebis, proeqtebis, SekveTebis realizaciaa.
konsorciumi zemoT aRniSnuli miznis miRwevis vadiT iqmneba.
konsorciumis monawileTa interesebs saxelmwifo organoTa
winaSe Tavad konsorciumi warmoadgens. es funqcia gaerTianebis
aRmasrulebel organos ekuTvnis. monawileTa saqmianobis koordinacias konsorciumis `lideri~ axorcielebs, romelic, rogorc
wesi, yvelaze msxvili samewarmeo struqturaa da danarCeni wevrebisagan garkveul anazRaurebas iRebs. igi warmoadgens konsorciumis
yvela monawiles. misi funqciebi da uflebamosileba konsorciumis
monawileTa mier miRebuli konsorcialuri SeTanxmebiT ganisazRvreba. lideri iwvevs TaTbirebs yvela princi pialur sakiTxTan
dakavSirebiT, akontrolebs da koordinacias uwevs monawileTa
mier sakontraqto valdebulebaTa Sesrulebas.
konsorciumis pasuxismgebloba SemkveTis winaSe solidarulia. rogorc wesi, gaerTianebis TiToeuli wevri qonebrivad pasuxismgebelia miRebuli SekveTidan misi wilis 8-10%-is moculobiT.
Tanxebi, romlebic am farglebs scdeba, konsorciumis danarCen
wevrebze maTi wilebis proporciulad nawildeba. konsorciumis
Seqmna sadamfuZneblo xelSekrulebiT formdeba. konsorciumis
Seqmnis mTavari mizania masSi gaerTianebul sawarmoTa konkurentuna253
rianobis gazrda saqonlisa da momsaxurebis bazarze.
karteli _ sawarmoTa saxelSekrulebo gaerTianebaa
produqciis gasaRebasTan dakavSirebul sakiTxTa efeqturad
gadasaWrelad. kartelis miznebia: gasaRebis bazrebis `dapyroba~,
gavlenis sferoebis gamijvna, produqciis fasebis regulireba da
a.S. praqtikaSi karteluri SeTanxmeba xSirad farulad arsebobs.
kartelis monawileni inarCuneben finansur da sawarmoo
damoukideblobas, gansazRvraven faswarmoqmnis politikas, awarmoeben patentebisa da teqnologiebis urTierTgacvlas. kartelis
Seqmnis umTavresi mizani masSi gaerTianebul sawarmoTa Soris
arsebuli konkurenciis aRmofxvra an misi reglamentirebaa.
kartelSi, rogorc wesi, erTi da igive sferos warmomadgeneli
sawarmoebi erTiandebian.
kornerebi _ korporaciuli gaerTianebis martivi formaa,
romlis mizania kapitalis akumulireba, rac konkretuli saqonlis
mier gasaRebis bazris `dapyrobiskenaa~ mimarTuli. gaerTianebuli
kapitali gamoiyeneba kornerisaTvis saintereso korporaciaTa
aqciebis Sesasyidad, maTi Semdgomi gayidvis an aqciaTa sakontrolo paketis xelSi Cagdebis mizniT.
konglomeratebi _ sawarmoTa gaerTianebaa, romelTac saerTo
sawarmoo safuZveli ara aqvT, magram erTiandebian organizaciuli
an finansuri kavSirebiT. konglomerati vertikaluri koncernis
msgavsi gaerTianebaa, romlis ganmasxvavebeli niSania konglomeratis
monawileTa farTo avtonomia. sxva sityvebiT, konglomerati _ es
aris organizebuli warmonaqmni, romelSic erTiani finansuri
kontroliT Tavmoyrilia sawarmoebi, romlebic teqnologiurad
ar ukavSirdebian warmoebisa da gasaRebis, dazRvevis, samecnierokvleviT, sayofacxovrebo momsaxurebis, kinoindustriis da a.S.
sferoebs.
praqtikidan gamomdinare, konglomeratis Seqmnis procesi
calkeul sawarmoTa reorganizacias, kerZod, Serwymas an SeerTebas
ukavSirdeba, ris Sedegadac SeiZleba warmoiSvas axali warmonaqmni
254
axali saxelwodebiT, an im sawarmos saxeliT, romelmac miierTa
danarCeni. rig SemTxvevebSi konglomeratis cnebis qveS igulisxmeba
diversificirebuli, agreTve holdinguri kompaniebi.
tresti _ sawarmoTa gaerTianebaa, romlis monawile subieqtebi garkveulwilad kargaven sawarmoo, komerciul da xSirad
iuridiul damoukideblobas, radgan gaerTianeba maTi saqmianobis
yvela parametrebiT xdeba. isini eqvemdebarebian erTian mmarTvelebs. tresti ekonomikuri da organizaciuli kavSirebis
moqnilobiT xasiaTdeba.
trestSi realuri Zalaufleba gamgeobis an saTao kompaniis
xelSia Tavmoyrili. trestebis marTvis meqanizmis Sesabamisad,
sxvadasxva sawarmoTa aqcionerebi gadaandoben TavianT aqciebs
ndobiT aRWurvil pirebs, sanacvlod aqciis serTifikats iReben,
amasTan, xmis uflebaze uaris samagierod aqcionerebi ganagrZoben
dividendebis aRebas.
ramdenadac trestSi saerTo mogeba nawildeba wilobrivi
monawileobis gaTvaliswinebiT, adre damoukideblad moqmed
sawarmoebs Soris, igi SeiZleba miviCnioT iseTi gaerTianebebis
winamorbedad, rogoricaa holdinguri kompania da korcerni.
trestebma gansakuTrebuli ganviTareba erTgvarovani produqciis
warmoebis sferoebSi hpova.
sindikati _ sawarmoTa karteluri ti pis gaerTianebaa,
romlis monawileni inarCuneben iuridiul da sawarmoo damoukideblobas, Tumca kartelisagan gansxvavebiT kargaven komerciul
damoukideblobas.
sindikatis Seqmnis mTavari mizani produqciis gasaRebis
sakiTxis efeqturad gadaWraa. am amocanis Sesasruleblad mis
struqturaSi savaWro amxanagobaTa mTeli qselia Seqmnili, Tumca,
maTi saqmianoba mxolod sindikatis monawile sawarmoTa produqciis
gasaRebiT ar Semoifargleba, maT nebismieri saxis samewarmeo
saqmianobis ganxorcieleba SeuZliaT.
franCaizebi (franCaizuli sistema) _ msxvili da mcire
255
mewarmeobis TanamSromlobis hibriduli formaa. sadamfuZneblo
xelSekrulebis safuZvelze msxvili sawarmo iRebs valdebulebas
mcire sawarmos sakuTari saqonliTa da teqnologiebiT momaragebaze,
sareklamo momsaxurebaze, menejmentisa da marketingis sferoSi
momsaxurebaze, rig SemTxvevebSi axorcielebs kapitalis investirebasac. yovelive es xels uwyobs sawarmoTaTvis vaWrobisa da
momsaxurebis gawevis sferoSi marketinguli SesaZleblobebis
unificirebasa da standartizacias.
holdingi _ sawarmoTa ara imdenad nebayoflobiTi, ramdenadac iZulebiTi gaerTianebaa TviTgadarCenisa da bazarze
konkurentunarianobis donis amaRlebis mizniT. rogorc wesi,
holdingSi gaerTianebul subieqtebs operatiuli saqmianobis
ganxorcielebisas sakmarisi damoukidebloba aqvT. Tumca, iseTi
sakiTxebis gadawyvetisas, rogoricaa masalebze, saqonelze an
momsaxurebaze faswarmoqmnis politikis gansazRvra, monawileni
urTierTdaqvemdebarebul mdgomareobaSi arian.
holdingis mizani masSi gaerTianebul sawarmoTa ganviTarebis
saerTo strategiis SemuSavebaa. aSS-Si holdinguri kompaniebi
ZiriTadad sabanko sferoSi iqmneba. postsabWour qveynebSi holdingis
ukan xSirad mmarTvelobis organoebi dganan, Tumca, aseTi mdgomareoba
garkveulwilad bunebrivia. amgvari holdingebis Seqmna sawarmoTa
erTgvari reaqciaa saministroebis `ganadgurebaze~ da xorcieldeba
`Ria zRvaSi~ gasvlis mizniT.
samewarmeo saqmianobis ganmxorcielebeli organizaciul-samarTlebrivi formebi. Tanamedrove ekono-
mikuri mecniereba did mniSvnelobas aniWebs samewarmeo saqmianobis
ganmxorcielebel subieqtTa organizaciul-samarTlebriv daxasiaTebas. mewarmeobis organizaciul-samarTlebrivi formebi yvela
qveyanaSi zustad erTnairi rodia. amitom Cven maT saqarTveloSi
moqmedi kanonmdeblobis safuZvelze funqcionirebadi formebis
mixedviT ganvixilavT.
256
individualuri sawarmo
moqmedi kanonmdebloba iTvaliswinebs fizikuri piris mier,
iuridiuli piris Seuqmnelad, samewarmeo saqmianobis ganxorcielebis
SesaZleblobas. `mewarmeTa Sesaxeb~ saqarTvelos kanonis 2.2 muxlis
debulebiT, individualuri mewarme, rogorc indvidualuri
sawarmos mflobeli, aris fizikuri piri, romlis samewarmeo
saqmianobisaTvis aucilebelia samewarmeo wesiT mowyobili
organizacia, mowesrigebuli sakaso da sabuRaltro saqme.
samarTlebriv urTierTobebSi igi gamodis Tavisi saxeliT.
individualur mewarmed SesaZlebelia mogvevlinos nebismieri
srulwlovani da sruli qmedunarianobis mqone piri.
individualuri sawarmos registracias axorcielebs sagadasaxado organo, sadac individualuri mewarme an sawarmos warmomadgenlobaze uflebamosili piri dazRveuli weriliT gzavnis an
uSualod waradgens sanotaro wesiT damowmebul anketas or
egzempliarad. anketa unda Seicavdes: safirmo saxelwodebas;
organizaciul-samarTlebriv formas; individualuri mewarmis
saxels, gvars, sacxovrebel adgils da piradobis mowmobis
(pasportis) nomers; individualuri mewarmis xelmoweras. individualuri sawarmos registraciisaTvis ar gadaixdeba saxelmwifo
baJi, mosakrebeli an sxva raime gadasaxdeli.
moqmedi kanonmdebloba individualur mewarmeze avrcelebs
sruli pasuxismgeblobis princips. sxva sityvebiT, igi samewarmeo
saqmianobidan warmoSobili valdebulebebisaTvis mTeli Tavisi
qonebiT piradad agebs pasuxs.
im SemTxvevaSi, Tu samkvidro qonebas mikuTvnebuli individualuri sawarmos saqmianobas agrZeleben memkvidreebi, isini pasuxs
ageben samkvidros damtoveblis im valdebulebebisaTvis, romelic
warmoiSoba sawarmos saqmianobidan, Tu samkvidros miRebidan sami
Tvis ganmavlobaSi ar gaaCereben sawarmos da adrindeli safirmo
257
saxelwodebis gamoyenebiT gaagrZeleben mis saqmianobas samemkvidreo
urTierTobis aRmniSvneli damatebis darTviT an uimisod.
solidaruli pasuxismgeblobis
sazogadoeba
solidaruli pasuxismgeblobis sazogadoeba (sps) amxanagobis
ti pis sazogadoebaa. masSi ori an meti fizikuri piri erTiandeba,
romelTac erToblivi mogebis survili, interesTa erTianoba da
urTierTndoba akavSirebT. sps-is cnebas `mewarmeTa Sesaxeb~
saqarTvelos kanoni Semdegnairad ganmartavs: `solidaruli
pasuxismgeblobis sazogadoeba aris sazogadoeba, romelSic ramdenime fizikuri piri* erToblivad, erTiani safirmo saxelwodebiT eweva araerTjerad da damoukidebel mewarmeobas da partniorebi sazogadoebis valdebulebebisaTvis kreditorebis winaSe pasuxs ageben, rogorc
solidaruli movaleebi _ uSualod, pirdapir, mTel valdebulebebze, SeuzRudavad mTeli Tavisi qonebiT ~ (muxli
20.1).
sps-is Seqmnis dokumentad gaTvaliswinebulia mxolod
sazogadoebis wesdebis savaldebuloba, magram sazogadoebis partniorebs survilisamebr SeuZliaT dadon sadamfuZneblo
xelSekruleba (rogorc zepiri, ise werilobiTi formiT).
sazogadoebis ZiriTad materialur bazas qmnis partniorTa
Senatanebi. Senatanis moculoba partnioris wilis ganmsazRvrelia.
* saqarTvelos kanonmdeblobisagan gansxvavebiT ruseTis, SvedeTis,
germaniisa da safrangeTis kanonmdeblobiT sps-is partniori, garda fizikuri
pirisa, SeiZleba iyos iuridiuli piric. am SemTxvevaSi monawile iuridiuli
piris xelmZRvanels gaaCnia zustad is ufleba-movaleobebi, rac sps-is
partnior fizikur pirs.
258
nebismieri partniori uflebamosilia ganaxorcielos rogorc
sazogadoebis saqmianobis operatiuli marTva, ise misi warmomadgenloba.
sps-is marTvis umaRlesi organoa wevr-partniorTa saerTo
kreba. wesdebaSi SeTanxmebis SemTxvevaSi, kreba uflebamosilia
gadawyvetileba miiRos erTxmad. miuxedavad Senatanis moculobisa,
partniorTa krebaze sazogadoebis yvela wevr-partniors TiTo
xma aqvs.
sazogadoebis partniorTa pasuxismgeblobis solidaruli
xasiaTidan gamomdinare, misi xelmZRvanelobac solidarulia, Tumca,
partniorTa SeTanxmebiT SeiZleba airCes lideri _ erTi an meti
partniori, romelsac sazogadoebis marTva da warmomadgenloba
daevaleba. mmarTvel partniors, danarCen partniorTa gancxadebisa
da sasamarTlos gadawyvetilebis safuZvelze SeiZleba CamoerTvas
sazogadoebis marTvis ufleba. es wesi gamoiyeneba mmarTvelis
mier Tavisi uflebamosilebis uxeSi darRvevis an valdebulebaTa
Seusruleblobis SemTxvevaSi. sps-is partniorebze vrceldeba
konkurenciis akrZalva, rac imas niSnavs, rom maT ara aqvT ufleba
partniorebis Tanxmobis gareSe misdion imave saqmianobas, rasac
misdevs sazogadoeba, an miiRon monawileoba msgavsi ti pis sxva
sazogadoebaSi personalurad pasuxismgebeli partnioris an
direqtoris saxiT. am Tanxmobas sps-Si partniorTa kreba gascems.
sps-is, rogorc amxanagobis tipis sazogadoebis sasicocxlo
nervi partniorTa gaZlierebuli pasuxismgeblobaa, rac Semdegi
ori maCvenebliT xasiaTdeba: 1. pasuxismgeblobis moculobis mixedviT
_ SeuzRudavi; 2. pasuxismgeblobis xasiaTis mixedviT _ solidaruli (erTi yvelasaTvis, yvela erTisaTvis).
sazogadoebis partniori uflebamosilia gaasxvisos Tavisi
wili sps-is qonebaSi. es procedura mkacrad kontroldeba da,
sazogadoebis xasiaTidan gamomdinare, yvela partnioris Tanxmobas
moiTxovs. aRniSnuli Tanxmoba wilis daTmobis Sesaxeb xelSekrulebaSi fiqsirdeba da sanotaro damowmebas eqvemdebareba.
259
Tu partniori masze dakisrebul arsebiT movaleobebs ar
asrulebs an xdeba movaleobaTa permanentuli gazrax uxeSi an
gaufrTxileblobiT darRveva, danarCeni partniorebi uflebamosilni
arian gancxadebiT mimarTon sasamarTlos da moiTxovon aseTi
partnioris sazogadoebis Semadgenlobidan garicxva. aRniSnulis
Sesaxeb sasamarTlos gamoaqvs gadawyvetileba.
partnioris sazogadoebis Semadgenlobidan gasvlis an garicxvis
SemTxvevaSi misi wili sazogadoebis qonebaSi daemateba sxva
danarCen partniorebs. es ukanasknelni valdebuli arian
sazogadoebidan gamsvleli an garicxuli partniori gaaTavisuflon sazogadoebis valebisagan da gadauxadon is, rasac igi
sazogadoebis likvidaciis SemTxvevaSi miiRebda. umemkvidreod
darCenili partnioris gardacvalebis SemTxvevaSi misi wili sxva
danarCen partniorebs emateba. xolo Tu gardacvlil partniors
hyavs memkvidreebi, maSin yovel memkvidres SeuZlia sazogadoebaSi
darCes imisda mixedviT, mieniWeba Tu ara mas komanditis statusi
da CaeTvleba Tu ara samkvidros damtoveblis sawevro Senatanidan
misi kuTvnili wili sakomandito Senatanad.
sps-is gansakuTrebuli buneba misi likvidaciis safuZvlebSic ikveTeba. magaliTad, sazogadoebis wesdebiT SeiZleba
ganisazRvros, rom partnioris gasvlam gamoiwvios sazogadoebis
likvidacia, Tu sazogadoebidan gasvlis Sesaxeb ganacxadeben xmaTa
50%-ze metis mflobeli partniorebi. garda amisa, sazogadoebis
likvidaciis safuZvlebia: im vadis gasvla, ra vadiTac igi Seiqmna;
partniorTa gadawyvetileba; sazogadoebis mimarT gakotrebis saqmis
warmoebis gaxsna; sasamarTlos gadawyvetileba.
komandituri sazogadoeba
komandituri sazogadoeba (ks), solidaruli pasuxismgeblobis
sazogadoebasTan erTad, amxanagobis ti pis gaerTianebaa. ks-is
cnebas `mewarmeTa Sesaxeb~ saqarTvelos kanoni Semdegnairad
gamoxatavs: `sazogadoeba, romelSic ramdenime piri erTob260
livad erTiani safirmo saxelwodebiT eweva araerTjerad
da damoukidebel mewarmeobas, aris komandituri sazogadoeba,
Tu erTi an ramdenime partnioris pasuxismgebloba
s a z o gad o eb is kr ed it o r eb is wi na S e ga ns a z R v r u li
sagarantio Tanxis gadaxdiT Semoifargleba (komanditebi),
xolo sxva partniorebis pasuxismgebloba SezRuduli
ar aris (komplementarebi)~ (muxli 34).
komandituri sazogadoeba sps-is modificirebuli nairsaxeobaa.
miuxedavad maT Soris arsebuli msgavsebisa, arsebobs mTeli rigi
gansxvavebebi, rac, Tavis mxriv, ks-Si kapitalis mniSvnelovnad
meti odenobiT koncentrirebas uwyobs xels. gacilebiT iolia im
pirTa moZieba, romelic mzadaa mxolod winaswar gansazRvruli
TanxiT gariskos, vidre im pirebisa, romlebic mTel Tavis qonebas
erTgvarad sasworze deben. aRniSnulidan gamomdinare, ks gacilebiT
rTuli organizaciaa, vidre sps, Tumca bevrad martivi, vidre
kapitaluri ti pis sawarmoebi.
ks-is erT-erTi mTavari ganmasxvavebeli niSani misi subieqturi Semadgenloba da am ukanasknelTa Sesabamisi pasuxismgeblobaa.
ks-is damfuZneblad gamodis minimum ori piri. aqedan erTi
aucileblad komplementaria, romelic pasuxismgebelia jer Tavisi
Senatanis moculobiT, xolo misi ukmarisobis SemTxvevaSi, mTeli
Tavisi qonebiT (komplementaris samarTlebrivi mdgomareoba
faqtobrivad igivea, rac sps-is partniorisa); meore _ komanditi,
romelic sazogadoebis valdebulebebze mxolod mis mier winaswar
gansazRvruli sagarantio TanxiTaa pasuxismgebeli (komanditis
pasuxismgebloba Sps-is partnioris pasuxismgeblobis identuria).
personalurad pasuxismgebeli partniorebi (komplementarebi)
SeiZleba mxolod fizikuri pirebi iyvnen, komanditi ki _ rogorc
fizikuri, ise iuridiuli piri (saxelmwifos CaTvliT).
aSkaraa, rom komandituri sazogadoeba personaluri
(amxanagobis) da kapitaluri ti pis sazogadoebaTa elementebs
aerTianebs da erTgvarad gardamaval formad gvevlineba. ks-s,
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rogorc amxanagobis ti pis sazogadoebas, winaswar dadgenili
myari sawesdebo kapitalis qona ar moeTxoveba, Tumca, rig
SemTxvevebSi sazogadoebis wesdebiT arc esaa gamoricxuli.
ks-is dafuZnebis procesi sps-is dafuZnebis identuria,
ramdenadac orive amxanagobis ti pis saxelSekrulebo sazogadoebaa, romelSic ramdenime piri erToblivad, erTiani safirmo
saxelwodebiT araerTjerad da damoukidebel mewarmeobas eweva.
amitom SemTxveviTi ar aris, rom ks-is mimarT, zogadi nawilis
wesebTan erTad, sps-is maregulirebeli wesebic gamoiyeneba.
ks-is marTvaSi partniorTa mdgomareoba araTanabaria. zogadi
wesis mixedviT, komanditebi sazogadoebis xelmZRvanelobaSi ar
monawileoben. maT ar SeuZliaT gamovidnen personalurad
pasuxismgebeli partniorebis qmedebis winaaRmdeg. wesdebiT maT
SeiZleba mieniWoT amgvari uflebamosileba, oRond warmomadgenlobis
uflebis gareSe. amasTan, zogadi wesis Tanaxmad, komanditze,
komplementarisagan gansxvavebiT, ar vrceldeba konkurenciis
akrZalva. gamonaklisia SemTxveva, roca komandits miniWebuli
aqvs sawarmos Siga marTvis funqcia.
sazogadoebis kreditorebis mimarT komanditis pasuxismgebloba
samewarmeo reestrSi miTiTebuli sagarantio TanxiT ganisazRvreba.
Tu komandits srulad ar aqvs Setanili sagarantio Tanxa, igi
pasuxs agebs rogorc komplementari _ SeuzRudavad, pirdapir,
mTeli Tavisi qonebiT.
komplementarisagan gansxvavebiT, komanditis mier sakuTari
wilis gasxviseba da memkvidreobiT gadacema ar moiTxovs partniorTa
Tanxmobas (Tu wesdebiT sxva ram ar aris gaTvaliswinebuli).
sazogadoebis wesdebiT SesaZloa gaTvaliswinebuli iyos gansxvavebuli wesi, magaliTad, wilis gasxviseba damokidebuli iyos
partniorTa Tanxmobaze an maT hqondeT wilis upiratesi Sesyidvis
ufleba. nebismier SemTxvevaSi, komanditis mier wilis gasxvisebasTan
dakavSirebul xelSekrulebas sanotaro damowmeba esaWiroeba.
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SezRuduli pasuxismgeblobis
sazogadoeba
SezRuduli pasuxismgeblobis sazogadoeba (Sps) kontinenturi evropis masStabiT yvelaze popularuli organizaciulsamarTlebrivi formaa. rac Seexeba Sps-is definicias, `mewarmeTa
Sesaxeb~ saqarTvelos kanoni mas Semdegnairad gansazRvravs:
`SezRuduli pasuxismgeblobis sazogadoeba aris sazogadoeba, romlis pasuxismgebloba misi kreditorebis winaSe
Semoifargleba mTeli misi qonebiT. sazogadoebis partniori ar aris pasuxismgebeli sazogadoebis valdebulebebze~ (muxli 44). amasTan, Sps-is partniori Sesatanis saboloo
Setanamde sazogadoebis kreditorebis winaSe pasuxs agebs mis
mier Seutaneli Sesatanis odenobiT. maSasadame, Sps mTeli Tavisi
qonebiT agebs pasuxs kreditorebis winaSe, xolo misi
partniori pasuxismgebelia sawesdebo kapitalSi misi wilis
odenobiT. aseTi sazogadoebis dafuZneba SeuZlia erT pirsac.
amxanagobis ti pis sawarmosagan gansxvavebiT, Sps kapitalis
gaerTianebis Sedegad Seqmnili sazogadoebaa. swored amitom Spsis partniori erTdroulad SeiZleba ramdenime sawarmos partniorad
mogvevlinos. partnioris riski mxolod mis mier sawesdebo
kapitalSi ganxorcielebuli SenataniT Semoifargleba. gansazRvrul
garantiebs iReben kreditorebic, radgan pasuxismgeblobis xasiaTi
da moculoba maTTvis Tavidanve cnobilia.
Sps-is ZiriTad sadamfuZneblo dokuments wesdeba warmoadgens, romelic kanonTan erTad gansazRvravs sazogadoebis samarTlebriv statuss. wesdebis mixedviT regulirdeba sazogadoebis
marTvis organoTa funqcia da kompetencia, sameurneo Sedegebis
ganawilebis principebi, moqmedebis xangrZlivoba da likvidaciis
pirobebi.
Sps-is marTvis aucilebeli organoebia partniorTa saerTo
kreba da direqcia (direqtori). rac Seexeba sameTvalyureo sabWos,
aq igi fakultaturia, anu sazogadoebis wesdebaSi SeiZleba
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gaTvaliswinebuli iyos sameTvalyureo sabWos Seqmna. amasTan,
`mewarmeTa Sesaxeb~ saqarTvelos kanonSi 2001 wlis 19 ivniss
Sesuli cvlileba imperatiulad gansazRvravs: `saxelmwifos
wilobrivi monawileobiT Seqmnil sazogadoebebSi, sadac saxelmwifos
wili 50%-ze metia, amasTan, sawesdebo kapitalis odenoba aRemateba
30000 lars da Tanxebis wliuri brunvis odenoba 100000 lars,
sameTvalyureo sabWos Seqmna savaldebuloa~ (muxli 48). am
SemTxvevaSi sameTvalyureo sabWo moqmedebs saaqcio sazogadoebis
sameTvalyureo sabWosaTvis SemuSavebuli wesebiT.
partniorTa saerTo kreba, rogorc sazogadoebis marTvis
umaRlesi organo, tardeba sul cota weliwadSi erTxel mainc
da igi iRebs gadawyvetilebebs wliuri Sedegebis Sesaxeb. kreba
SeiZleba iyos riggareSec. yvela partniors ufleba aqvs daeswros
partniorTa saerTo krebas, monawileoba miiRos dRis wesrigiT
gansazRvrul sakiTxTa ganxilvaSi da xma misces gadawyvetilebis
miRebas. partniorTa krebis mier miRebuli gadawyvetileba oqmis
saxiT formdeba, romelsac xels awers Tavmjdomare.
Sps kapitaluri ti pis sazogadoebaa. mas gaaCnia partniorTa
mier windaTqmuli da kanonis Sesabamisad, wesdebiT gansazRvruli
sawesdebo kapitali. sawesdebo kapitalis minimaluri odenoba
2000 laria. sawesdebo kapitali dayofilia partniorTa mier
Setanili wilebis mixedviT. TiToeuli partnioris Sesatanis
odenoba sawesdebo kapitalSi SeiZleba gansxvavebulad ganisazRvros. amasTan, igi aucileblad 10-ze unaSTod unda iyofodes.
rogorc wesi, Sps-is wesdeba gansazRvravs TiToeuli partnioris
minimaluri Sesatanis odenobas, rac pirdapir kavSirSia wilisa
da partniorTa saerTo krebaze xmis odenobasTan. magaliTad, Sps
`nikorwmindas~ wesdebiT gaTvaliswinebulia, rom sazogadoebis
sawesdebo kapitalSi Senatanis 5% warmoSobs erT xmas, amasTan,
sawesdebo kapitali ganisazRvreba 3000 lariT; maSin mocemuli
magaliTis mixedviT, Sps `nikorwmindas~ minimaluri Sesatani 150
lariT ganisazRvreba.
264
sazogadoebis dafinansebis wyaro, garda partniorTa Senatanebisa,
SeiZleba sasesxo kapitalic iyos. kanonmdebloba eyrdnoba sawesdebo kapitalisa da sasesxo kapitalis Tanafardobis gansazRvraSi
Tavisuflebis princi ps, romlis Tanaxmad, arcTu iSviaTad
dafinansebis mTavar wyaros faqtobrivad sasesxo kapitali warmoadgens, xolo sesxis gamcemad gamodian imave sazogadoebis
partniorebi.
sazogadoebis dafuZnebisas ganxorcielebuli Sesatanis
gankargvis ufleba aqvs sazogadoebas; sazogadoeba xdeba am qonebis
mesakuTre. amasTan, partniors SeuZlia wilis gasxviseba da
memkvidreobiT gadacema.
wilis gasxvisebis ufleba aqvs mxolod mis mesakuTres an
misgan uflebamosil pirs, rac formdeba sanotaro wesiT
damowmebuli saTanado xelSekrulebiT. partnioris gardacvalebisas misi wili Sedis samkvidro masaSi da gadadis memkvidreebze.
Tu memkvidre ramdenimea, wili gadadis maT saerTo sakuTrebaSi.
wili SeiZleba gasxvisdes ara mTlianad, aramed nawilobriv. wilis
nawilobrivi gasxviseba SesaZlebelia mxolod sazogadoebis
nebarTviT.
sameurneo wlis bolos partniori uflebamosilia gamoiyenos
Tavisi umTavresi ufleba, kerZod, moiTxovos Tavisi wili mogeba
(dividendi), rac sawesdebo kapitalSi misi wilis proporciulia.
partniorTa gadawyvetilebiT mogeba SeiZleba ar ganawildes da
moxmardes warmoebis gafarToebas an gadairicxos sarezervo fondSi.
saaqcio sazogadoeba
saqarTveloSi arsebuli socialur-ekonomikuri da politikuri
mdgomareobis, aseve fulad da fiskalur politikaSi mimdinare
cvlilebebis gaTvaliswinebiT, saaqcio sazogadoebas (ss), rogorc
samewarmeo saqmianobis erT-erT yvelaze popularul subieqts,
didi roli miuZRvis Cveni qveynis ekonomikis ganviTarebaSi, sazRvargareTis qveynebTan kavSirebis gafarToebasa da, bolos, Cveni
265
sazogadoebis socialur-ekonomikuri stabilurobis gaZlierebaSi.
amitom misi samarTlebrivi statusis gansazRvras didi Teoriuli
da praqtikuli mniSvneloba aqvs.
`mewarmeTa Sesaxeb~ saqarTvelos kanonis Tanaxmad, `saaqcio
sazogadoeba aris sazogadoeba, romlis sawesdebo kapitali dayofilia erTi da imave nominaluri Rirebulebis
mqone aqciebad. aqcia aris fasiani qaRaldi, romelic
adasturebs saaqcio sazogadoebis valdebulebebs partnioris mimarT da aqcioneris uflebebs saaqcio sazogadoebaSi. saaqcio sazogadoebis pasuxismgebloba kreditorTa winaSe Semoifargleba mTeli misi qonebiT. saaqcio
sazogadoebis aqcioneri pasuxs ar agebs saaqcio sazogadoebis valdebulebebze~ (muxli 51.1).
saaqcio sazogadoebis partniori SeiZleba iyos fizikuri da/
an iuridiuli piri. misi Seqmnis ufleba erT pirsac aqvs. aqcionerTa
uflebebi ori saxisaa: piradi (sazogadoebis aqcionerTa saerTo
krebaze monawileobis ufleba, xmis ufleba, informaciis miRebis
da sxva uflebebi) da qonebrivi (dividendis miRebis ufleba,
sazogadoebis likvidaciisas qonebis ganawilebaSi monawileobis
miRebis da sxva uflebebi). imis gamo, rom ss mkacrad kapitaluri
xasiaTisaa, piradi uflebebi aq naklebad dominirebs, radgan piradi
uflebebis realuri ganxorcielebis ufleba mxolod aqciaTa
mniSvnelovani raodenobis mflobel pirebs gaaCniaT.
saaqcio sazogadoeba, Sps-is msgavsad, kapitaluri tipis sazogadoebaa. misi sawesdebo kapitalis minimaluri odenoba kanoniT
mkacradaa gansazRvruli 15000 lariT. rac Seexeba komerciul
bankebs, maTTvis erovnuli bankis 2005 wels gamocemuli brZanebiT,
minimaluri sawesdebo kapitali 7,8 milioni lariT ganisazRvreba.
saaqcio sazogadoebis yvela dokumenti aRiricxeba sazogadoebis wignSi. aqciaTa registracia warmoebs saaqcio sazogadoebis aqciaTa reestrSi, romelsac TviT sazogadoeba an
damoukidebeli registratori awarmoebs. amasTan, `mewarmeTa Sesaxeb~
266
saqarTvelos kanonis 55.3 muxlis Tanaxmad, ss, romlis aqciaTa
raodenobac 100-ze metia, valdebulia aqcionerTa reestri awarmoos
damoukidebeli registratoris meSveobiT, masTan dadebuli
xelSekrulebis safuZvelze.
moqmedi kanonmdebloba erTmaneTisagan ganasxvavebs Ria da
daxuruli ti pis saaqcio sazogadoebebs. Ria ti pis saaqcio
sazogadoebis dafuZnebisas gamoiyeneba aqciaTa SeZenis Ria da
yvelasaTvis xelmisawvdomi sistema. daxuruli ti pis saaqcio
sazogadoebaSi ki aqciebi mxolod damfuZneblebze an winaswar
gansazRvrul pirTa wreze nawildeba. aqciis upiratesi Sesyidvis
uflebiT amave sazogadoebis aqcionerebi sargebloben. garda amisa,
daxuruli ti pis ss ar aris valdebuli gamoaqveynos Tavisi
saqmianobis Sedegebi.
saaqcio sazogadoebis marTvis umaRlesi organoa aqcionerTa saerTo kreba _ moiwveva weliwadSi erTxel, sazogadoebis
wliuri balansis Sedgenidan ori Tvis vadaSi. igi ixilavs
informacias gasuli wlis saqmianobis Sedegebis Sesaxeb da
gansazRvravs sazogadoebis saqmianobis ZiriTad mimarTulebebs.
riggareSe saerTo kreba tardeba aqcionerTa moTxovniT.
saerTo krebis mowvevis Sesaxeb informacia unda gamoqveyndes
presaSi. dRis wesrigi aqcionerebisaTvis winaswar unda iyos
cnobili. kreba tardeba ss-is ukanasknel iuridiul misamarTze
an nebismier sxva adgilze _ saqarTvelos teritoriis farglebSi.
informacia krebis muSaobis Sesaxeb aisaxeba notariusis mier
Sedgenil oqmSi. krebas xelmZRvanelobs sameTvalyureo sabWos
Tavmjdomare, misi aryofnis SemTxvevaSi _ moadgile, misi aryofnis
SemTxvevaSi ki _ direqtori.
saaqcio sazogadoebis marTvis mniSvnelovan da aucilebel
organos warmoadgens sameTvalyureo sabWo , romelic Sedgeba
sul mcire 3 da araumetes 21 wevrisagan. wevrTa raodenoba
unaSTod unda iyofodes samze. wevrTa 2/3 airCeva saerTo krebis
mier, xolo 1/3 SeiZleba airCes muSa-mosamsaxureTagan. amasTan,
267
sameTvalyureo sabWos wevrTa arCevisas aqcionerebi SeiZleba
SeTanxmdnen xmebis akumulirebis meTodis gamoyenebaze, riTac
SesaZlebelia aqcionerTa umciresobis interesebis optimaluri
dacva.
sameTvalyureo sabWos wevrebi airCevian oTxi wliT da damatebiT im vadiT, rac saWiroa vadis gasvlidan momdevno saerTo
krebis mowvevamde. saerTo krebis mier mniSvnelovani safuZvlis
arsebobis SemTxvevaSi SeiZleba gaTavisufldes sameTvalyureo
sabWos wevri. axali wevri unda airCes Zvelis gasvlidan eqvsi
Tvis ganmavlobaSi. aRniSnulis Seusruleblobis SemTxvevaSi axal
wevrs niSnavs sasamarTlo.
sameTvalyureo sabWos sxdomebi tardeba kvartalSi erTxel
mainc. sabWo gadawyvetilebaunariania, Tu mas eswreba an warmodgenilia wevrTa naxevari mainc. sameTvalyureo sabWos kompetenciebidan yvelaze mniSvnelovania sazogadoebis direqtorTa daniSvna
(xmaTa ubralo umravlesobiT), kontroli maT saqmianobaze da
direqtorTa gamowveva.
saaqcio sazogadoebis xelmZRvanelobasa da warmomadgenlobas
axorcielebs direqcia (erTpirovnuli an kolegialuri organo).
sazogadoebis SinaganawesiT SeiZleba gaTvaliswinebuli iyos
direqtorTa Soris funqciaTa ganawileba. winaaRmdeg SemTxvevaSi
sazogadoebis saxeliT dadebul yvela garigebas xels unda awerdnen
direqtorebi.
saaqcio sazogadoebis kompetenciaSi Sedis aqciaTa gamoSveba.
`aqcia~ laTinuri sityvaa (actio) da gankargulebas, pretenzias
niSnavs. materialuri TvalsazrisiT, aqcia dividenis miRebis, marTvaSi
monawileobis, sazogadoebis likvidaciisas misi qonebis gayofaSi
monawileobis miRebis uflebis mimniWebeli fasiani qaRaldia.
formaluri gagebiT, aqcia saaqcio sazogadoebaSi monawileobis
damadasturebelia.
fasiani qaRaldebis klasikuri Teoria ganasxvavebs saxelobiT aqcias da sawarmdgenlo aqcias. saxelobiTi aqcia mimagre268
bulia garkveul aqcionerze sazogadoebis wignSi Caweris saSualebiT. sawarmdgenlo aqcia ekuTvnis mis faqtiur mflobels
da mimagrebuli ar aris romelime konkretul pirovnebaze.
saqarTvelos kanonmdeblobiT daiSveba Cveulebrivi da
privilegirebuli aqciebis gamoSveba, romlebic 1999 wlis
seqtembridan SeiZleba gaices mxolod saxelobiTi formiT (piradi
fasiani qaRaldi). swored saxelobiT aqcias ganixilaven aramaterialuri fasiani qaRaldebis Teoriis sawyisad. kanonmdeblobis
mixedviT, aramaterialuri saxiT mxolod piradi fasiani qaRaldi
SeiZleba arsebobdes. privilegirebuli aqciebis nominaluri
Rirebuleba ar unda aRematebodes Cveulebrivi aqciebis nominals.
kanonmdebloba erTmaneTisagan mijnavs Cveulebrivi da
privilegirebuli aqciebis mflobel aqcionerTa uflebebs.
Cveulebrivi aqciis mflobeli aqcioneri uflebamosilia monawileoba miiRos Tavisi kompetenciis farglebSi sazogadoebis saerTo krebis muSaobaSi xmis uflebiT (TiTo aqcia TiTo
xmis uflebiT sargeblobs), dividendis miRebaSi, xolo sazogadoebis
likvidaciis SemTxvevaSi _ qonebis ganawilebaSi.
privilegirebuli aqciis mflobeli aqcionerebi ar sargebloben xmis uflebiT da, Sesabamisad, sazogadoebis marTvaSi ar
monawileoben. am aqcionerTa privilegia ganisazRvreba dividendis
dadgenili ganakveTis miRebiT, rac aqciis nominaluri Rirebulebis
fiqsirebuli procentis saxiT xorcieldeba; masve SeiZleba hqondes
salikvidacio qvotis upiratesi miRebis uflebac. garda amisa,
likvidirebuli sazogadoebis qoneba, valebis dafarvis Semdeg,
pirvel rigSi nawildeba privilegirebul aqciaTa mflobelebze,
xolo Semdeg danarCen (Cveulebrivi aqciis mflobel) aqcionerebze.
saaqcio sazogadoebis qonebis masaSi, sawesdebo kapitalis
garda, Sedis sasesxo kapitalic, romlis Seqmnis safuZvelia obligacia. obligacia (obligation _ valdebuleba) fasiani qaRaldia,
romelic adasturebs misi mflobelis uflebas obligaciaSi
269
gamoxatuli nominaluri Rirebulebis miRebis Sesaxeb. masSi
dafiqsirebuli valdebuleba sasesxo kapitalis dabrunebis Taobaze
SeiZleba iyos rogorc procentiani, ise uprocento; aseve, rogorc
saxelobiTi, ise sawarmdgenlo. obligaciaSi SeiZleba aisaxos
sesxis sxvadasxva forma, romelic misi aqciad gardaqmnis
SesaZleblobas iZleva. aqciad gardaqmnis pirobebi SeiZleba
aRiniSnos rogorc TviT fasian qaRaldze, ise sazogadoebis wignSi.
saaqcio sazogadoebis mier obligaciis gamoSvebis Sesaxeb
gadawyvetilebas, erovnul bankTan SeTanxmebiT, Rebulobs sazogadoebis saerTo kreba an sameTvalyureo sabWo. gadawyvetilebaSi
unda aRiniSnos obligaciis forma, misi dafarvis konkretuli
pirobebi da vadebi.
klasikuri obligacia _ es aris sasesxo mowmoba, romelic
moicavs emitentis Semdeg or ZiriTad valdebulebas: a) windaTqmuli
vadis gasvlis Semdeg daubrunos obligaciis mflobels nominaluri
Rirebuleba; b) obligaciis mflobels regularulad gadauxados
fiqsirebuli Semosavali obligaciaze miTiTebuli nominaluri
Rirebulebis procentis saxiT.
princi puli gansxvaveba aqciasa da obligacias Soris imaSi
mdgomareobs, rom aqciis yidvisas investori xdeba saaqcio
sazogadoebis aqcioneri (partniori), obligaciis SeZenisas ki _
kreditori.
sazogadoebis mier gamoSvebul obligaciaTa nominalur
RirebulebaTa jami ar unda aRematebodes sazogadoebis sawesdebo
kapitalis odenobas. amasTan, obligaciis gamoSveba mxolod mas
Semdeg aris SesaZlebeli, roca sawesdebo kapitalis formireba
dasrulebulia.
saaqcio sazogadoeba, rig SemTxvevaSi, obligaciis garda,
uflebamosilia gamosces sxva saxis fasiani qaRaldebic (Ceki,
Tamasuqi da a.S.).
CekSi aRiniSneba misi gamcemis gankarguleba Cekis mflobelze
270
dokumentSi aRniSnuli Tanxis gacemis Taobaze. Ceki saxelobiTi
fasiani qaRaldia, romelTan dakavSirebul urTierTobebSi sami
piri monawileobs: misi gamcemi, mimRebi da gamnaRdebeli.
Tamasuqi abstraqtuli fuladi valdebulebis Semcveli
fasiani qaRaldia, savalo dokumentis nairsaxeobaa. igi SeiZleba
iyos martivi da rTuli anu gadacemiTi. martivia Tamasuqi,
roca masSi saxelobiT aris miTiTebuli, Tu vin gasca Tamasuqi
da vin unda miiRos fuladi Tanxa. gadacemiTi Tamasuqi aris
saordero fasiani qaRaldi, romlis mflobels yovelTvis SeuZlia
TamasuqiT gaTvaliswinebuli misi uflebebi gadasces sxva pirs
saTanado warweriT (indosamentiT). piri, vinc aseTi warweriT
gadasca ufleba sxva pirs, pasuxismgebelia TamasuqiT gaTvaliswinebuli valdebulebis SesrulebisaTvis, Tu am warweraSi pirdapir
ar aris miTiTebuli sxva piroba.
dReisaTvis msoflio masStabiT SeimCneva saaqcio sazogadoebaTa ganviTarebis tendencia, rasac, bunebrivia, masSi akumulirebuli
msxvili Tanxebis brunvaunarianobis maRali maCvenebeli ganapirobebs.
kooperativi
kooperativi samewarmeo saqmianobis ganmxorcielebeli erTerTi organizaciul-samarTlebrivi formaa, romlis regulireba
`mewarmeTa Sesaxeb~ saqarTvelos kanoniT, `samomxmareblo
kooperaciis Sesaxeb~ saqarTvelos kanoniT da sxva Sesabamisi
sakanonmdeblo aqtebiT xorcieldeba. ufro konkretulad,
kooperativi aris wevrTa SromiT saqmianobaze dafuZnebuli an wevrTa meurneobis ganviTarebisa da Semosavlis
gadidebis mizniT Seqmnili sazogadoeba, romlis amocanaa
wevrTa interesebis dakmayofileba da igi mimarTuli araa
upiratesad mogebis miRebaze .
rogorc Cans, kooperativis saqmianoba, uwinares yovlisa,
mimarTulia misi wevrebis interesebis dakmayofilebaze da ara
271
kooperativis, rogorc damoukidebeli sameurneo erTeulis, mier
mogebis miRebaze. es niSani kooperativis wevrebisaTvis arsebiTi
ekonomikuri da iuridiuli garantiaa. amasTan, es ar gamoricxavs
kooperativis mier mogebis miRebis SesaZleblobas.
saqarTvelos kanonmdeblobiT, kooperativis wevri SeiZleba
iyos rogorc fizikuri, ise iuridiuli piri. kooperativis
SemadgenlobaSi Sedis minimum ori piri, xolo wevrTa maqsimaluri
raodenoba kanoniT ar ganisazRvreba. kooperativis wevrobis
aucilebeli pirobaa masSi gaerTianebul pirTa piradi SromiTi
an sxvagvari monawileoba kooperativSi, ris gamoc mas xSirad
artels uwodeben.
kanoni kooperativis wevrobis warmoSobis or gzas icnobs: 1.
kooperativis wevrobas damfuZneblis saxiT da 2. kooperativis
wevrad miRebas kooperativis dafuZnebis Semdeg.
kooperativis saqmianoba ZiriTadad TviTdaxmarebis, TviTmmarTvelobis da sakuTari pasuxismgeblobis princi pebs emyareba.
TviTdaxmarebaSi igulisxmeba is, rom kooperativi Tavis
wevrebs xels uwyobs im amocanaTa SesrulebaSi, rac calkeuli
individis SesaZleblobebs aRemateba. kooperativis meSveobiT
individi inarCunebs meurneobriv arsebobas da ar izRudeba misi
samewarmeo Tavisufleba.
TviTmmarTveloba gulisxmobs imas, rom kooperativi
avtonomiuri warmonaqmnia. mas Tavad kooperativi marTavs, maszevea
delegirebuli kontrolis uflebac.
sakuTar pasuxismgeblobaSi igulisxmeba is, rom kooperativis valdebulebebisaTvis, rogorc wesi, pasuxs ar ageben
kooperativis wevrebi, pasuxismgebelia Tavad kooperativi, rogorc
sameurneo erTeuli.
kanoni `mewarmeTa Sesaxeb~ CamoTvlis Semdegi Svidi saxis
kooperativs:
 nedleulis mompovebeli kooperativebi, romlebic am formiT
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nedleuls moipoveben sakuTari wevrebisaTvis;
 sasoflo-sameurneo an sarewao produqciis erToblivi
gasaRebis kooperativebi;
 sasoflo-sameurneo produqciis mwarmoebeli da sxvadasxva
sagnebis damamzadebeli da erToblivi xarjebiT maTi realizaciis
kooperativebi (sasoflo-sameurneo da sawarmoo kooperativebi);
 masobrivi moxmarebis saqonlis sabiTumo wesiT SemZeni da
sacalo vaWrobiT maTi sarealizacio kooperativebi;
 sasoflo-sameurneo warmoebis an sarewebisaTvis aucilebeli materialur-teqnikuri resursebis SeZena-warmoebisa da maTi
erToblivi gamoyenebis kooperativebi;
 sasoflo-sakredito kooperativebi;
 samomxmareblo (mravaldargovani) kooperativebi, romelTa
samarTlebrivi, ekonomikuri da socialuri safuZvlebi regulirdeba saqarTvelos 1997 wlis 15 maisis kanoniT `samomxmareblo
kooperaciis Sesaxeb~.
kooperativis wevrebs SeaqvT sapaio Senatanebi, rac erTobliobaSi sawarmos qonebas warmoadgens. kooperativis wevris minimaluri
pais odenoba damfuZneblis mier ganisazRvreba. yoveli pai unaSTod
unda iyofodes 50-ze. kooperativis erT wevrs SeiZleba hqondes
ramdenime pai.
kooperativis marTvis organoebia: mepaieTa saerTo kreba, kanoniT
an wesdebiT gansazRvrul SemTxvevaSi _ warmomadgenelTa kreba,
sameTvalyureo sabWo da gamgeoba. aqve aRsaniSnavia erTi mniSvnelovani gansxvaveba kooperativis direqtoris arCevasTan dakavSirebiT.
ss-is direqtorebisagan gansxvavebiT (romelsac niSnavs sameTvalyureo sabWo), kooperativSi direqtorebs irCevs saerTo an warmomadgenlebis kreba, oTxi sameurneo wlis vadiT. kooperativis
gamgeoba Sedgeba aranakleb ori direqtorisagan. direqtorebi
SeiZleba ar iyvnen kooperativis wevrebi. wesdeba SeiZleba sxva
pirobebsac iTvaliswinebdes.
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rac Seexeba mogebisa da zaralis ganawilebas kooperativSi,
`mewarmeTa Sesaxeb~ kanonis 68-e muxli gansazRvravs, rom wliuri
angariSis damtkicebisas kooperativis wevrebisaTvis gaTvaliswinebuli sameurneo wlis mogeba an zarali unawildebaT kooperativis wevrebs. pirveli sameurneo wlisaTvis ganawileba xdeba
maT mier Sesrulebuli Senatanebis proporciulad, yoveli momdevno
wlisaTvis ki _ mogebis mimatebiTa da zaralis Camoweris gziT,
wina sameurneo wlis bolosaTvis arsebuli pais saerTo Tanxis
proporciulad. mogebis mimateba grZeldeba manam, sanam ar iqneba
miRweuli pais odenoba. amasTan, wesdeba SeiZleba iTvaliswinebdes
mogebisa da zaralis ganawilebis sxva wesebs. sanam ar miiRweva
zaralis gamo Semcirebuli pais odenoba, mogeba ar nawildeba.
wesdeba an saerTo krebis dadgenileba SeiZleba iTvaliswinebdes,
rom mogeba mTlianad an nawilobriv daericxos rezervs. aseT
SemTxvevaSi kooperativis wevrs miecema mxolod Sromis sazRauri.
kanoni iTvaliswinebs kooperativis wevrobidan gasvlis Semdeg
safuZvlebs: piradi gancxadebiT, kooperativis mier saqmianobis
Secvlis, kooperativis wevrobidan garicxvisa da kooperativis
wevris gardacvalebis gamo (muxli 62). amasTan, wesdebiT SesaZloa
gaTvaliswinebuli iyos sxva safuZvelic.
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leqcia 15. sawarmos danaxarji da
mogeba
`danaxarjebis kalkulacia _ sicocxlis kalkulaciaa.~
f.haieki
`mravali saukunis manZilze kacobriobam ver ipova efeqtianobis sxva
kriteriumi, garda mogebisa.~
n.Smeliovi
`ganviTarebis gareSe ar aris samewarmeo mogeba, am ukanasknelis gareSe
ar aris ganviTareba.~
i.Sumpeteri
sawarmos danaxarjis arsi da zogadi saxeebi.
ekonomikuri azrovnebis erT-erTi Tavisebureba isaa, rom ekonomisti
sagnebsa da movlenebs ganixilavs `danaxarji-Sedegis~ princi piT.
nebismieri saqonlisa da momsaxurebis warmoeba moiTxovs ekonomikuri resursebis xarjvas. am resursebs ki Rirebuleba da fasi
gaaCnia. samagierod, resursebis gamoyenebiT Seqmnili saqoneli da
momsaxurebac unda gaiyidos gansazRvrul fasSi. am fasebis
urTierTSedareba gviCvenebs, xelsayrelia Tu ara biznes-saqmianoba,
romelsac xeli movkideT.
zogadad, ekonomikuri danaxarjebis gageba efuZneba imis
aRiarebas, rom, jer erTi, ekonomikuri resursebisaTvis damaxasiaTebelia iSviaToba (SezRuduloba) da, meorec, arsebobs
resursebis alternatiuli gamoyenebis SesaZlebloba.
ekonomikuri danaxarjebi dakavSirebulia resursebis iSviaTobasTan. saqme isaa, rom resursebis iSviaTobis gamo sazogadoebas
275
ar SeuZlia erTdroulad gaadidos misTvis saWiro yvela saqonlis
warmoeba. rodesac resursebs viyenebT ama Tu im saqonlis warmoebisaTvis, xeli unda aviRoT (uari unda vTqvaT) romeliRac sxva
saqonlis warmoebaze, e.i. xelidan unda gavuSvaT Semosavali,
romelic SegveZlo migveRo resursebis alternatiuli gamoyenebisas.
amitom sruliad samarTlianad SeniSnavs p.xeine: `biznesis
namdvili xarji xelidan gaSvebuli Semosavalia~ .
yvelaferi, rac aq iTqva, ekonomikuri danaxarjebis zogadi
gagebaa, Tu maT ganvixilavT mTeli sazogadoebis TvalsazrisiT.
Tu sakiTxs mivudgebiT ama Tu im sawarmos poziciebidan, misi
ekonomikuri danaxarjebi SeiZleba gaiyos orad: aSkara (buRaltrul)
da farul danaxarjebad. danaxarjebis aseTi dayofa dakavSirebulia
imasTan, rom, rogorc wesi, sawarmo iyenebs rogorc sxvebisagan
SeZenil, ise sakuTar resursebs.
aSkara danaxarjebi is alternatiuli danaxarjebia, romelic
aSkara (fuladi) gadasaxdelis formas iRebs da xmardeba
resursebis momwodeblebs. mas miekuTvneba: muSebis xelfasi,
menejerTa Sromis anazRaureba, savaWro sawarmoTa sakomisio
gadasaxdelebi, sabanko da safinanso momsaxurebis mimwodebelTa
Sromis anazRaureba, satransporto xarjebis ganaRdeba da a.S. es
danaxarjebi aisaxeba sawarmos buRaltrul wignSi da amitom mas
buRaltrul danaxarjebsac uwodeben.
faruli danaxarjebi aris warmoebis procesSi gamoyenebuli sawarmos kuTvnili ekonomikuri resursebi, romlebzec
igi fuls ar ixdis. faruli danaxarjebi utoldeba im fulad
Semosavals, romelsac mocemuli sawarmo miiRebda sxva sawarmoze
am resursis gayidvis an ijariT gacemis SemTxvevaSi. magaliTad,
individualuri mewarmis daxarjuli samuSao drois alternatiuli
Rirebulebaa is xelfasi, romelsac igi miiRebda sxva sawarmoSi
daxarjuli Sromis anazRaurebis saxiT. SeiZleba sxva magaliTis
motanac: sawarmo iyenebs mis kuTvnil Senobas, romelSic igi
fuls ar ixdis. magram mas rom es Senoba ijariT gaeca, uTuod
276
miiRebda gansazRvrul Semosavals saijaro qiris saxiT. faruli
xarjebi, rogorc wesi, sawarmos buRaltrul wignSi ar aisaxeba.
sawarmos ekonomikuri (wminda) da buRaltruli
mogeba. aSkara da farul danaxarjebs Soris gansxvavebis dadgena
aucilebelia sawarmos funqcionirebis miznis _ mogebis asaxsnelad.
sawarmos mTliani Semosavlidan aSkara da faruli danaxarjebis
(mTliani danaxarjis) gamoqviTvis Semdeg darCenili Tanxa aris
ekonomikuri (wminda) mogeba . am ukanasknelisagan biznesis
samyaroSi xSirad ganasxvaveben buRaltrul mogebas , romelic
miiReba sawarmos mTliani Semosavlidan aSkara danaxarjebis
gamoklebiT. aqedan gamomdinare, Tanafardoba am or mogebas Soris
Semdegnairad warmogvidgeba:
ekonomikuri (wminda) mogeba
buRaltruli
mogeba
_
faruli
danaxarji
buRaltruli mogeba
ekonomikuri
(wminda) mogeba
=
+
anu
=
faruli
danaxarji
sawarmos danaxarji moklevadian da grZelvadian periodebSi. danaxarjebis analizisaTvis saWiroa maTi
dayofa mudmiv da cvalebad danaxarjebad. amasTan dakavSirebiT,
warmoebis TeoriaSi gamoiyofa ori periodi _ moklevadiani da
grZelvadiani.
277
rogorc viciT, warmoebis procesSi gamoiyeneba warmoebis
sxvadasxva faqtori. zogierTi maTgani (magaliTad, miwa) SeiZleba
ucvleli darCes xangrZlivi drois ganmavlobaSi, zogierTi ki
(magaliTad, Sroma) _ icvlebodes drois mcire monakveTSi. pirvels
ewodeba warmoebis mudmivi faqtorebi, meores _ cvalebadi
faqtorebi.
warmoebis mudmiv faqtorebs miekuTvneba, magaliTad, mewarmis
sakuTrebaSi arsebuli an ijariT aRebuli Senoba, teqnologia,
satransporto saSualebebi da sxv., romelTa raodenoba ar icvleba
warmoebis moculobis cvlilebis Sesabamisad. warmoebis cvalebadi
faqtorebi ki sawarmoSi gamoiyeneba sxvadasxva odenobiT drois
gansazRvrul momentSi (magaliTad, nedleuli). maTi raodenoba
icvleba warmoebis moculobis cvlilebis Sesabamisad.
warmoebis moklevadiani periodi ewodeba drois im monakveTs, romlis ganmavlobaSi gamoyenebuli warmoebis faqtorebis
Tundac erTi elementi mudmivi rCeba, maSin, roca warmoebis sxva
faqtorebi (Tundac erTi) cvalebadia). es imas niSnavs, rom warmoebis
moklevadian periodSi erTdroulad monawileoben warmoebis
rogorc mudmivi, aseve cvalebadi faqtorebi.
moklevadiani periodisagan gansxvavebiT, grZelvadian periodSi
warmoebis procesSi monawileoben mxolod warmoebis cvalebadi
faqtorebi, anu am SemTxvevaSi raodenobrivad icvleba warmoebis
rogorc cvalebadi, aseve mudmivi faqtorebi.
warmoebis moklevadiani da grZelvadiani periodebi erTimeorisagan ar gansxvavdeba drois xangrZlivobis mixedviT. magaliTad,
Tu sawarmo erTi Tvis ganmavlobaSi raodenobrivad cvlis warmoebis
yvela faqtors, maSin es erTi Tve iqneba misTvis grZelvadiani
periodi. meore mxriv, moklevadian periodad xuTi welic SeiZleba
ganvixiloT, Tu am periodSi raodenobrivad ucvleli rCeba
warmoebis Tundac erTi faqtori mainc.
aqedan gamomdinare, SeiZleba ganvasxvavoT mudmivi da cvalebadi
278
danaxarjebi, romlebsac sawarmo gaiRebs warmoebis moklevadian
periodSi. rac Seexeba grZelvadian periods, aq yvela danaxarji
cvalebadia, radgan am SemTxvevaSi raodenobrivad icvleba warmoebis
rogorc mudmivi, aseve cvalebadi faqtorebi.
moklevadian periodSi sawarmos danaxarjebis klasifikacia
mudmiv da cvalebad danaxarjebad gamowveulia im garemoebiT,
rom warmoebuli produqciis raodenoba damokidebulia am
danaxarjTa moculobis cvalebadobaze. saWiroebis SemTxvevaSi
mewarmes SeuZlia zogierTi danaxarji maSinve Secvalos, xolo
zogierTi danaxarjis Secvla damokidebulia sawarmos finansur
SesaZleblobasa da ufro xangrZliv droze.
mudmivi danaxarjebi ( FC) ewodeba iseT danaxarjebs,
romlebic araa dakavSirebuli warmoebis moculobis cvlilebebTan da TiTqmis imave odenobiT gaiweva maSinac, roca sawarmo
gaCerebulia da saerTod arafers ar awarmoebs. maT miekuTvneba:
rentuli gadasaxdeli, sesxze sargebeli, saijaro qira, sadazRvevo
Senatanebi, amortizaciuli anaricxebis nawili, marTvis aparatis
muSakTa xelfasi, ganaTebis xarjebi da sxv.
cvalebadi danaxarjebi ( VC) iseTi danaxarjebia, romelTa sidide icvleba warmoebis moculobis proporciulad. roca
warmoeba gaCerdeba, es danaxarjic qreba. aseTia danaxarjebi
nedleulze, masalebze, saTbobze, warmoebis muSakTa xelfasze da
a.S. igi, rogorc wesi, gaiangariSeba produqciis erTeulze.
aq xazi unda gaesvas erT arsebiT moments: warmoebis garkveuli
mijnis iqiT cvalebadi danaxarjebi ufro swrafad izrdeba, vidre
produqciis moculoba, e.i. produqciis damatebiTi erTeulis
warmoebaze danaxarjebi izrdeba, anu cvalebadi danaxarjebis
yoveli damatebiTi erTeuli nakleb produqcias iZleva.
samewarmeo saqmianobis analizisaTvis metad mniSvnelovania
mTliani da saSualo danaxarjebis gansazRvra. mTliani danaxarjebi (TC) aris mudmivi da cvalebadi danaxarjebis ariTmetikuli
279
jami. saSualo danaxarjebi ( AC), anu danaxarjebi produqciis
erTeulze udris mTliani danaxarjebis jams gayofils warmoebuli
produqciis moculobaze. formuliT gamoisaxeba Semdegnairad:
AC =
TC
Q
sadac AC aris saSualo danaxarji;
TC _ mTliani danaxarji;
QQ_ gamoSvebuli produqciis moculoba.
saSualo danaxarji aCvenebs, Tu ra ujdeba mewarmes saSualod
produqciis yoveli erTeulis gamoSveba. moklevadian periodSi
sawarmos danaxarji iyofa mudmiv da cvalebad danaxarjebad, ris
gamoc SesaZlebelia saSualo mudmivi da saSualo cvalebadi
danaxarjebis gaangariSeba.
saSualo mudmivi danaxarjebi ( AFC) gaiangariSeba mudmivi
danaxarjebis gayofiT warmoebuli produqciis raodenobaze.
formuliT gamoisaxeba Semdegnairad:
AFC =
FC
Q
saSualo cvalebadi danaxarjebis ( AVC) gaangariSeba
xdeba cvalebadi xarjebis gayofiT warmoebuli produqciis
raodenobaze. formuliT gamoisaxeba Semdegnairad:
AVC =
VC
Q
sagulisxmoa, rom rodesac warmoebuli produqciis moculoba mcirea, mudmivi danaxarji mZime tvirTad awveba produqciis
TiToeul erTeuls, radgan produqciis erTeulis Rirebuleba
280
Zalze didia. samagierod, warmoebis moculobis gadideba amcirebs
mudmivi danaxarjis wils produqciis erTeulze, radgan am
SemTxvevaSi mTliani mudmivi danaxarji Tanabrad nawildeba
produqciis erTeulebze. rac Seexeba saSualo cvalebad danaxarjs,
dasawyisSi produqciis moculobis gadidebis gamo igi mcirdeba,
Semdeg ki iwyebs zrdas.
danaxarjebis yovelmxrivi analizisaTvis aseve mniSvnelovania
zRvrul (sazRvriT) danaxarjSi garkveva. sawarmom SeiZleba
maqsimaluri mogeba miiRos warmoebis moculobis gansazRvrul
anu warmoebis optimaluri moculobis pirobebSi. amitom mewarmes
ufro metad ainteresebs gamoSvebuli produqciis raodenobasTan
dakavSirebuli damatebiTi danaxarjis problema, vidre produqciis
erTeulze gaRebuli saSualo danaxarji. damatebiTi danaxarjebi
ekonomikur literaturaSi cnobilia zRvruli (sazRvriTi)
danaxarjebis (MC) saxelwodebiT. es is danaxarjebia, romlebic
saWiroa produqciis sazRvriTi erTeulis, e.i. gansazRvruli
moculobis zeviT produqciis damatebiTi erTeulis warmoebisaTvis.
am danaxarjis gaangariSeba Zalze martivia da gamoisaxeba
formuliT:
MC =
TC
Q
sadac MC aris zRvruli danaxarji;
TC _ mTliani danaxarjis mateba;
Q _ gamoSvebuli produqciis moculobis cvlileba.
zRvruli danaxarji ganisazRvreba mxolod cvalebadi danaxarjis gadidebiT, rac imiT aixsneba, rom mudmivi danaxarji ar
icvleba warmoebis moculobis cvalebadobis Sesabamisad. maSasadame,
zRvruli danaxarji SeiZleba gamoiTvalos Semdegi formulis
daxmarebiTac:
281
VC
MC =
Q
sadac VC asaxavs cvalebadi danaxarjis matebas.
sawarmosaTvis zRvrul danaxarjebs, saSualo danaxarjebisagan
gansxvavebiT, aqvs strategiuli mniSvneloba, vinaidan iZleva im
danaxarjebis gansazRvris saSualebas, romelsac sawarmo uSualod
akontrolebs. kerZod, igi avlens im danaxarjebs, romlebsac sawarmo
gaiRebs produqciis bolo erTeulis warmoebis SemTxvevaSi da im
danaxarjebsac, romelTa `dazogvac~ SesaZlebelia am bolo
erTeuliT warmoebis moculobis Sekvecis SemTxvevaSi. amrigad,
zRvruli danaxarjebi gamoxatavs cvlilebebs im danaxarjebSi,
romelic iwvevs warmoebis moculobis Semcirebas an gadidebas
erTi erTeuliT.
imis gamo, rom mudmivi danaxarjebis sidide damokidebuli
araa warmoebuli produqciis moculobaze, produqciis gamoSvebis
gadidebasTan erTad produqciis erTeulze gaweuli mudmivi
danaxarjebi anu saSualo mudmivi danaxarjebi mcirdeba. saSualo
cvalebadi danaxarjebis gaangariSeba ufro rTulia, vinaidan igi
produqciis moculobis cvlilebasTan erTad icvleba da, garda
amisa, mxedvelobaSia misaRebi klebadi ukugebis kanonis moqmedeba.
klebadi ukugebis kanoni da sawarmos optimaluri sidide. evropelma da amerikelma ekonomistebma didi
xania SeniSnes, rom rodesac warmoebis romelime faqtoris danaxarjs
Tanmimdevrulad vadidebT, xolo danarCen faqtorebs ucvlelad
vtovebT, gansazRvruli mijnis iqiT am faqtoris zRvruli
(sazRvriTi) produqti Semcirebas iwyebs, e.i. cvalebadi faqtoris
yoveli damatebiTi erTeuli nakleb produqcias iZleva. danaxarjebisa da Sedegis am urTierTdamokidebulebas ewoda klebadi
ukugebis kanoni .
282
amrigad, gairkva, rom produqciis moculobis gadidebisaTvis
mniSvneloba aqvs ara marto warmoebis faqtorebis danaxarjis
absolutur moculobas, aramed maTs Tanafardobasac. saqme isaa,
rom warmoebis faqtorebi erTmaneTTan kavSirSia da gansazRvrul
farglebSi urTierTSenacvlebadia. magram faqtorTa urTierTSenacvlebas sazRvari aqvs, romlis iqiT efeqti mcirdeba. magaliTad,
Tu muSaxelis raodenobas ucvlelad davtovebT, xolo Carxebis
ricxvs TandaTanobiT gavadidebT, dadgeba momenti, romlis iqiT
damatebiTi Carxis gamoyeneba klebad efeqts mogvcems, e.i. Carxebis
SeZenaze gaweuli danaxarjis zRvruli (sazRvriTi) nayofiereba
klebas daiwyebs. igive Sedegs miviRebT maSinac, rodesac Carxebis
raodenobas ucvlelad davtovebT da muSaTa ricxvs gavzrdiT.
pirvel xanebSi, Carxebis srul datvirTvamde, produqciis gamoSveba
gaizrdeba, magram Tu kidev gavagrZelebT damatebiTi muSakebis
daqiravebas, maTi nawili zedmeti aRmoCndeba, erTmaneTs xels
SeuSlian da zRvruli produqti klebas daiwyebs, e.i. yoveli
damatebiT daqiravebuli muSaki nakleb produqcias Seqmnis.
amrigad, klebadi ukugebis kanons Zala aqvs maSin, rodesac
warmoebis erTi romelime faqtoris danaxarji Tanmimdevrulad
izrdeba, xolo danarCeni faqtorebi ucvlelia. warmoebis yvela
faqtoris danaxarjis erTdrouli gadidebisa da teqnikuri
progresis pirobebSi aRniSnuli kanoni ar moqmedebs.
erT-erTi pirveli da mTavari sakiTxi, romelic unda
gadawyvitos mewarmem Tavisi momavali saqmianobis dawyebisas, es
aris sawarmos sididis gansazRvra. cxadia, man unda airCios is
optimaluri sidide, romelic moutans yvelaze met mogebas. unda
gaviTvaliswinoT isic, rom es zoma yovelTvis ar daemTxveva
warmoebis maRal dones. Tu sawarmom momxmarebels pirvel dRes
SesTavaza 500 nayini, meore dRes _ 800, mesame dRes _ 1000,
xolo mogeba miiRo: pirvel dRes _ 100 lari, meore dRes _ 180
da mesame dRes _ 150 lari. es imaze metyvelebs, rom yvelaze
optimaluria nayinis yoveldRiuri warmoeba 800 calis odenobiT.
283
sanam damatebiTi produqciis warmoebas damatebiTi Semosavali
moaqvs, am procesis gagrZelebas aqvs azri. produqciis damatebiTi
erTeulis warmoebisaTvis miRebuli Semosavali ekonomikur enaze
zRvrul (sazRvriT) Semosavals warmoadgens. zRvrul Semosavals Tu gamovaklebT zRvrul danaxarjebs, miviRebT zRvrul
(sazRvriT) mogebas .
zRvruli danaxarjebi sawarmos danaxarjebia produqciis
damatebiTi erTeulis warmoebaze. warmoebis zrdis kvalobaze
zRvruli danaxarjebi Tavdapirvelad mcirdeba, magram Semdeg
iwyebs zrdas. es imis Sedegia, rom sawarmos maqsimaluri
efeqtianobis wertili imyofeba produqciis gamoSvebis maqsimalur
da minimalur doneebs Soris. rodesac produqciis gamoSveba
matulobs, magram am wertilamde jer ar miuRwevia, produqciis
TiToeuli damatebiTi erTeulis warmoebaze zRvruli danaxarjebi
mcirdeba. maqsimaluri efeqtianobis wertilis miRwevis Semdeg
ZalaSi Sedis klebadi ukugebis kanoni da zRvruli danaxarjebi
izrdeba (ix. nax. 5.4.).
MC
MR.MC
MR
4
zRvruli mogeba, rogorc vTqviT, zRvrul Semosavalsa da
zRvrul danaxarjebs Soris sxvaobaa. sanam produqciis (Cvens
magaliTSi, nayinis) damatebiTi warmoeba iwvevs, danaxarjebis
zrdasTan SedarebiT, mTliani Semosavlis ufro metad zrdas,
sawarmom unda gaafarToos misi warmoeba. magram, rogorc ki
produqciis damatebiTi warmoeba gamoiwvevs SemosavalTan SedarebiT,
danaxarjebis ufro metad gazrdas, piriqiT, sawarmom warmoebis
gafarToeba unda Sewyvitos. sawarmom produqciis warmoeba unda
gazardos manam, sanam zRvruli Semosavali gautoldeba zRvrul
danaxarjebs, xolo mogeba _ nuls.
sawarmos optimaluri zomis gansazRvrisa da, saerTod, biznessaqmianobis warmatebiT ganxorcielebisaTvis sabazro ekonomikis
qveynebSi farTod gamoiyeneba marketinguli samsaxuri.
sazRv riTi
m ogeba
sa zR vr iT i
da na xar je bi
3
2
A
sa zR vr iT i
s argeblianobis
wertili
1
1
2
3
4
5
6
Q
nax. 5.4. sazRvriTi wonasworobis grafiki
284
285
leqcia 16. marketingi sawarmos
biznes-saqmianobaSi
`marketingi niSnavs... rigi amocanebis Sesrulebas imisaTvis, rom ganxorcieldes sxvadasxva bazrebze produqciis gasaRebaSi sasurveli Sedegebis miRweva.~
f.kotleri
marketingis arsi da oTxi Semadgeneli nawili.
marketingi warmodgeba inglisuri sityvisagan _ market da pirdapiri
mniSvnelobiT bazars, gasaRebas niSnavs. Tu gamovricxavT
arakomerciul sferos, marketingi aris sawarmos biznessaqmianobis warmarTvis integrirebul RonisZiebaTa sistema,
romelic moTxovnis formireba-cvalebadobis detaluri
gamokvleva-gaangariSebis safuZvelze uzrunvelyofs warmoebriv-gasaRebiTi programis SemuSaveba-realizacias da
orientirebulia mogebis maqsimizaciaze .
marketingis ZiriTadi devizia iwarmoos is, rac iyideba (rac
momxmarebels surs) da ara gaiyidos is, rac iwarmoeba. sxva
sityvebiT rom vTqvaT, sawarmom, sanam awarmoebs, gulmodgined
unda Seiswavlos konkretul momxmarebelTa moTxovnebi, miRebuli
monacemebiT daazustos nomenklatura da mxolod amis Semdeg
SesTavazos momxmarebels saqoneli da ara piriqiT: awarmoos
saqoneli da misi realizaciis dros dadges seriozuli siZneleebis
winaSe.
sagulisxmoa, rom Tu warmoebaze orientirebis pirobebSi
gasaRebis sakiTxze gapirovnebul muSaks sawarmoSi SedarebiT
meorexarisxovani poziciebi ekava da misi funqciebi arsebiTad
sawarmosaTvis SekveTebis miRebiT Semoifargleboda, marketingul
sistemaze orientaciis pirobebSi igi ukve iqceva erT-erT cent286
ralur figurad, ramdenadac mis kompetenciaSi Sedis bazris
saqonliT gajerebis gamo garTulebul pirobebSi sawarmos
Seuferxebeli da efeqtiani funqcionirebis uzrunvelyofa.
marketingis koncefcia oTx safexurs, anu rogorc maT uwodeben,
marketingis oTx P-s (maTi inglisuri saxelwodebis mixedviT)
moicavs: produqti, fasi, promouSeni da adgili.
produqti ( produqt). upirveles yovlisa, produqti
momxmarebels unda sWirdebodes. mas iseTi Tvisebebi da xarisxi
unda hqondes, rogorsac momxmarebeli moelis gadaxdil fasad.
fasi ( price). sawarmom unda miagnos iseT fass, roca maqsimalur mogebas miiRebs. es imas niSnavs, rom fasma unda aanazRauros
mudmivi da cvalebadi danaxarjebi. Semdeg sawarmo am danaxarjebs
Tavisi nulovani mogebis wertilis gasaangariSeblad iyenebs. es
is wertilia, roca realizaciidan miRebuli Semosavali mudmivi
da cvalebadi danaxarjebis tolia. am wertilis erT mxares
sawarmo zaralSi iqneba, meore mxares ki _ mogebaSi.
promouSeni ( promotion). promouSeni produqtis gayidvis
xelSewyobas gulisxmobs. am gziT sawarmoebi momxmareblebs
Setyobinebas ugzavnian. Setyobineba SeiZleba agreTve reklamiT,
pirdapiri fostiT da uSualo kontaqtiT. ra Tqma unda, Tu
momxmarebels araferi ecodineba produqtis Sesaxeb, igi mas ar
SeiZens. reklamis meSveobiT sawarmoebi momxmareblebs arsebuli
saqonlis Sesaxeb atyobineben. reklama maT yidvis sababsac ki
aZlevs.
adgili ( place). imisaTvis, rom produqti sargebliani iyos,
igi unda gamoCndes maSin da iq, sadac mas momxmareblebi SeiZenen.
cudad SerCeuli adgilis gamo mraval sawarmos ganucdia kraxi.
Tumca, dRes adgili ukve aRar niSnavs raime konkretul teritorias,
ramdenadac sul ufro meti produqciis reklama da gayidva
warmoebs internetis saSualebiT. saqonlis fostiT gamosaweri
katalogebi uaRresad qmediTi saSualebaa sxvadasxva saxis saqonlis
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gasayidad, tansacmliT dawyebuli da samzareulo mowyobilobiT
damTavrebuli.
sawarmos biznes-saqmianobaSi marketingis gansakuTrebul rolsa
da mniSvnelobaze metyvelebs Tundac is faqti, rom mis danaxarjebze
(magaliTad, aSS-Si) modis saqonlis gasayidi fasis 50-60%-mde.
es danaxarjebi savsebiT amarTlebs Tavis daniSnulebas da
mosalodnelia momavalSi gaizardos kidec. es dakavSirebulia
or ZiriTad momentTan: jer erTi, momsaxurebaze moTxovnis
amaRlebasTan da, meore, sawarmoebs Soris konkurenciuli brZolis
gaaqtiurebasTan. marketinguli danaxarjebi ZiriTadad xmardeba
produqciis saukeTeso dizainis Seqmnas, faswarmoqmnas, reklamis
srulyofas, saqonlis gayidviswina da gayidvisSemdgom momsaxurebas
da a.S.
marketingis ZiriTadi princi pebi da funqciebi.
marketingis fuZemdebluri debulebebi, anu ZiriTadi princi pebia:
 produqciis warmoebis organizacia moTxovnis, bazris
koniunqturisa da sawarmos SesaZleblobaTa zust codnasa da
urTierTSejerebaze damyarebiT;
 bazris segmentacia _ konkurent-sawarmoebTan upiratesobis mopovebis, moqmedebis mizanswrafulobisa da maRali efeqtianobis
uzrunvelyofis, konkurentebTan pirdapiri dajaxebis Tavidan
acilebisa da kvleva-Ziebis xarjebis dazogvis mizniT, sawarmos
mier mis profilTan da SesaZleblobebTan yvelaze ufro morgebul
momxmarebelTa konkretuli jgufis SerCeva;
 inovacia _ saqonlis asortimentis sistemuri srulyofa,
modificireba da ganaxleba, saqonlis axali nimuSebis Seqmna,
axali teqnologiebisa da mecnierul-kvleviT da sakonstruqtoro samuSaoTa axali mimarTulebebis damuSaveba;
 didi mogebis uzrunvelsayofad momxmarebelTa moTxovnis
srulad dakmayofileba;
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 saqonlisa da momsaxurebis programiT gansazRvruli
odenobiT winaswar dadgenil vadebsa da moniSnul bazarze realizaciis uzrunvelyofa, rac saWiroebs saTanado poziciis SerCevas
(saqonlisa da momsaxurebis sarealizaciod miwodebas iq da
maSin, sadac da ra drosac mas realurad hyavs myidveli);
 sawarmos biznes-saqmianobis stabiluri maRalefeqtianoba;
 mwarmoebelTa qcevis strategiisa da taqtikis adaptireba
momxmarebelTa cvalebad moTxovnilebebTan da, imavdroulad,
moTxovnilebebis Camoyalibebasa da stimulirebaze zemoqmedeba.
sawarmoSi specialuri qvedanayofis saxiT iqmneba marketingis
samsaxuri, romelic marketingis princi pebisa da meTodebis
safuZvelze moqmedebs. mis kompetenciaSi Sedis: koniunqturis
Rrma analizi da xelsayreli bazris SerCeva; bazris prognozi
da axali produqciis gamoSvebis Taobaze rekomendaciebis momzadeba;
marketingis strategiisa da taqtikis, agreTve marketingis
programebis damuSaveba da realizacia; saqonelze moTxovnis
formirebis, faswarmoqmnis, reklamisa da produqciis gasaRebis
programebis gansazRvra.
marketingis ZiriTadi funqciebia :
gasaRebis bazris kompleqsuri gamokvleva . igi moicavs saWiro informaciis mopovebas, marketinguli garemos
gamokvlevas, bazris koniunqturis Seswavla-analizsa da prognozebis
gansazRvras, gasaRebis formebisa da meTodebis analizs;
sawarmos warmoebriv-gasaRebiTi SesaZleblobebis
analizi. amis gareSe SeuZlebelia bazris konkretuli segmentis
SerCeva;
marketingis strategiis, taqtikisa da programebis
SemuSaveba. marketingis strategia emyareba bazris koniunqturisa
da momxmarebelTa moTxovnis grZelvadian prognozebs da
gulisxmobs sawarmos warmoebriv-gasaRebiTi SesaZleblobebis bazris
situaciasTan SesabamisobaSi moyvanas perspeqtivaSi. marketingis
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taqtika gamoxatavs sawarmoSi produqciis arsebul nomenklaturaze
moTxovnis formirebis koniunqturul principebs. igi ganisazRvreba
mokle (Cveulebriv, erT wlamde) vadiT da aucileblobis SemTxvevaSi
operatiulad koreqtirdeba. marketingis taqtika xels uwyobs
sawarmos biznes-saqmianobis gaaqtiurebas. marketingis programa
warmoadgens urTierTdakavSirebul RonisZiebaTa sistemas, romelic
gansazRvravs sawarmos biznes-saqmianobas (drois mocemul monakveTSi) marketingis yvela blokSi. igi SeiZleba iyos moklevadiani
da grZelvadiani. marketingis programa dgeba bazris koniunqturis
kompleqsuri gamokvlevis, momxmarebelTa moTxovnis gansazRvrisa
da marketingis strategiisa da taqtikis SemuSavebis safuZvelze,
rac uzrunvelyofs sawarmos yvela qvedanayofis SeTanxmebul
Tanamoqmedebas;
saqonlis (momsaxurebis) warmoebis dagegmva . igi,
iseve rogorc marketingis momdevno sami funqcia, warmoadgens
marketingis programis specialur ganyofilebas da mimarTulia
sawarmos konkurentunarianobis amaRlebisaken, konkretulad exeba
sawarmos produqciis samomxmareblo Tvisebebs, axali saxeobisa
da asortimentis saqonlis SemuSavebas da miznad isaxavs efeqtiani
gasaRebis uzrunvelyofis mizniT misi xarisxobrivi maxasiaTeblebis
momxmarebelTa konkretul moTxovnebTan misadagebas;
saqonlis (momsaxurebis) fasis dagegmva . moicavs
bazarze sawarmos qcevis fasTan dakavSirebuli strategiis gansazRvras xangrZlivi periodisaTvis da taqtikis gansazRvras
mokle periodisaTvis saqonlis TiToeuli jgufisa da saxeobis
mixedviT. igi gulisxmobs ekonomikuri koniunqturis, saqonlis
sasicocxlo ciklis fazebis, alternatiuli Rirebulebisa da
sxva faqtorTa gaTvaliswinebiT fasebis donis gansazRvras;
saqonlis (momsaxurebis) gasaRebis dagegmva . mxedvelobaSi gvaqvs sawarmos nawarmis gasaRebis arxebis dagegmva da
formireba pirdapiri da arapirdapiri meTodebiT. pirdapir meTodSi
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igulisxmeba TviT sawarmos mier filialebis, gasaRebis punqtebisa
da sawyobebis, sademonstracio darbazebis, teqnikuri momsaxurebis
sadgurebisa da centrebis organizacia, e.i. realizacia gasaRebis
sakuTari, damoukidebeli qselis meSveobiT. arapirdapiri meTodi
ki niSnavs nawarmis realizacias damoukidebeli Suamavlebis
meSveobiT. arsebobs nawarmis kombinirebuli, anu Sereuli meTodiT
gasaRebac;
komunikaciuri politikis ganxorcieleba . aq vgulisxmobT saqonlis pirdapir anu personalur gayidvas, finansuri
saSualebebis meSveobiT gasaRebis stimulirebas, nawarmis gayidvamde
da gayidvis Semdgom momsaxurebas, gamoyenebas, bazrobebs, saqonlur
niSnebsa da stils, SefuTvas, suvenirebs, teqmomsaxurebas, servisul
politikas da a.S.
marketinguli saqmianobis organizacia . igulisxmeba
sawarmos warmoebriv-gasaRebiTi da mecnierul-teqnikuri saqmianobis
sistemaSi specialuri struqturebis Seqmna, romlebic, Cveulebriv,
agebulia sami ZiriTadi princi piT: saqonluri, regionuli da
momxmarebelTa jgufebis mixedviT. SeiZleba maTi kombinirebac.
garda amisa, daSvebulia moqnili droebiTi muSa jgufebis Seqmna,
romelTac SeuZliaT marketinguli Zalisxmeva koncentrirebulad
mimarTon gansakuTrebuli mniSvnelobis mimarTulebiT da swrafi
reagireba moaxdinon makro- da mikro garemos cvlilebebze;
marketinguli saqmianobis kontroli . igi xorcieldeba
sawarmos biznes-saqmianobis efeqtianobis analizis mizniT da
tardeba strategiul, taqtikur da operatiul doneze. gaTvaliswinebul marketingul RonisZiebaTa realizaciis mimdinare kontroli
(monitoringi) SesaZlebels xdis msvlelobis procesSive iqnas
Setanili garkveuli koreqtivebi marketingul saqmianobaSi, rac
xels uwyobs warmoebisa da gasaRebis mxriv SemuSavebuli programis
saerTo Sedegianobis amaRlebas.
kontrolSi igulisxmeba realizaciis gegmis Sesruleba,
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gasaRebis SesaZleblobaTa analizi, marketinguli danaxarjebisa
da momgebianobis analizi, marketingis strategiuli kontroli
da revizia. marketingis kontrolis kompetenciaSi Sedis agreTve
gayiduli saqonlis reklamaciisa da dabrunebis analizi da konkretul winadadebaTa SemuSaveba msgavsi SemTxvevebis aRmosafxvrelad;
marketinguli saqmianobis marTva . marketingi sawarmos
marTvis sistemis Semadgeneli nawilia, amasTan, igi TviTonac eqvemdebareba marTvas. marketingis marTvaSi igulisxmeba im RonisZiebaTa
(informaciis mopoveba, bazris gamokvleva, momsaxurebis, gasaRebis
operaciebisa da reklamis organizacia) analizi, dagegmva, cxovrebaSi
gatareba da kontroli, romlebic mimarTulia miznobriv myidvelTan
kontaqtebis dasamyareblad, raTa uzrunvelyofil iqnas sawarmos
produqciis gasaRebis moculobis gazrda da minimaluri danaxarjebiT maqsimaluri ekonomikuri efeqtis miReba. marketingis marTva
arsebiTad momxmarebelTa moTxovnis marTvaa.
saqonlis realizaciis xelSewyoba (gadaadgilebis daCqareba). rogorc cnobilia, marketingis oTxi ZiriTadi
Semadgeneli nawilidan saqonlis realizaciis sistemaSi misi
gadaadgilebis daCqareba erT-erTi mniSvnelovania.
gadaadgilebaSi win waweva gulisxmobs iseTi meTodebisa da
RonisZiebebis ganxorcielebas, romelic momxmarebels daarwmunebs
da miaRebinebs gadawyevtilebas, rom, saxeldobr, esa Tu is saqoneli
SeiZinos, e.i. gaakeTos konkretuli arCevani bazarze gamotanili
saqonlis mravalferovnebaSi.
am SemTxvevaSi myidvelze zemoqmedebis meTodebi SeiZleba
iyos rogorc uSualo, e.i. myidvelTan pirispir kontaqti, ise
arapirdapiri _ masobrivi sainformacio saSualebebis farTo SesaZleblobis gamoyenebis gziT. yvela am saSualebis gamoyenebas sami
ZiriTadi amocana aqvs: informaciis miwodeba, darwmuneba da Sexseneba.
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Tu myidvels aseTi informacia ar eqneba, gauWirdeba arCevanis
gakeTeba. es informacia imdenad damajerebeli unda iyos, rom
myidvelma swori arCevani gaakeTos _ darwmundes arCevanis motivaciaSi, imaSi, Tu ramdenad daakmayofilebs arCeuli saqoneli mis
moTxovnilebas da ramdenad xelmisawvdomia misTvis saqonlis
fasi. rac adre da zustad miiRebs myidveli am informacias, miT
ufro kargad darwmundeba saqonlis saWiroebaSi da daaCqarebs
gadawyvetilebis miRebas.
saqonlis Sesaxeb sajaro Sexseneba, damatebiTi informaciis
miwodeba da misi ganmeoreba damatebiTi moTxovnis erT-erTi
mniSvnelovani RonisZiebaa, romelic myidvels ara marto Seaxsenebs
aseTi saqonlis arsebobis Sesaxeb, aramed miuTiTebs misi SeZenis
adgils da axal fasebs, miT ufro, Tu am saqonels raime axali
samomxmareblo Tvisebac daemata.
amrigad, saqonlis sabazro arxebis mixedviT gadaadgilebaSi
daCqareba (win waweva) ara marto arsebuli momxmareblisaTvis
saqonlis droze miwodebas gulisxmobs, aramed xels uwyobs
damatebiTi momxmareblebis mozidvas, maT darwmunebas arCevanis
miRebaSi.
saqonlis realizaciis procesis daCqarebas da amisaTvis
saTanado informaciis gavrcelebas, myidvelis darwmuneba-SexsenebisaTvis damatebiTi RonisZiebebis ganxorcielebas sasurveli
Sedegi moaqvs da sasargebloa rogorc mwarmoeblisaTvis, ise
momxmareblisaTvis. amasTan, es RonisZiebebi da, saerTod, saqonlis
Sesaxeb informaciuli sistema efeqtiania mxolod im SemTxvevaSi,
Tu am procesSi daculia eTikis normebi, keTilsindisiereba da
informaciis saimedooba.
saqonlis mwarmoeblidan momxmareblamde gadaadgilebis
daCqarebis RonisZiebaTa SemuSavebis mizniT aucilebelia SemuSavdes
daCqarebis RonisZiebaTa struqtura, romelSic ZiriTadad oTxi
Semadgeneli Sedis: piradi gayidva (e.i. gamyidvelisa da myidvelis
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piradi kontaqtebis gziT gayidvis procesis daCqareba), reklama,
kavSirisa da kontaqtebis sazogadoebrivi formebis gamoyeneba da
daCqarebis stimulireba. am elementebidan romelimes sworad
SerCevas an maT urTierTSexamebiT kompleqsurad gamoyenebas gadamwyveti mniSvneloba aqvs gayidvebis gafarToebasa da daCqarebaSi.
mza produqciis realizaciis procesSi piradi gayidvis forma
ufro metad mcire biznesSia gamoyenebuli. misi upiratesobaa
garigebisa da gayidvis procesis mokle droSi ganxorcieleba da
mwarmoeblis mier konkretul momxmarebelTan piradi kontaqtiT
misTvis misaRebi produqciis advilad SerCeva. mwarmoeblis mier
saqonlis piradi gayidvis pirobebSi SedarebiT metia danaxarjebi,
magram gayidvis procesis daCqarebis wyalobiT es danaxarjebi
umetes SemTxvevaSi kompensirebulia.
reklamis arsi da roli saqonlis realizaciis
procesis daCqarebaSi. Tanamedrove pirobebSi realizaciis
procesis daCqarebisaTvis sawarmoTa umravlesoba mimarTavs
reklamis sxvadasxva formebs. gayidvebSi reklamis gamoyeneba xels
uwyobs ara marto saqonlis Sesaxeb informaciis gavrcelebas,
aramed myidvelTa farTo masebis mozidvasa da dainteresebas.
miuxedavad imisa, rom reklamis pirobebSi mniSvnelovnad mcirdeba
ukukavSirebi da reklamis zogierTi saxe maRal danaxarjebs
iwvevs, misi gamoyeneba mTel rig upiratesobebs aniWebs im sawarmoebs,
romlebic mas iyeneben da afinanseben.
gayidvis procesis daCqarebis mizniT, zogierTi sawarmo mimarTavs momxmareblebTan kavSirisa da maTi dainteresebis ama Tu im
formebs, sazogadoebrivi kavSiris sxvadasxva saSualebebis
gamoyenebis gziT. am dros mniSvnelovnad farTovdeba momxmarebelTa
auditoria da informaciis gavrcelebis masStabebi.
dasasruls, realizaciis procesis daCqarebaSi garkveul mniSvnelobas iZens gayidvebis stimulirebis sxvadasxva formebis
294
gamoyeneba. es forma ZiriTadad gamiznulia momxmarebelTa dainteresebis amaRlebisaken, saxeldobr, gayidvis daCqarebisaken SeRavaTebis
sxvadasxva saSualebebis gamoyenebiT (rogoricaa: fasdakleba, ufaso
damatebiTi momsaxureba da sxv.).
amrigad, realizaciis daCqarebis RonisZiebaTa struqturaSi
yovel elements aqvs rogorc dadebiTi, ise uaryofiTi mxare.
mwarmoebelma sworad unda gansazRvros da awon-dawonos yoveli
maTgani. yoveli sawarmo realizaciis daCqarebis sakuTar strategias SeimuSavebs, romelic mWidrod unda daukavSirdes rogorc
marketingul miznebs, ise realizaciis daCqarebis RonisZiebebs.
rogorc ukve aRiniSna, Tanamedrove pirobebSi mza nawarmis
ganawilebisa da realizaciis procesis daCqarebaSi Zalze mniSvnelovania reklama.
reklamis masStabebi da nairferovneba Tanamedrove biznesis
damaxasiaTebel niSnad iqca. reklama mniSvnelovania ara marto
erovnul bazrebze, aramed saerTaSoriso masStabiTac _ msoflio
ekonomikaSi saerTaSoriso vaWrobis integraciisa da internacionalizaciis pirobebSi. reklamis roli da masStabebi dRiTidRe
izrdeba da farTovdeba. ukanaskneli oci wlis ganmavlobaSi,
saerTaSoriso gamocdilebiT cnobilia, rom sawarmoTa xarjebi
reklamaze daaxloebiT 4-5-jer gaizarda. amasTan, msxvili sawarmoebis xarjebi Semosavlebidan SedarebiT ufro mcire _ daaxloebiT
1%-is farglebSia, xolo ufro mets _ 2,5%-s reklamaze mcire
sawarmoebi xarjaven. praqtikaSi gamoiyeneba metad mravalferovani
sareklamo RonisZiebebi, romlebic TavianTi daniSnulebis mixedviT
SeiZleba Semdegnairad dajgufdes: sasaqonlo reklama, instituciuri
reklama, propaganduli reklama da sakonkurencio reklama. yoveli
maTganis gamoyenebas konkretuli pirobebi da amocanebi ganapirobebs.
sasaqonlo reklama Tanamedrove pirobebSi yvelaze gavrcelebuli saxea. sasaqonlo reklamis mTavari daniSnulebaa
daCqardes ama Tu im konkretuli saxis saqonlis gayidva. reklama
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xorcieldeba saqonlis samomxmareblo Tvisebebis aRweriTa da
fasis miTiTebiT.
instituciuri reklamiT xdeba mwarmoeblis sasurveli
iersaxis gacnoba da myidvelTa farTo wreSi keTili ganwyobis
Camoyalibeba. e.i. aq reklamirebis obieqtia ara marto saqoneli,
aramed misi mwarmoebeli, misi avtoriteti da imiji. am reklamis
erT-erTi mizania, saWiroebis SemTxvevaSi, damatebiTi investiciebis
mozidvac, radgan kreditorebi sawarmos gadaxdisunarianobas maTi
avtoritetiTac afaseben.
propagandul reklamas mimarTaven maSin, rodesac sajarod
gamoaqvT iseTi problemebi, romlebic sazogadoebas awuxebs da
maTi gadawyveta diskusiiT an azrTa gaziarebis gziT xdeba.
xSirad am movlenebs sawarmoebi iyeneben sakuTari produqciis
reklamisaTvis.
reklamas gansakuTrebuli mniSvneloba aqvs konkurenciul
brZolaSi. sawarmo reklamis saSualebiT cdilobs daarwmunos
momxmareblebi maTi produqciis upiratesobaSi da amiT Seasustos
konkurentis gavlenis sfero.
sakonkurencio reklama sakmaod gavrcelebulia farTo
moxmarebis saqonlis realizaciis procesSi, rodesac bazarze
gamotanilia erTi da imave daniSnulebis ramdenime dasaxelebis
saqoneli. am SemTxvevaSi sakonkurencio reklama mimarTulia bazarze
ama Tu im sawarmos gavlenis sferos gafarToebisaken.
reklamis gavlenis gaZlierebis mizniT mimarTaven sxvadasxva
xerxebs. erT-erTi aseTi xerxia reklamaSi cnobili pirebis
monawileoba, rodesac sayovelTaod cnobili piri _ upiratesad
msaxiobebi, xelovnebis muSakebi da sportsmenebi mouwodeben
potenciur myidvelebs ama Tu im sawarmos romelime konkretuli
saxis produqciis SeZenas. xSirad sportsmenebs sportul formaze
ukeTeben sareklamo gancxadebebs, an kidev aCveneben, Tu rogori
interesiT iyenebs cnobili pirovneba ama Tu im saxis saqonels.
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reklamaSi farTod gamoiyeneba fotomodelebis mier
Sesrulebuli sareklamo fotoreproduqcia, romelic gamiznulia
adamianTa mgrZnobiarobis gaZlierebiT garkveuli saxis saqonlis
mimarT yuradRebis gamaxvilebisaken. xSiria sanaxaobiTi
dawesebulebebisa da Sou-programebis gamoyeneba produqciis
reklamirebis mizniT da sxv.
sareklamo gancxadeba ZiriTadad ori komponentisagan Sedgeba
_ teqstisa da mxatvruli gaformebisagan. pirveli komponenti
reklamis sityvieri nawilia da garkveul Sinaarss moicavs, xolo
meore gamiznulia vizualur efeqtze. xSirad es orive komponenti
erTmaneTTan Sexamebulia da garkveulad aZlierebs STabeWdilebas.
reklamis sainformacio saSualebebidan ZiriTadia: gazeTebi,
Jurnalebi, telexedva, radio, safosto gzavnilebi da sxv.
reklamirebis mizniT xSirad mimarTaven pres-konferenciebis
gamarTvas, qalaqebsa da mWidrod dasaxlebul adgilebSi
mxatvrulad gaformebuli sareklamo farebis saSualebiT sareklamo
gancxadebebs, moZrav satransporto saSualebebze damagrebul
sareklamo saSualebebs da sxv. yvela saxis sareklamo RonisZiebis
farTod gamoyeneba erT ZiriTad amocanas _ realizaciis daCqarebas
emsaxureba.
amrigad, marketingi biznes-saqmianobis umniSvnelovanesi
komponentia. mis racionalur gamoyenebaze didadaa damokidebuli
nebismieri sawarmos funqcionirebis efeqtianoba.
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?
testebi SeZenili codnis
SemowmebisaTvis
1. samewarmeo saqmianobad miiCneva:
a. marTlzomieri da erTjeradi saqmianoba;
b. nebismieri saxis momgebiani saqmianoba, romelic xorcieldeba ekonomikurad damoukideblad;
g. marTlzomieri da araerTjeradi saqmianoba, romelic
xorcieldeba mogebis mizniT, damoukideblad da organizebulad;
d. nebismieri marTlzomieri saqmianoba, romelic xorcieldeba
damoukideblad da organizebulad.
2. saqarTveloSi moqmedi kanonmdeblobiT, samewarmeo
saqmianobis miznad aRiarebulia:
a. momavali Taobis aRzrda;
b. mogebis maqsimizacia;
g. qvelmoqmedeba;
d. sazogadoebriv moTxovnilebaTa dakmayofileba da mogebis
miReba.
3. samewarmeo saqmianobis ganxorcieleba SeuZlia:
a. mxolod iuridiul pirs;
b. mxolod fizikur pirs;
g. rogorc iuridiul, ise fizikur pirs;
d. mxolod rezident iuridiul pirs.
4. qvemoT moyvanili gancxadebebidan, mcire biznesis
Sesaxeb aSS-is ekonomikaSi, sinamdviles ar Seesabameba:
a. mcire sawarmoebi ufro xSirad kotrdebian, vidre
SedarebiT msxvili sawarmoebi;
b. qveyanaSi axali samuSao adgilebis umravlesobas
298
SedarebiT ufro mcire sawarmoebi qmnian;
g. amerikul mcire biznesze modis qveynis mTliani Sida
produqtis 60%-ze meti;
d. mcire sawarmoebs, rogorc wesi, cvlilebebTan adaptaciis
meti unari aqvT, vidre msxvil sawarmoebs.
5. amxanagobis ti pis sazogadoebebs miekuTvneba:
a. solidaruli pasuxismgeblobis sazogadoeba da SezRuduli pasuxismgeblobis sazogadoeba;
b. komandituri sazogadoeba da SezRuduli pasuxismgeblobis sazogadoeba;
g. solidaruli pasuxismgeblobis sazogadoeba da
komandituri sazogadoeba;
d. komandituri sazogadoeba da saaqcio sazogadoeba.
6. amxanagobis erT-erTi upiratesoba is aris, rom:
a. yovel partniors SeuzRudavi pasuxismgebloba akisria;
b. SezRudulia partniorTa simdidriT da fulis sesxad
aRebis SesaZleblobiT;
g. partniorebi, ueWvelia, iolad SeTanxmdebian saqmian
gadawyvetilebaTa Taobaze;
d. sawarmo arsebobas erT-erTi partnioris gardacvalebis
SemTxvevaSic ganagrZobs.
7. msxvil korporaciaSi (saaqcio sazogadoebaSi):
a. marTvis funqciebs aqcionerebi asruleben;
b. mflobelebi direqtorebi arian;
g. floba da xelmZRvaneloba gamijnulia erTmaneTisagan;
d. ar arsebobs aranairi aqciebi.
8. Tu Tqven korporaciis aqcias SeiZenT, maSin:
a. Tqveni fulis dakargvis riski ar gemuqrebaT;
299
b. garantirebuli geqnebaT, rom imaze meti fuli dagibrundebaT, vidre aqciaSi CadeT;
g. Tqven ar geqnebaT kompaniis momavali mogebis wili;
d. Tqven ver dakargavT imaze met fuls, vidre aqciaSi
CadeT.
9. mcire da msxvili sawarmoebis TanamSromlobas,
romlis drosac msxvili sawarmo iRebs valdebulebas
mcire sawarmos sakuTari saqonliTa da teqnologiebiT
momaragebaze, sareklamo momsaxurebaze, menejmentis da
marketingis sferoSi momsaxurebaze, ewodeba:
a. koncerni;
b. holdingi;
g. tresti;
d. franCaizi.
10. Tu sawarmo iuridiuli piria, es imas niSnavs,
rom:
a. misi daarseba Znelia da did xarjebTanaa dakavSirebuli;
b. mas kapitalis mxolod gansazRvruli odenobis mobilizeba
SeuZlia;
g. igi biznesis organizaciis yvelaze gavrcelebuli formaa;
d. mas SeuZlia sasamarTloSi gamovides mosarCelis da
mopasuxis saxiT, dados xelSekrulebebi da gadaixados gadasaxadebi.
g. individualuri sawarmo, solidaruli pasuxismgeblobis
sazogadoeba, komandituri sazogadoeba, SezRuduli pasuxismgeblobis
sazogadoeba, saaqcio sazogadoeba da kooperativi;
d. individualuri sawarmo, solidaruli pasuxismgeblobis
sazogadoeba, SezRuduli pasuxismgeblobis sazogadoeba, saaqcio
sazogadoeba da munici paluri sawarmo.
12. giorgim am cota xnis win iyida maRazia, romelic
qveyanaSi kargad cnobili nayinis mwarmoebeli kompaniis
saxels atarebs. Tu giorgi mowyobilobasa da sasaqonlo
marags aRniSnuli kompaniisagan iyidis da misi saxelis
gamoyenebis sanacvlod fuls gadaixdis, maSin misi sawarmo
warmoadgens magaliTs:
a. kooperativisa;
b. franCaizisa;
g. holdingisa;
d. kornerisa.
11. `mewarmeT Sesaxeb~ saqarTvelos kanonis Sesabamisad,
samewarmeo saqmianobis ganmxorcielebeli organizaciulsamarTlebrivi formebia:
a. individualuri sawarmo, SezRuduli pasuxismgeblobis
sazogadoeba, saaqcio sazogadoeba da erToblivi sawarmo;
b. erTi piris sawarmo, komandituri sazogadoeba, SezRuduli
pasuxismgeblobis sazogadoeba, saaqcio sazogadoeba, kooperativi
da komandituri sazogadoeba;
300
301
leqcia 17. ojaxis adgili da roli
sazogadoebis ekonomikur cxovrebaSi
6
Tema
ojaxis
ekonomikis
safuZvlebi
`bednieria is, vinc bednieria Tavis saxlSi.~
l. tolstoi
`yoveli ojaxi mini-fabrikaa, romelic sawarmoo faqtorebis... saSualebiT qmnis keTildReobis safuZvlebs.~
g.bekeri
wina TemaSi davaxasiaTeT ekonomikis sferoSi adamianTa
mravalferovani biznes-saqmianoba. yovelive amas Sedegad mosdevs
sazogadoebis wevrTa mudmivad mzard moTxovnilebaTa sul ufro
srulad dakmayofileba, ojaxebis cxovrebis donis amaRleba. am
procesis erTi romelime maCvenebliT gamoxatva SeuZlebelia.
amisaTvis gamoiyeneba socialur-ekonomikur maCvenebelTa mTeli
sistema, romlis calkeuli komponentebi am rTuli kategoriis
mxolod calkeul mxareebs hfenen naTels, yvela erTad ki,
urTierTkavSirsa da urTierTganpirobebulobaSi, mis met-naklebad
srul suraTs iZleva.
ojaxis cxovrebis donis kompleqsuri problemis zogierT
moments wina TemebSic SevexeT (iq ganxiluli sakiTxebis aspeqtiT),
magram misi sistemuri gaSuqeba sxva konteqstSi maT aq CarTvasac
moiTxovs, ris gamoc mcireodeni ganmeorebebi SeiZleba Tavidan
ver aviciloT.
302
`ojaxi _ es aris miniaturuli
sazogad oeb a, rom lis m Tlianobaze
(erTianobaze) damokidebulia mTeli
didi adamianuri sazogadoebis usafrTxoeba.~
f.adleri
ojaxis Camoyalibeba da arsi. ojaxi aris qorwi-
nebis Tu naTesaobis safuZvelze Seqmnili mcire socialuri jgufi,
romlis wevrebi erTmaneTTan dakavSirebulni arian yofa-cxovrebis
erTianobiT, urTierTmxardaWeriT, moraluri pasuxismgeblobiT da
saerTo meurneobiT. ekonomikuri TvalsazrisiT, swored es
ukanasknelia yvelaze niSandoblivi ojaxisaTvis.
Tanamedrove formiT, ojaxi yovelTvis ar arsebobda. misi
Camoyalibeba amJamindeli saxiT, Cvens xelT arsebuli istoriuli
wyaroebis Tanaxmad, SeiZleba warmodgenil iqnas Semdegi TanamimdevrobiT: uwesrigo sqesobrivi urTierTobani kacobriobis formirebis gariJraJze _ jgufuri qorwineba _ wyviladi ojaxi,
warmodgenili Tavdapirvelad dediseuli (matriarqati), SemdgomSi ki mamiseuli (patriarqati) formiT. patriarqaluri ojaxi
(swored aseTi formiTaa damkvidrebuli ojaxi amJamad), Zvel
romSi mas uwodebdnen familia-s, niSnavs saxls, agreTve individTa
jgufs, romelic ekuTvnis ama Tu im saxls (an monaTmflobelis
gankargulebaSi myofi monebis garkveuli odenoba) da eweva
sameurneo saqmianobas.
ojaxis moTxovnilebis jgufebi. ojaxi uzrunvel-
yofs misi wevrebis mravali socialur-ekonomikuri xasiaTis
moTxovnilebis dakmayofilebas. ganasxvaveben ojaxis moTxov303
nilebaTa sam jgufs: materialurs, suliersa da socialurs.
materialuri moTxovnilebis dakmayofilebaSi igulisxmeba
ojaxis wevrTa uzrunvelyofa kvebis produqtebiT, tansacmliT,
sacxovrebeli farTiT, sanitarul-higienuri pirobebiT da a.S.
sulier moTxovnilebaSi igulisxmeba ganaTlebis miReba, kulturuli, saxelovnebo da saliteraturo faseulobebis SeTviseba.
maTgan gansxvavebiT, socialuri xasiaTis moTxovnilebis dakmayofileba gulisxmobs Tavisufali drois gonivrul gamoyenebas,
aqtiur monawileobas sazogadoebriv saqmianobaSi.
aRniSnul moTxovnilebaTa dakmayofileba xorcieldeba ori
ZiriTadi mimarTulebiT:
 uSualod saojaxo meurneobaSi . aq moTxovnilebis
garkveuli nawili kmayofildeba. ase, magaliTad, yurZnis mwarmoebeli fermeri miRebuli mosavlis nawils Tavadve moixmars,
e.i. ikmayofilebs moTxovnilebas kvebis am produqtze. zogierTi
adamiani TviTon ikeravs tansacmels, zogierTi Tavad aremontebs
sakuTar binasa Tu avtomobils da a.S.
 sazogadoebrivi warmoebis procesSi adamianis monawileobis safuZvelze. Sesrulebuli samuSaosaTvis igi gansazRvruli raodenobis fulad anazRaurebas Rebulobs da misi
meSveobiT ikmayofilebs sxvadasxva moTxovnilebas: SeiZens kvebis
produqtebs, tansacmels, wignebs, kinos bileTebs, agarakze midis
dasasveneblad da a.S.
vevaSi miRebuli Sromis Sedegi nawilobriv gamoiyeneba uSualod
ojaxis wevrebis moTxovnilebaTa dasakmayofileblad, nawilobriv
ki gadis bazarze saqonlis saxiT da gankuTvnilia sazogadoebis
sxva wevrebis analogiur moTxovnilebaTa dasakmayofileblad.
amrigad, moTxovnilebebi aiZulebs nebismier individs mimarTos SromiT saqmianobas da am gziT Caebas sazogadoebis ekonomikur cxovrebaSi. amasTanave, TviT adamianis moTxovnilebebis
Sinaarsi, moculoba, struqtura mniSvnelovanwilad gansazRvravs
ekonomikuri saqmianobis xasiaTs.
aRsaniSnavia ojaxis gansakuTrebuli mniSvneloba individis
samomxmareblo rolis SesrulebaSi. sakiTxi metad mtkivneulia
ekonomikuri urTierTobebis TvalsazrisiT, vinaidan individebis
erTobliobis moTxovnilebaTa safuZvelze ganisazRvreba bazarze
erToblivi moTxovnis moculoba da Semadgenloba, rac sabazro
urTierTobebis erTi nawilia. rac Seexeba meore nawils _ miwodebas,
misi moculoba ganisazRvreba garkveulwilad adamianis SromiTi
aqtivobiT da Sromisadmi misi damokidebulebiT.
amrigad, swored ojaxis wiaRSi eyreba safuZveli sazogadoebis ekonomikuri cxovrebisaTvis or iseT mniSvnelovan faqtors,
rogoric aris: gonivruli moxmarebis kulturis gamomuSaveba
(individis Camoyalibeba momxmareblis rolis SesrulebisaTvis)
da SemoqmedebiTi SromiTi saqmianobis Cvevebis SeZena (individis
momzadeba sazogadoebriv warmoebaSi monawileobisaTvis).
ojaxis funqciebi. ojaxis ekonomikuri roli misi mwarmoebluri da samomxmareblo funqciebiT vlindeba.
ojaxis mwarmoebluri funqciis ganxilvasTan dakavSirebiT
SesaZlebelia gamovyoT Sualeduri rgoli, romelic, erTi mxriv,
ganekuTvneba sazogadoebriv warmoebas, meore mxriv, ki warmoadgens
saojaxo meurneobas. aseTebad gvevlineba piradi damxmare meurneoba,
saojaxo ferma, saojaxo kooperativi, individualuri SromiTi
saqmianoba (namcxvris damzadeba, samkervalo saqmianoba). am SemTx-
ojaxis moTxovnilebis dakmayofilebis principebi. yovel ojaxSi moTxovnilebaTa dakmayofilebis gansazRvruli
304
wesi unda damkvidrdes, romelic Semdeg princi pebs daefuZneba:
 ojaxis wevrebma unda gansazRvron maTTvis misaReb
moTxovnilebaTa dakmayofilebis Tanmimdevroba, anu rodis
ra SeiZinon. am SemTxvevaSi ojaxis yvela wevri cdilobs
gonivrulad gamoiyenos ojaxis gankargulebaSi arsebuli fuladi resursebi da zrunavs pirveladi moTxovnilebebis dakmayofi305
lebisaTvis. magaliTad, zamTris sezonis moaxloebasTan erTad,
isini SeiZenen Tbil tansacmels, imarageben saTbob-sawvav masalas.
moTxovnilebaTa dakmayofilebis Tanmimdevrobasa da xasiaTs gansazRvravs ojaxis Semosavlebis sidide. TiToeul ojaxs moTxovnilebaTa dakmayofilebis mkveTrad gamoxatuli Tavisebureba
axasiaTebs: erT SemTxvevaSi wina planze wamoiweva avtomobilis,
meore SemTxvevaSi ki _ tansacmlis SeZena;
 SeiZinon ara nebismieri maRalxarisxovani nivTi,
aramed mxolod is, rac ojaxisaTvisaa aucilebeli . samwuxarod, aRniSnuli martivi princi pi praqtikulad ar xorcieldeba, ris Sedegadac Cveni qveynis mraval ojaxSi SeimCneva
ama Tu im dasaxelebis nivTebis siWarbe;
 ojaxSi arsebuli yvela nivTi gonivrulad da yairaTianad gamoiyenon . samwuxarod, aRniSnuli princi pis ganxorcieleba gansakuTrebiT aqtualuria Cveni qveynis ojaxebisaTvis, sadac yairaTianobisaken mimarTuli yoveli mowodeba
sazogadoebis ZiriTad nawilSi iwvevs ironiul Rimils.
adamianis modelebi (ti pebi) da maTi gavlena
ojaxze. imis mixedviT, ra motiviT xelmZRvanelobs sameurneo
saqmianobaSi konkretuli individi, ekonomikur literaturaSi
ganasxvaveben adamianis Semdeg modelebs (ti pebs):
jer kidev klasikuri ekonomikuri Teoriis erT-erTma
mamamTavarma adam smiTma Camoayaliba `ekonomikuri adamianis~
modeli (homo economicus), romlis Sesabamisadac individi momxmareblis da mwarmoeblis rolSic avlens racionalizms da miiswrafvis materialuri sikeTis moxmarebisagan miRebuli siamovnebis
maqsimizaciisaken, yairaTianad eweva warmoebas, aRricxavs da iTvlis
yvela gaweul xarjs;
a.smiTis modeli gaakritika t.veblenma, romelmac ar gaiziara
mosazreba imis Sesaxeb, TiTqos nebismieri adamiani Tavis saqmianobaSi
xelmZRvanelobs sakuTari gamorCenis mizniT da aRricxavs yovelgvar
306
Semosavals an danakargs. misi azriT, adamianis moqmedeba ganisazRvreba instiqtiT, CvevebiT da mSromeli adamianisaTvis ZiriTadad
damaxasiaTebelia maRalnayofieri muSaobis instiqti ;
amerikelma mecnierma h.saimonma Camoayaliba `administraciuli adamianis~ modeli. aseT adamians, misi azriT, gaaCnia survili
miiRos racionaluri gadawyvetilebebi, magram ver flobs Sesabamis
informacias, ara aqvs saTanado dro. mecnieris mier warmoCenili
adamianis modeli srulad miesadageba Cvens sazogadoebaSi sakmaod
gavrcelebul biurokratis ti ps, romelsac, Tumca, gaaCnia
racionaluri xelmZRvanelobis survili, magram ara aqvs saTanado
dro, ris Sedegadac verc arsebul informacias flobs;
dasavleTis ekonomikur literaturaSi farTod moikida
fexi amerikeli mecnieris makgregoris, e.w. X da Y Teoriebma.
X Teoriis Tanaxmad, saSualo adamiani bunebiT zarmacia,
Tavs aridebs pasuxismgeblobas, ewinaaRmdegeba yovelgvar gardaqmnebs, advilad emorCileba demagogebis gavlenas. aseTi individis saqmianobis warmarTvisaTvis, makgregoris azriT, umjobesia
`maTraxisa da Taflakveris~ politikis gamoyeneba.
daxasiaTebuli adamianis ti pis sawinaaRmdegod, Y Teoriis
mixedviT, individi bunebiT aqtiuria, avlens iniciativas SromiTi
saqmianobis procesSi. aseTi pirovnebisaTvis yvelaze misaRebia
muSaobis iseTi pirobebi, rodesac wina planze wamoiwevs sakuTari
saqmianobis TviTkontrolis SesaZlebloba. msgavsi individis
nairsaxeobas Cveulebrivad Segnebul adamians vuwodebT.
sazogadoebis ekonomikur cxovrebaSi (iseve rogorc nebismier ojaxSi), Tanabrad aris warmodgenili adamianis yvela ganxiluli ti pi, rac ganapirobebs rogorc dadebiT, aseve uaryofiT ekonomikur Sedegebs. amasTan dakavSirebiT, aucilebelia ojaxSi
mimdinare ekonomikuri procesebis sistematiurad Semowmeba,
calkeuli ojaxebis samomxmareblo biujetis Sedgenis, SemdgomSi
misi calkeuli monacemebis yovelmxrivi Seswavlisa da ganxilvis
safuZvelze.
307
leqcia 18. ojaxis samomxmareblo
biujeti
`dazogva didi Semosavalia.~
ciceroni
`dazogva dazogvisaTvis friad sazizRari saqmea, Tundac fuli patiosani gziT iyos naSovni... dagroveba
mxolod imisaTvis, rom gsiamovnebs iyo
mdidari, SezRuduli Wkuisa da dabali
sulis damaxasiaTebeli niSania.~
s.smailsi
ojaxis samomxmareblo biujetis arsi, daniSnuleba da struqtura. biujeti, rogorc ekonomikuri movlenebis
warmarTvisa da kontrolis mZlavri meTodi, SesaZlebelia
gamoyenebul iqnas nebismieri donis ekonomikur sistemaSi, maT
Soris saojaxo meurneobaSic.
ojaxis samomxmareblo biujetSi aisaxeba saojaxo meurneobis Semosaval-gasavlis absoluturi monacemebi (fuladi gamoxatulebiT) da maT Soris Tanafardoba (%-obiT) drois garkveuli
monakveTisaTvis. igi ori nawilisagan _ Semosavlebisa da xarjebisagan Sedgeba.
ekonomikur literaturasa da sameurneo praqtikaSi farTod
gamoiyeneba ojaxis biujetis iseTi forma, romelSic mocemulia
saojaxo meurneobis wliuri Semosaval-gasavlis struqtura mTeli
mosaxleobisa da misi calkeuli kategoriebis (muSebi, mosamsaxureebi,
fermerebi) mixedviT; saojaxo meurneobis saSualoTviuri Semosaval-gasavlis struqtura mTeli wlisa da misi calkeuli kvartalebis mixedviT; saojaxo meurneobis saSualoTviuri Semosavalgasavlis struqtura qalaq-soflisa da regionebis WrilSi.
308
miuxedavad mravali dadebiTi momentisa, ojaxis samomxmareblo biujetis mxolod amgvari saxiT Seswavlas gaaCnia erTi
uaryofiTi mxare _ igi iZleva realuri mdgomareobis statistikur
suraTs da SeuZlebeli xdeba Sesabamisi zomebis droulad gatareba
uaryofiTi faqtorebis gamosaricxad. magaliTad, biujetis saSualebiT wlis (kvartlis) bolos davadgineT, rom kvebisaTvis
gankuTvnili xarjebis odenoba mkveTrad gaizarda wina welTan
(kvartalTan) SedarebiT. am SemTxvevaSi miRebuli monacemebi
asrulebs `fuWi gasrolis~ rols, magram analogiuri informaciis
droulad (yovelTviurad an yovelkvireulad) miRebis SemTxvevaSi
SesaZlebelia Sesabamisi koreqtivebis Setana.
swored amasTan dakavSirebiT aris aucilebeli calkeul
ojaxebSi mimdinare ekonomikuri procesebis dokumenturi asaxva,
anu aRricxva, romlis mizanSewonilobaze jer kidev bibliaSi
miuTiTebda mefe solomoni. mefe savaWro operaciebis warmoebisas
gvirCevs gacemuli saqonlis zust daTvlas da Sefasebas. xolo
cnoba miRebuli faseulobis Sesaxeb, misi azriT, unda aisaxos
werilobiT.
garda amisa, cnobilia mravali istoriuli faqti, romelic
metyvelebs sameurneo operaciebis aRricxvis aqtualobis Sesaxeb.
TurqmeneTis samxreTSi arqeologiuri gaTxrebis procesSi aRmoaCines Tixis firfita, romelzedac amobeWdilia Cvens welTaRricxvamde I saukunisdroindeli sameurneo operaciis amsaxveli
sabuTi. masSi miTiTebulia cixesimagreSi puris fqvilis Semozidvis
faqti. sameurneo xasiaTis operaciebi egvipteSi sruldeboda
papirusze, xolo babilonSi _ Tixis firfitebze.
pouloben monacemebs gacemuli xelfasis Sesaxeb. CvenTvis
kargad aris cnobili, rom hamurabis specialuri kanonmdebloba
avaldebulebda vaWrebs CaeweraT gacvliTi operaciebi. imave
kanonmdeblobis Sesabamisad, saxelmwifoebrivi Tanxebis gadacema
specialuri xelwerilis gareSe iTvleboda arakanonierad. berZeni
istorikosis _ herodotes cnobiT, heopsis piramidaze amokveTili
309
iyo mSenebeli monebis kvebisaTvis gacemuli nioris, xaxvis, bolokis
da a.S. produqtebis odenoba. amis safuZvelze istorikosma gaweuli
samuSaoebis Rirebuleba Seafasa 40 tona vercxlis fasad.
gansakuTrebuli sifrTxiliT xorcieldeboda fuladi saSualebebis Senaxva. Zvel saberZneTSi fuli inaxeboda Tixis specialur qoTnebSi. yoveli dasaxelebis xarjebisaTvis gankuTvnili
iyo konkretuli qoTani. salaros gasaRebi inaxeboda erT moxelesTan,
xolo mTlianad Senobis gasaRebi, sadac moTavsebuli iyo agreTve
saaRricxvo dokumentebi _ meore moxelesTan. gasaRebis gacvla
moxeleebs Soris sastikad iyo akrZaluli. miuxedavad aRricxvis
aseTi Rrma istoriuli fesvebisa, amJamad adamianis praqtikuli
saqmianobis iseTi mniSvnelovani sfero, rogoricaa aRricxva, xSirad
xelovnurad aris gadaweuli ukana planze, ris gamoc sazogadoebrivi azri uaryofiTia.
specialuri sameurneo wignebis an misi Semcvleli sabuTis
warmoebis gareSe SeuZlebelia sistematuri kontrolis daweseba
ojaxis Semosaval-gasavalze. nebismier ojaxSi SesaZlebelia
SemoRebul iqnas Jurnali, romelSic mocemuli iqneba sameurneo
xasiaTis yvela ganxorcielebuli operacia. amasTan, sasurvelia,
rom yvela saxis Semosavlisa da gasavlisaTvis gaixsnas specialuri saqaRalde. Tanamedrove kompiuteruli teqnikis farTod
gamoyeneba sul ufro amartivebs aRniSnuli dokumentebis warmoebis
process.
aRricxvis Sesaxeb saubrisas SeuZlebelia gverdi avuaroT
balansis cnebas. nebismieri sameurneo saqmianoba, maT Soris
saojaxo ekonomikac, SeiZleba gamoisaxos balansis meSveobiT.
balansi franguli warmoSobis sityvaa da niSnavs wonasworobas.
Cvens konkretul SemTxvevaSi balansis meSveobiT unda damyardes
wonasworoba ojaxis gankargulebaSi arsebul Semosavlebsa da
mis mier gasawev xarjebs Soris. ojaxis biujeti dabalansebulia, rodesac Semosavlebi da xarjebi Tanabaria. rodesac
Semosavlebi aRemateba xarjebs, maSin biujeti aqtiuria.
310
marTalia, biujetis Sedgenis mravali xerxi arsebobs, magram,
Cveulebriv, ojaxis biujetis Sedgenis procesi moicavs sam fazas:
 finansuri miznebis dasaxva . fuladi Semosavlis didi
nawili SesaZloa mimdinare moTxovnilebis dasakmayofileblad
ixarjebodes. magram, drodadro warmoiSoba im saqonlis an
momsaxurebis SeZenis saWiroeba, romlis yidvas erTi Tvis Semosavali
ar yofnis. es ki moiTxovs fuladi Semosavlis nawilis dazogvas,
romlis sidide damokidebulia Semosavlis moculobaze. am miznis
misaRwevad saWiroa fuladi danazogis gegmis Sedgena;
 mosalodneli Semosavlis wyaroebis dadgena . ojaxis
biujetis Sedgenis momdevno etapze adgenen Semosavlis wyaroebis
nusxas. aq igulisxmeba Sromidan da simdidridan miRebuli fuladi
Semosavali, agreTve transfertebi (sxvadasxva saxis fuladi
daxmarebebi);
 xarjebis dagegmva. da bolos, adgenen ojaxis savaraudo
mimdinare navaWrisa da sxva xarjebis nusxas (plius danazogis
Tanxa, riTac miiRweva grZelvadiani miznebi). maSasadame, am gegmaSi
aisaxeba yvela mosalodneli xarji rogorc mimdinare, aseve perspeqtiuli. es saSualebas iZleva ojaxis moTxovnilebebi dajgufdes maTi mniSvnelobis mixedviT. SeiZleba nusxidan amoRebul
iqnas iseTi moTxovnilebebi, romelTa dakmayofilebac mwiri
biujetiT amjerad SeuZlebelia. am dros dgeba alternatiuli
Rirebulebis problema. im SemTxvevaSi, rodesac SemosavliT
yvela sasurveli SenaZenis gakeTeba SeuZlebelia, maSin biujetidan
Seusyidveli saqoneli (momsaxureba) warmoadgens alternatiul
Rirebulebas.
rogoria ojaxis Semosavlebis wyaroebi da ojaxis xarjebis
struqtura?
sakiTxis arsSi gasarkvevad mivmarToT ojaxis samomxmareblo
funqcias. momxmarebelia yvela, vinc saqonels am momsaxurebas
SeiZens raime moTxovnilebis dasakmayofileblad. yvela adamiani
da, Sesabamisad, saojaxo meurneoba momxmarebelia. momxmarebelTa
311
xarjebi Seadgens mocemuli qveynis ekonomikaSi gaweuli yvela
xarjis mniSvnelovan nawils. magaliTad, aSS-is mokle statistikuri mimoxilvis mixedviT, 2006 wels momxmarebelTa xarjebma
Seadgina daaxloebiT 5,8 trilioni dolari, anu im wels saqonelsa
da momsaxurebaze gaweuli mTeli xarjebis 68 procenti.
saojaxo meurneobaTa xarjebis donis mcire cvlilebac ki
sagrZnoblad zemoqmedebs ekonomikaze. marTlac, sawarmoebi
cdiloben saojaxo meurneobebi uzrunvelyon maTTvis saWiro
saqonliTa da momsaxurebiT. rodesac saojaxo meurneobaTa
samomxmareblo xarjebi (moTxovna) izrdeba, maSin sawarmoebi
afarToeben warmoebis moculobas masSi damatebiTi resursebis
CarTviT. es iwvevs warmoebis moculobis, dasaqmebisa da mogebis
zrdas. misi logikuri Sedegia ekonomikuri zrda da saojaxo
Semosavlis mateba. samomxmareblo xarjebis Semcirebisas ki
sawinaaRmdego procesebi iwyeba: ekonomika gadadis krizisul
mdgomareobaSi da mcirdeba ojaxis Semosavali.
rodesac saojaxo meurneoba fuls xarjavs, igi saqonlisa
da momsaxurebis bazarSi monawileobs. me-2 TemaSi naCvenebi iyo,
Tu rogor aris es bazari CarTuli sabazro ekonomikis wrebrunvis modelSi. iqve iyo axsnili, rom sanam momxmarebeli gaxdeba,
saojaxo meurneobam unda moi povos Semosavali.
ojaxis Semosavlis wyaroebi. ojaxis Semosavlis
umTavresi wyaroa misi wevrebis mier daxarjuli Sromis sanacvlod
miRebuli xelfasi an sargo. sargo (wage) _ es aris saaTobrivad
an produqciis erTeulis mixedviT gadaxdili anazRaureba, xelfasi
(salary) ki aris yovelkvireuli an yovelTviuri anazRaureba. is,
Tu ramdens gamoimuSavebs ojaxi, damokidebulia mis dasaqmebul
wevrTa ostatobaze, ganaTlebaze, energiaze, samewarmeo unarze,
samuSaos xasiaTze, Sromis Sedegebsa da sxva faqtorebze. 6.1
cxrilSi asaxulia samuSaos xasiaTis mixedviT, saSualoTviuri
SromiTi Semosavlebis Sesaxeb aSS-is 2006 wlis monacemebi. aSS312
cxrili 6.1.
saSualoTviuri SromiTi Semosavlebi,
samuSaos xasiaTis
mixedviT, aSS-Si (2006 w.)
profesia
farmacevti
inJiner-eleqtrikosi
programisti
ekonomisti
arqiteqtori
di plomirebuli medda
buxhalteri
policieli
fostalioni
santeqnikosi
durgali
uZravi qonebis agenti
avtomeqanikosi
reportiori
avtobusis mZRoli
mdivani
fotografi
bankis mosamsaxure
damlagebeli
sacalo vaWrobis muSaki
taqsis mZRoli
fermis muSa
molare
oficianti
aSS dolari
5519
5188
4130
4028
3976
3390
3155
3142
2903
2889
2395
2335
2281
2170
2031
1962
1745
1433
1328
1319
1297
1281
1141
1014
Si daqiravebuli muSakebis xelfasi XX saukunis 90-iani wlebis
bolos ojaxis mTliani Semosavlis 65%-s Seadgenda. saqarTveloSi
es maCvenebeli gacilebiT naklebia (33%).
313
314
315
cxrili 6.2.
72 .3
29.7
22.1
110.4
119.3
99.3
187.0
147.1
47.0
40.4
103.4
513.4
74.3
88.5
45.5
32.1
66.9
67.5
27.5
9.2
85.3
52.8
54.9
171.7
141.1
37.6
24.9
83.9
251.3
55.8
84.9
44.1
34.9
54.9
2000
75.3
105.9
45.5
45.6
88.2
141.1
428.7
57.4
50.1
153.8
120.8
212.1
145.9
33.2
43.0
147.7
94. 6
2002
72.2
132.0
68.5
78.8
110.3
191.1
530.5
85.5
56.6
218.7
152.5
250.2
206.2
47.6
46.2
184.4
125.9
2004
cxrili 6.3.
82.1
141.2
56.5
55.6
92.0
171.7
429.6
72.8
51.5
192.2
143.4
214.9
176.1
72.2
37.5
167.6
1 1 3. 5
2003
153.0 156.6
82.7 141.5
205.9 213.9
112.8 149.2
50.6
45.7
99.9 122.9
68.8 116.2
116.6 142.9
81.8 139.0
40.4
33.5
94.5
57.4
35.4
90.4
78.6
41.3
31.2
48.7
53.0
42.5
73.7
43.5
65.4
89.2
55.5
104.9
58.1
125.0
52.5
107.0
113.7 151.9
382.6 488.9
108.5 135.9
431.0 495.2
63.7
54.8
25.4 37.2
27.0 46.9
111.1 164.0
11.1
26.1
14.4 23.7
78.9 124.9
53.8
49.1
6 3. 5 1 25 . 2
5 2. 1 5 9 . 9
2002
qali kaci
s u l 47. 4 90. 9
soflis meurneoba,
nadiroba da metyeveoba, 23.2 29.7
TevzWera 14.2
8.8
mrewveloba, sul 62.7 97.6
samTomopovebiTi mrewveloba da
karierebis damuSaveba 53.0 67.2
damamuSavebeli mrewveloba 63.3 98.7
eleqtroenergia, gazi da
wyalmomarageba 116.2 397.2
mSenebloba 72.9 149.3
sabiTumo da sacalo vaWroba,
avtomobilebis, motociklebis,
sayofacxovrebo saqonlisa da
piradi moxmarebis nivTebis remonti 29.2 41.8
sastumroebi da restornebi 26.2 34.7
transporti, sasawyobo meurneoba
da kavSirgabmuloba 91.0 113.2
safinanso Suamavloba 247.0 397.2
operaciebi uZravi qonebiT, ijara
da komerciuli saqmianoba 57.0 83.1
saxelmwifo marTva da Tavdacva,
savaldebulo socialuri dazRveva 69.0 95.7
ganaTleba 40.0 54.9
janmrTelobis dacva da
socialuri momsaxureba 28.5 50.3
sxva komunaluri, socialuri da
personaluri momsaxureba 47.1 72.2
2000
qali kaci
qali kaci
1998
84.4
57.6
113.7
59.1
51.7
114.3
72.0
99.1 163.0
52.0 71.1
70.0
137.2 185.3
381.6 492.3
60.1
46.1
198.0 219.7
120.5 181.9
167.5 199.5
101.6 165.1
36.9 44.5
22.8 41.3
126.1 185.2
7 5 . 5 1 50. 1
qali kaci
2003
97.5
63.0
151.5
86.7
135.0
53.6
99.0
69.0 106.0
93.9
62.7
83.3
145.6 208.3
473.3 607.6
72.6
41.1
226.2 257.0
124.3 215.4
192.4 226.2
108.4 174.9
45.1 48.3
25.2 54.3
138.6 203.3
8 5 . 7 1 6 3. 0
qali kaci
2004
saqarTvelos ekonomikaSi dasaqmebulTa saSualoTviuri
nominaluri xelfasi, sqesisa da saqmianobis saxeobebis mixedviT,
1998-2004 w.w.
lari
sul
soflis meurneoba,
nadiroba da metyeveoba
TevzWera
mrewveloba, sul
samTomopovebiTi mrewveloba da karierebis
damuSaveba
damamuSavebeli mrewveloba
eleqtroenergia, gazi da wyalmomarageba
mSenebloba
sabiTumo da sacalo vaWroba,
avtomobilebis, motociklebis, sayofacxovrebo
saqonlisa da piradi moxmarebis nivTebis
remonti
sastumroebi da restornebi
transporti, sasawyobo meurneoba da
kavSirgabmuloba
safinanso Suamavloba
operaciebi uZravi qonebiT, ijara da
komerciuli saqmianoba
saxelmwifo marTva da Tavdacva, savaldebulo
socialuri dazRveva
ganaTleba
janmrTelobis dacva da socialuri momsaxureba
sxva komunaluri, socialuri da personaluri
momsaxureba
1998
lari
saqarTvelos ekonomikaSi dasaqmebulTa saSualoTviuri nominaluri
xelfasi, saqmianobis saxeobebis mixedviT, 1998-2004 w.w.
cxrili 6.4.
143.9
126.8
36.1
39.2
118.8
138.2
38.9
36.0
s u l 125.9
soflis meurneoba,
nadiroba da metyeveoba 47.6
TevzWera 46.2
mrewveloba. sul 188.1
samTomopovebiTi mrewveloba da
karierebis damuSaveba 218.7
damamuSavebeli mrewveloba 152.5
eleqtroenergia, gazi da
wyalmomarageba 250.2
mSenebloba 206.2
sabiTumo da sacalo vaWroba,
avtomobilebis, motociklebis,
sayofacxovrebo saqonlisa da piradi
moxmarebis nivTebis remonti 85.5
sastumroebi da restornebi 56.6
transporti, sasawyobo meurneoba da
kavSirgabmuloba 181.1
safinanso Suamavloba 530.5
operaciebi uZravi qonebiT, ijara da
komerciuli saqmianoba 110.3
saxelmwifo marTva da Tavdacva,
savaldebulo socialuri dazRveva 132.0
ganaTleba 68.5
janmrTelobis dacva da socialuri
momsaxureba 76.8
sxva komunaluri, socialuri da
personaluri momsaxureba 72.2
saqarTvelos ekonomikaSi
dasaqmebulTa
saSualoTviuri nominaluri
xelfasi, regionebisa da
saqmianobis saxeobebis
mixedviT, 1998-2004 w.w.
66.9
91.6
76.1
_
71.9
_
55.5
45.1
87.0
49.5
lari
_
_
_
_
456.2
148.4
111.8
87.0
60.3
53.4
165.3
57.3
49.7
39.7
33.2
17.1
86.2
161.4
80.4
132.8
54.1
127.4
53.9
113.0
84.3
144.8 141.0 173.2
118.7
106.8
101.9 165.5 165.5 207.3 233.2
232.0 353.6 236.8 213.9 313.7
73.5
47.0
32.3 31.6 597.9 79.6
168.7 84.2 186.9 127.5
238.2 75.0 125.8 119.7 59.5
159.9 117.3 47.5 128.4 236.8
43.3
8.2
52.7
38.7
41.7
62.1
52.1
27.6
73.2
44.6
107.7
32.9
34.8
29.5
51.1
59.5
39.5
56.5
112.7 68.9
45.8
69.2
56.8
173.5 137.5 69.7
134.2 45.2 56.1
136.1
62.1
121.6 158.9 94.4
39.2
45.5
78.5
48.5
54.6
42.8
57.3
67.7
63.3
54.5
81.2
53.5
73.7
65.3
84.3
54.4
48.0
83.3
61.2
77.6
18.9
41.2
83.9
53.6
50.8
194.0 246.0 112.9 153.5 83.2 72.6 225.3 150.3 195.1
782.2 415.6 338.7 193.7 230.9 339.8 305.8 308.6 426.3
101.8 81.5
68.9 62.9
338.9 149.3 187.4 179.4 106.7 139.2 82.1 129.9 114.3
257.1 269.4 70.5 197.6 142.9 137.2 114.3 185.7 135.2
31.2 29.7 44.4 44.4
50.0 31.7 60.1
_
158.2 83.7 218.9 124.5
_
57.8
64.5
141.3 132.1
54.6 67.2
105.7
43.4
83.1
69.3
67.3
48.9
40.7
39.7
30.6
56.8
42.5
95.4 427.2 417.6 420.0
135.4 144.9 187.7 211.8
302.0
141.0
37.9
48.0
177.3
_
558.1
65.2
66.0
134.2 160.6 179.8
724.6 808.4 802.4
63.3
16.1
145.4 156.4 201.3
148.4 152.8 190.8
73.6 227.7 139.5
118.4 141.7 140.1
71.3
101.7
69.3
47.5
75.4
75.5
44.3
39.3
29.5
43.0
8.3
20.0
20.1
9.2
92.8 62.1 92.3 30.3
_
47.9
_
_
248.8 128.0 110.5 132.7
68.0
52.6
42.4
40.6
9 4 . 8 1 23 . 5 1 45 . 1 1 67 . 1
8 2. 5
8 3. 4 1 01 . 1 1 31 . 2 85 . 0
31.8
33.0
40.8
29.1
164.5 187.4 230.4
123.5 145.6 155.4
35.7
_
lari
1 74 .4 116.3 73.0 9 4 . 7 74 .8
88.4
45.1
84.9
43.6
cxrili 6.5.
69.3
69.8
109.9 110.6
563.6 587.2
140.4
95.4
80.1
104.6
q.Tbilisi
25.0
52.6
aWara
35.5
_
sul
8 5 . 7 1 04 . 1 1 1 4 . 5
guria
66.6
kaxeTi
64.5
samcxejavaxeTi
sul
soflis meurneoba,
nadiroba da metyeveoba
TevzWera
samTomopovebiTi mrewveloba da
karierebis damuSaveba
damamuSavebeli mrewveloba
eleqtroenergia, gazi da
wyalmomarageba
mSenebloba
sabiTumo da sacalo vaWroba,
avtomobilebis, motociklebis,
sayofacxovrebo saqonlisa da
piradi moxmarebis nivTebis remonti
sastumroebi da restornebi
transporti, sasawyobo meurneoba
da kavSirgabmuloba
safinanso Suamavloba
operaciebi uZravi qonebiT, ijara
da komerciuli saqmianoba
saxelmwifo marTva da Tavdacva,
savaldebulo socialuri dazRveva
ganaTleba
janmrTelobis dacva da
socialuri momsaxureba
sxva komunaluri, socialuri da
personaluri momsaxureba
eqsteritoriuli orgnizaciebi da
organoebi
imereTi
a ra sa xelmw ifo s eqtori
1998 2000 2002 2003 2004
sammegrelozemo
svaneTi
qvemo
qarTli
s a x e l m w i fo s e q t or i
1998 2000 2002 2003 2004
s a qa rT v e lo s ek on om i k a S i da s a qm e bu lT a s a Su a l oT v i u r i no m i na lu ri
xelfas i , s eqtorebi sa da sa qm ia nobis s a xeobebis m ixedv iT, 1 998-2004 w .w .
Sida
qarTli
316
317
zemoT motanili 6.2, 6.3, 6.4 da 6.5 cxrilebi warmodgenas
gviqmnis saqarTvelos ekonomikaSi dasaqmebulTa saSualoTviuri
nominaluri xelfasis Sesaxeb saqmianobis saxeobebis, sqesis,
seqtorebisa da regionebis mixedviT.
rogorc cxrilebidan Cans, saqarTvelos ekonomikaSi dasaqmebulTa saSualoTviuri nominaluri xelfasi 2004 wels 1998
welTan SedarebiT 1,9-jer gaizarda da 125,9 lari Seadgina.
yvelaze maRali saSualoTviuri nominaluri xelfasi calkeuli saqmianobis mixedviT 2004 wels aRiniSna safinanso SuamavlobaSi _ 530,5 lari, Semdegia eleqtroenergia, gazi da
wyalmomarageba _ 250,2 lari, mSeneblobaSi _ 206,2 lari, yvelaze dabalia saSualoTviuri nominaluri xelfasi sastumroebsa
da restornebSi _ 56,6 lari, ganaTlebaSi _ 68,5 lari,
janmrTelobasa da socialur momsaxurebaSi _ 76,8 lari.
2004 wels erTnaxevarjer metia arasaxelmwifo seqtorSi
dasaqmebulTa saSualoTviuri nominaluri xelfasi (167,1 lari),
vidre saxelmwifo seqtorSi (114,5 lari). 2004 wels TiTqmis
orjer metia mamakacebis saSualoTviuri nominaluri xelfasi
(163,0 lari), vidre qalebis (85,7 lari).
qveynis saSualoTviur nominalur xelfasze (125,9 lari)
maRali xelfasi aRiniSna q.TbilisSi (174,4 lari) da qvemo
qarTlSi (131,2 lari). iseve rogorc qveynis masStabiT, calkeuli
regionebis mixedviT yvelaze maRalia saSualoTviuri nominaluri
xelfasi safinanso Suamavlobasa da eleqtroenergiaSi.
magram, rogorc me-4 TemaSic aRiniSna, ekonomikaSi dasaqmebulTa nominaluri xelfasi ver iZleva naTel warmodgenas
misi mimRebi muSakis cxovrebis doneze. am TvalsazrisiT, ufro
praqtikuli mniSvnelobisaa realuri xelfasi. mis Sinaarss
gansazRvravs materialuri dovlaTisa da momsaxurebaTa masa,
romlis SeZenac SeiZleba nominaluri xelfasis saxiT miRebuli
TanxiT.
realuri xelfasis doneSi momxdar cvlilebaTa dasadgenad
318
saangariSo periodSi nominaluri xelfasis indeqsi unda gaiyos
saqonlis fasebisa da momsaxurebis tarifebis indeqsze da gamravldes 100-ze. yvelaze idealuri variantia nominaluri xelfasis
zrda da imavdroulad saqonelze sacalo fasebisa da momsaxurebis
tarifebis Semcireba, ramdenadac, sxva Tanabar pirobebSi, misi
gardauvali Sedegia realuri xelfasis swrafi da ganuxreli
mateba (xelfasis saxiT miRebuli TanxiT, winandel periodTan
SedarebiT, gacilebiT meti saqonlisa da momsaxurebis SeZena).
realuri xelfasi SeiZleba ramdenadme amaRldes sacalo
fasebisa da tarifebis zrdis SemTxvevaSic, Tuki nominaluri
xelfasi imdenad moimatebs, rom gaZvirebis miuxedavad, momxmarebels
saSualeba miecema ufro meti saqoneli da momsaxureba SeiZinos,
vidre manamde iZenda. yvelaze cudi variantia nominaluri xelfasis
kleba da sacalo fasebisa da tarifebis zrda, vinaidan igi
uciloblad gansazRvravs cxovrebis pirobebis gauaresebas. cxovrebis done ecema maSinac, rodesac nominaluri xelfasi izrdeba,
magram masze ufro swrafi tempiT matulobs saqonelze sacalo
fasebi da momsaxurebis tarifebi. swored aseTi viTareba Seiqmna
saqarTveloSi 1991-1994 w.w., romelmac ukiduresad gaauaresa
mosaxleobis cxovrebis pirobebi. 6.6 cxrilSi asaxulia saqarTvelos ekonomikaSi dasaqmebulTa realuri xelfasis indeqsis
cvlileba 1998-2004 w.w. saqmianobis saxeobebis mixedviT.
rogorc cxrilSi motanili monacemebidan Cans, saqarTvelos
ekonomikaSi dasaqmebulTa saSualoTviuri realuri xelfasi, fasebis
indeqsis gaTvaliswinebiT, 2004 wels wina welTan SedarebiT
5,8%-iT gaizarda.
realuri xelfasi (rom araferi vTqvaT nominalur xelfasze) srul warmodgenas ver iZleva ojaxis fulad Semosavalsa
da, miT ufro, mis erTobliv Semosavalze. es ukanaskneli, garda
xelfasis saxiT miRebuli fuladi Semosavlisa, Sedgeba: mewarmeobrivi (TviTdasaqmebidan miRebuli) Semosavlebisagan, simdidridan
(sakuTrebidan) miRebuli Semosavlisagan (renta, sargebeli, divi319
83.9
103.2
117.2
113.2
107.5
89.2
115.6
131.8
126.2
117.6
115.4
100.2
99.2
88.5
107.9
79.7
113.9
114.3
95.5
135.7
114.4
98.8
128.0
138.5
113.4
106.2
117.8
115.2
94.9
118.5
196.4
90.7
177.0
130.4
79.7
112.0
104.9
120.0
97.3
120.2
156.0
122.7
72.6
116.6
118.4
108.8
101.4
111.1
111.7
112.4
118.4
95.9
114.3
173.8
217.7
104.7
100.2
87.2
83.7
126.0
104.7
116.1
123.1
108.3
94.7
107.5
117.5
120.4
82.6
103.8
231.0
146.0
58.9
106.8
185.9
1 05. 8
113.6
124.9
1 03 . 0
1 02 . 2
sul
soflis meurneoba,
nadiroba da metyeveoba
TevzWera
samTomopovebiTi mrewveloba da karierebis
damuSaveba
damamuSavebeli mrewveloba
eleqtroenergia, gazi da wyalmomarageba
mSenebloba
sabiTumo da sacalo vaWroba,
avtomobilebis, motociklebis, sayofacxovrebo
saqonlisa da piradi moxmarebis nivTebis
remonti
sastumroebi da restornebi
transporti, sasawyobo meurneoba da
kavSirgabmuloba
safinanso Suamavloba
operaciebi uZravi qonebiT, ijara da
komerciuli saqmianoba
saxelmwifo marTva da Tavdacva, savaldebulo
socialuri dazRveva
ganaTleba
janmrTelobis dacva da socialuri momsaxureba
sxva komunaluri, socialuri da personaluri
momsaxureba
2004
2003
2002
2000
1998
saqarTvelos ekonomikaSi dasaqmebulTa realuri xelfasis indeqsis
cvlileba 1998-2004 w.w., saqmianobis saxeobebis mixedviT,
procentobiT wina welTan
cxrili 6.6.
320
dendi, saarendo Semosavali), saxelmwifo transfertuli Semosavlebisagan (pensiebi, sti pendiebi, daxmarebebi, ufaso momsaxureba
janmrTelobis dacvisa da ganaTlebis sferoSi), sxva wyaroebidan
(memkvidreoba, anderZi, Cuqeba da sxv.) miRebuli Semosavlisagan.
maSasadame, ojaxi Semosavlebs Rebulobs ara mxolod gaweuli
SromiT, aramed agreTve warmoebis sxva faqtorebis flobiTac.
zemoT aRniSnul mtkicebas adasturebs XX saukunis 90-iani
wlebis aSS-is saojaxo Semosavlebis struqtura, romelic Semdegnairad gamoiyureba: daqiravebuli muSakebis xelfasi da sxva
saxis anazRaureba iyo mTeli Semosavlebis 65%, satransferto
gadaricxvebi _ 10,9%, sargebeli _ 12%, firmebis erTpirovnuli
mflobelebis Semosavali _ 8%, dividendebi _ 4%, renta _ 0,1%.
yofil sabWoTa kavSirSi sruliad sawinaaRmdego situacia
iyo. imis gamo, rom kapitalsa da miwaze kerZo sakuTreba ar
arsebobda, saojaxo Semosavlebis ZiriTad wyaros saxelmwifo
seqtorSi Sroma da misi xelfasis saxiT anazRaureba Seadgenda.
qvemoT motanil 6.7 da 6.8 cxrilebSi da 6.1 diagramaze
asaxulia erTi saojaxo meurneobis (Sinameurneobis) Semosavlebis dinamika da struqtura saqarTveloSi, Semosavlebis ZiriTadi
jgufebis mixedviT, 1998-2004 w.w.
saqarTveloSi erTi saojaxo meurneobis saSualoTviuri Semosavlebi 2004 wels 1998 welTan SedarebiT TiTqmis 2,0-jer
gaizarda da 168,2 lari Seadgina. Semosavlebis struqturaSi
2004 wels yvelaze maRali xvedriTi woniT gamoirCeoda
Semosavlebi daqiravebuli Sromidan (21,2%), Semdeg modioda
Semosavlebi TviTdasaqmebidan (11,5%), fulis sesxeba an danazogis
gamoyeneba (11,4%), Semosavlebi soflis meurneobis produqciis
gayidvidan (10,1%) da a.S.
rogorc Cans, fulis sesxeba (krediti) da danazogis gamoyeneba saojaxo Semosavlebis mniSvnelovani wyaroa.
saojaxo Semosavlis erTi nawiliT iqmneba danazogi, romlis
gamoyeneba, Tavis mxriv, ojaxis biujetis Sevsebis erT-erTi wya321
322
323
1999
20.5
0.6
9.4
4.1
6.0
16.9
0.2
7.8
1.5
2.2
79.7
165.3
11.9
5.0
6.9
97.5
177.2
arafuladi Semosavlebi
Semosavlebi, sul
sxva fuladi saxsrebi
qonebis gayidva
fulis sesxeba an danazogis gamoyeneba
fuladi saxsrebi, sul
fuladi da arafuladi saxsrebi, sul
19.8
0.6
9.0
4.0
5.7
16.9
0.2
7.8
1.5
2.2
79.7
165.3
11.9
5.0
6.9
97.5
117.2
arafuladi Semosavlebi
Semosavlebi, sul
sxva fuladi saxsrebi
qonebis gayidva
fulis sesxeba an danazogis gamoyeneba
fuladi saxsrebi, sul
fuladi da arafuladi saxsrebi, sul
181.0
122.7
23.1
9.7
13.3
157.9
58.3
99 .6
39.5
21.0
8 5.6
31.8
25.4
fuladi Semosavlebi da transfertebi
daqiravebuli Sromidan
TviTdasaqmebidan
soflis meurneobis produqciis
gayidvidan
qonebidan (gaqiravebidan, procenti anabridan)
pensiebi, stipendiebi, daxmarebebi
ucxoeTidan miRebuli gzavnilebi
axloblebisagan miRebuli fuli
2002
lari
2003 2004
211.4
135.0
26.9
6.9
20.0
184.5
76.4
20.9
1.3
8.5
3.8
8.2
73.9
28.9
1.0
12.2
10.8
12.8
72.4
28.3
1.6
8.7
19.9
18.0
196.5
44.4
8.8
35.6
223.3 270.4
149.0
18.6
7.0
11.5
281.6
209.2
41.0
8.5
32.5
204.7 226.0 240.6
74.2
21.4
1.6
12.3
8.5
9.6
108 .1 130.5 152.1 168 .2
43.9
52.7
57.5
59.6
21.6
24.3 28.9
32.1
2001
164.7
103.7
18.0
5.2
12.8
146.7
61.0
21.6
1.0
6.3
4.4
5.5
8 5 .8
34.9
12.1
164.7
105.2
20.9
5.4
15.5
143.7
59.5
16.3
1.0
6.6
2.9
6.4
84.2
34.2
16.8
166.1
110.9
13.8
5.2
8.6
152.3
55.2
15.9
1.2
9.2
6.3
7.2
9 7.1
39.2
18.1
190.5
138.5
31.3
6.2
25.1
159.2
52.1
20.3
0.7
8.6
7.6
9.9
189.4
140.7
27.6
5.7
21.8
161.8
48.7
19.0
1.1
5.8
13.4
12.1
10 7.2 1 1 3.1
40.6
40.1
20.3
21.6
6.7. cxrilis gagrZeleba
203.3
128.0
22.2
6.4
15.8
181.0
75.3
26.6
1.2
7.8
5.4
6.7
10 5.8
43.1
15.0
2000
1998 wlis mudmiv fasebSi
187.5
127.1
23.9
10.1
13.8
163.6
60.4
103.2
40.9
21.8
8 5.6
31.8
25.4
fuladi Semosavlebi da transfertebi
daqiravebuli Sromidan
TviTdasaqmebidan
soflis meurneobis produqciis
gayidvidan
qonebidan (gaqiravebidan, procenti anabridan)
pensiebi, stipendiebi, daxmarebebi
ucxoeTidan miRebuli gzavnilebi
axloblebisagan miRebuli fuli
mimdinare fasebSi
1998
saqarTvelos erTi saojaxo meurneobis saSualoTviuri
Semosavlebis dinamika 1998-2004 w.w.
cxrili 6.7.
324
1999
87.2
12.8
5.4
7.4
67.8
93.3
6.7
2.8
3.9
55.0
100
Semosavlebi, sul
sxva fuladi saxsrebi
qonebis gayidva
fulis sesxeba an danazogis gamoyeneba
fuladi saxsrebi, sul
fuladi da arafuladi saxsrebi, sul
100
32.2
45.0
100
63.0
10.9
3.2
7.8
89.1
37.1
13.1
0.6
3.9
2.7
3.3
10.9
0.3
5.0
2.2
3.2
arafuladi Semosavlebi
52.1
21.2
7.4
5 5 .0
21.8
11.6
2000
fuladi Semosavlebi da transfertebi 4 8 .3
daqiravebuli Sromidan
17.9
TviTdasaqmebidan
14.3
soflis meurneobis produqciis
gayidvidan
9.5
qonebidan (gaqiravebidan, procenti anabridan) 0.1
pensiebi, stipendiebi, daxmarebebi
4.4
ucxoeTidan miRebuli gzavnilebi
0.8
axloblebisagan miRebuli fuli
1.2
mimdinare fasebSi
1998
100
63.9
12.7
3.3
9.4
87.3
36.1
9.9
0.6
4.0
1.8
3.9
51.1
20.8
10.2
2001
100
66.7
8.3
3.1
5.2
91.7
33.3
9.6
0.7
5.5
3.8
4.3
5 8 .4
23.6
10.9
2002
100
72.7
16.4
3.2
13.2
83.6
27.3
10.7
0.4
4.5
4.0
4.7
56.2
21.3
10.7
2003
saqarTvelos erTi saojaxo meurneobis saSualoTviuri
Semosavlebis struqtura 1998-2004 w.w.
100
74.3
14.6
3.0
11.4
85.4
25.7
10.1
0.6
3.1
7.1
6.4
59 .7
21.2
11.5
2004
cxrili 6.8.
erTi Sinameurneobis Semosavlebis dinamika
Semosavlebis ZiriTadi jgufebis mixedviT,
1998-2004 w.w. (lari/TveSi)
diagrama 6.1.
1)
2)
3)
4)
fuladi Semosavlebi da transfertebi;
fuladi saxsrebi, sul;
Semosavlebi, sul;
fuladi da arafuladi saxsrebi, sul.
roa. danazogis warmoSobis ramdenime piroba arsebobs, romelTagan umTavresia:
 Semosavali. Semosavlis donis zrdasTan erTad ti piur
saojaxo meurneobas ufro meti danazogi aqvs da metis investirebas axdens;
 xangrZlivi moxmarebisa da ZviradRirebuli saqon325
lis SeZena. am mizniT ojaxis fuladi Semosavlis nawili gadainaxeba, radgan mimdinare Semosavali arasakmarisia am saqonlis
SesaZenad;
 molodini. rodesac ojaxs perspeqtiuli momavlis imedi
aqvs, igi, rogorc wesi, mets xarjavs da naklebs zogavs. magram
Tu momavali arasaimedoa, igi am fuls ara xangrZlivi moxmarebis
saqonlis SesaZenad an investiciebisaTvis zogavs, aramed `Savi
dRisaTvis~ (umuSevroba, avadmyofoba da a.S.) inaxavs;
 strategiuli miznis ganxorcieleba . saojaxo Semosavlis nawilis dazogvis erT-erTi mizani SeiZleba iyos momavalSi bavSvebisaTvis prestiJuli ganaTlebis micema an sxva geografiul regionSi sacxovreblad gadasvlis ganzraxva;
 anabarze sargeblis mimdinare ganakveTi . rac ufro
maRalia anabarze sargeblis mimdinare ganakveTi, miT ufro metia
daxarjvasaTan SedarebiT saojaxo Semosavlis dazogvis stimuli.
ganviTarebuli sabazro ekonomikis qveynebSi danazogebis meti wili inaxeba komerciul bankebsa da sxvadasxva ti pis Semnaxvel dawesebulebebSi. simdidris zrda, Tavis mxriv, adidebs danazogis
moculobas.
mosaxerxebelia danazogis moTavseba sabanko-sakredito
dawesebulebebSi. aq fuli daculia xanZris, gaZarcvisa da sxva
saSiSroebisagan. Tanac, Senaxuli fuli sargeblis momtania da
ar ufasurdeba.
axla davuSvaT, rom ojaxs ar surs daelodos sakmarisi
fulis dagrovebas sasurveli saqonlis SesaZenad. am SemTxvevaSi
mas mouxdeba samomxmareblo kreditis aReba. es krediti
saSualebas miscems ojaxs axlave miiRos naRdi fuli saqonlis
SesaZenad im pirobiT, rom momavalSi vals gaistumrebs.
arsebobs samomxmareblo kreditis ori saxeoba: kreditisesxi da savaWro krediti. krediti-sesxi saSualebas gaZlevT
fuli isesxoT SenaZenis dasafinanseblad, savaWro krediti
saSualebas gaZlevT saqoneli da momsaxureba iyidoT axla, maTi
326
safasuri ki mogvianebiT gadaixadoT. qvemoT motanilia am saxis
kreditis magaliTebi:
uZravi qonebis dagiraveba saxlis SesaZenad . es aris
grZelvadiani sesxi, sakuTari saxlis an mravalbinian saxlSi
binis SesaZenad. bankebi da Semnaxvel-gamsesxebeli dawesebulebebi
uZravi qonebis dagiravebiT aRebuli sesxebis farTod gavrcelebuli wyaroebia. saxlis SesaZenad uZravi qonebis dagiravebiT
aRebul sesxebs ixdian procentiT, yovelTviuri Tanabari Senatanebis
saxiT, sesxis mTeli vadis ganmavlobaSi. sesxebi uZravi qonebis
garantiiT gaicema 15-dan 30 wlamde vadiT.
avtomanqanis SesaZenad da sxva samomxmareblo miznebisaTvis aRebuli sesxebi . sesxebs konkretuli saqonlis
(magaliTad, avtomanqanis) SesaZenad gascemen bankebi da Semnaxvelgamsesxebeli dawesebulebebi. am sesxebis dafarva, Tanabari yovelTviuri Senatanebis saxiT xdeba, rogorc wesi, 3-dan 7 wlamde
vadaSi.
kreditebi Ria angariSze . kreditebi Ria angariSze
gansazRvruli Tanxis farglebSi saqonlis SeZenis saSualebas
iZleva naRdi fulis gadauxdelad. Tu Tvis balansi sruladaa
gadaxdili, gadasaxads angariSiT sargeblobisaTvis, Cveulebriv,
aRar axdevineben. procenti iricxeba gadauxdel balansebze.
sakredito baraTebi. es aris Ria sakredito angariSis
nairsaxeoba, romelic mis mflobels sayidlebis sxvadasxva adgilas
SeZenis uflebas aZlevs. `masterkardi~, `viza~, `emeriken eqspresi~,
`diskaveri~ da `dainers klabi~ xuTi yvelaze xSirad gamoyenebuli sakredito baraTia. sakredito baraTebis kompaniebi nayidi
saqonlis safasuris gadasaxdelad angariSebs warudgenen sakredito baraTebis mflobelebs. Ria sakredito angariSebis msgavsad,
es kompaniebi baraTebis mflobelebs procentebs ar dauricxaven,
Tu es ukanasknelni yovelTviurad wardgenil angariSebs srulad
dafaraven.
saerTod, Tu Tqven sakredito baraTis gadasaxdeli angariSis
327
yovelTviurad gasworebas apirebT, maSin SeecadeT monaxoT iseTi
baraTi, romelsac dabali an nulovani yovelwliuri gadasaxadi
aqvs. xolo Tu Tqven balansis anazRaurebis Tvidan Tveze gadatanas
apirebT, gijobT arCevani dabali saprocento ganakveTis mqone
baraTze SeaCeroT.
marTalia, krediti ojaxis finansur SesaZleblobebs zrdis,
magram ar SeiZleba misi zedmeti `eqsploatacia~, gansakuTrebiT
gauTvaliswinebeli SemTxvevebis dros. gauTvaliswinebeli SemTxvevebisagan Tavis dasacavad arsebobs ojaxis biujetis dagegmvis,
fuliT uzrunvelyofis ukeTesi gza _ dazRveva.
yvelaze ufro gavrclebulia sicocxlis, janmrTelobis,
qonebisa da moqalaqeobrivi pasuxismgeblobis dazRveva. arsebobs
sicocxlis dazRvevis sami mTavari saxeoba: vadiani dazRveva
(dazRvevis vadis damTavrebasTan erTad mTavrdeba dazRvevis Tanxis
gadaxdis garantia); samudamo dazRveva (adgili aqvs fulis
dagrovebas) da dazRveva-anabari (dazRvevis moqnili saxeobaa,
romelic dazRvevis Tanxis koreqtirebis SesaZleblobas iZleva).
sicocxlis dazRvevisagan gansxvavebiT, janmrTelobis
dazRveva SesaZleblobas iZleva avadmyofobis an ubeduri
SemTxvevis dros Tavidan aicilon finansuri problemebi. aseT
SemTxvevaSi Tanxis gadamxdelia Sesabamisi sadazRvevo kompania.
dazRvevis erT-erTi yvelaze gavrcelebuli formaa qonebisa
da moqalaqeobrivi pasuxismgeblobis dazRveva. qonebis dazRveva
mesakuTres icavs qonebis dakargvis, dazianebis an ganadgurebisagan. moqalaqeobrivi pasuxismgeblobis dazRveva ki moqalaqeebs im danakargis Rirebulebis gadaxdisagan icavs, romelic
maT sxva pirs an piris qonebas miayenes.
amrigad, dazRveva ojaxebs moulodneli riskisagan icavs. am
mizniT gadanaxuli Tanxa gauTvaliswinebeli danaxarjis dafarvas
iTvaliswinebs, ris gamoc dazRveva nebismieri ojaxis biujetis
mniSvnelovani Semadgeneli nawilia.
ojaxis Semosavlebis sidide ara mxolod miRebuli fulis
328
raodenobazea damokidebuli, aramed am fulis yidviTunarianobazec,
anu imaze, Tu ra raodenobis saqonlis SeZena da gaweuli
momsaxurebis anazRaurebaa am fuliT SesaZlebeli. aRniSnulidan
gamomdinare, ganasxvaveben ojaxis nominalur da realur Semosavals.
nominaluri Semosavali aris fuladi Tanxa, romelsac
ojaxis wevrebi iReben drois garkveul periodSi. realuri
Semosavali aris saqonlisa da momsaxurebis is moculoba, romlis
SeZenac ojaxs nominaluri SemosavliT SeuZlia. realuri
Semosavlis cvlilileba martivi formuliT daaxloebiT
Semdegnairad SeiZleba gamovsaxoT:
realuri Semosavlis cvlilebebi=nominaluri Semosavlis
cvlilebebi (%-obiT) minus cvlilebebi fasebisa da tarifebis
doneSi (%-obiT). magaliTad, Tu Tqveni ojaxis nominaluri
Semosavali mocemuli wlis ganmavlobaSi gaizrdeba 20%-iT (100dan 120 laramde), xolo fasebis done (indeqsi) _ 10%-iT (100dan 110 laramde), maSin realuri Semosavali gaizrdeba 9%-iT
(120:110) da, piriqiT, nominaluri Semosavlis 10%-iani gadideba
20%-iani inflaciis pirobebSi, Tqveni ojaxis realur Semosavals
Seamcirebs daaxloebiT 10%-iT.
unda daimaxsovroT, rom TviT inflaciis faqti _ laris
msyidvelobiTunarianobis dacema anu im saqonlisa da momsaxurebis raodenobis Semcireba, romelic lariT SeiZleba SeiZinoT,
aucileblad ar gamoiwvevs Tqveni ojaxis realuri Semosavlis
Semcirebas an cxovrebis donis dacemas. marTalia, inflacia Seamcirebs laris msyidvelobiT unars, magram Tqveni ojaxis realuri
Semosavali da, Sesabamisad, cxovrebis done Semcirdeba mxolod
maSin, Tu Tqveni nominaluri Semosavlis zrda CamorCeba inflacias.
nominaluri Semosavali, rogorc aRvniSneT, ojaxis erToblivi
Semosavalia, magram sanam am maCvenebels realuri Semosavlis
gasaTvlelad gamoviyenebT, aucilebelia mas gamovakloT gadasaxadebi (e.i. is nawili, romelic realurad ver iqneba gamoyenebuli moxmarebis sagnebisa da momsaxurebis SesaZenad). am
329
koreqtivis gareSe gaangariSebuli realuri Semosavali mniSvnelovanwilad ararealur safuZvelze iqneba damyarebuli da
swori daskvnebis gasakeTeblad ver gamodgeba.
ojaxis danaxarjebis struqtura. moTxovnilebis
saxeebsa da maTi dakmayofilebis gzebze saubrisas, ojaxis
samomxmareblo xarjebis sakiTxs nawilobriv ukve SevexeT. amjerad
ramdenime momentze gavamaxvilebT yuradRebas.
pirveli, ojaxis yovelwliuri danaxarjebi imazea damokidebuli, Tu ramdens gamoimuSaveben misi wevrebi. ojaxis Semosavlisa
da samomxmareblo xarjebis struqturas Soris arsebul kavSirs
jer kidev XX saukuneSi miaqcia yuradReba cnobilma germanelma
statistikosma engelma. man daadgina Semosavlis donis mixedviT
sxvadasxva saxeobis saqonelsa da momsaxurebaze moTxovnis moculobis funqcionaluri damokidebulebis cvalebadoba da daaskvna:
ojaxis Semosavlis zrdasTan erTad (garkveuli momentidan), masSi
mcirdeba pirveladi aucileblobis sagnebze (ZiriTadad kvebis
produqtebze) xarjebis xvedriTi wona; SedarebiT stabiluri
rCeba sacxovrebel binaze, tansacmelze, gaTboba-ganaTebaze xarjebis
xvedriTi wona da matulobs fufunebis sagnebze xarjebis xvedriTi
wona. marTlac, friad angariSgasawevi mosazrebaa da ekonomikur
mecnierebaSi man amitomac daimkvidra adgili engelis kanonis
saxelwodebiT.
ufro gvian aRmoaCines moxmarebis sxva empiriuli kanonebi.
magaliTad, Svabes kanoni (rac ufro Raribia ojaxi, miT ufro
maRalia sacxovrebel binaze xarjis wili), raitis kanoni (rac
ufro maRalia Semosavali, miT maRalia mTlian xarjSi danazogis
done da wili), Jinis kanoni (Tu sasursaTo saqonelze xarji
ariTmetikuli progresiiT izrdeba an ecema, maSin xarjis sxva
saxe icvleba ukumimarTulebiT, magram geometriuli progresiiT).
Tanamedrove ekonomikuri Teoria uaryofs `empiriuli kanonebis~
330
kategoriul xasiaTs, ramdenadac naTeli gaxda, rom Semosavlis
garda, xarjebis struqturaze sxva faqtoric, kerZod, aramaterialuri, moqmedebs. magaliTad, amerikelma i. diuzenberma gaakritika
Sexeduleba _ TiTqos arsebobs cxovrebis iseTi done, romlis
drosac ojaxi dazogavs am donis zeviT miRebul Semosavals,
Sesabamisad ki gaizrdeba danazogis jamic. diuzenberis gamokvleviT,
miuxedavad omebisa da koniunqturuli ryevebisa, danazogis sidide
yovelTvis imyofeba eqvsi procentis farglebSi. aqedan gamomdinare,
igi askvnis, rom ar arsebobs cxovrebis iseTi done, romelic
SeiZleba damakmayofileblad da komfortabelurad CaiTvalos.
diuzenberma wina planze wamowia socialuri fsiqologiis faqtori, romelmac ganapiroba moxmarebis TeoriaSi axali Teoriuli
koncefciebis (`momxmarebelTa qcevis Teoria~, `SerCevis Teoria~,
`fsiqologiuri Teoria~...) Setana.
meore, saojaxo danaxarjebis gawevisas momxmarebelTa asaksa
da gemovnebasac didi mniSvneloba aqvs. magaliTad, Tu moswavle
totalizatorSi 10 lars moigebs, mas sul sxvanairad daxarjavs,
vidre misi mSobeli.
mesame, ekonomikuri koniunqtura iaffasiani saqonlis SesaZenad gaweul xarjebze did zegavlenas ar axdens, magram ZviradRirebuli saqonlis realizaciaze igi mniSvnelovnad zemoqmedebs.
aqedan gamomdinare, rac ufro mdidaria qveyana, ojaxis
Semosavlis ufro naklebi nawili gamoiyeneba kvebis produqtebis,
tansacmlisa da sxva savaldebulo xarjebis asanazRaureblad
da, piriqiT. magaliTad, XX saukunis 80-iani wlebis bolosaTvis
aSS-isa da yofili sabWoTa kavSiris saojaxo xarjebis Sedareba
gviCvenebs, rom aSS-Si sakveb produqtebsa da tansacmelze gaweuli
danaxarjebi gacilebiT naklebi iyo sabWoTa kavSiris analogiur
maCveneblebTan SedarebiT. igi Seadgenda Sesabamisad kvebaze _
16%-sa da 30%-s, tansacmelze _ 6%-sa da 16%-s.
331
332
256.2
328.6
196.2
271.7
181.1
242.4
185.5
264.2
fuladi xarjebi, sul
xarjebi, sul
223.0 228.9 266.8
299.4 303.2 340.7
47.1
7.3
9.2
24.4
6.2
50.1
7.1
5.7
23.2
14.2
27.2
5.8
0.7
20.6
_
16.5
4.2
0.4
11.9
_
18.8
3.4
0.6
14.8
_
13.2
4.3
0.8
8.1
_
arasamomxmareblo fuladi xarjebi
sasoflo-sameurneo xarjebi
transfertebze
dazogvaze an gasesxebaze
qonebis SeZenaze
26.0
5.6
0.4
20.0
_
72.4
281.4
74.2
73.9
276.0 290.6
76.4
273.5
75.4
255.2
60.2
222.4
79.7
251.0
arafuladi xarjebi
samomxmareblo xarjebi, sul
1 97 .0 2 0 1 . 8 2 1 6 . 7 2 0 9 .0
100.9 106.7 113.0 111.4
12.7
12.2
12.2
12.4
27.1
25.6
7.2
7.6
10.2
11.5
13.8
15.7
15.8
17.1
20.0
18.6
13.6
12.4
21.8
25.7
7.0
7.3
13.3
5.8
9.7
9.2
18.2
9.1
17 9.7
102.4
11.8
21.0
6.3
12.5
11.2
5.2
9.3
171.3 162.3
97.8
93.9
10.3
10.9
17.4
18.3
6.0
4.7
12.2
11.9
13.4
11.4
5.3
5.2
9.0
6.0
mimdinare fasebSi
samomxmareblo fuladi xarjebi
sursaTze, sasmelze, Tambaqos nawarmze
tansacmelsa da fexsacmelze
saojaxo moxmarebis saqonelze
janmrTelobis dacvaze
saTbobsa da eleqtroenergiaze
transportze
ganaTlebaze, kulturasa da dasvenebaze
sxva samomxmareblo xarjebi
2003 2004
2002
2001
2000
1999
1998
lari
cxrili 6.9.
saqarTvelos erTi saojaxo meurneobis saSualoTviuri xarjebis
dinamika, 1998-2004 w.w.
saqarTveloSi 1970-1990 w.w. kvebaze ixarjeboda saojaxo
Semosavlebis 40-43%, 90-iani wlebis dasawyisSi ki (TqvenTvis
kargad cnobili mizezebis gamo) _ mTeli saojaxo Semosavali
da isic mxolod nawilobriv faravda kvebasTan dakavSirebul
kolosalur xarjebs. cxadia, es mosaxleobis yvela fenas erTnairad
ar Sexebia. 1995 wels saojaxo xarjebis saerTo moculobaSi
kvebis danaxarjebi mosaxleobis SeZlebul 10%-s 2-jer da metad
naklebi hqonda, xolo arasasursaTo saqonlis SeZenaze _ 3-jer
meti, vidre uRaribes 10%-s.
qvemoT motanil 6.9 da 6.10 cxrilebSi da 6.2 diagramaze
asaxulia erTi saojaxo meurneobis (Sinameurneobis) xarjebis
dinamika da struqtura saqarTveloSi, xarjebis ZiriTadi muxlebis
mixedviT, 1998-2004 w.w.
saqarTveloSi erTi saojaxo meurneobis saSualoTviuri
xarjebi 2004 wels 1998 welTan SedarebiT 24,4%-iT gaizarda
da 328,6 lari Seadgina. xarjebis struqturaSi 2004 wels
yvelaze maRali xvedriTi woniT gamoirCeoda danaxarjebi sursaTze,
sasmelze da Tambaqos nawarmze (33,9%), Semdeg modioda danaxarjebi
dazogvaze an gasesxebaze (7,4%), transportze (6,6%), saTbobsa
da eleqtroenergiaze (5,7%), janmrTelobis dacvaze (4,2%),
tansacmelsa da fexsacmelze (3,7%), transfertebze (2,8%),
saojaxo moxmarebis saqonelze (2,2%) da a.S. maSasadame, sabazro
ekonomikaze gardamaval periodSi ekonomikurma siZneleebma
saqarTveloSi ojaxis danaxarjebis metad araracionaluri
struqturis Camoyalibeba ganapiroba.
333
334
335
174.8
233.9
185.5
264.2
fuladi xarjebi, sul
xarjebi, sul
35.3
5.0
4.0
16.3
10.0
172.3
221.0
31.7
4.9
6.2
16.4
4.2
cxrili 6.10.
173.7 170.3 188.0
233.2 225.6 240.1
20.2
4.3
0.6
15.3
_
1999
6 6 .9
38.8
4.5
7.5
1.9
4.9
4.7
2.2
2.5
24.8
91.8
7.8
1.4
0.2
6.1
_
74.7
100
6 4 .9
37.0
3.9
6.6.
2.3
4.6
5.1
2.0
3.4
30.2
95.0
5.0
1.6
0.3
3.1
_
69.8
100
samomxmareblo fuladi xarjebi
sursaTze, sasmelze, Tambaqos nawarmze
tansacmelsa da fexsacmelze
saojaxo moxmarebis saqonelze
janmrTelobis dacvaze
saTbobsa da eleqtroenergiaze
transportze
ganaTlebaze, kulturasa da dasvenebaze
sxva samomxmareblo xarjebi
arafuladi xarjebi
samomxmareblo xarjebi, sul
arasamomxmareblo fuladi xarjebi
sasoflo-sameurneo xarjebi
transfertebze
dazogvaze an gasesxebaze
qonebis SeZenaze
fuladi xarjebi, sul
xarjebi, sul
mimdinare fasebSi
1998
72.2
100
6.1
1.6
0.1
4.4
_
27.8
93.9
66.2
37.7
4.3
7.7
2.3
4.6
4.1
1.9
3.4
2000
75.5
100
8.7
1.9
0.1
6.7
_
25.5
91.3
65.8
33.7
4.2
9.1
3.4
5.3
4.6
2.3
3.2
75.5
100
9.0
1.9
0.2
6.8
_
24.5
91.0
66.5
35.2
4.0
8.4
3.8
5.6
4.1
2.4
3.0
2001 2002
78.3
100
14.3
2.1
1.7
6.8
4.2
21.7
85.7
63.6
33.2
3.7
2.2
4.6
5.9
7.5
3.9
2.7
2003
78.0
100
14.3
2.2
2.8
7.4
1.9
22.0
85.7
63.6
33.9
3.7
2.2
4.2
5.7
6.6
1.8
5.5
2004
saqarTvelos erTi saojaxo meurneobis saSualoTviuri xarjebis
struqtura, 1998-2004 w.w.
159.0
220.1
13.4
3.4
0.3
9.7
_
20.2
4.3
0.3
15.5
_
18.2
3.3
0.6
14.3
_
13.2
4.3
0.8
8.1
_
48.7
189.3
arasamomxmareblo fuladi xarjebi
sasoflo-sameurneo xarjebi
transfertebze
dazogvaze an gasesxebaze
qonebis SeZenaze
55.2
52.1
205.4 204.8
59.5
213.0
58.1
214.7
79.7
251.0
arafuladi xarjebi
samomxmareblo xarjebi, sul
61.1
206.8
153.4 1 50 .1 152.7 1 40 .6
78.6
79.4
79.6
74.9
9.9
9.1
8.8
8.2
21.1
19.1
5.3
4.9
8.0
8.5
11.1
9.3
12.3
12.7
14.1
12.5
10.6
9.2
18.1
14.6
5.4
5.4
9.3
3.9
7.5
6.8
6.4
12.3
171.3 156.6 145.6
97.8
83.0
90.7
10.3
9.5
10.5
17.4
17.6
17.1
6.0
5.1
4.5
12.2
11.5
10.1
13.4
9.1
11.0
5.3
5.0
4.2
9.0
7.6
5.8
samomxmareblo fuladi xarjebi
sursaTze, sasmelze, Tambaqos nawarmze
tansacmelsa da fexsacmelze
saojaxo moxmarebis saqonelze
janmrTelobis dacvaze
saTbobsa da eleqtroenergiaze
transportze
ganaTlebaze, kulturasa da dasvenebaze
sxva samomxmareblo xarjebi
1999 wlis mudmiv fasebSi
6.9. cxrilis gagrZeleba
diagrama 6.2.
erTi Sinameurneobis xarjebis dinamika
xarjebis ZiriTadi jgufebis mixedviT,
1998-2004 w.w. (lari/TveSi)
leqcia 19. ojaxis Semosavlebis
uTanasworoba da siRaribesTan
brZolis gzebi
`dauSvebelia gansxvavebis mTlianad
aRmofxvra ojaxis Semosavlebisa da
simdidris doneebSi, magram saxelmwifom
Tavidan unda aicilos ekonomikuri
uTanasworobis metismeti gaZliereba
da ganaxorcielos uRaribesi moqalaqeebis daxmarebis socialuri programebi.~
i.lipsici
ojaxis Semosavlebis uTanasworobis warmoSobis mizezebi. sabazro ekonomikis pirobebSi adgili aqvs oja-
1)
2)
3)
4)
336
samomxmareblo fuladi xarjebi;
mTliani moxmareba;
fuladi xarjebi;
mTliani xarjebi.
xebis Semosavlebis uTanasworobas. uTanasworobis problema xangrZlivi da winaaRmdegobrivi istoriis mqonea. SemosavlebSi
uTanasworobis warmoSobis mizezebs Soris sayuradReboa:
qonebrivi gansxvaveba . simdidris floba Tu uqonloba
uTanasworobis warmoSobis ZiriTadi mizezia. arsebobs damokidebuleba simdidresa da Semosavals Soris. erTi mxriv, axlandeli Taobis simdidre wina Taobebis dagrovili Semosavlis Sedegia
(naRdi fuli, fasiani qaRaldebi, miwa, saxli, sawarmoebi,
Zvirfaseuloba da sxv.); meore mxriv, ojaxis gankargulebaSi
arsebuli moZravi qoneba gansazRvruli Semosavlis (renta, mogeba,
dividendi, sargebeli) miRebis wyaroa;
adamianis Tandayolili niWi . SeuZlebelia pirovneba
diriJori gaxdes, Tu mas Tandayolili absoluturi niWi ar
gaaCnia. igive SeiZleba iTqvas momRerlebze, mxatvrebsa Tu mwerlebze. amitom am adamianTa Sromis anazRaureba Zalze maRalia;
337
gansxvaveba Sromis mwarmoeblurobaSi . ufro mwarmoebluri Sroma met produqts qmnis. amitom rac ufro kvalificiuria warmoebaSi CarTuli muSaki, miT ufro maRalia misi piradi
Semosavali da, piriqiT.
ganviTarebul da, gansakuTrebiT ki, ekonomikurad CamorCenil
qveynebSi Semosavali metad araTanabrad nawildeba. es sazogadoebaSi socialur daZabulobas qmnis. saxelmwifos amocanaa am
daZabulobis Seneleba, cxovrebis doneTa Soris gansxvavebis
Semcireba da siRaribis winaaRmdeg brZola.
siRaribe SedarebiTi cnebaa da mas TiToeul qveyanaSi gansxvavebuli done aqvs. magaliTad, aSS imdenad mdidari qveyanaa,
rom iqauri dabalSemosavliani moqalaqeebi, sxva qveynebis moqalaqeebTan SedarebiT, SeZlebuladac ki SeiZleba mogveCvenos.
siRaribe da misi maCveneblebi. siRaribis gansazRvris
sxvadasxva definicia arsebobs. zogjer mas ganmartaven rogorc
Semosavlis iseT dones, romelic adamianis arsebobisaTvis aradamakmayofilebelia.
siRaribis zRvari, saarsebo minimumTan erTad, yovelwliurad
icvleba. igi aseve damokidebulia ojaxis sididesa da misi wevrebis wlovanebaze.
saqarTveloSi siRaribis maCveneblebi Sefasebulia siRaribis
Semdegi sami zRvris mimarT:
 saarsebo minimumi;
 medianuri moxmarebis 60%;
 medianuri moxmarebis 40%.
saarsebo minimumi siRaribis absoluturi zRvaria. saarsebo minimumad miCneulia Sromisunariani asakis (15-dan 65 wlamde) mamakacis saarsebo minimumi.
medianuri moxmarebis 60% da medianuri moxmarebis
40% siRaribis fardobiTi zRvrebia, romlebic mTliani moxmarebis
338
mixedviT mosaxleobis ganawilebis medianidan aiTvleba. moxmarebis
mixedviT mosaxleobis ganawilebis mediana moxmarebis iseTi sididea,
rom mosaxleobis naxevari (50%) masze naklebs, xolo meore
naxevari masze mets moixmars.
siRaribis maCveneblebi Sefasebulia sojaxo meurneobebis
mTliani moxmarebis safuZvelze, Sromisunariani asakis mamakacis
ekvivalentur erT wevrze gadaangariSebiT da erTblivi moxmarebis
(Tanacxovrebis) efeqtis gaTvaliswinebiT. siRaribis zemoT
CamoTvlili sami zRvris mimarT siRaribis samgvari maCvenebeli
gaiangariSeba:
 siRaribis done, anu sxvagvarad, Raribebis raodenobis indeqsi
(Raribi mosaxleobis wili mTel mosaxleobaSi);
 siRaribis siRrme (Raribi mosaxleobis siRaribis zRvramde
daSorebis wili mTeli mosaxleobis siRaribis zRvris doneze
jamuri moxmarebidan);
 siRaribis simwvave (Rarib ojaxTa Soris siRaribis
uTanabrobis maCvenebeli), romelic Tavisi SinaarsiT moicavs
rogorc siRaribis siRrmes, ise RaribTa Soris uTanabrobas.
qvemoT motanil 6.11. cxrilSi asaxulia siRaribis absoluturi
da fardobiTi maCveneblebis dinamika siRaribis absoluturi
da fardobiTi zRvrebis mimarT saqarTveloSi.
saqarTveloSi 2004 wels 1998 welTan SedarebiT siRaribis
done gaizarda: saarsebo minimumis mimarT _ 46,2-dan 54,5%-mde,
medianuri moxmarebis 60%-is mimarT _ 25,0%-dan 56,9%-mde,
medianuri moxmarebis 40%-is mimarT _ 10,8-dan 55,7%-mde; siRaribis
siRrme gaizarda: saarsebo minimumis mimarT _ 17,3-dan 20,8%-mde,
medianuri moxmarebis 60%-is mimarT _ 8,1-dan 22,7%-mde, medianuri
moxmarebis 40%-is mimarT _ 3,3-dan 21,9%-mde; siRaribis simwvave
gaizarda: saarsebo minimumis mimarT _ 8,9-dan 10,8%-mde, medianuri
moxmarebis 60%-is mimarT _ 3,9-dan 12,3%-mde, medianuri moxmarebis
40%-is mimarT _ 1,6-dan 9,7%-mde.
339
9.7
12.3
3.5
1.5
1.4
3.3
3.7
1.6
1.6
3.8
3.9
1.6
medianuri moxmarebis 60%-is mimarT
medianuri moxmarebis 40%-is mimarT
1.9
10.3
9.9
10.7
10.9
10.4
8.9
saarsebo minimumis mimarT
siRaribis simwvave
4.1
10.8
21.9
3.0
2.8
3.2
3.6
3.3
medianuri moxmarebis 40%-is mimarT
3.3
20.8
22.7
7.1
19.8
19.3
6.8
7.6
20.2
8.1
8.1
medianuri moxmarebis 60%-is mimarT
20.5
19.5
17.3
saarsebo minimumis mimarT
siRaribis siRrme
7.7
55.7
9.7
8.9
10.2
10.2
10.8
medianuri moxmarebis 40%-is mimarT
10.7
54.5
56.9
21.8
52.1
51.1
21.6
23.0
51.8
51.8
23.6
25.0
medianuri moxmarebis 60%-is mimarT
50.2
46.2
saarsebo minimumis mimarT
siRaribis done
23.3
2004
2003
2002
2001
2000
1999
1998
siRaribis absoluturi da fardobiTi maCveneblebis dinamika
siRaribis absoluturi da fardobiTi zRvrebis mimarT
saqarTveloSi, 1998-2004 w.w. (%-obiT)
cxrili 6.11.
340
siRaribesTan brZolis gzebi. uwinares yovlisa, es
aris Tanabari SesaZleblobebis uzrunvelyofa . siRaribis
donis Semcirebis efeqtiani saSualebaa ekonomikuri zrda, RaribTa
ganaTlebisa da profesiuli donis amaRleba, saqonlisa da momsaxurebis gaiafeba da sxv.
transfertuli gadasaxdelebic siRaribesTan brZolis
erT-erTi gzaa. es aris pirdapiri daxmareba gaWirvebulTaTvis
maTi mimdinare saarsebo moTxovnilebis dakmayofilebis mizniT.
igi biujetis xarjze xorcieldeba.
saxelmwifo daxmareba arafuladi formiTac xorcieldeba. magaliTad, mcireSemosavliani ojaxebisaTvis kvebis produqtebis SesaZenad dabal fasebSi talonebis an kuponebis micema.
aSS-is yovel StatSi miRebulia socialuri uzrunvelyofis
gaTvaliswineba, romelic gaWirvebulebs naturalur daxmarebas
(kvebis produqtebs, tansacmelsa da sacxovrebel binebs) sTavazobs.
daxmarebis kidev erTi formaa bavSviani ojaxebisaTvis
Semweobis programa , romelic CvilbavSvian mSoblebs moicavs.
daxmarebis swrafad ganviTarebadi programaa `medikeidi~, romelic
dabalSemosavliani ojaxebis samedicino momsaxurebas uzrunvelyofs.
siRaribesTan brZolis kidev erTi mniSvnelovani gzaa maRali
Semosavlebis mqone pirebisagan dabali Semosavlebis mqone pirebis sasargeblod Semosavlebis gadanawilebis programebi .
dabalSemosavliani moqalaqeebi, rogorc wesi, saSemosavlo
gadasaxads ar ixdian. isini ki, visi Semosavalic maRalia, Cveulebriv,
progresul gadasaxads ixdian (e.i. gadasaxadis ganakveTi izrdeba
Semosavlebis zrdis Sesabamisad).
mosaxleobis uRaribesi fenebisaTvis socialuri daxmarebis
programebis ganxorcielebis mravali gza arsebobs, Tumca, TiToeulma qveyanam, kulturuli tradiciebidan da ekonomikuri siZlieridan gamomdinare, Tavisi sakuTari gza unda airCios.
341
dabalSemosavlianTa socialuri dacvis mizanSewoniloba da
aucilebloba marto humanurobis prici piT ar ganisazRvreba.
mxedvelobaSia misaRebi is garemoebac, rom sxvadasxva fenis
cxovrebis doniT mkveTrad gansxvavebul (kontrastul) sazogadoebaSi TviT yvelaze uzrunvelyofili nawilic ver igrZnobs
Tavs bednierad. rogorc irkveva, SemTxveviT ar hqvia meore msoflio
omiT gapartaxebul germaniaSi ekonomikuri `saocrebis~ avtoris
ludvig erhardis wigns `keTildReoba yvelasaTvis~. masSi sagangebod
gatarebulia azri imis Taobaze, rom calkeuli individebi an
sazogadoebis nawili ver icxovrebs namdvilad kargad, Tu mTel
sazogadoebas ar Seeqmna keTildReobis miRwevis saSualeba. swored
am mimarTulebiT unda iRvawos saxelmwifom, raTa SeZlebisdagvarad
gamoaTanabros SesaZleblobebi da yovel moqalaqes misces Sansi
Tavisi niWisa da unaris gamosavlenad. magram yovelive es unda
gakeTdes civilizebuli meTodebiT.
rac ufro swrafad amoqmeddeba Semosavlis gadanawilebis
gonivrulad SemuSavebuli meqanizmi da moqnili, mizanswrafuli
gaxdeba saxelmwifos socialuri politika, miT ufro swrafad
gamoTanabrdeba sazogadoebis wevrTa Semosavali da daCqardeba
mosaxleobis cxovrebis donis amaRlebis procesi. cxovrebis
pirobebis gaumjobeseba sagrZnoblad gazrdis sazogadoebis Sromisunariani nawilis aqtiurobas qveynis meurneobriv saqmianobaSi da
xels Seuwyobs ekonomikis aRmavlobas, romelic, Tavis mxriv, Seqmnis
Zlier ekonomikur bazas da axal impulss miscems kidev ufro
masStabiani socialuri politikis ganxorcielebas. aseTia am
umniSvnelovanesi socialur-ekonomikuri movlenebisa da procesebis
dialeqtikuri urTierTkavSiri da urTierTganpirobebuloba.
?
testebi SeZenili codnis
SemowmebisaTvis
1. ojaxis socialuri xasiaTis moTxovnilebis dakmayofilebaSi igulisxmeba:
a. ganaTlebis miReba;
b. kulturuli, saxelovnebo da saliteraturo faseulobebis SeTviseba;
g. Tavisufali drois gonivruli gamoyeneba, aqtiuri
monawileoba sazogadoebriv saqmianobaSi;
d. ojaxis wevrTa uzrunvelyofa sanitarul-higienuri
pirobebiT.
2. samecniero brunvaSi `ekonomikuri adamianis~ ( homo
economicus) modeli Semoitana:
a. veblenma;
b. smiTma;
g. saimonma;
d. samuelsonma.
3. saqarTvelos saojaxo meurneobaTa SemosavlebSi
yvelaze maRali xvedriTi woniT gamoirCeva:
a. Semosavali daqiravebuli Sromidan;
b. Semosavali TviTdasaqmebidan;
g. fulis sesxeba an dazogvis gamoyeneba;
d. Semosavali soflis meurneobis produqciis gayidvidan.
4. Semosavlis donis mixedviT sxvadasxva saxeobis
saqonelsa da momsaxurebaze moTxovnis moculobis funqcionaluri damokidebulebis cvalebadoba pirvelma da-
342
343
adgina:
a. kenem;
b. engelma;
g. marqsma;
d. engelsma.
5. saqarTvelos saojaxo meurneobaTa xarjebSi yvelaze
maRali xvedriTi woniT gamoirCeva danaxarjebi:
a. transportze;
b. saTbobsa da eleqtoenergiaze;
g. sursaTze, sasmelsa da Tambaqos nawarmze;
d. saojaxo moxmarebis saqonelze.
6. siRaribis done, anu Raribebis raodenobis indeqsi
aris:
a. Raribi mosaxleobis wili mTel mosaxleobaSi;
b. Raribi mosaxleobis siRaribis zRvramde daSorebis
wili mTeli mosaxleobis siRaribis doneze jamuri moxmarebidan;
g. Rarib ojaxTa Soris siRaribis uTanasworobis maCvenebeli;
d. Raribi mosaxleobis absoluturi ricxvi.
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ganyofileba III
makroekonomikis safuZvlebi
7
Tema
qv ey ni s m akroekonomi ku ri
struqtura da erovnul
an ga ri STa s is te ma
`sazogadoebis ekonomikuri
mowyoba Seicavs aranakleb warmtac problemebsa da gamocanebs,
vidre buneba~.
T. malTusi
`Tu mTlian erovnul produqts guldasmiT gaviangariSebT... aRm oCndeba, rom bevr
SemTxvevaSi qalebi awarmoeben
mis naxevarze mets~.
e.hanseni
345
mocemuli TemiT SesaZlebloba ixsneba yuradRebiT
ganvixiloT sazogadoebis ekonomika `didi simaRlidan`,
raTa movicvaT erovnuli meurneoba mTlianad. es SesaZleblobas gvaZlevs Tanmimdevrulad avxsnaT Semdegi
mniSvnelovani sakiTxebi:
 romeli nawilebisagan Sedgeba sazogadoebis
ekonomika;
 rogor mimdinareobs mTeli erovnuli meurneobis zrda da ganviTareba;
 ratom warmoiSoba makroekonomikaSi arastabilu-ri da stabiluri mdgomareoba;
 vin da rogor aregulirebs ekonomikur urTierTobaTa mTel erTobliobas;
 rogor rols asrulebs amJamad safinanso-sabiujeto da sabanko-sakredito sistemebi sazogadoebis
ganviTarebaSi;
 ra instrumentebiT xorcieldeba qveyanaSi fiskaluri da fulad-sakredito anu monetaruli politika.
am Temis SeswavliT studenti SeZlebs ukeT gaigos, Tu is sawarmo an organizacia, romelSic mas mouwevs muSaoba, ganuyofeli ekonomikuri kvanZebiT rogoraa
dakavSirebuli erovnuli meurneobis yvela msxvil qvedanayofTan.
346
leqcia 20. qveynis
makroekonomikuri sistema da
mTavrobis ekonomikuri politika
`makroekonomika _ es aris
msxvilmasStabiani sameurneo saqm iano ba, rom elic aerTianebs
erovnul ekonomikas mTlianad.~
e.borisovi
` m akro eko nom ika m o icavs
ekonomikur sistemas, sadac xorcieldeba erTiani ekonomikuri
politika mTeli sazogadoebis
interesebisaTvis.~
gr.menqiu
makroekonomikis arsi da Taviseburebani. Tu mikroekonomikis safuZvlebis Seswavli-
sas Cven saqme gvqonda saojaxo meurneobebTan da calkeul
sawarmoebTan, axla ukve CvenTvis mniSvnelovania ganzogadoebuli warmodgenis miReba am sameurneo erTeulTa
mTeli erTobliobis Sesaxeb.
imavdroulad, unda aRmovaCinoT sameurneo saqmianobis iseTi formebi, romlebic moicaven da erTad kraven
mTel erovnul ekonomikas.
makroekonomika _ es aris qveyanaSi arsebuli
meurneobriobis yvela, formis erToblioba.
miuxedavad imisa, rom mravali qveyana mravalerovnulia, maTi sameurneo saqmianobis formebic iseve
347
erTiandeba makroekonomikis masStabiT, rogorc erTi eriT
warmodgenil saxelmwifoSi. amitom `erovnul ekonomikas` Cven pirobiTad vuwodebT nebismieri mravalerovnuli qveynis meurneobas.
farTo gagebiT, makroekonomika moicavs mTel
erovnul ekonomikas; viwro gagebiT ki, makroekonomika warmoadgens saxelmwifo seqtors , romelic aerTianebs da warmarTavs erovnuli ekonomikis, rogorc
erTiani mTelis ganviTarebas.
sagulisxmoa, rom XIX-XX saukuneebSi saxelmwifos roli erovnul ekonomikaSi sistematurad izrdeboda. XIX saukunemde saxelmwifo metwilad kmayofildeboda Tavisi upirvelesi funqciebis ganxorcielebiT: 1.
daecva qveyana Siga uwesrigobisa da sxva qveynebis mxridan Tavdasxmisagan; 2. SesaZleblobis SemTxvevaSi Tavisi qveynisaTvis mieerTebina axali teritoriebi; 3. gaezarda Tavisi qveynis saerTaSoriso prestiJi da avtoriteti. am funqciebis realizacias emsaxureboda jari, policia
da sasamarTlo.
XIX saukunis pirvel naxevarSi saxelmwifos roli
ekonomikaSi gazarda industrializaciis procesis dawyebam, rac ganpirobebuli iyo ucxoeTis konkurenciisagan samamulo warmoebis dacvis aucileblobiT. Semdeg
mas daemata erovnuli ekonomikis dinamizaciisa da modernizaciis (sagzao da satransporto qselis Seqmna da
ganviTareba, sasoflo-sameurneo warmoebisaTvis mxardaWera,
sabanko sistemis srulyofa...) amocana.
XX saukuneSi dasavleTis qveynebSi saxelmwifo
aqtiurad ereoda ekonomikaSi, TavisTvis winaswar Seqmna
ra sameurneo saqmianobis gansakuTrebuli seqtori. es
348
seqtori saxelmwifosaTvis damaxasiaTebeli is specifikuri ekonomikuri bazaa, romelic mowodebulia uzrunvelyos saerToerovnuli moTxovnilebebi da interesebi.
masSi Sedis:
saxelmwifo sawarmoebisa da organizaciebis erToblioba;
sazogadoebrivi saqonlis warmoeba da maTi koleqtiuri moxmarebis organizacia;
saerToerovnuli sawarmoo da socialuri infrastruqtura.
aseT ekonomikur bazaze dayrdnobiT saxelmwifo
moqmedebs gansakuTrebulad: igi aTanxmebs, koordinacias
uwevs da aregulirebs mTel sameurneo saqmianobas makroekonomikis masStabiT.
meurneobriobis makroekonomikuri sistemisaTvis
damaxasiaTebelia Semdegi ZiriTadi elementebi:
 saxelmwifo sakuTrebis formiT warmodgenili saerTo erToblivi miTviseba , romelic, rogorc
cnobilia, Tvisobrivad da raodenobrivad gansxvavdeba
kerZo da saerTo wilobrivi miTvisebisagan. saxelmwifo
sakuTrebis damkvidreba xSirad xorcieldeba nacionalizaciis (miwis, sawarmoebis, bankebis, transportis da
sxva qonebis kerZo da saerTo wilobrivi sakuTrebidan
saxelmwifos sakuTrebaSi gadasvlis) gziT;
 saerTo erToblivi miTvisebis xasiaTi ganapirobebs
saxelmwifo organoTa qcevis sruliad sxvagvar ti ps,
imasTan SedarebiT, riTi xelmZRvanelobasac SeCveuli iyo
kerZo mesakuTre. kidev meti, saxelmwifo sakuTreba da
samarTlebrivi saxelmwifos mier dadgenili iuridiuli normebi arsebiTad zRudaven erTpirovnuli mflobe349
lobis qcevis winaT dadgenil wesebs. is unda daeqvemdebaros mTeli sazogadoebis interesebs;
 qveynis saxalxomeurneobrivi mTlianoba efuZneba
Sromis saerTo (erovnul) danawilebas , romelic
urTierTdamokidebuls xdis yvela msxvil sferos, warmoebis dargs da qveynis ekonomikur regions. mtkice
urTierTkavSirebi Sromis saerTo danawilebis rgolebs
Soris qmnis makrosistemas, romelic iwodeba saxalxomeurneobriv kompleqsad. is organulad aerTianebs
materialur da aramaterialur warmoebas;
 meurneobis makroekonomikuri centralizaciisa da
Sromis erovnuli kooperaciis mniSvnelovani Taviseburebaa ierarqiuli wyoba _ mTelis elementebis ganlageba zemodan qvemoT, maTi daqvemdebarebis rigiT (saxelmwifodan sawarmomde);
 makrosistema moaswavebs erovnuli ekonomikis gadasvlas misi realuri gansazogadoebis yvelaze maRal
safexurze. makroekonom ikas aqvs
er o v n ul i
ekonomikuri integraciis
mkveTrad gamoxatuli
xasiaTi. aseT integracias (mTelad gaerTianebas) erovnuli meurneobis doneze saxelmwifo axdens, rodesac aucilebelia, magaliTad, insfrastruqturis dargTa saqmianobis mowesrigeba
 makroekonomika qmnis erTian ekonomikur sivrces, romelic mtkicdeba saerTo fuladi sistemiT. am
sivrces aqvs ori `gamaerTianebeli`: 1. erovnuli bazari;
2. saxelmwifo seqtori, sadac xelisufleba moqalaqeebs
sTavazobs ufaso materialur dovlaTs da momsaxurebas.
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erovnuli meurneobis mTlianobis erT-erTi mniSvnelovani gamovlenaa saxelmwifos mier ekonomikuri
politikis gatareba mTeli sazogadoebis interesebis
uzrunvelyofiT.
m Ta vr ob is e ko no m ik ur i po li ti ka .
ekonomikuri politika tardeba mTavrobis mier saxelmwifos saxeliT. is warmoadgens mTavrobis moqmedebis
mTavar xazs warmoebis, ganawilebis, gacvlisa da moxmarebis, dagrovebisa da sxva qveynebTan ekonomikuri kavSirebis sferoSi. ekonomikur politikaSi gamoiyofa Semdegi ZiriTadi saxeebi: struqturuli (ekonomikis Semadgenel nawilTa kavSiris cvlilebebi), samecniero-teqnikuri, sainvesticio, safinanso-sabiujeto (fiskaluri),
fulad-sakredito (monetaruli), sagareo-ekonomikuri.
ekonomikuri politika _ es aris mTavrobis
mmarTvelobiTi moqmedeba, romelic makroekonomikas aniWebs gansazRvrul mimarTulebas saxelmwifos interesebisa da miznebis Sesabamisad.
ekonomikuri politika tardeba imisaTvis, raTa
Tavidan iqnas acilebuli Tavisufali bazris monawileTa stiqiuri, umarTavi qmedebebi. aseTi qmedebebi xSirad
uaryofiTad aisaxeba qveynis mTel sameurneo saqmianobaze: ekonomikis zrdis nacvlad mimdinareobs warmoebis
dacema, muSakTa dasaqmebis gafarToeba icvleba umuSevarTa ricxvis gadidebiT, fulis msyidvelobiTi unarianobis amaRleba adgils uTmobs mis gaufasurebas.
am da sxva msgavs SemTxvevebSi ekonomikis saxelmwifoebrivi regulireba mdgomareobs imaSi, rom:
 sameurneo saqmianobas mianiWos saWiro organizebuloba;
351
 moawesrigos ekonomikur subieqtTa qceva;
 uzrunvelyos sameurneo saqmianobis maregulirebeli sakanonmdeblo aqtebis dacva;
 daicvas saxelmwifo da sazogadoebrivi interesebi.
saxelmwifos ekonomikuri politikis ZiriTad miznebs miekuTvneba:
erovnuli meurneobis mdgradi ekonomikuri zrdis uzrunvelyofa;
Sromisunariani mosaxleobis maqsimaluri dasaqmebis miRweva;
fuladi mimoqcevis ganmtkiceba.
mecnieruli midgoma ekonomikuri politikisadmi
ar Semoifargleba mxolod saxelmwifoebrivi regulirebis miznebis dadgeniT. aq mniSvnelovania aixsnas erovnuli meurneobis ZiriTad maCveneblebs Soris obieqturad
arsebuli kanonzomieri urTierTdamokidebulebebi.
ekonomikurma mecnierebam daadgina makroekonomikaSi arsebuli urTierTdamokidebulebis amsaxveli Semdegi
maCveneblebi.
urTierTSemavsebeli maCveneblebi. maT Soris yalibdeba pirdapirproporciuli damokidebulieba. ase, magaliTad, rac ufro maRalia ekonomikuri zrdis tempi,
miT metia Sromisunariani mosaxleobis dasaqmeba;
urTierTSemcvleli maCveneblebi. maT Soris arsebobs ukuproporciuli damokidebuleba. swored asea
urTierTdakavSirebuli, vTqvaT, umuSevroba da inflacia;
neitraluri maCveneblebi. am SemTxvevaSi erTi
maCveneblis cvlileba aranair gavlenas ar axdens meoreze. albaT, rTulia aRmovaCinoT urTierTqmedeba iseTi
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procesebisa, rogoricaa, magaliTad, umuSevroba da saqonlis gatana.
XX saukunis meore naxevarsa da XXI saukuneSi
ekonomikis mdgomareobaze saxelmwifos pasuxismgebloba ar Semoifargleba mxolod zemoaRniSnuli mniSvnelovani
maCveneblebiT. amJamad mxedvelobaSi miiReba agreTve qveynis
ekonomikuri usafrTxoebis muqarebis maCveneblebic.
qveynis ekonomikuri usafrTxoeba ni-
Snavs misi ekonomikuri ganviTarebis iseT dones, romelic uzrunvelyofs erovnul-saxelmwifoebrivi interesebis realizacias, pirovnebisa da sazogadoebis arsebobisaTvis Rirseuli pirobebis Seqmnas da win aRudgeba
ekonomikis mdgradi da usafrTxo ganviTarebis Semaferxebel muqarebs.
erovnuli ekonomikuri usafrTxoebis muqaris
qveS igulisxmeba is pirobebi da faqtorebi, romlebic
zarals ayeneben saerToerovnul interesebs da arRveven
qveynis ekonomikas. ganasxvaveben ekonomikuri usafTxoebis Sinagan da garegan muqarebs.
ekonomikuri usafrTxoebis Sinagan muqarebs
qmnis: ekonomikuri krizisebi (warmoebis vardna); masobrivi umuSevroba; qveynis mniSvnelovani CamorCena uaxlesi mecnierul-teqnikuri miRwevebis aTvisebasa da ganviTarebaSi; mosaxleobis dabali uzrunvelyofa sursaTiT, samkurnalo da samedicino preparatebiT; adamianTa janmrTelobis mdgomareobis gauareseba da sicocxlis xangrZlivobis Semcireba; gare samyaros dabinZurebis saxifaTo done da bevri sxva arakeTilsasurveli
piroba da faqtori.
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adamianebisa da sazogadoebisaTvis ekologiuri
usafrTxoebis muqaris droulad aRmosaCenad saxelmwifo organoebma ganuwyveteli dakvirveba unda awarmoon makroekonomikis mdgomareobaze. amasTan, mniSvnelovania dadgindes, Tu arakeTilsasurveli procesebi (magaliTad, atmosferuli haeris dabinZureba) rodis aRwevs eris usafrTxoebis muqaris Sesaxeb damadasturebel
zRvrulad dasaSveb sidides. es SesaZleblobas iZleva
dauyovnebliv aRmoifxvras adamianTa sicocxlisunarianobis normaluri pirobebidan gadaxris mizezebi.
ekonomikuri usafrTxoebis garegan muqarebs
miekuTvneba saxelmwifos sameurneo Zalebis wyaroebis
rRveva. amis axsna SeiZleba Semdegi magaliTiT. Cveulebriv, yoveli qveyana sesxulobs ucxour valutas sazRvargareT aucilebeli saqonlisa da momsaxurebis SesaZenad. aseTi fuladi sesxebi SesabamisobaSi unda iyos
sesxis amRebi saxelmwifos SesaZleblobasTan-eqsportis xarjze uzrunvelyos sagareo valis drouli momsaxureba. magram, praqtikulad, es yovelTvis ase ar xdeba.
im SemTxvevaSi, Tu sesxis Tanxa mravaljer aRemateba misi momsaxurebis SesaZleblobebs, maSin iqmneba saSiSroeba movale qveynisaTvis. is SeiZleba aRmoCndes
ucxoeli kreditorebisagan ekonomikur da politikur
damokidebulebaSi.
ekonomikuri usafrTxoebis uzrunvelyofaSi gansakuTrebuli mniSvneloba eniWeba misi maCveneblebis
(parametrebis) zRvrul mniSvnelobebs, romelTa qvemoT
iwyeba negatiuri procesebi da safrTxis qveS dgeba
pirovnebisa da sazogadoebis normaluri arseboba da
354
ganviTareba.
umaRlesi xarisxis ekonomikuri usafrTxoeba miiRweva maSin, rodesac yvela maCvenebeli dasaSveb sazRvrebSia. Tu romelime maCvenebeli zRvars aWarbebs, muqara
izrdeba. muqara metia, rac ufro izrdeba dasaSveb zRvars miRma arsebuli maCveneblebis raodenoba. am dros
pirovneba da sazogadoeba, moTxovnilebaTa dakmayofilebis
mizniT, instiqturad mimarTavs Crdilovan urTierTobebsa da korufcias, riTac kidev ufro zrdis muqarebis albaTobas.
sazogadoebrivi cxovrebis donis sayovelTaod
aRiarebuli yvela ZiriTadi maCveneblis mixedviT, amJamad saqarTvelo aWarbebs ekonomikuri usafrTxoebis
kritikul parametrebs. aseT pirobebSi SeuZlebelia
sazogadoebis normaluri ganviTareba civiluri samarTlebrivi da eTikuri normebis Sesabamisad.*
saqarTvelos ekonomikuri usafrTxoebis miRweva prevenciuli politikis ganxorcielebas moiTxovs,
romelic istoriuli gamowvevebis, ekonomikuri muqarebis, usafrTxoebis zRvruli sidideebis gansazRvrasa da
realizacias gulisxmobs.
ekonomikis mdgradi da usafrTxo ganviTarebisaTvis
yvelaze ufro mTavaria qveynis mzadyofna istoriuli
gamowvevebisa da konkretuli muqarebis sapasuxod.
istoriuli gamowvevebidan mTavaria:
 sayovelTao globalizaciis procesTan dakavSi-
* r.oTinaSvili, ekonomikuri usafrTxoeba. analizis antikriminaluri aspeqtebi. _ Tb., 2005, gv. 302.
355
rebuli gamowveva, im uaryofiTi Sedegebis Tavidan acileba, rac SeiZleba mas Tan sdevdes. aucilebelia qveynis sulieri, ideologiuri, fsiqologiuri, inteleqtualuri, kulturuli, instituciuri, teqnologiuri mzadyofna saqarTvelos erovnuli identurobis, saxelmwifoebriobis, mosaxleobis cxovrebis maRali xarisxis,
msoflio meurneobaSi integraciis uzrunvelsayofad;
 sayovelTao lokalizaciis procesTan dakavSirebuli gamowveva. igulisxmeba, pirvel rigSi, regionul
ekonomikur gaerTianebebSi integracia. aucilebelia
kavkasiis regionSi saqarTvelos poziciebis Sesustebis
tendenciis daZleva da tradiciulad wamyvani poziciebis damkvidreba, saqarTvelos teritoriaze dezintegraciuli da separatistuli tendenciebis aRmofxvra;
 mecnierul-teqnologiur revoluciasTan dakavSirebuli gamowveva. msoflio meurneobaSi qveynis monawileoba misi inteleqtualuri, mecnierul-teqnologiuri
potencialiT, msoflio bazrebze konkurentunarianobis
xarisxiT izomeba. aqedan gamomdinare, saqarTvelos ekonomikuri usafrTxoeba komunikaciur-informaciuli da biologiuri revoluciebis dauflebaze, inovaciuri mewarmeobisa da menejmentis ganviTarebis xarisxzea damokidebuli.
saqarTvelos umTavresi amocanaa upasuxos am istoriul gamowvevebs. jerjerobiT, samwuxarod, saqarTvelo
taqtikurad da strategiulad arasaTanadod momzadebuli Sexvda am gamowvevebs. sakmarisad ar aris gaTviTcnobierebuli, rom globalizaciis procesSi gadarCenis
mTavari piroba qveynis mdgrad da usafrTxo ganviTarebaze gadasvlaa, postindustriuli sazogadoebis Sesa356
bamisi ekonomikis damkvidrebaa.
ganviTarebis Tanamedrove etapze realurad gamoikveTa Sinagani da garegani muqarebi, romelTa daZleva, prevencia saqarTvelos saxelmwifo politikis umniSvnelovanesi amocanaa.
Sinagani muqarebidan aRsaniSnavia:
inteleqtualuri, saganmanaTleblo, inovaciuri potencialis CamorCeniloba;
mosaxleobis socialuri diferenciaciis gaRrmaveba da siRaribis maRali done;
instituciuri mowyobisa da wesrigis sisuste,
sakanonmdeblo bazis arasrulyofileba;
ekonomikis struqturuli deformacia, rac warmoebis efeqtianobis, produqciis konkurentunarianobis,
msoflio meurneobaSi monawileobis dabali doniT gamoixateba;
qveynis energetikuli uzrunvelyofis aramdgradoba;
sawarmoo potencialis Semcireba ZiriTadi fondebis maRali cveTis Sedegad;
biznesis ganviTarebisaTvis xlsayreli sainvesticio klimatis uqonloba;
dabali inovaciuri da investiciuri aqtivoba;
finansuri usafrTxoebis dabali done;
qveynis regionebis socialur-ekonomikuri ganviTarebis dabali done da misi gamoTanabrebis tendenciis
uqonloba;
sazogadoebisa da sameurneo saqmianobis mzardi
kriminalizacia.
garegani muqarebidan gamosayofia:
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qveynis susti monawileoba saerTaSoriso ekonomikaSi, msoflio Semosavlebis ganawilebaSi;
qveynis ekonomikis dabali mimzidveloba da
konkurentunarianoba saerTaSoriso bazrebze;
samuSao Zalisa da inteleqtualuri potencialis migraciis maRali tempi;
didi garRveva sagareo valis sididesa da misi
momsaxurebis SesaZleblobas Soris;
sazRvrebis daucveloba da kontrabandis didi
masStabebi;
teqnologiuri, menejmenturi da instituciuri
SeuTavsebloba saerTaSoriso bazrebis moTxovnebTan;
saqarTvelos Siga bazris aTviseba sazRvargareTuli firmebis mier farTo moxmarebis mravali saxeobis saqonlis mixedviT, maT Soris sursaTisa da energiis importze qveynis Zlieri damokidebuleba.
am muqarebis prevencia da daZleva saqarTvelos
saxelmwifo politikis umniSvnelovanesi amocanaa rogorc
mimdinare, ise grZelvadian periodSi.
erovnuli meurneobis warmatebiT regulirebisaTvis
saxelmwifom unda gamoiyenos Tanamedrove, mecnierulad
dasabuTebuli monacemebi makroekonomikuri maCveneblebis Sesaxeb da amis safuZvelze gansazRvros qveynis socialur-ekonomikuri progresis perspeqtivebi.
358
leqcia 21. ZiriTadi
makroekonomikuri maCveneblebi da
erovnuli angariSwarmoeba
`amerikuli andaza ambobs,
`vaSlsa da forToxals ver Sekrebo`, magram mTliani Siga produqti zustad ase iqceva~.
gr.menqiu
istoriulad, Tavdapirvelad makroekonomikis gamzomad gamodioda mxolod materialuri warmoebis sferos ganviTarebis masStabebis maxasiaTebeli maCveneblebi. es iyo savsebiT bunebrivi industriamdeli da industriuli ekonomikisaTvis, sadac fasdeboda mxolod
sasargeblo nivTebis damzadebaze daxarjuli Sroma.
sawarmoo sferos ganviTarebis gasazomad gamoiyeneboda
erToblivi sazogadoebrivi produqtis maCvenebeli. igi moicavda garkveuli periodis (Cveulebriv wlis)
ganmavlobaSi Seqmnil materialuri warmoebis yvela nakeTobas. amis safuZvelze dRemde gaiangariSeba qveyanaSi
dagrovili erovnuli simdidris maCvenebeli.
erovnuli simdidre (es) yvelaze zogadi makroekonomikuri maCvenebelia. masSi igulisxmeba materialuri dovlaTi, romelsac flobs mocemuli qveyana gansazRvruli TariRisaTvis da, romelic Seqmnilia mravali Taobis SromiTYmTeli ganvlili drois manZilze.
farTo gagebiT, erovnul simdidreSi, adamianis SromiT
Seqmnil materialur dovlaTTan erTad, Sedis kvlavwarmoebis procesSi CarTuli bunebrivi resursebic.
359
statistikuri organoebis mier aRricxuli erovnuli simdidris mTavari elementebia: warmoebrivi ZiriTadi da sabrunavi fondebi, materialuri maragebi da rezervebi, arawarmoebrivi ZiriTadi fondebi (saxelmwifo da
kerZo sabinao fondi, socialur-kulturuli daniSnulebis
Senoba-nagebobebi, xangrZlivi gamoyenebis samomxmareblo
daniSnulebis sagnebi: aveji, macivrebi, televizorebi, magnitofonebi, kompiuterebi da sxv.), meurneobriv brunvaSi
CarTuli bunebrivi resursebi (am ukanasknelSi SeaqvT
dazverili bunebrivi resursebic, romelic uaxloes periodSi SeiZleba CarTul iqnas meurneobriv brunvaSi).
ganviTarebis dRevandel etapze mizanSewonilad
miiCneven erovnul simdidreSi iseTi axali elementis
Setanas, rogoricaa informacia da es arcaa gasakviri.
igi xom gadawyvetilebaTa (iqneba es ekonomikuri Tu
politikuri xasiaTisa) miRebis umniSvnelovanesi wyaroa.
misi ekonomikuri faseuloba sakmaod mravalferovania.
igi ekonomikaSi kontrolis instrumentad gamoiyeneba
da, Tanac, marTvis safuZvelia. kargad damuSavebuli informaciis gareSe warmoudgenelia Tanamedrove ekonomikis
potencialis srulad realizeba. ai, ratomaa gamarTlebuli erovnul simdidreSi misi Setana. Tumca, amis praqtikulad ganxorcielebisaTvis aucilebelia informaciis fuladi Sefasebis meTodikis damuSaveba.
erovnuli simdidre sazogadoebis ganviTarebis
safuZveli da yvelaze zogadi makroekonomikuri maCvenebelia. magram igi realurad ver asaxavs sazogadoebis
keTildReobis dones da ver gamodgeba qveynis ekonomikis
ganviTarebis xarisxis saerTaSoriso SefasebisaTvis.
360
makroekonomikur maCvenebelTa axali ti pi da misi Taviseburebani. axali
drois Secvlil pirobebTan dakavSirebiT daiwyo makroekonomikur maCvenebelTa axali sistemis SemuSaveba,
romelSic maqsimalurad aisaxeboda makroekonomikuri
analizis Taviseburebani. am saqmis dawyebas mZlavri biZgi
misca 1929-1933 wlebis msoflio ekonomikurma krizisma, romelmac aCvena, rom sabazro ekonomikas ar ZaluZs
TviTregulirebis bazaze ekonomikuri zrdis miRweva.
aucilebeli gaxda ekonomikaSi saxelmwifos rolis gaZliereba. es uCveulo movlena iyo msoflio ekonomikaSi,
romelmac ekonomistebi aiZula moeZebnaT agregirebuli*
maCveneblebi.
amerikelma mecnierma s.kuznecma (1901-1985) 1933
wels kongress warudgina 1929-1932 wlebis aSS-is
erovnuli Semosavlis monacemebi, romelSic asaxuli iyo
amerikuli ekonomikis umZimesi mdgomareoba. erovnuli
Semosavlis gasaangariSeblad man Seqmna erovnuli angariSebis sistema, romelSic igulisxmeba statistikur
maCvenebelTa erToblioba, romliTac izomeba qveynis
mTliani warmoeba da misi komponentebi. aman safuZveli
daudo axali makroekonomikuri maCveneblebis gaangariSebas.
makroekonomikur maCvenebelTa axali ti pi gaCnda
XX saukunis meore naxevarSi, postindustriul sazoga-
* agregireba aris mravalricxovani individualuri mikroekonomikuri maCveneblebis statistikuri dajamebis procesi erT mTlian maCvenebelSi.
361
doebaze gadasvlasTan dakavSirebiT. maCvenebelTa am tipisaTvis damaxasiaTebelia ori mTavari ganmasxvavebeli
niSani:
 erovnuli meurneobis ganxilvisas mxedvelobaSi
miiReba ara mxolod materialuri warmoebis ganviTarebis xarisxi, aramed momsaxurebis sferos cvlilebebic.
da es aucileblobad iqca, ramdenadac dasavleTis qveynebSi axali Rirebulebis daaxloebiT 2/3 iqmneba momsaxurebis sferoSi;
 axali makroekonomikuri maCveneblebi Zvelisagan
sxva niSniTac gamoirCevian. maTSi gamoiricxeba Sualeduri produqtebis Rirebulebis meoradi aRricxva da
gaiTvaliswineba mxolod axali (damatebuli) Rirebuleba.
mTliani erovnuli produqti. sazoga-
doebis ekonomikuri keTildReobis amsaxvel makroekonomikur maCvenebelTa Soris pirveladia mTliani
erovnuli produqti (mep). igi ganisazRvreba rogorc
erovnuli warmoebis faqtorebis gamoyenebis safuZvelze drois garkveul periodSi (Cveulebriv wlis
ganmavlobaSi) warmoebuli yvela saboloo saqonlisa da momsaxurebis sabazro Rirebuleba.
mep-is gaangariSebisas ar SeiZleba gverdi avuaroT
erT metad mniSvnelovan garemoebas: nebismieri qveynis
ekonomikaSi warmoebis faqtorebis garkveuli nawili
ucxoel moqalaqeTa sakuTrebaa. aqedan gamomdinare, Semosavlebis is nawili, romelic miRebulia maTi kapitalis gamoyenebiT, faqtobrivad maT ekuTvniT da mocemuli
qveynis mep-Si ar aRiricxeba. meore mxriv, qveynis fizikur da iuridiul pirebs aseve SeuZliaT miiRon Semo362
savali sazRvargareTidan, Tuki sazRvargareT muSaoben
an ucxouri firmebis aqciebs floben. Semosavlis es
nawili mocemuli qveynis mep-Si aRiricxeba. maSasadame,
mep aris Semosavlebis is erToblioba, romelsac iReben
mocemuli qveynis fizikuri da iuridiuli pirebi imis
miuxedavad, es Semosavali samamulo ekonomikaSi miiReba
Tu sazRvargareTulSi.
mTliani Sida produqti. arsebobs sa-
zogadoebis ekonomikuri keTildReobis amsaxveli meore,
ufro martivi maCvenebeli _ mTliani Sida produqti
(mSp), romelic erovnuli angariSebis sistemaSi gaeros
mier rekomendirebulia mTavar makroekonomikur maCveneblad. mep-isagan gansxvavebiT, mSp aris drois garkveul
periodSi (Cveulebriv kvartlis, wlis ganmavlobaSi) qveynis SigniT warmoebuli yvela saboloo
saqonlisa da momsaxurebis sabazro Rirebuleba.
ufro naTlad rom warmovidginoT am ori terminis Sinaarsi da maT Soris gansxvaveba, SeiZleba aRiniSnos,
rom mTliani erovnuli produqti aris, vTqvaT,
saqarTvelos yvela moqalaqis erToblivi Semosavali,
maT Soris isic, romelic miRebulia sazRvargareT maTi
kuTvnili warmoebis faqtorebis gamoyenebis wyalobiT
an, rac igivea, saqarTvelos erToblivi danaxarji saqonlisa da momsaxurebis warmoebaze rogorc qveynis teritoriaze, aseve sazRvargareT. rac Seexeba mTlian Sida
produqts , masSi igulisxmeba saqarTvelos teritoriaze warmoebuli erToblivi Semosavali, maT Soris im
faqtorebis xarjzedac, romelic ucxoelTa sakuTrebaSia an, rac igivea, mSp aris saqarTvelos teritoriaze
363
saqonlisa da momsaxurebis warmoebaze gaRebuli danaxarjebis erToblioba. roca gansxvaveba mep-sa da mSp-s
Soris umniSvneloa, igi miuTiTebs, rom qarTvelTa Semosavali sazRvargareT daaxloebiT emTxveva ucxoelTa
gamomuSavebul Semosavals saqarTveloSi.
rogorc gansazRvrebidan Cans, mep da mSp yvela
warmoebuli produqciis Rirebulebas ki ar zomavs, aramed
saboloo saqonlisa da momsaxurebis Rirebulebas, anu
im saqonlisa da momsaxurebis Rirebulebas, romelic namdvilad SeiZineba moxmarebisaTvis an gaTvaliswinebulia eqsportisaTvis.
mSp-is zemoT motanili formulireba gansazRvravs
am fenomenis arss sakmaod martivad, magram sinamdvileSi
misi gaangariSebisas Cndeba erTi SexedviT SeumCneveli
mravali problema. amitom saWiroa dawvrilebiT ganvixiloT gansazRvrebis calkeuli nawilebi.
`mSp aris drois garkveul periodSi (Cveulebriv wlis an kvartlis ganmavlobaSi)...`. mSp asaxavs drois konkretul monakveTSi, Cveulebriv wlis an
kvartlis ganmavlobaSi, warmoebuli saqonlisa da momsaxurebis raodenobas.
xSirad warmoiSoba kvartaluri periodulobiT
ekonomikaSi mimdinare procesebis analizis saWiroeba.
amitom mTavroba sistematurad aqveynebs mSp-is rogorc
wliur, aseve kvartalur monacemebs. amave dros, ekonomikaSi sxvadasxva obieqturad arsebuli faqtorebis (klimaturi pirobebi, nedleulis miwodeba, winasadResaswaulo bumi, rodesac mosaxleobis danaxarjebi aRwevs
umaRles niSnuls da sxv.) gamo kvartalebs Soris
yovelTvis arsebobs am faqtorebis zemoqmedebiT gamowveu364
li gansxvavebebi. am gansxvavebebis gamo mSp-is kvartaluri maCveneblebi wina da momdevno kvartalebis
maCveneblebTan Sesadarisi ar aris.
am problemis gaawyvetisaTvis saerTaSoriso praqtikaSi farTod gamoiyeneba mSp-is kvartaluri maCveneblebis droiTi mwkrivebis statistikuri analizis safuZvelze sezonuri faqtorebis zemoqmedebiT gamowveuli
gadaxrebis maRali sizustiT Sefasebisa da am SefasebebiT `sezonuri Sesworebebis` ganxorcieleba. sezonuri
Sesworebebis Sedegad miRebuli axali droiTi mwkrivebis maCveneblebi ukve sakmarisi sizustiT gamosadegi
xdeba kvartaluri maCveneblebis urTierTSedarebisaTvis.
`...qveynis SigniT...`. mSp moicavs konkretuli
saxelmwifos sazRvrebSi warmoebuli saqonlisa da
momsaxurebis Rirebulebas. Tu saqarTvelos moqalaqe
droebiT muSaobs germaniaSi, maSin misi Sromis Sedegi
iqceva germaniis mSp-is nawilad. rodesac germaneli
flobs kompanias saqarTveloSi, misi produqcia Sedis
saqarTvelos da ara germaniis mSp-Si. amrigad, mSp-Si
CairTveba mis teritoriaze warmoebuli yvela saqoneli
da momsaxureba, maTi mwarmoeblis moqalaqeobis miuxedavad.
`...warmoebuli...`. mSp-Si CairTveba yvela axlad
warmoebuli saqoneli da momsaxureba da misgan gamoiricxeba saqoneli, romelic gaiyida gansaxilvel periodSi, magram warmoebulia winaT. ase, magaliTad, Tu korporacia General Motors-i amzadebs da yidis axal avtomobils, misi fasi Seva mSp-Si, magram Tu erTi adamiani
Tavis naxmar avtomobils mihyidis meores, garigebis Tanxa
ar CairTveba mSp-Si. maSasadame, mSp moicavs mxolod `mimdinare warmoebas`, e.i. masSi ar Sedis adre warmoebuli
365
produqciis xelaxali gayidva.
`...yvela...`. mSp-Si SeZlebisdagvarad unda CairTos kanonierad warmoebuli da gayiduli yvela saqoneli da momsaxureba, vaSlidan da forToxlidan wignsa
da kinobileTamde, parikmaxeris mier Sesrulebuli Tmis
SeWridan eqimisa da advokatis konsultaciamde.
arsebobs saqonelTa garkveuli jgufebi, romelTa
Rirebuleba ar gaiTvaliswineba mSp-Si misi gansazRvris
sirTulis gamo. maT miekuTvneba aradeklarirebul,
`Crdilovan ekonomikaSi` arakanonieri gziT warmoebuli da gayiduli saqoneli (magaliTad, narkotikebi) an
saojaxo meurneobaTa mier Sidasaojaxo moxmarebisaTvis
warmoebuli produqtebi. amitom maRaziaSi SeZenili bostneuli gaiTvaliswineba mSp-Si, sakuTar nakveTSi moyvanili da ojaxSi moxmarebuli ki _ ara.
msgavs gamoricxvebs zogjer paradoqsul situaciebamde mivyavarT. Tu gazons kreWT da amaSi fuls
gixdian, Tqveni gasamrjelo mSp-Si Seva da Tqveni Sromis
Sedegi (momsaxureba) qveynis saerTo warmoebis nawilad
iqceva, magram Tu Tqven Tqvensave sakuTar gazons kreWT,
Tqveni Sroma mSp-is gamoTvlisas gaTvaliswinebuli ar
iqneba. igive SeiZleba iTqvas ojaxzec, romelic momvlelis ayvanis nacvlad amjobinebs skolamdeli asakis bavSvebs ojaxis pirobebSi mouaros. Cveni sakuTari Svilebis movla mSp-Si ar Sedis.
`...saboloo...`. erTi da imave produqtis orjer
an metjer aRricxviT mSp-is sididis arasworad Sefasebis Tavidan asacileblad, masSi mxolod saboloo produqti Seitaneba. rodesac kompania International Peper-i awarmoebs qaRalds, romelic gamoiyeneba firma Hallmark-is
mier misaloci baraTebis dasamzadeblad, qaRaldi iTv366
leba Sualedur produqtad, misaloci baraTebi ki _
saboloo produqtad. mSp-Si Sedis mxolod saboloo
produqtebis Rirebuleba, ramdenadac maTSi ukve CarTulia Sualeduri produqtebis fasebi. Cvens SemTxvevaSi
mSp-Si gaTvaliswinebuli iqneba mxolod misaloci baraTebi, ramdenadac maTi fasi ukve moicavs qaRaldis Rirebulebas.
axla davuSvaT, rom velosi pedebis mwarmoebeli
firma erTi velosi pedis dasamzadeblad saWiro nawilebsa da SromaSi ixdis 300 lars. firma velosi peds
400 larad mihyidis sportuli saqonlis maRazias. maRazia velosi peds 550 larad gayidis. ramdeniT gazarda erTi velosi pedis warmoebam qveynis mSp? radganac
aRiricxeba mxolod saboloo produqti, pasuxi 550
lari iqneba. velosi pedis nawilebisa da Sromis momwodeblisaTvis gadaxdili 300 lari da mwarmoeblisaTvis gadaxdili 400 lari saboloo jamSi aRar Sedis, radgan 550 lari ukve moicavs am xarjebs.
am wesidan gamonaklisi keTdeba im SemTxvevaSi, Tu
Sualeduri produqti Semdgom teqnologiur ciklSi
CairTveba ara erTbaSad, aramed firmis balansze rCeba
Semdgomi gadayidvis an warmoebaSi gamoyenebisaTvis. am
SemTxvevaSi drois garkveul momentSi igi ganixileba
rogorc saboloo da gaiTvaliswineba mSp-Si. magram
Semdgom, rodesac firma hpovebs mis gamoyenebas, misi
aqtivebi Semcirdeba da imave sididiT Semcirdeba mSp-is
moculoba.
`...saqonlisa da momsaxurebis...`. mSp-Si CairTveba rogorc warmoebuli materialuri dovlaTi (kvebis
produqtebi, tansacmeli, avtomobili), ise gaweuli momsaxureba (binis dalageba, eqimis konsultacia). rodesac
367
Tqven yidulobT sayvareli rok-jgufis kompaqt-disks,
SeiZenT sabazro saqonels da misi Rirebuleba gaiTvaliswineba mSp-Si. xolo rodesac Tqven yidulobT bileTs am jgufis koncertze dasaswrebad, anazRaurebT
momsaxurebas da am SemTxvevaSic misi Rirebuleba Sedis
mSp-Si.
`...sabazro Rirebuleba`. TqvenTvis, albaT, cnobilia gamonaTqvami imis Sesaxeb, rom ekonomikaSi, ariTmetikisagan gansxvavebiT, `SeuZlebelia vaSlisa da forToxlis Sekreba`. magram mSp-is gaangariSebisas swored
msgavsi ram xdeba, _ erTian ekonomikur maCvenebelSi jamdeba
mravali sruliad sxvadasxvagvari saqoneli. amaSi gvexmareba sabazro fasebis gamoyeneba. Tu erTi vaSli Rirs
forToxalze orjer ufro Zviri, maSin vaSlis wili
mSp-Si orjer meti iqneba.
aSkaraa, rom mSp ekonomikuri aqtivobis Sefasebis
rTuli maCvenebelia, magram misi sityvasityviTi gansazRvrebis yovel nawils Tavisi Rrma da saintereso azri
gaaCnia.
mSp-is gaangariSebis meTodebi. mSp-is
gaangariSeba xorcieldeba sami meTodiT:
 warmoebis meTodiT mSp ganisazRvreba rezidenti ekonomikuri erTeulebis mier sawarmoo saqmianobis Sedegad Seqmnili mTliani damatebuli Rirebulebebis* SejamebiT. maSasadame, mSp warmodgenilia rogorc
* mTliani damatebuli Rirebuleba aris sxvaoba warmoebuli saqonlisa da momsaxurebis Rirebulebas (mTlian gamoSvebasa) da Sualedur moxmarebas Soris. termini `mTliani` niSnavs, rom maCvenebeli moicavs warmoebis procesSi monawile
ZiriTadi kapitalis moxmarebas (fizikur da moralur cveTas).
368
qveynis ekonomikur teritoriaze drois Sesabamis monakveTSi ekonomikis rezidenti erTeulebis mier ekonomikuri saqmianobis sxvadasxva saxeobebSi Seqmnili mTliani
damatebuli Rirebulebebis jami.
 gamoyenebis (xarjebis) meTodiT gaangariSebuli mSp warmoadgens saqonlisa da momsaxurebis saboloo moxmarebis xarjebis, mTliani dagrovebisa da wminda
eqsportis jams. maSasadame, mSp warmodgenilia rogorc
qveynis ekonomikur teritoriaze danaxarjebis jami,
romlebic, Tavis mxriv, iyofa danaxarjebad individualur da koleqtiur moxmarebaze da danaxarjebad kapitalisa da sabrunavi saSualebebis maragebze (investiciebze), Sesworebuli wminda eqsportiT.
 Semosavlebis meTodiT mSp ganisazRvreba
rogorc saqonlisa da momsaxurebis warmoebis procesSi monawile rezidenti erTeulebis pirveladi Semosavlebis (Sromis anazRaurebis, produqciasa da importze
wminda gadasaxadebis*, mTliani mogebisa** da mTliani
Sereuli Semosavlebis***) jami. maSasadame, mSp warmod-
* maT miekuTvneba: damatebuli Rirebulebis gadasaxadi, aqcizi da sabaJo gadasaxadi. termini `wminda` niSnavs, rom gadasaxadebi naCvenebia Sesabamisi subsidiebis gamoklebiT.
** mTliani damatebuli Rirebulebis nawili, romelic rCebaT mwarmoeblebs (kompaniebs) Sromis anazRaurebisa da warmoebaze wminda gadasaxadebis gadaxdis Semdeg.
*** saojaxo meurneobebis sakuTrebaSi arsebuli arakorporaciuli sawarmoebisaTvis, sadac saojaxo meurneobebs SeuZliaT awarmoon gadauxdeli SromiTi danaxarjebi. igi moicavs
rogorc saojaxo meurneobaTa Sromis anazRaurebas, ise am sawarmoTa mogebas.
369
genilia, rogorc ekonomikuri aqtivobis Sedegad daricxuli Semosavlebis jami.
ufro konkretulad, mSp-is gaangariSebebi xorcieldeba Semdegi ZiriTadi sqemebiT:
 mTliani Sida produqtis gaangariSeba warmoebis mixedviT:
saqmianobis saxeobebis mixedviT produqciis (saqonlisa da momsaxurebis) mTliani gamoSveba sabaziso fasebSi
_
saqonlisa da momsaxurebis gamoSvebisaTvis gamoyenebuli Sualeduri moxmareba
=
mTliani Sida produqti sabaziso fasebSi
+
wminda gadasaxadebi saqonelsa da momsaxurebaze
da importze
=
mTliani Sida produqti sabazro fasebSi.
 mTliani Sida produqtis gaangariSeba xarjebis mixedviT:
mosaxleobis samomxmareblo xarjebi
+
Sinameurneobebis momsaxure arakomerciuli organizaciebis mier gaweuli momsaxureba
+
saxelmwifo marTvis organoebis mier gaweuli
koleqtiuri (saxelmwifos marTva, Tavdacva, wesrigisa
da usafrTxoebis dacva) da personaluri (ganaTlebis,
jandacvisa da socialuri momsaxurebis sferoebSi) momsaxureba
370
+
ZiriTadi kapitalis mTliani formireba
+
materialuri sabrunavi saSualebebis maragebis cvlileba
=
mTliani Sida xarjebi sabazro fasebSi
+
saqonlisa da momsaxurebis eqsporti
_
saqonlisa da momsaxurebis importi
=
mTliani Sida produqti sabazro fasebSi.
 mTliani Sida produqtis gaangariSeba Semosavlebis mixedviT:
Semosavali dasaqmebidan daricxuli xelfasisa da
danamatebis saxiT, xelfasze daricxuli gadasaxadebis
CaTvliT
+
TviTdasaqmebidan miRebuli Sereuli Semosavali
+
kompaniebis mier saqmianobidan miRebuli mTliani
mogeba
+
qonebis gaqiravebidan daricxuli renta
+
gadasaxadebi warmoebasa da importze
=
mTliani Sida produqti sabazro fasebSi.
saqarTveloSi mTliani Sida produqtis gaangariSeba
371
372
3756.9 4285.4 4781.7 5341.7 5648.6 6.211.9 6961.2 8039.0
158.1 319.5 300.4 397.0 422.8 490.1 550.4 578.3
50.0
60.0
70.0
56.0
54.1
55.0 56.1
46.5
111.6 269.5 240.4 327.0 366.8 436.0 495.4 522.2
3868.5 4554.9 5022.1 5668.7 6015.4 6647.9 7456.6 8561.2
B.1g
D.21
D.31
D.21-D.31
B.1g
D.1
D.11
D.12
Semosavlebis formirebis
mixedviT
Sromis anazRaureba
xelfasi
socialuri anaricxebi
891.2
716.1
175.1
1137.2 1396.4 1509.1 1794.9 1816.4 1787.3 1921.0
963.7 1147.8 1257.3 1510.8 1507.6 1493.7 1513.0
173.5 248.6 251.8 284.0 308.8 293.7 408.0
6396.0 7468.7 7986.8 9032.5 9628.2 10707.5 12104.7 14001.8
2527.5 2913.7 2966.7 3363.8 3612.8 4059.7 4648.1 5440.7
P.1
P.2
warmoebis mixedviT
mTliani gamoSveba (sabaziso
fasebSi)
Sualeduri moxmareba
damatebuli Rirebuleba sabaziso
fasebSi
gadasaxadebi produqciaze
subsidiebi produqciaze
wminda gadasaxadebi produqciaze
mTliani Sida poduqti sabazro
fasebSi
2002 2003
1999 2000 2001
1997 1998
eas
kateg. 1996
aRvniSneT, mSp iTvaliswinebs drois garkveul periodSi
qveynis SigniT warmoebuli yvela saboloo saqonlisa
da momsaxurebis sabazro Rirebulebas. Tu maTi moxmarebis maCvenebeli wlis ganmavlobaSi gaizarda, amas
SeiZleba mieces oris axsna:
1. ekonomikaSi SeiniSneba warmoebis gadideba;
2. saqoneli da momsaxureba gaZvirda.
mSp-is zrdis gaanalizebisas ekonomistebi cdiloben orive mizezis gavlenis gansxvavebas da imis gansazRvras, Tu sinamdvileSi ramdenad gaizarda warmoeba
fasTa zrdisagan damoukideblad. amisaTvis gamoiyeneba
realuri mSp-is maCvenebeli, romelic SesaZleblobas iZleva
vupasuxoT hi poTezur kiTxvas: `rogori iqneba am wels
warmoebuli saqonlisa da momsaxurebis Rirebuleba, Tu
Cven mas gaviangariSebT wina wlebis fasebSi?` msgavsi
midgoma iZleva konkretuli periodisaTvis ekonomikuri
zrdis SedarebiTi analizis Catarebis SesaZleblobas.
imisaTvis, raTa ukeTesad gavigoT Tu rogor ganisazRvreba realuri mSp, ganvixilo ricxobrivi magaliTi.
mimdinare fasebSi, mln lari
nominaluri da realuri mSp. rogorc
cxrili 7.1
mTliani Sida produqtis agregatebi saqarTveloSi 1996-2003 wlebSi
mimdinareobs erovnul angariSTa eas-1993 sistemis Sesabamisad, kvartaluri periodulobiT.
7.1 cxrilSi asaxulia mTliani Sida produqtis
agregatebis cifrobrivi monacemebi saqarTveloSi 19962003 wlebisaTvis.
sxvadasxva meTodiT gaangariSebuli mSp-is moculobebi SeiZleba erTmaneTs ar emTxveodes, radganac maTi
informaciuli wyaroebi gansxvavebulia.
373
4372.0 5110.6 4781.3 5203.2 5940.2 5878.1 6594.4 7791.6
713.0 840.8 961.9 1222.7 1214.8 1378.2 1576.8 2005.0
81.2
13.9
68.5
70.0
70.0 64.4
39.7
-28.3
826.6 1080.2 1389.6 1632.6 2179.3 2726.7
515.5
1252.2 1919.6 1863.6 2159.6 2397.1 2594.1 3161.3 2975.4
3868.5 4554.9 5022.1 5668.7 6015.4 6647.9 7456.6 8561.2
P.3
P.51
P.52
P.6
P.7
B.1g
saboloo gamoyenebis mixedviT
saboloo moxmarebis xarjebi
ZiriTadi kapitalis formireba
maragebis cvlileba
(+) saqonlisa da momsaxurebis
eqsporti
(-) saqonlisa da momsaxurebis
importi
mTliani Sida produqti sabazro
fasebSi
711.0
3868.5 4554.9 5022.1 5668.7 6015.4 6647.9 7456.6 8561.2
366.8
422.8
56.0
2299.2
2204.5
240.4
300.4
60.0
2435.6
2354.5
269.5
319.5
50.0
2376.0
2295.9
111.6
158.1
46.5
2273.0
2193.7
D.21-D.31
D.21
D.31
B.2
B.3
produqciasa da importze
gadasaxadebs minus subsidiebi
gadasaxadebi
subsidiebi
mTliani Sereuli Semosavali
Sereuli Semosavali, wminda
mTliani Sida produqti sabazro
fasebSi
B.1g
522.2
578.3
56.1
3050.6
2931.3
495.4
550.4
55.0
2559.4
2452.5
327.0
397.0
70.0
2343.2
2254.1
436.0
490.1
54.1
2520.1
2415.0
2002 2003
1999 2000 2001
1997 1998
1996
eas
kateg.
mimdinare fasebSi, mln lari
cxrili 7.1-is gagrZeleba
374
qvemoT motanili 7.2 cxrili asaxavs hi poTezuri
ekonomikis muSaobis Sedegebs, romelSic iwarmoeba mxolod ori saxis saqoneli _ Rvezeli da nayini. cxrilSi motanilia monacemebi maTi gamoSvebis moculobisa da
saqonlis erTeulis gayidvis fasebis Sesaxeb 2001, 2002
da 2003 wlebSi.
gamoSvebuli saqonlis SesaZenad saWiro danaxarjebis saerTo sididis gamosaTvlelad unda movZebnoT
cxrili 7.2
nominaluri da realuri mSp
fasebi da warmoebis moculoba
wlebi
2001
2002
2003
Rvezelis Rvezelis warfasi
moebis mocul.
(lari)
(cali)
1
2
3
100
150
200
nayinis
fasi
(lari)
nayinis warmoebis mocul.
(cali)
2
3
4
50
100
150
nominaluri mSp-is gaangariSeba
2001 (1lari X 100Rvezeli) + (2lari X 50nayini)=200 lari
2002 (2lari X 150Rvezeli) + (3lari X 100nayini)=600 lari
2003 (3lari X 200Rvezeli) + (4lari X 150nayini)=1200 lari
realuri mSp-is gaangariSeba
2001 (1lari X 100Rvezeli) + (2lari X 50nayini)=200 lari
2002 (1lari X 150Rvezeli) + (2lari X 100nayini)=350 lari
2003 (1lari X 200Rvezeli) + (2lari X 150nayini)=500 lari
mSp-is deflatoris gaangariSeba
2001 (200 lari : 200 lari) X 100 = 100%
2002 (600 lari : 350 lari) X 100 = 171%
2003 (1200 lari : 500 lari) X 100 = 240%
375
yoveli saxeobis produqciis warmoebis moculoba da
erTeulis Rirebuleba. rogorc cxrilidan Cans, 2001
wels warmoebuli iyo 100 Rvezeli da 50 nayini, romlebic iyideboda Sesabamisad cali 1 da 2 larad. mosaxleobis danaxarjebma maT SeZenaze Seadgina 200 lari.
warmoebuli saqonlisa da momsaxurebis Rirebulebis
aseTi maCvenebeli, gamoxatuli mimdinare fasebSi, iwodeba nominalur mSp-d .
cxrilSi motanilia monacemebi nominaluri mSp-is
zrdis Sesaxeb 2001 wlis 200 laridan 600 laramde
2002 wels da 1200 laramde 2003 wels. nominaluri
mSp-is zrdis gansazRvruli nawili ganpirobebulia
produqciis gamoSvebis gadidebiT, xolo nawili _ fasebis cvlilebebiT.
fasTa donisagan damoukideblad, warmoebuli produqciis moculobis SefasebisaTvis Cven gamoviyenebT realur mSp-is cnebas, romelic asaxavs Seqmnili saqonlisa da momsaxurebis Rirebulebas gaangariSebuls drois
gansazRvruli periodis (sabaziso periodis) mudmiv
fasebSi. sabaziso periodis fasis gamoyeneba SesaZleblobas iZleva vawarmooT sxvadasxva wlebis produqciis moculobaTa raodenobrivi Sedareba.
Cvens magaliTSi sabaziso periodad varCevT 2001
wels da misi fasebis Rvezelisa da nayinis gamoSvebis
Sesabamis moculobebze gamravlebiT vRebulobT realuri
mSp-is mniSvnelobebs 2001, 2002 da 2003 wlebSi. Sedegad Cven aRmovaCenT mSp-is realur zrdas 2001 wlis
200 laridan 2002 wlis 350 laramde da 500 laramde
2003 wels, rac mowmobs produqciis gamoSvebis moculobaTa saerTo gadidebaze, ramdenadac gaTvlebi tarde376
boda erTi da imave fasebiT.
amrigad, nominaluri mSp asaxavs warmoebuli
saqonlisa da momsaxurebis saerTo Rirebulebas
mimdinare fasebSi, xolo realuri mSp _ sabaziso
periodis fasebSi. ramdenadac realuri mSp-is mniSvneloba ar ganicdis safaso ryevebis gavlenas, is SeiZleba gamoyenebuli iqnas warmoebis zrdis gasazomad.
Cven gamovTvaleT mSp-is sxvadasxva saxe ekonomikis
efeqtianobis xarisxis gansazRvris mizniT. ramdenadac
realuri mSp-is maCvenebeli asaxavs saqonlisa da momsaxurebis warmoebis faqtiur moculobas, igi nominalur
mSp-sTan SedarebiT ufro metad gviCvenebs ekonomikis
SesaZleblobas _ daakmayofilos mosaxleobis moTxovnilebani. xolo roca saubaria warmoebis gazomvis Sesaxeb,
Cveulebriv gamoiyeneba wina periodTan SedarebiT realuri mSp-is cvlilebis maCvenebeli procentul gamoxatulebaSi.
nominaluri da realuri mSp-is meSveobiT SegviZlia gamovTvaloT kidev erTi mniSvnelovani maCvenebeli
_ mSp-is deflatori, romelic asaxavs Tanafardobas
mimdinare fasebis donesa da sabaziso periodis fasebis
dones Soris. sxva sityvebiT, mSp-is deflatori axasiaTebs ekonomikaSi fasebis da ara warmoebis moculobis
SefardebiT cvlilebas. is gaiangariSeba Semdegnairad:
mSp-is deflatori =
nominaluri mSp
realuri mSp
X 100.
formulidan cxadi xdeba, Tu mSp-is deflatori
ratom asaxavs swored fasobriv variaciebs _ saqon377
lisa da momsaxurebis Rirebulebis nebismieri cvlileba, maTi warmoebis moculobis Seucvlelad, gavlenas axdens
mxolod nominaluri da ara realuri mSp-is maCvenebelze.
Cvens magaliTSi mSp-is deflatoris gaangariSeba
moyvanilia 7.2 cxrilSi. 2001 wels is toli iyo 100%is, 2002 wels _ 171%-is, 2003 wels ki _ 240^%-isa,
saidanac Cans, rom gansaxilvel periodSi fasebi gaizarda 2,4-jer.
mSp-is deflatorTan erTad arsebobs fasebis zrdis gazomvis sxva maCvenebelic, e.w. samomxmareblo
fasebis indeqsi. igi gamoiTvleba mimdinare wlis fasebis
sabaziso periodis fasebze gayofiT. am maCveneblis daxmarebiT realuri mSp gaiangariSeba Semdegnairad:
realuri mSp
=
nominaluri mSp
fasebis indeqsi
.1
mSp-is gazomva dinamikaSi. ekonomikis ga-
zomva saWiroa ara marto statikaSi, aramed dinamikaSic.
amas sazogadebis ekonomikuri keTildReobis donis cvalebadobis gasazomad didi mniSvneloba eniWeba. mTliani
Sida produqtis cvalebadobis gazomva da am cvalebadobis gamomwvevi faqtorebis gaanalizeba dinamikis indeqsebis gamoyenebiTaa SesaZlebeli.
dinamikaSi mSp-is cvalebadobis gasazomi indeqsi,
zogadi formiT, SegviZlia Semdegnairad warmovidginoT:
I=
q1 p 1
,
q0 p 0
sadac: I aris mSp-is saerTo indeqsi;
q1 da q0 _ Sesabamisad, saangariSo da sabaziso
378
wlebis (periodebis) saqonlisa da momsaxurebis fizikuri moculoba;
p1 da p0,_Sesabamisad, saangariSo da sabaziso wlebSi
(periodebSi) saqonlisa da momsaxurebis erTeulebis
sabazro fasi;
 _ sigma (Sejamebis simbolo).
zemoT moyvanili indeqsis mricxvelSi gvaqvs saangariSo periodis saqonlisa da momsaxurebis fizikuri
moculobisa da erTeulis sabazro fasebis namravlTa
jami, anu mSp-is saerTo Rirebuleba saangariSo periodSi, mniSvnelSi ki _ Sesabamisi maCveneblebi sabaziso
periodSi.
maSasadame, mSp-is moculobas rogorc saangariSo,
ise sabaziso periodSi, ori maCvenebeli (saqonlisa da
momsaxurebis fizikuri moculoba da erTeulis fasi)
gansazRvravs. amitom sainteresoa vicodeT, Tu ra gavlena moaxdina mSp-is dinamikaze TiToeulma faqtorma calcalke. amisaTvis SeiZleba gaangariSebuli iqnas mSp-is
fizikuri moculobis indeqsi:
Iq =
q1 p 0
q0 p 0
fasebis indeqsi:
Ip =
q1 p 1
q1 p 0
rogorc Cans, TiToeul indeqsSi erTi faqtori
cvalebadia (romlis gavlenac gvsurs gavigoT), xolo
meore _ ucvlelia (mricxvelSic da mniSvnelSic). fizikuri moculobis indeqsisa da fasebis indeqsis namrav379
li udris mSp-is saerTo Rirebulebis indeqss:
q1 p 1
=
q0 p 0
q1 p 0
q0 p 0
x
q1 p 1
q1 p 0
cxrili 7.3
nominaluri mSp-is moculoba, zrdis tempebi
da struqtura, ekonomikuri saqmianobis
saxeobebis mixedviT, saqarTveloSi
2003 da 2004 wlebSi
mimdinare
zrdis
struqtura
fasebSi
tempi
(procenti)
(mln lari) (procenti)
Iqp = Iq ? Ip.
tolobis sami elementidan Tu viciT romelime
ori maTgani, SegviZlia gavigoT mesamec. magaliTad, Tu
qveynis ganviTarebis indikaturi gegmiT 2007 wlisaTvis
2006 wlis mimarT, mSp-is mateba 20%-iT (Iqp=120%) da
inflaciis wliuri tempidan gamomdinare, fasebis mateba
10%-iTaa (Ip=110%) gaTvaliswinebuli, maSin mSp-is fiikuri moculoba 9,1%-iT (Iq=Iqp/Ip=(120/110)x100=109,1%)
unda gaizardos.
ekonomikuri saqmianobis saxeobebis mixedviT saqarTvelos nominaluri mSp-is moculobis, realuri zrdisa
da struqturis maCveneblebi 2003 da 2004 wlebisaTvis asaxulia 7.3 cxrilSi.
wliuri struqturuli statistikuri gamokvlevis monacemebis safuZvelze dazustebuli monacemebiT
2003 wels mSp-is moculoba 8560,1 mln laris, xolo
wliuri realuri zrdis tempi 111,1%-is toli iyo.
aRsaniSnavia 2004 wels produqciaze gadasaxadebis mkveTri zrda (realuri sididiT TiTqmis 1,5-jer)
wina welTan SedarebiT. es maCvenebeli axasiaTebs 2004
wels samewarmeo seqtoris saqmianobisa da importis
legalizaciasa da sagadasaxado administrirebis Tvisebriv gaumjobesebas.
am cvlilebebis Sedegad sabazro fasebSi mSp-is
380
2003 2004 2003 2004 2003 2004
soflis meurneoba,
nadiroba da metyeveoba,
TevzWera
mrewveloba
samTomopovebiTi
mrewveloba da
kareierebis damuSaveba
damamuSavebeli
mrewveloba
eleqtroenergia, airi
da wyalmomarageba
Sinameurneobebis mier
produqtebis
gadamuSaveba sakuTari
moxmarebisaTvis an
gasayidad
mSenebloba
sabiTumo da sacalo
vaWroba, avtomobilebis,
sayofacxovrebo
saqonlisa da piradi
sargeblobis nivTebis
remonti
sastumroebi da
restornebi
transporti da
sasawyobo meurneoba
1649.1 1589.7 110.3
1145.3 1298.3 108.3
93.3
112.2
19.3
13.4
16.2
13.2
80.4
97.9
84.9
0.9
0.8
746.1 900.2 109.5
120.1
8.7
9.2
323.9 317.7 109.2 100.4
3.8
3.2
370.0 373.6 104.7
547.4 630.6 146.6
98.0
107.5
4.3
6.4
3.8
6.4
1137.6 1312.6 112.1
109.5
13.3
13.4
244.9 267.0 114.2
103.7
2.9
2.7
880.6 955.7 104.4
105.8
10.3
9.8
75.3
381
cxrili 7.3-is gagrZeleba
mimdinare
zrdis
struqtura
fasebSi
tempi
(procenti)
(mln lari) (procenti)
kavSirgabmuloba
safinanso Suamavloba
operaciebi uZravi
qonebiT, ijara da
komerciuli saqmianoba
saxelmwifos marTva da
Tavdacva
ganaTleba
janmrTelobis dacva
da socialuri
momsaxureba
sxva komunaluri,
socialuri da
personaluri
momsaxureba
SinameurneobebSi
daqiravebuli
momsaxureba
finansuri Suamavlobis
momsaxurebis
gamoyenebis
arapirdapiri Sefaseba
mSp sabaziso fasebSi
gadasaxadebi
produqciaze
subsidiebi
produqciaze
mSp sabazro fasebSi
mSp-s deflatori wina
wlis saSualo fasebis
mimarT, procenti
mSp erT sulze, lari
mSp erT sulze, aSS
dolari
382
2003 2004 2003 2004 2003 2004
306.9 409.3 136.5 125.5
3.6
4.2
126.0 131.3 118.1 108.7
1.5
1.3
512.5
125.2
106.3
6.0
5.2
307.6 532.3
277.8 345.7
97.7
101.6
104.8
100.9
3.6
3.2
5.4
3.5
346.2 335.0
101.7
101.0
4.0
3.4
517.1
249.8 337.5
119.4
111.7
2.9
3.4
96.1
100.6
0.1
0.1
-77.8 -75.0 104.5
8037.9 8965.3 112.3
91.0
104.8
-0.9
93.9
-0.8
91.5
6.8
9.1
9.4
9.2
saerTo ekonomikuri zrdis TiTqmis naxevari produqciaze daricxuli gadasaxadebis amoRebasa da sabiujeto seqtoris Semosavlebis matebaSi aisaxa.
momdevno 7.4 cxrilSi warmodgenilia saqarTvelos 2000-2004 wlebis realuri mSp-is kvartaluri
maCveneblebis saerTaSoriso praqtikaSi miRebuli meTodebis gamoyenebiT Sesworebuli droiTi mwkrivi.
sezonuri Sesworebebis gaTvaliswinebiT 2004 wels
mSp-is moculoba kvartalebSi wina kvartalTan SedarebiT realuri sididiT saSualod 3,3%-iT izrdeboda.
qvemoT motanil 7.1 diagramaze naTlad Cans mSp-is
kvartaluri maCveneblebis sezonuri Sesworebis gareSe
da sezonuri SesworebebiT miRebul droiT mwkrivebs
cxrili 7.4
saqarTvelos 2000-2004 wlebis realuri mSpis kvartaluri maCveneblebi sezonuri
Sesworebis gareSe da sezonuri
SesworebebiT
(1996 w. fasebSi; mln. lari)
2000
578.3 892.1 100.4 146.8
-56.1 -57.3 97.3
8560.1 9800.0 111.1
X
103.2
X
1879.1 2160.8 X
876.5 1135.3
X
97.3
108.4
-0.7
-0.6
100.0 100.0
105.9
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
2001
2002
2003
2004
sezonuri Sesworebis gareSe
I kvart.
II kvart.
III kvart.
IV kvart.
1057
1100
1215
1247
I kvart.
II kvart.
III kvart.
IV kvart.
1166
1100
1168
1186
1102
1234
1233
1271
1160
1238
1337
1371
1225
1385
1475
1584
1342
1535
1553
1719
sezonuri SesworebebiT
1210
1271
1342
1236
1239
1384
1188
1296
1438
1207
1297
1494
1471
1533
1516
1618
383
1
2
2000
384
2001
2002
2003
2004
1 _ sezonuri Sesworebis gareSe
2 _ sezonuri SesworebiT
Soris urTierTgansxvaveba da saerTo tendencia.
da bolos, 7.5 cxrilSi asaxulia saqarTvelos
2003-2004 wlebis mSp-is gamoyenebis ZiriTadi mimarTulebebi xarjebis kategoriebis mixedviT
cxrilSi motanili monacemebidan Cans, rom xarjebis (gamoyenebis) kategoriebis mixedviT gaangariSebuli
mSp-is struqturaSi saboloo moxmarebis xarjebi, maTgan ki Sinameurneobebis samomxmareblo xarjebi yvelaze
msxvili elementia.
ganviTarebisaTvis metad mniSvnelovani parametria
saqonlisa da momsaxurebis wminda eqsportis sidide.
misi saldo ki uaryofiTia, rac qveynidan sazRvargareT
finansuri resursebis gawovis da valdebulebebis zrmTliani damatebuli
Rirebuleba sabaziso
fasebSi
1675.7
gadasaxadebi produqciaze
141.1
subsidiebi produqciaze
-11.3
mTliani Sida produqti
sabazro fasebSi
1805.6
mTliani Sida produqtis gamoyeneba
xarjebi saboloo
moxmarebaze
1648.0
Sinameurneobebi
1479.1
Sinameurneobebis momsaxure
arakomerciuli
organizaciebi
16.2
saxelmwifo mmarTvelobis
organoebi
152.6
I kv.
187.5
196.3
250.2
15.7
786.6
62.8
269.7
16.0
331.2
15.3
346.9
15.2
61.8
442.1 1390.0
15.2
15.7
15.1
weli
IIIkv. IVkv. su l
1530.5 1887.3 6599.6 1930.2 1989.1 2218.3 2324.1 8461.7
1318.4 1621.4 5750.1 1644.5 1642.6 1856.1 1866.8 7010.0
IIkv.
1533.8
1331.2
I kv.
2246.6 2399.4 8560.1 2104.0 2421.6 2478.8 2795.6 9800.0
weli
su l
2108.5
IVkv.
2098.0 2288.3 8037.9 1972.5 2220.3 2240.8 2531.8 8965.3
164.8 127.0 578.3 143.1 214.3 254.7 280.0 892.1
-16.2 -15.9 -56.1
-11.5 -12.9 -16.7 -16.2 -57.3
IIIkv.
2004
1975.9
145.4
-12.7
IIkv.
2003
cxrili 7.5
saqarTvelos mSp-is gamoyenebis ZiriTadi mimarTulebebi xarjebis
kategoriebis mixedviT 2003-2004 wlebSi
(mimdinare fasebSi; mln. lari)
diagrama 7.1
saqarTvelos mSp mudmiv (1996 wlis) fasebSi
2000-2004 wlebSi (mln. lari)
385
2246.6 2399.4 8560.1 2104.0 2421.6 2478.8 2795.6 9800.0
2108.5
318.0
1143.1
-6.5
138.4
51.3
105.3
288.5
423.8
381.8
1120.1 1144.4 3975.4 958.1 1164.6 1226.9 1104.6 4454.2
890.6 930.7 3142.0 752.2 929.2 981.1 888.7 3551.2
229.5 213.7 833.3 205.9 236.4 245.8 215.9 902.9
929.3
726.8
202.4
779.8
493.8
286.0
842.0
613.5
228.4
772.8 2726.7 576.3
536.7 1777.4 340.8
236.1 949.3 235.5
753.1 2951.1
519.9 1968.0
233.2 983.1
877.8
600.2
277.6
613.1
379.7
233.3
602.2 640.9
14.5
15.4
_
_
548.7 2003.8 549.1
62.2
13.1
17.0
_
_
_
656.3
616.7
565.7 2066.0 562.2
684.1 2476.3
33.6 76.6
_
_
518.5
16.1
_
483.8
15.3
_
717.7 2552.9
534.6
509.1
97.5
152.7
362.3
424.4
163.6
183.3
168.5
162.7
129.0
140.7
194.5 655.7
247.6 734.3
93.6
102.8
81.4
106.0
individualuri saqoneli
da momsaxureba
89.8
koleqtiuri momsaxureba
62.8
(+) mTliani kapitalis
formireba
456.6
ZiriTadi saSualebebis
mTliani formireba
442.9
maragebis cvlileba
13.8
faseulobebis SeZena
_
(+) saqonlisa da
momsaxurebis eqsporti
463.0
saqonlis eqsporti
260.8
momsaxurebis eqsporti
202.3
(_) saqonlisa da
momsaxurebis importi
781.6
saqonlis importi
594.0
momsaxurebis importi
187.6
(+) statistikuri
cdomileba
19.6
(=) mTliani Sida
produqti sabazro fasebSi 1805.6
I kv.
IIkv.
IIIkv.
cxrili 7.5-is gagrZeleba
2004
weli
weli
I kv. IIkv. IIIkv. IVkv. su l
IVkv. su l
2003
386
dis mniSvnelovani faqtoria. sagareo vaWrobis deficits nawilobriv faravs wminda transferebi sazRvargareTidan. dafinansebis ufro did wyarod ki ucxouri
pirdapiri investiciebi gvevlineba.
yvela instituciuri seqtoris mixedviT gaangariSebuli kapitalis mTliani formirebis wili gamoyenebis
mimarTulebebis mixedviT mSp-is 26,0%-ia, rac ganviTarebadi ekonomikisaTvis Sesafer maRal maCveneblad unda
CaiTvalos da igi ekonomikuri zrdis karg safuZvels
qmnis.
mSp-is done da ekonomikuri keTildReoba. dasawyisSi Cven mSp davaxasiaTeT rogorc sa-
zogadoebis ekonomikuri keTildReobis saukeTeso maCvenebeli. axla, rodesac detalurad varT gacnobili am
fenomens, SesaZlebloba gveZleva SevafasoT msgavsi poziciis samarTlianoba.
CvenTvis cnobilia, rom mSp asaxavs saqonlisa da
momsaxurebis mwarmoebelTa Semosavlebis saerTo jams
da maT anazRaurebaze danaxarjebis saerTo jams. amrigad, mSp-is sidide mosaxleobis erT sulze gaangariSebiT axasiaTebs qveynis abstraqtuli mcxovrebis gasaSualebul Semosavlebsa da danaxarjebs da warmoadgens
misi keTildReobis sazoms.
magram zogierTi sadaod xdis msgavsi midgomis
samarTlianobas. magaliTad, senatori robert kenedi Tavisi
winasaarCevno saprezidento kampaniis dros 1968 wels
gamovida sazogadoebrivi keTildReobis merkantiluri
Sefasebis aseTi emociuri kritikiT:
`igi (mSp) ar iTvaliswinebs Tqveni bavSvebis jan387
mrTelobis mdgomareobas, skolis niSnebs, sixarulsa da
mxiarulebas. masSi ar Sedis poeziis silamaze, ojaxuri
urTierTobebis simtkice, politikuri diskusiebis inteleqtualuri done an saxelmwifo moxeleTa patiosneba. masSi araferia Cveni gabedulebidan, sibrZnidan da
samSoblosaTvis Tavdadebidan. is Tavis TavSi Seicavs
yvelafers, garda imisa, rac Cvens cxovrebas amSvenebs da
yvelafers mogviTxrobs amerikis Sesaxeb, garda imisa, Tu
ratom vamayobT imiT, rom amerikelebi varT`.
ra Tqma unda, bevr rameSi robert kenedi marTali
iyo. magram maSin ratomaa CvenTvis esoden mniSvnelovani
mSp-is maCvenebeli?
saqme imaSia, rom maRali mSp SesaZleblobas gvaZlevs gaviumjobesoT Cveni cxovreba. marTalia, is ar
iTvaliswinebs Cveni bavSvebis janmrTelobis mdgomareobas an maTi swavlebis xarisxs, magram qveyanas mSp-is
maRali doniT eZleva saSualeba mniSvnelovnad meti xarjebi gaiRos janmrTelobis dacvasa da ganaTlebaze. mSp
aranairad ar asaxavs Cvens kulturas, patiosnebas, gabedulebas, sibrZnes an samSoblosaTvis Tavdadebas, magram
am Tvisebebis Camoyalibeba bevrad ufro advilia, rodesac adamiani naklebadaa dakavebuli yoveldRiuri materialuri problemebis gadawyvetiT. ra Tqma unda, mSp-s
ar SeuZlia Seafasos is, rac Cvens cxovrebas xdis mdgrads,
magram is asaxavs Cveni cxovrebis Rirseulad warmarTvis
SesaZleblobebs (ix. CanarTi 7.1).
unda davamatoT, rom mSp-s, rogorc qveynis ganviTarebisa da sazogadoebis ekonomikuri keTildReobis
gamzoms, gaaCnia sxva naklovanebebic.
uwinares yovlisa, aRsaniSnavia is, rom mSp ar iTval388
CanarTi 7.1
mSp-isa da cxovrebis
xarisxis kavSiri sxvadasxva qveyanaSi
mSp-is maCvenebeli sxvadasxva qveyanaSi ekonomikuri keTildReobis doneTa Sedarebis moxerxebuli instrumentia, ramdenadac mdidar da Rarib
saxelmwifoebSi mSp mosaxleobis erT sulze gaangariSebiT SeiZleba arsebiTad gansxvavdebodes.
TiToeuli qveynisaTvis, rogorc wesi, rac ufro
maRalia es maCvenebeli, miT maRalia misi moqalaqeebis cxovrebis xarisxi.
saerTod, Semosavlebis dabali donis qveynebad Tvlian im qveynebs, romelTaTvisac mSp-is
moculoba, mosaxleobis erT sulze gaangariSebiT, weliwadSi 785 aSS dolars ar aRemateba,
saSualo donis Semosavlebis qveyanaSi es maCvenebeli 786-dan 9655-mde aSS dolaris farglebSi
meryeobs, xolo maRali donis Semosavlebis qveynebSi _ 9656 aSS dolarze maRalia.
qvemoT motanil 7.6 cxrilSi warmodgenilia
mSp-is saSualosuladobrivi, mosaxleobis sicocxlis saSualo xangrZlivobisa da ganaTlebulobis maCveneblebi msoflios 13 qveynis mixedviT. es monacemebi TvalsaCino demonstrirebas
akeTebs imisas, rom iseT mdidar qveynebSi, rogoricaa
aSS, iaponia da germania, adamianebi cocxloben
saSualod 75 welze ufro met xans da maTSi
miRweulia TiTqmis sayovelTao (99%-iani) ganaTlebuloba. Rarib qveynebSi (nigeria, bangladeSi, indoeTi, pakistani) ki sicocxlis saSualo
389
xangrZlivoba Seadgens daaxloebiT 60 wels da
maTi mozrdili mosaxleobis mxolod daaxloebiT naxevarma icis wera da kiTxva. cxrilSi
moyvanili qveynebidan am mxriv gamonaklisia saqarTvelo, sadac, mSp-is saSualosuladobrivi
ma Cv enebl is yv ela ze da ba li do nis ( 877 a SS
dolari) miuxedavad, sakmaod maRalia mosaxleobis sicocxlis saSualo xangrZlivoba (72 weli)
cxrili 7.6
mSp-is saSualosuladobrivi moculobis,
mosaxleobis sicocxlis saSualo
xangrZlivobisa da ganaTlebulobis
maCveneblebi msoflios 13 qveynisaTvis
(2002 w.)
qveyana
aSS
iaponia
germania
meqsika
brazilia
ruseTi
indonezia
CineTi
indoeTi
pakistani
bangladeSi
nigeria
saqarTvelo
390
realuri
sicocxl is mosaxleobis
mS p
saSualo
ganaTlebuloba,
mosaxleobis
erT sulze, xangrZlivoba,
%
aSS dolari
weli
29010
24070
21260
8370
6480
4370
3490
3130
1670
1560
1050
920
877
77
80
77
72
67
67
65
70
63
64
58
50
72
99
99
99
99
84
99
85
83
53
41
39
59
99
da ganaTlebuloba (99,7%).
Tumca, cxrilSi ar aris CarTuli monacemebi cxovrebis xarisxis sxva aspeqtebis Sesaxeb,
magram, rogorc wesi, isini dakavSirebulia saxelmwifos ekonomikur keTildReobasTan. qvynebSi,
sadac dabalia mSp-is maCvenebeli erT sul mosaxleze gaangariSebiT, ufro meti bavSvebi ibadeba
arasakmarisi woniT, maRalia bavSvTa da dedaTa
sikvdilianobis maCvenebeli, xSirad Cndeba produqtebisa da sasmeli wylis deficitis problema,
skolamdeli asakis bavSvebis naklebi raodenoba
dadis skolaSi, isini ki, vinc swavloben, iZulebulni arian imecadinon gadavsebul klasebSi.
Rarib qveynebSi savalaloa gzebis mdgomareoba,
dabalia eleqtrofikaciisa da telefonizaciis
done. ase rom, problemis saerTaSoriso masStabiT analizi eWvs ar gvitovebs mSp-is saSualosuladobrivi moculobisa da mosaxleobis cxovrebis donis pirdapir kavSirSi.
iswinebs Tavisufali drois problemas. wuTierad warmovidginoT situacia, rodesac mTeli Sromisunariani
mosaxleoba muSaobs kviris Svidive dRes. eWvgareSea,
rom es gamoiwvevda saqonlisa da momsaxurebis warmoebis gadidebas da mSp-is zrdas, magram saeWvoa, rom gaaumjobesebda Cvens cxovrebas, ramdenadac Tavisufali drois
SezRudvis uaryofiTi Sedegebi gadaametebda yvela materialur SenaZens.
391
ramdenadac mSp-is gaangariSebisas gamoiyeneba saqonlisa da momsaxurebis sabazro fasebi, is moicavs mxolod bazriT gaSualebuli Sromis Sedegebs da ver
gamoxatavs realur socialur faseulobebs. bavSvebis
aRzrda da moxaliseTa saqmianoba, usityvod, didi wvlilia sazogadoebis keTildReobaSi, magram isini ver
hpoveben adekvatur asaxvas ekonomikis mTlian maCveneblebSi da maT Soris mSp-Si. Tu erT-erTi mSobeli gadawyvets Seamciros samuSao kvira, raTa meti dro gaataros
bavSvTan, saqonlisa da momsaxurebis warmoeba Semcirdeba, rac aisaxeba mSp-is sidideze, magram gardauvlad ar
gamoiwvevs ojaxis cxovrebis xarisxis dacemas.
mSp verc sazogadoebis winaSe mdgar ekologiur
problemebs iTvaliswinebs. rogorc cnobilia, mravali
saqonlisa da momsaxurebis warmoeba dakavSirebulia
garemos dabinZurebasTan, ris gamoc sazogadoebrivi danaxarjebi izrdeba. mSp-Si aisaxeba mxolod warmoebuli
saqonlisa da momsaxurebis sabazro fasebi, maSin rodesac misi WeSmariti realuri faseuloba unda gamoiTvalos rogorc sxvaoba am saqonlisa da momsaxurebis
sabazro fassa da garemos dabinZurebasTan dakavSirebul socialur danaxarjebs Soris. imis gamo, rom mSpis aRricxvisas aRniSnuli garemoeba gaTvaliswinebuli
ar aris, es maCvenebeli srulad ver asaxavs sazogadoebis keTildReobis dones.
mSp sazogadoebis keTildReobis arasruli maCvenebelia imitomac, rom masSi ar aris gaTvaliswinebuli
mocemuli qveynis Semosavlebis doneTa uTanabroba. rodesac mSp qveynis mosaxleobis mdidar da Rarib fenebs
Soris uTanabrod aris ganawilebuli, qveyanaSi social392
ur keTildReobaze laparaki zedmetia da socialuri
viTarebac Zalze daZabulia.
mSp-is Tanabari moculobis pirobebSi sazogadoebis keTildReoba damokidebulia saboloo saqonlisa
da momsaxurebis sabazro fasebis doneze. Tu aviRebT
or iseT qveyanas, romelTa saSualo suladobrivi mSp
erTnairi moculobisaa, magram fasebis done gansxvavebuli, im qveyanaSi, sadac fasebi SedarebiT dabalia, sazogadoebis realuri keTildReobis done ufro maRali iqneba
da, piriqiT.
da bolos, erTxel kidev unda aRiniSnos rom, Tumca mSp adekvaturad asaxavs sazogadoebrivi keTildReobis mraval aspeqts, magram igi ar iTvaliswinebs cxovrebis donis zogierT mniSvnelovan Tvisobriv Semadgenels da es arasodes unda iqnas daviwyebuli.
mTliani erovnuli produqti da mTliani Sida
produqti qmnis bazas sxva agregirebuli makroekonomikuri maCveneblebis gaangariSebisaTvis.
wminda erovnuli produqti. mep-isa da
mSp-is maCveneblebis erT-erTi arsebiTi naklia is, rom
isini moicaven ara marto im saqonlisa da momsaxurebis
Rirebulebas, romelic gamoiyeneba mosaxleobis cxovrebis pirobebis gaumjobesebisaTvis, aramed imasac, romelic gamoiyeneba gacveTili ZiriTadi kapitalis (Senobanagebobebis, manqana-mowyobilobebis) aRsadgenad. sazogadoebis ekonomikuri keTildReobis amaRlebisaTvis gamosayenebeli saboloo saqonlisa da momsaxurebis namdvili sididis dasadgenad wlis ganmavlobaSi warmoebuli kapitaluri saqonlis moculobas unda gamovakloT
393
is nawili, romelic gaTvaliswinebulia gacveTili ZiriTadi kapitalis Sesacvlelad (amortizacia). erovnul
angariSTa sistemaSi saamortizacio anaricxebi figurirebs rogorc `ZiriTadi kapitalis moxmareba`. Tu meps gamoakldeba amortizacia, miviRebT wminda erovnul
produqts (wep) , anu saboloo saqonlisa da momsaxurebis im nawils, romelic realurad emateba
erovnul ekonomikas.
erovnuli Semosavali. Tu wminda erovnul
produqts davumatebT pirveladi Semosavlebis miRebas
danarCeni msofliodan da gamovaklebT pirveladi Semosavlebis gadaxdas danarCeni msofliosaTvis, miviRebT
mTlian erovnul Semosavals (meS).
meS-Si Sedis saxelmwifos mier dadgenili arapirdapiri gadasaxadebi (gadasaxadi damatebul Rirebulebaze, aqcizi, sabaJo gadasaxadi da sxv.). arapirdapiri gadasaxadi gadasaxadebis gansakuTrebuli saxea, romelic emateba sawarmoebis mier dadgenil fasebs. ase, magaliTad, aSS-Si isini Seadgenen meS-is 10%-s. aseT gadasaxadebs ixdian momxmareblebi, am nawiliT kargaven ra TavianT Semosavlebs, romelsac Rebulobs saxelmwifo. Tu
meS-idan gamovricxavT arapirdapir gadasaxadebs, miviRebT
wminda erovnuli Semosavlis (weS) maCvenebels ,
anu
materialuri warmoebisa da aramaterialuri
momsaxurebis sferoebis yvela monawilis Semosavlebis (renta, xelfasi, sargebeli, samewarmeo
mogeba) erTobliobas.
Tavis mxriv, Tu wminda erovnul Semosavals davumatebT mimdinare transferebis miRebas sazRvargareTidan
394
da gamovaklebT mimdinare transferebis gacemas sazRvargareT, miviRebT wminda erovnul gankargvad Semosavals.
piradi Semosavali. erovnuli Semosavali
gansxvavdeba piradi Semosavlisagan. es imiT aixsneba, rom
gamomuSavebuli Semosavlis nawili (Senatanebi socialur dazRvevaze, gadasaxadi sawarmos mogebaze da sawarmos gaunawilebeli mogeba) faqtobrivad ar xvdeba saojaxo meurneobis pirad moxmarebaSi. piriqiT, saojaxo
meurneobaSi moxvedrili Semosavlis nawili (transferuli gadasaxdelebi) ar warmoadgens SromiTi saqmianobis Sedegs. erovnuli Semosavlisagan gansxvavebiT, romelic
gamomuSavebuli Semosavlis maCvenebelia, piradi Semosavali faqtobrivad miRebuli Semosavalia. mTliani
piradi Semosavlis (mpS) gaangariSebisaTvis saWiroa
erovnul Semosavals daakldes SromiT gamomuSavebuli, magram miuRebeli Semosavali (socialuri
dazRvevis anaricxebi, mogebis gadasaxadi, gaunawilebeli
mogebis naSTi) da daematos Semosavali, romelic
araa dakavSirebuli mimdinare SromiTi saqmianobis SedegTan _ saxelmwifo transferuli gadasaxdelebi (pensiebi da daxmarebebi sazogadoebis garkveuli fenebisaTvis).
Tumca, rogorc cnobilia, moqalaqeTa piradi Semosavalic ibegreba sxvadasxva gadasaxadebiT, romelTa Soris
mTavaria saSemosavlo gadasaxadi. ai, ratomaa, rom individTa srul gankargulebaSi gadadis mTliani piradi
Semosavlis mxolod is nawili, romelic rCeba yvela
individualuri gadasaxadis gadaxdis Semdeg. aseT maCve395
nebels ekonomikaSi wminda pirad gankargvad Semosavals (wpgS) uwodeben. aSS-Si piradi gankargvadi Semosavali Seadgens mep-is daaxloebiT 70%-s. mis xarjze
xorcieldeba samomxmareblo saqonlisa da momsaxurebis SeZena (daaxloebiT 95%) da piradi danazogis Camoyalibeba.
amrigad, adamianebi maT gankargulebaSi arsebul
Semosavals yofen or nawilad: Semosavlis erTi nawili
moixmareba (moxmarebis fondi), meore nawili ki daizogeba (danazogis fondi) . sxva Tanabar pirobebSi, moxmarebis sidide pirdapir damokidebulia wminda piradi
gankargvadi Semosavlis moculobaze. rac ufro metia
es ukanaskneli, miT metia moxmarebis sidide da, piriqiT.
es damokidebuleba maTematikurad Semdegnairad warmogvidgeba: c=c(r ? t) , sadac c aris moxmareba, r _ ekonomikaSi warmoebuli produqti, t _ gadasaxadi.
es gantoleba miuTiTebs, rom moxmareba aris wminda piradi gankargvadi Semosavlis funqcia. moxmarebisa
da wminda piradi gankargvadi Semosavlis aseTi damokidebuleba ekonomikaSi cnobilia moxmarebis funqciis saxelwodebiT.
TvalsaCinoebisaTvis, ZiriTadi makroekonomikuri
maCveneblebis Tanafardoba sqematuradaa warmodgenili
7.1 naxazze. 7.7 cxrilSi ki asaxulia saqarTvelos
mTliani Sida produqtisa da TanmimdevrobiT misgan
miRebuli erovnuli angariSebis sxva ganzogadebuli
agregatebis maCveneblebi 1996-2003 wlebSi.
mTliani erovnuli produqti (mep)
+ ucxoelTa sakuTrebaSi arsebuli warmoebis faqtorebiT mocemuli qveynis sazRvrebSi Seqmnili
saboloo saqonlisa da momsaxurebis Rirebuleba
_ erovnuli warmoebis faqtorebiT sazRvargareT
Seqmnili saboloo saqonlisa da momsaxurebis
Rirebuleba
=
mTliani Sida produqti (mSp)
_ ZiriTadi kapitalis moxmareba (amortizacia)
=
wminda erovnuli produqti (wep)
+ pirveladi Semosavlebis miReba danarCeni msofliodan
_ pirveladi Semosavlebis gadaxda danarCeni msofliosaTvis
=
mTliani erovnuli Semosavali (meS)
_ arapirdapiri gadasaxadebi
=
wminda erovnuli Semosavali (weS)
+ mimdinare transferebis miReba sazRvargareTidan
_ mimdinare transferebis gacema sazRvargareT
=
wminda erovnuli gankargvadi Semosavali (wegS)
+ saxelmwifo transferuli gadasaxdelebi
_ SromiT gamomuSavebuli, magram miuRebeli Semosavali
(soc. dazRvevis anaricxebi da sxv.)
=
mTliani piradi Semosavali (mpS)
_ moqalaqeTa individualuri gadasaxadebi
=
wminda piradi gankargvadi Semosavali (wpgS)
nax. 7.1. makroekonomikur maCvenebelTa
Tanafardoba
396
397
398
399
(+) kapitaluri transferebis
miReba sazRvargareTidan
(-) kapitaluri transferebis
gacema sazRvargareT
(=) kapitalis wminda Rirebulebis
cvlileba danazogebisa da
kapitaluri transferebis
Sedegad
(-) mTliani kapitalis formireba
(+) ZiriTadi kapitalis moxmareba
(-) arawarmoebuli arafinansuri
aqtivebis wminda Sesyidva
(-) statistikuri gansxvaveba
(=) wminda dakrediteba (+),
wminda sesxeba (-)
(-) saboloo moxmareba
( =) wminda danazogi
(=) wminda erovnuli
ga nk ar gva di S emo sa va li
(+)mimdinare transferebis miReba
sazRvargareTidan
(-) mimdinare transferebis gacema
sazRvargareTidan
(=) wminda erovnuli Semosavali
(-)ZiriTadi kapitalis moxmareba
(=) mTliani erovnuli Semosavali
mTliani Sida produqti
(+) pirveladi Semosavlebis miReba
danarCeni msofliodan
(-) pirveladi Semosavlebis
gadaxda danarCeni msofliosaTvis
1997 1998
1999 2000 2001
0.0
D.5-D.7
11.7
266.6
16.4
305.0
55.9
322.4
36.2
510.7
135.4
6715.2
706.0
6009.2
311.1
8634.7
898.1
7736.7
75.8
88.6
539.4 467.6
279.3
7541.9
770.7
6771.2
364.6 384.7
0.0
D.9
8.4
0.0
-8.4
0.0
1997 1998
14.2
0.0
9.4
0.0
10.7
0.0
19.0
59.4
17.2
59.9
2002 2003
0.0
0.0
-519.9 -159.6
-661.0 -706.6
K.2
B.9
-473
0.0
234.7
-402.5
-518
0.0
0.0
-318.9 -207.6
-431.3 -392.7 -753.3
0.0
0.0
0.0
308.3 -200.6 -38.2
-732.3 -527.4 287.8 480.8 -66.5 272.6 164.5 210.3
752.7 812.5 1043.1 1236.6 1283.3 1448.2 1646.8 2069.4
304.5 383.6 516.4 661.6 630.6 706.0 770.7 898.1
58.5
D.9
eas
kateg. 1996
1999 2000 2001
cxrili 7.7-is gagrZeleba
mimdinare fasebSi, mln lari
B.8+D.9
P.51
K.1
65.9
463.0
120.6
6247.3
630.6
5616.7
352.4 202.7
3581.2 4591.6 5060.7 5698.2 5883.1 6482.7 7234.8 8115.7
4373.0 5110.6 4781.3 5203.2 5940.2 6199.4 7110.7 7948.0
-790.8 -519.0 279.4 495.0 -57.1 283.3 124.0 167.7
106.1
D.5-D.7
128.4
5962.8
661.6
5301.2
242.1
D.1-D.4 95.9
76.8
72.4
B.5g 3779.6 4720.3 5288.5
K.1
304.5 383.6 516.4
B.5n
3475.1 4446.7 4772.1
7.0
422.4
B.6n
P.3
B.8
2002 2003
3868.5 4554.9 5022.1 5668.7 6015.4 6647.9 7456.6 8561.2
1996
338.8
D.1-D.4
B.1g
eas
kateg.
(mimdinare fasebSi, mln lari)
cxrili 7.7
mTliani Sida produqtisa da erovnul angariSTa sistemis sxva
agregatuli maCveneblebi saqarTveloSi 1996-2003 wlebSi
w mi nda e ko nom i ku r i k e Ti l dR e o ba .
ekonomikur mecnierebasa da sameurneo praqtikaSi SedarebiT axali makroekonomikuri maCvenebelia wminda
ekonomikuri keTildReoba (wek) . igi, uwinares yovlisa, emyareba monacemebs wlis ganmavlobaSi qveyanaSi
Seqmnili mSp-is Sesaxeb. magram, rogorc zemoT aRvniSneT,
es ukanaskneli srulad ver asaxavs realur mdgomareobas. magaliTad, masSi araa gaTvaliswinebuli iseTi
saqmianobis Sedegebi, rogoricaa: moxucebis, avadmyofebisa da bavSvebis movla ojaxis pirobebSi; ojaxis keTilmowyoba; repetitoroba da Semosavlis sxva analogiuri
wyaroebi; sakuTari ZalebiT Sesrulebuli binis remonti, sayofacxovrebo daniSnulebis xangrZlivi moxmarebis sagnebis SekeTeba, romelic aumjobesebs cxovrebis
pirobebs; Crdilovani ekonomikis iseTi elementebi, rogoricaa garTobis aralegaluri saxeobebi, reketi, narkotikebis warmoeba-gasaReba da a.S., rac uaryofiTad moqmedebs sazogadoebis keTildReobaze.
mSp-Si araa asaxuli warmoebis ganviTareba-gafarToebis mravali negatiuri Sedegic: resursebis gamofitva,
warmoebis narCenebiTa da gamonabolqvi airebiT garemos
dabinZureba da sxv., rac aseve auaresebs sazogadoebis
cxovrebis pirobebs. am maCvenebelSi ara marto ar aris
asaxuli, aramed gaangariSebis meTodikac araa SemuSavebuli sazogadoebis keTildReobis amaRlebis iseTi mniSvnelovani komponentebisa, rogoricaa saojaxo pirobebSi dasveneba da Tavisufali drois gadideba.
sazogadoebis keTildReobaze am faqtorTa zegavlenis gaTvaliswinebis SesaZleblobas iZleva wek-is
maCvenebeli, romelic mecnieruli analizis sagnad pirvelad aqcies u.nordhausma da j.tobinma. wek gaiangariSe400
ba _ rogorc mSp-s gamoklebuli sazogadoebis
keTildReobaze uaryofiTad moqmedi faqtorebi
da damatebuli arasabazro saqmianoba da Tavisufali dro (gamoxatuli fuladi formiT).
Tanamedrove pirobebSi ganviTarebul qveynebSi didi
yuradReba eqceva cxovrebis xarisxobriv maCveneblebs,
rac agregirebuli saxiT asaxvas hpovebs wek-is maCvenebelSi. am TvalsazrisiT sainteresoa germaniis saxalxo
meurneobis institutis gamokvleva, romliTac qveynebi
ranJirebulia adamianuri kapitalis ganviTarebis donis
mixedviT. mis dasaxasiaTeblad gamoyenebulia 37 sxvadasxva maCvenebeli. maT Soris aRsaniSnavia iseTi maCveneblebi, rogoricaa pirovnuli Tavisufleba, kaloriis moxmareba, bavSvTa sikvdilianoba, Sromisunariani mosaxleobis dasaqmebis saSualo wliuri zrda, sufTa wylis
xelmisawvdomoba, energiis moxmareba erT sulze da a.S.
magaliTad, iseTi maCvenebliT, rogoricaa pirovnebis Tavisufleba, pirveli adgili uWiravs aSS-s, meore _ kanadas,
mesame _ iaponias; janmrTelobis dacvis ganviTarebis
donis mixedviT pirvel adgilzea dania, meoreze _ Sveicaria, mesameze _ gfr; umaRlesi ganaTlebis doniT
pirvelzea aSS, meoreze _ kanada, mesameze _ Sveicaria da
a.S. keTildReobis dones yvelaze zustad gansazRvravs
`adamianis ganviTarebis indeqsi` , romelic axasiaTebs adamianis cxovrebis xarisxs da moicavs Semdeg
ZiriTad parametrebs: Semosavali mosaxleobis erT sulze;
sicocxlis saSualo xangrZlivoba; ganaTlebis done.
zemoT CamoTvlili makroekonomikuri maCveneblebi
organul kavSirSia erovnul simdidresTan. rac ufro
didia erovnuli simdidris moculoba da efeqtiania
misi struqtura, miT maRalia qveyanaSi warmoebul sxva
401
makroekonomikur maCvenebelTa moculoba da, piriqiT _
rac ufro maRalia am ukanasknelTa zrdis tempebi da
matebis absoluturi sidide, miT ufro izrdeba mocemuli qveynis erovnuli simdidre.
amrigad, Cven ganvixileT ZiriTadi makroekonomikuri
maCveneblebi, romelTa daxmarebiTac SesaZlebeli xdeba
erovnuli angariSwarmoebis organizeba.
erovnuli angariSebi da angariSwarmoeba. ekonomikis saxelmwifoebrivi regulireba moiTx-
ovs Taviseburi erovnuli buRalteriis Seqmnas.
sabuRaltro aRricxvis erT-erTi ZiriTadi princi pia buRaltrul balansSi ormagi Caweris warmoeba.
buRaltruli angariSebis erT nawilSi Caiwereba Semosavlebi, xolo meoreSi _ gasavlebi. mniSvnelovani princi pia Semosavlebisa da gasavlebis toloba. momxmarebelTa xarjebi saqonlisa da momsaxurebis SeZenaze warmoadgens am saqonlisa da momsaxurebis mwarmoebelTa
Semosavlebs. mSp-is maCvenebeli erTdroulad zomavs
rogorc yvela sameurneo erTeulis erTobliv Semosavals,
ise saqonlisa da momsaxurebis warmoebaze gaweuli xarjebis saerTo moculobas qveyanaSi.
aqedan gamomdinareobs mTeli qveynis masStabiT
sameurneo saqmianobis yovlismomcveli aRricxvis warmoebis SesaZlebloba. aseTi aRricxva xorcieldeba
erovnul angariSTa sistemis saxiT.
erovnul angariSTa sistema (eas) aris qveynis
ekonomikis balansebisa da cxrilebis logikurad Tanmimdevruli, saerTaSoriso doneze SeTanxmebuli angariSebis sistema, romelic moicavs drois garkveul monakveT402
Si (kvartalis, wlis ganmavlobaSi) qveynis ekonomikis
mimdinare da wina periodebTan SedarebiT ganviTarebis
tendenciebis raodenobriv daxasiaTebas; asaxavs erovnuli ekonomikis struqturas, umTavres proporciebs
ekonomikis seqtorebs Soris da, danarCen msofliosTan
ekonomikuri operaciebis gaTvaliswinebiT, qveynis ekonomikaSi warmoebis, Semosavlebisa da danaxarjebis ganxorcielebis Sedegebs.
erovnul angariSTa sistema sxvadasxva qveyanaSi
sxvadasxva dros da gansxvavebuli standartebiT dainerga.
saqarTvelos erovnuli angariSebis meTodur safuZvels warmoadgens gaero-s evrogaerTianebis komisiis,
ekonomikuri TanamSromlobisa da ganviTarebis organizaciis, msoflio bankisa da saerTaSoriso savaluto fondis mier rekomendirebuli erovnul angariSTa 1993 wlis
(SNA-93) sistemis standartuli meTodologia.
erovnuli angariSebis meSveobiT SeiZleba ganisazRvros makroekonomikis normaluri mdgomareobis miRwevis xarisxi. misi Sedegebi farTod gamoiyeneba warmoebis moculobisa da struqturis, qveynis xarjebis,
investiciebis, moxmarebis, dabegvris da erovnuli meurneobis sxva parametrebis ekonomikuri prognozirebisaTvis. es angariSebi erovnuli ekonomikis struqturis
Seswavlisa da srulyofis, mdgradi ekonomikuri zrdis
uzrunvelyofis safuZveli da instrumentia.
403
?
testebi SeZenili codnis
SemowmebisaTvis
1. m akro eko nom ikaS i urTierSem avs ebel
maCveneblebs miekuTvneba:
a. umuSevroba da inflacia;
b. ekonomikuri zrdis tempi da dasaqmeba;
g. inflacia da saqonlis Semotana;
d. umuSevroba da saqonlis gatana.
2. qveynis ekonomikuri usafrTxoebis garegan muqarebs qmnis:
a. erovnuli warmoebis dacema;
b. sursaTiT qveynis mosaxleobis uzrunvelyofis Semcireba;
g. saxelmwifos sameurneo Zalebis wyaroebis
moSla;
d. masobrivi umuSevroba qveyanaSi.
3. erovnul angariSTa sistema pirvelad daamuSava:
a. jorj tobinma;
b. uiliam nordhausma;
g. pol samuelsonma;
d. sten kuznecma.
4. Tanamedrove makroekonomikur maCveneblebs
miekuTvneba:
a. firmis warmoebis xarjebi;
404
b. mTliani Sida produqti;
g. erToblivi sazogadoebrivi produqti;
d. firmebisa da saojaxo meurneobaTa Semosavlebi.
5. erovnul angariSTa sistemaSi gaero-s mier
mTavar makroekonomikur maCveneblad rekomendirebulia:
a. wminda erovnuli produqti;
b. wminda erovnuli Semosavali;
g. mTliani Sida produqti;
d. mTliani erovnuli produqti.
6. mTliani erovnuli produqti asaxavs:
a. qveynis teritoriaze saqonlisa da momsaxurebis warmoebaze gaRebuli danaxarjebis erTobliobas;
b. qveynis erTobliv danaxarjs saqonlisa da
momsaxurebis warmoebaze rogorc saxelmwifos teritoriaze, aseve sazRvargareT;
g. qveynis teritoriaze miRebul erTobliv Semosavals, maT Soris im faqtorebis xarjzec, romelic
ucxoelTa sakuTrebaSia;
d. qveynis teritoriaze ucxoelTa sakuTrebaSi
arsebuli faqtorebiT warmoebuli yvela saqonlisa da
momsaxurebis Rirebulebas.
7. mTlian Sida produqtSi aRiricxeba sabazro Rirebuleba:
a. kvartalis ganmavlobaSi warmoebuli yvela
produqtisa;
405
b. wlis ganmavlobaSi warmoebuli yvela Sualeduri produqtisa;
g. kvartalis ganmavlobaSi warmoebuli yvela
saboloo produqtisa;
d. wlis ganmavlobaSi qveynis SigniT warmoebuli yvela saboloo saqonlisa da momsaxurebisa.
8. nominaluri mSp-is ralur mSp-sTan procentuli SefardebiT miiReba:
a. samomxmareblo fasebis indeqsi;
b. mSp-is deflatori;
g. mSp-is fizikuri moculobis indeqsi;
d. mSp-is saerTo Rirebulebis indeqsi.
9. qveyanaSi cxovrebis done amaRldeba, Tuki:
a. mSp da mosaxleoba erTnairi tempebiT gaizrde-
11. Tu wminda erovnul Semosavals davumatebT
mimdinare transferebis miRebas sazRvargareTidan
da gamovaklebT mimdinare transferebis gacemas
sazRvargareT, miviRebT:
a. mTlian erovnul Semosavals;
b. wminda erovnul produqts;
g. wminda erovnul gankargvad Semosavals;
d. pirad Semosavals.
12. wminda ekonomikuri keTildReobis maCvenebeli mecnieruli analizis sagnad pirvelad aqcies:
a. niordhausma da tobinma;
b. makkonelma da brium;
g. samuelsonma da kuznecma;
d. fiSerma, dornbuSma da Smalenzma.
ba;
b. gaizrdeba realuri mSp erT sul mosaxleze;
g. mosaxleoba mSp-ze metad gaizrdeba;
d. Semcirdeba warmoeba da moxmareba.
10. realuri mSp-is naklovaneba imaSi mdgomareobs, rom igi:
a. ar Seicavs warmoebuli, magram gauyidavi saqonlis Rirebulebas;
b. koreqtirebuli ar aris inflaciis tempis
gaTvaliswinebiT;
g. ugulvebelyofs wminda eqsports;
d. ar Seicavs aralegalurad gayidul saqonelsa da momsaxurebas.
406
407
8
Tema
e r ov n u li m e ur n e ob i s
ekonomikuri zrda da
ganviTareba
`ekonomikuri zrda da naklebad ganviTarebuli qveynebis
dRevandeli mdgomareoba bevrad
gansxvavdeba axlandeli ganviTarebuli qveynebis im mdgomareobisagan, roca isini Sediodnen ekonomikuri ganviTarebis
stadiaSi~.
s.kuzneci
rogorc cnobilia, saxelmwifo seqtori da makroekonomika mTlianad, viTardeba adamianTa individualuri da koleqtiuri interesebis realizebis mizniT.
es mizani, uwinares yovlisa, miiRweva erovnuli meurneobis zrdisa da ganviTarebis pirobebSi. amitom saxelmwifo mowodebulia xeli Seuwyos mdgrad ekonomikur
zrdas da ganviTarebas, ris gasazomadac igi iyenebs
erovnul angariSTa sistemas.
408
wina TemaSi erovnul angariSTa sistemis maCvenebelTa Cvens mier Catarebuli analizi iyo, upiratesad,
statikuri. igi faqtobrivad warmoadgenda erovnuli
ekonomikis momentalur gadaRebas, anu mis suraTs. droSi ekonomikuri cvlilebis sruli aRwera ki moiTxovs
analizis gadayvanas dinamikaSi, anu filmiseburi msvlelobis micemas.
aqedanve saWiroa erTmaneTisagan gavmijnoT ori cneba:
ekonomikuri zrda da ekonomikuri ganviTareba. meore
ufro farTo Sinaarsis cnebaa, vidre pirveli. ekonomikuri
ganviTareba, garda ekonomikuri zrdisa, Tavis TavSi moicavs
cxovrebis xarisxis amaRlebas, rac, Tavis mxriv, uaRresad rTuli da mravalmxrivi procesia.
garda amisa, raodenobrivi ekonomikuri zrda (produqciis moculobis mateba) da ekonomikuri progresi (ganviTareba) erTi da igive rodia. amerikeli ekonomisti
pol xeine ambobs: `ekonomikuri zrda mdgomareobs ara
nivTebis warmoebis gadidebaSi, aramed simdidris gadidebaSi`. amasTan, ekonomikur progress (ganviTarebas)
da simdidris gadidebas (zrdas) maSin aqvs adgili,
rodesac raodenobriv zrdas Tan sdevs xarisxobrivi
maCveneblebis gaumjobeseba: Sromis mwarmoeblurobisa
da produqciis xarisxis amaRleba, sazogadoebis keTildReobis gadideba.
ekonomikuri progresi (ganviTareba) aris sazogadoebis materialuri da socialuri mdgomareobis cvlilebaTa kombinacia, romelic qmnis simdidris gadidebis (zrdis) SesaZleblobas. konkretul CarCoSi zrda
saxes ucvlis sazogadoebis socialur-ekonomikur struqturas. zrdis am globalur dinamikaze dayrdnobiT,
409
frangma ekonomistma f.perum zrda gansazRvra `rogorc
martivi da rTuli ekonomikuri erTeulebis xangrZlivi
gadideba, romelic realizebulia struqturul da
garkveul SemTxvevaSi, sistemaTa cvlilebebSi, romelTac
Tan axlavs cvalebadi ekonomikuri progresi`. misi mtkicebiT, `araviTari zrda ar aris homoTetikuri: zrda
iqmneba struqturul cvlilebaSi da struqturuli
cvlilebebiT... ganviTareba erT mTlianSi aerTianebs da
xels uwyobs zrdas`.
tradiciulad, ekonomikur ganviTarebaSi mSp-is
aranakleb 3%-iani wliuri zrda igulisxmeboda. Tanamedrove pirobebSi es termini sxva cnebiT _ ekonomikuri
zrdiT Seicvala, xolo ekonomikurma ganviTarebam axali
Sinaarsi SeiZina: ekonomikuri zrdis safuZvelze mosaxleobis cxovrebis donis mudmivi amaRleba da ekonomikis
struqturuli gardaqmna.
ekonomikur zrdasa da ekonomikur ganviTarebas
Soris rTuli urTierTdamokidebuleba arsebobs. erTi
mxriv, ekonomikuri ganviTareba zrdis tempzea damokidebuli, meore mxriv, rc ufro maRalia mosaxleobis cxovrebis done da rac ufro srulyofilia ekonomikis
struqtura (ekonomikis calkeuli dargebisa da qvedargebis Tanafardoba), miT ufro metia ekonomikuri
zrdis sasurveli tempis SerCevis SesaZleblobac.
aqedan gamomdinare, mocemul TemaSi Tanmimdevrulad iqneba ganxiluli makroekonomikur cvlilebaTa
wamyvani faqtorebi _ ekonomikuri zrda da ekonomikuri
ganviTareba.
410
leqcia 22. ekonomikuri zrda:
arsi, ti pebi, gaangariSebis
meTodebi, daCqarebis faqtorebi
`ekonomikuri zrda moicavs
struqturul cvlilebebs, yovlismomcvel seqtorul mutacias,
romlebic iqmnebian TviTkmayofis
safuZvelze... ekonomikuri zrdis mizania socialuri harmoniis miRweva, sadac meurneobis
organizaciis ZiriTadi princi pia maqsimaluri ekonomiurobis
moTxovna~.
f.peru
ekonomikuri zrdis arsi. adamianTa moTx-
ovnilebani usazRvro da mudmivad zrdadia maSin, rodesac am moTxovnilebaTa dasakmayofileblad aucilebeli
resursebi SezRuduli da klebadia. Cvens planetaze
mcxovreb adamianTa ricxvi ki sistematurad matulobs.
kerZod, 1850 wels msoflio mosaxleobam 1 mlrd kacs
miaRwia, 80 wlis Semdeg es ricxvi gaormagda, 1975 wels
planetaze mcxovreb adamianTa ricxvma 4 mlrd-s (4079
mlrd) gadaaWarba, xolo XXI saukunes kacobrioba 6
mlrd kaciT Sexvda.
adamianTa usazRvro da zrdadi moTxovnilebebis
da SezRuduli da klebadi resursebis, agreTve, mosaxleobis sakmaod swrafi zrdis Sexameba kacobriobas
aiZulebs mudmivad gazardos saqonlisa da momsaxureb411
is warmoeba. am procesma samecniero literaturaSi miiRo ekonomikuri zrdis saxelwodeba, romelSic igulisxmeba wlidan wlamde, Taobidan Taobamde, xangrZlivi drois ganmavlobaSi qveynis warmoebrivi
SesaZleblobis myari gadideba.
ekonomikuri zrdis uzrunvelyofis ZiriTadi problema SeiZleba Semdegnairad Camoyalibdes: `ra gziTaa
SesaZlebeli mTliani warmoebis gadideba resursebis
sruli gamoyenebis pirobebSi?`
ekonomikur zrdas safuZvlad uZevs mTliani
warmoebis gadideba. sxva Tanabar pirobebSi, igi ganapirobebs mosaxleobis cxovrebis donis amaRlebas da
Semdgomi ekonomikuri zrdisaTvis aucilebeli kapitalis
dagrovebis uzrunvelyofas. zogierT SemTxvevaSi
ekonomikuri zrdis mastimulirebeli faqtoria ekonomikis militarizacia da msoflioSi an planetis ama
Tu im regionSi hegemoniis damyarebis survili. amis
sailustraciod gamodgeba faSisturi germaniis ekonomikisa da ssr kavSiris ekonomikis daCqarebuli zrda.
saboloo angariSiT, ekonomikuri zrdis mniSvneloba
SeiZleba formulirebuli iqnas Semdegnairad: zrdadi
ekonomika flobs axal moTxovnilebaTa dakmayofilebisa da socialur-ekonomikuri problemebis gadawyvetis
met SesaZleblobas. amdenad, ekonomikis aseTi mdgomareoba sasurveli da aucilebelia (ix. CanarTi 8.1).
ras gulisxmobs ekonomikuri zrda? aucilebelia
aRiniSnos, rom mTliani warmoebis gadideba an, ufro
sworad, produqtis raodenobrivi mateba yovelTvis ar
gulisxmobs erovnuli meurneobis ekonomikur zrdas.
magaliTad, saqarTveloSi Cais krefis mateba aucile412
CanarTi 8.1. sasurvelia Tu ara
ekonomikuri zrda?
ucnauri kiTxvaa, ara? marTlac, rogor SeiZleba saeWvod vaqcioT ekonomikuri zrdis, meti
saqonlisa da momsaxurebis warmoebis sasurveloba?
magram faqtia, rom ukanasknel xans aseTi
sakiTxi wamoiWra. aRmoCndnen moRvaweni, romlebic,
rbilad rom vTqvaT, aRfrTovanebulni ar arian
ekonomikuri zrdis perspeqtiviT. rogoria maTi
argumentebi?
ekonomikuri zrdis mowinaaRmdegeni Sewuxebulni arian garemos dabinZurebiT. erT-erTma
Tavisi mosazreba ukiduresi formiT Camoayaliba:
`ekonomikuri cxovrebis saboloo produqti nagavia`. erTi sityviT, rac meti produqcia iwarmoeba, miT metia nagavic. am Sexedulebis momxreni amtkiceben, rom sazogadoebaSi, romelmac keTildReobis maRal dones miaRwia, ekonomikuri zrda
emsaxureba sul ufro naklebi mniSvnelobis moTxovnilebaTa dakmayofilebas. amisaTvis ki ar Rirs
ekologiuri krizisis gamwvaveba da safrTxis
Seqmna mTeli civilizaciisaTvis.
ekonomikuri zrdis mowinaaRmdegeni amtkiceben, rom warmoebis gadideba TavisTavad ar
wyvets siRaribis problemas. maTi azriT, siRaribe (e.i. Semosavlebis uTanabroba) aris ganawilebis problema da ara warmoebis problema:
413
misi gadawyvetisaTvis saWiroa politikuri simamace da nebisyofa (e.i. samarTliani ganawilebis damkvidreba) da ara produqtis gamudmebuli
gadideba.
Semdeg amtkiceben, rom ekonomikuri zrda
iwvevs adamianur RirebulebaTa gaufasurebas.
ekonomikuri zrda adamianebs aZlevs cxovrebis
met saSualebebs, magram ar aZlevs `ukeTes cxovrebas`. adamiani mets awarmoebs, magram nakleb
sixaruls da bednierebas ganicdis. swrafi teqnikuri progresis Sedegad xelosnebi, mxatvrebi,
Semoqmedni gadaiqcnen manqanis danamatebad, romelTa saqmianoba amoiwureba Rilakze TiTis daWeriT, daikarga esTetikuri tkboba, rac muSaobas
ax lda.
ekonomikuri zrdis damcvelebi, piriqiT, Tvlian, rom igi sakacobrio mizania, cxovrebis donis
amaRlebis ZiriTadi pirobaa. rac Seexeba ekonomuri zrdis uaryofiT gavlenas garemoze, es
didi problemaa, magram arc misi gazviadebaa
marTebuli. ekologiuri krizisis Tavidan asacileblad saWiroa resursebis gonivruli gamoyeneba da ara warmoebis gayinva. imisaTvis, rom
SevzRudoT garemos dabinZureba, unda SevzRudoT swored dabinZureba da ara ekonomikuri
zrda. ostap benderis ar iyos, sisufTavis dacvisaTvis saWiroa ara mowodebebi, aramed cocxis
aReba da dagva.
ra SeiZleba iTqvas Semosavlebis ganawilebaze? ekonomikuri zrdis momxreTa azriT, real-
414
obas TvalebSi unda SevxedoT: saeWvoa, rom mdidrebi daTmoben TavianT qonebas Raribebis sasargeblod. garda amisa, simdidris Zalismieri meTodebiT gadanawileba asustebs ekonomikur stimulebs. siRaribis likvidaciis saimedo gza SeiZleba iyos mxolod saqonlisa da momsaxurebis
warmoebis gadideba. aqedan gamomdinare, ekonomikuri
zrda ara marto sasurveli, aramed aucilebelicaa.
blad ar niSnavs Cais ekonomikis zrdas, radgan uxvi
mosavali SeiZleba ufro metad iyos bunebis saCuqari
da ara adamianTa saqmianobis Sedegi. namdvil ekonomikur
zrdas maSin aqvs adgili, rodesac produqtis raodenobrivi zrda dakavSirebulia Sromis mwarmoeblurobis
amaRlebasTan.
zrdadi ekonomika xasiaTdeba wliuri produqtis
matebiT, romelic SeiZleba gamoyenebuli iqnas arsebul
moTxovnilebaTa ufro ukeT dakmayofilebisaTvis an axali
socialuri da ekonomikuri programebis sarealizaciod.
ekonomikuri zrda xels uwyobs siRaribisa da garemos
dabinZurebis sawinaaRmdego programebis realizacias ise,
rom Tavidan iqnas acilebuli arsebuli moxmarebis Semcireba.
amrigad, ekonomikuri zrda amsubuqebs usazRvro
moTxovnilebebisa da SezRuduli resursebis problemebis gadawyvetas.
zrdasa da ganviTarebas Soris peruseuli gansx415
vavebidan gamomdinare, ekonomikuri zrda aris:
 zogierTi ekonomikuri sididis aRmavali
svla (produqtis, Semosavlis... mateba), romelic xasiaTdeba uwyveti matebiT erTi an ramdenime periodis
ganmavlobaSi. igi aris grZelvadiani periodis fenomeni;
 farTod Seuqcevadi fenomeni. misi TviTSenaxvis
xasiaTi gamoisaxeba warmoebis pirobebis damatebiTi
modifikaciiT (wminda investiciis mateba, samuSao Zalis
kvalifikaciis amaRleba, teqnikuri progresi, moxmarebis
axali Cvevebis Camoyalibeba, mewarmeTa ganWvretis cvlileba...);
 struqturuli transformaciis procesi.
igi SeimCneva ara mxolod produqtisa da Semosavlis
martivi indikatorebiT, aramed seqtoruli mutaciiT
(cvlilebiT). zrda cvlis ekonomikis sxvadasxva seqtoris Tanafardobas.
ekonomikur zrdas Tan axlavs socialuri cvlilebebi (axali sakuTrebiTi urTierToba, axali teqnologia, warmoebuli dovlaTis zrda...), romelic, Tavis mxriv,
iZleva warmoebis xangrZlivi zrdis SesaZleblobas.
ekonomikuri zrdis stadiebi. ekonomi-
dafuZnebuli codna;
 gardamavali periodi (`aRmavlobis winapirobebis Seqmna`). zrdis am stadiaze Cndeba: optimizmi da
erovnuli Tavmowonebis SegrZneba; danazogis Seqmna, romelic iZleva finansuri saxsrebis centralizaciis SesaZleblobas; ekonomikaSi investirebis dawyeba; Sromis
mwarmoeblurobis zrda;
 aRmavloba. am stadiaze moxsnilia regularuli zrdis Semaferxebeli barierebi. kerZod, zrdaSi
erTveba sazogadoebrivi faseuloba da institutebi.*
investiciis norma erovnul SemosavalSi 10%-s aWarbebs. `zrdis Zravis` rolSi gamodis axali industria,
xolo agrokultura modernizebulia da aTavisuflebs
rogorc adamianebs, aseve kapitals;
 momwifebisaken mimavali faza. es stadia warmogvidgeba rogorc ganviTarebis grZelvadiani faza,
romelic axangrZlivebs aRmavlobis efeqtebs: ekonomikis
yvela seqtori met-naklebad CarTulia teqnikur progresSi, investiciis norma 20%-s aRemateba, zrda iqvemdebarebs yvela sazogadoebriv faseulobasa da instituts, viTardeba saerTaSoriso vaWroba;
 samomxmareblo sazogadoeba. am stadiaze (`ma-
kuri zrdis TeoriaSi mniSvnelovani wvlili Seitana
amerikelma mecnierma u.rostoum, romelmac kacobriobis
ganviTarebaSi ganasxvava zrdis xuTi stadia:
 tradiciuli sazogadoeba. am stadias axasiaTebs ekonomikaSi soflis meurneobis maRali wili,
fatalizmze dafuZnebuli faseulobaTa sistema, xelisuflebis saTaveSi miwaTmflobelebis yofna, warmoebis
ojaxuri organizaciis wamyvani roli, tradiciebze
* sazogadoebrivi institutebi (Institutions Social) _ oficialurad gaformebuli organizaciebi, romlebic marTaven sazogadoebriv cxovrebas. aseTi institutebis magaliTia ganaTlebis sistema, kerZo sakuTreba, samarTlebrivi sistema da
sxv.
416
417
sobrivi moxmarebis` epoqaSi) interesebi investiciidan
gadadis moxmarebaSi, warmoebuli produqti yvelasaTvis
xelmisawvdomia, Secvlilia samuSao Zalis Semadgenloba,
viTardeba da wamyvani xdeba momsaxurebis sfero, gazrdilia
ekonomikaSi saxelmwifos roli.
ekonomikuri zrdis ti pebi. ekonomikur
mecnierebaSi gamoiyofa zrdis sxvadasxva ti pebi. maT
Soris umTavresia:
faqtobrivi zrda. igi gulisxmobs erovnuli
warmoebis moculobis wliur procentul gadidebas,
faqtobrivi produqtis raodenobis zrdis siswrafes.
rodesac saubroben zrdis siswrafis Sesaxeb, yovelTvis
gulisxmoben faqtobriv zrdas.
potenciuri zrda. igi aRniSnavs erovnuli
warmoebis moculobis wliuri procentuli gadidebis
SesaZleblobas, e.i. produqtis potenciuri gamoSvebis
moculobis zrdis siswrafes. aseTi zrda miuTiTebs
erovnuli warmoebis moculobis maqsimaluri matebis
procentze yvela arsebuli warmoebis faqtoris sruli
gamoyenebis pirobebSi.
gawonasworebuli zrda. zrdis mocemuli ti pi
gulisxmobs klasikur makroekonomikur wonasworobaSi
(saxelmwifo biujetis wonasworoba, sagadasaxdelo balansis wonasworoba, resursebis sruli gamoyeneba...)
ekonomikis ganviTarebas.
nulovani zrda. XX saukunis 60-iani wlebis
dasawyisSi `romis klubis` mecnierTa (d.meadovi, a.pesei,
r.late) da J.foresties irgvliv Semokrebilma jgufma
(masaCusetsis teqnologiis instituti...) ganaviTara
418
nulovani zrdis koncefcia, romlis Tanaxmad, msoflio
warmoebis mudmivi wliuri mateba dasruldeba planetis ekologiuri katastrofiT. forestiem Tavisi mtkiceba daafuZna `msoflio modelis` proeqciaze, romelic
aerTianebs (2010 wlamde) xuT, evoluciurad cvalebad
serias: mosaxleoba, mwarmoebluri kapitali, agrokultura, ganuaxlebadi simdidre (navTobi da mineraluri
nedleuli) da polucia (garemos dabinZureba). am modelis mixedviT, bunebrivi resursebis zrdadi eqsploatacia gamoiwvevs investiciebis dacemas industriasa da
miwaTmoqmedebaSi. am ori seqtoris warmoeba 2015 wlisaTvis Semobrundeba dacemisaken, mosaxleobis Semcireba
ki daiwyeba 2030 wlidan. foresties mtkicebiT, mxolod gonivrul gadawyvetilebas ekonomikuri politikisa da demografiuli zrdis sakiTxebSi SeuZlia
planetas Tavidan aacilos katastrofuli dasasruli.
maCvenebliTi zrda. igi aRniSnavs zrdas mudmiv doneze; SerCeuli indikatori izrdeba multi plikatoruli wesiT. magaliTad, wylis gubeSi yoveli 24
saaTis ganmavlobaSi dumfaras (TeTri) zrdis gaormageba aris maCvenebliTi zrdis TvalsaCino gamovlineba.
eqstensiuri zrda. am SemTxvevaSi ekonomika
umTavresad viTardeba damatebiTi warmoebis faqtorebis xarjze. zrdis es ti pi umTavresad damaxasiaTebeli
iyo ekonomikis industriamdeli stadiisaTvis, rodesac
xeliT Sroma sWarbobda soflis meurneobaSi. am dros
warmoebis moculobis gadideba mimdinareobs warmoebis sami tradiciuli faqtoris (miwa, Sroma,
kapitali) gamoyenebis masStabebis gafarToebis
xarjze.
419
warmoebis moculobis pirdapiri damokidebuleba
misi tradiciuli faqtorebis gadidebisagan, rac damaxasiaTebelia eqstensiuri ekonomikuri zrdisaTvis,
grafikulad asaxulia 8.1 naxazze.
grafikidan Cans, rom garkveuli sididiT produqciis gamoSvebis matebis tempebis yovelwliuri gadideba
gamoxatavs warmoebis am moculobis pirdapirproporciul damokidebulebas yvela tradiciuli faqtoris
raodenobrivi gadidebis xarisxisagan.*
eqstensiur ekonomikur zrdas gaaCnia zogierTi
Rirseba. es aris sameurneo ganviTarebis tempebis amaRlebis ufro ioli gza. misi daxmarebiT mimdinareobs
bunebrivi resursebis swrafi aTviseba, agreTve SesaZlebeli xdeba umuSevrobis SedarebiT swrafi Semcireba an
likvidacia, samuSao Zalis sayovelTao dasaqmebis uzrunvelyofa.
ekonomikuri zrdis aseT gzas seriozuli naklo-
vanebebic gaaCnia. misTvis damaxasiaTebelia teqnikuri
uZraoba, romlis drosac produqciis gamoSvebis raodenobriv gadidebas Tan ar axlavs warmoebis faqtorebis
srulyofa da maTi gamoyenebis efeqtianobis zrda.
eqstensiuri ekonomikuri zrda gulisxmobs qveyanaSi sakmarisi raodenobis bunebrivi, SromiTi da kapitaluri resursebis arsebobas, romelTa xarjzec SeiZleba gaizardos ekonomikis masStabebi. magram, amasTan,
gardauvalad uaresdeba kvlavwarmoebis pirobebi, sul
140
ekonomikuri zrdis tempebi
130
N
120
L
* ekonomikaSi nobelis premiis laureatma robert soloum
(aSS) daadgina, rom eqstensiuri zrdis modeli gamoxatavs garkveuli sididiT (Z) produqciis gamoSvebis (Y) raodenobriv damokidebulebas (F) warmoebis faqtorebisagan: ZiriTadi kapitali
(K), Sroma (L) da bunebrivi resursebi (N):
110
K
100
ZY=F(ZK, ZL, ZN)
es formula migvaniSnebs Semdegze: Tu warmoebis faqtorebi
gaizrdeba Z sididiT, maSin warmoebis moculobac gaizrdeba Z
sididiT. aseTi damokidebuleba axasiaTebs produqciis gamoSvebis zrdas warmoebis faqtorebis gadidebis masStabis (Z) gafarToebisas.
420
0
1
2
3
4
drois periodi, weli
nax. 8.1. warmoebis faqtorTa gadidebis tempebi
eqstensiuri ekonomikuri zrdis dros
421
ufro Zveldeba ra moqmed sawarmoebSi arsebuli mowyobilobani. araaRdgenadi bunebrivi resursebis zrdadi
amowurvis gamo saWiro xdeba sul ufro meti Sromisa
da kapitalis xarjva TiToeuli tona nedleulisa da
saTbobis mosapoveblad. Sedegad, ekonomikuri zrda
atarebs upiratesad xarjviT xasiaTs .
produqciis gamoSvebis zrdis upiratesad eqstensiur gzaze xangrZlivi orientacia iwvevs erovnuli
meurneobis Cixis mdgomareobaSi Seyvanas. ase moxda yofil ssr kavSirSi XX saukunis 80-ian wlebSi, rodesac
SeuZlebeli gaxda ekonomikuri zrdis maRali tempebis
SenarCuneba, qveynis evropul nawilSi SromiTi rezervebis nakadis Semcirebisa da bunebrivi nedleulis maragebis amowurvis Sedegad.
cxadi gaxda, rom ekonomikuri zrdis axali SesaZleblobebi dakavSirebulia warmoebis intensifikaciasTan.
intensiuri zrda. am SemTxvevaSi ekonomikis
zrda miiRweva warmoebis faqtorTa Tvisebrivi srulyofis xarjze. Tu warmoebis eqstensiuri ganviTareba
sruliad gamoricxavs teqnikur progress, intensifikacia, piriqiT, efuZneba warmoebis yvela faqtoris efeqtianobis mudmiv zrdas.
warmoebis intesifikaciis upiratesoba gamoixateba imaSi, rom igi uzrunvelyofs ekonomikis progresul
ganviTarebas, ramdenadac mis zrdaSi gadamwyvet rols
asrulebs mecnierebisa da teqnikis uaxlesi miRwevebis
danergva. amasTan, warmoebis intensiuri gadidebis pirobebSi daiZleva ekonomikuri zrdis zRudeebi, rac warmoSobilia bunebrivi resursebis cnobili SezRudulo422
biT. sxvaTaSoris, intensifikacias Tan sdevs produqciis gamoSvebis gadideba.* saubaria warmoebis mecnierebatevadobis amaRlebisa da nakeTobaTa Tvisobrivad axali saxeebis damzadebis Sesaxeb. ekonomikuri zrdis
aseTi ti pi dakavSirebulia erovnuli meurneobis struqturis Rrma progresul gardaqmnasTan, iniciativiani
da maRalprofesiuli muSakTa kadrebis momzadebasTan.
amrigad, intensiuri ekonomikuri zrda aris
produqciis gamoS vebis gafarToeba teqnikuri
progresis miRwevebis gamoyenebisa da warmoebis
yvela faqtoris efeqtianobis amaRlebis meSveobiT.
intensifikacia yovelTvis warmoebis faqtorTa
teqnikur srulyofas efuZneba, rac iwvevs ukanasknelTa
dazogvas produqciis erTeulze. magram es ekonomia sxvadasxva saxes Rebulobs teqnikuri progresis sxvadasxva etapebze. amasTan dakavSirebiT, ganasxvaveben intensifikaciis ramdenime saxes ama Tu im resursisagan
damokidebulebiT (ix. nax. 8.2).
* amerikelma ekonomistma r.soloum maTematikurad aRwera
produqciis (Y) gamoSvebis intensiuri zrdis warmoebis faqtorebis (K, L, N) erToblivi mwarmoeblurobisagan (A) damokidebulebis modeli:
Y=A(K, L, N)
formulidan Cans: Tu warmoebaSi gamoyenebuli faqtorebis
sidide ar icvleba, xolo maTi erToblivi mwarmoebluroba (A)
diddeba 1%-iT, maSin warmoebis moculoba izrdeba aseve 1 %-iT.
423
intensifikaciis Sromadamzogi saxe gulisxmobs warmoebidan samuSao Zalis gamoTavisuflebas. am
SemTxvevaSi produqciis gamoSvebis zrdis daCqareba
uswrebs muSakTa ricxovnobis cvlilebis temps. aseTi
procesi farTo masStabiT mimdinareobda warmoebis industriul stadiaze, pirveli samrewvelo revoluciis
Sedegad.
intensifikaciis kapitaldamzogi saxe mdgomareobs imaSi, rom ufro srulyofili manqanebisa da
mowyobilobebis, nedleulisa da masalebis gamoyenebis
wyalobiT miiRweva kapitaluri da bunebrivi resursebis ekonomiuri xarjva. es cvlilebebi ZiriTadad gamovlinda mecnierul-teqnikuri revoluciis sawyis etapze,
rodesac farTod iqna aTvisebuli maRalmwarmoebluri
ekonomikuri zrdis intensifikacia

Srom ad am zogi
k a p ita ld a mzog i
yov e lm xri v i
muSakTa
warmoebis yvela
kapitaluri da
ri cxvi s
faqtoris
bu n ebri v i
Semci reba resursebis ekonomia
d a zog v a
nax. 8.2. intensiuri ekonomikuri zrdis saxeebi
424
avtomaturi mowyobiloba, agreTve polimerebis qimiis
miRwevebi da warmoebis sxva efeqturi nivTobrivi faqtorebi.
da bolos, yovelmxrivi intensifikacia ekonomikuri
zrdis iseTi mimarTulebaa, romlis drosac gamoiyeneba
resursdazogvis yvela aRniSnuli saxeoba. intensifikaciis
mocemuli saxe praqtikulad inergeba mecnierul-teqnikuri revoluciis Tanamedrove etapisa da maRali teqnologiebis pirobebSi _ warmoebis industriul da
gansakuTrebiT, postindustriul stadiaze.
ise ar unda warmovidginoT, TiTqos eqstensiuri
da intensiuri zrda xorcieldeba erTmaneTisagan izolirebulad. piriqiT, orives adgili aqvs erTsa da imave
dros. laparaki SeiZleba mxolod imis Sesaxeb, Tu romeli Warbobs, e.i. zrda xdeba upiratesad eqstensiuri
gziT Tu upiratesad intensiuri gziT.
Tanamedrove epoqisaTvis upiratesad damaxasiaTebelia ekonomikuri zrdis intensiuri ti pi,
romelic xasiaTdeba Semdegi ZiriTadi niSnebiT:
 icvleba ekonomikuri zrdis socialuri
orientacia: xdeba warmoebis Semobruneba adamianisaken,
misi cxovrebisa da Sromis pirobebis xarisxobrivi
gaumjobesebisaken. dgeba keTildReobis epoqa, roca adamianisaTvis mTavari problemaa ara fizikuri arsebobis
SenarCuneba, aramed civilizebuli adamianis Rirsebis
Sesaferisi cxovrebis uzrunvelyofa;
 arsebiTad Seicvala ekonomikuri zrdis faqtorTa Tanafardoba: vinaidan warmoebaSi damatebiTi
resursebis CarTvis SesaZlebloba SezRudula, eqstensiuri zrdis mniSvneloba da roli mcirdeba, erovnuli
425
meurneoba gadadis upiratesad intensiuri ganviTarebis
relsebze, gadamwyvet mniSvnelobas iZens gadatrialebani
warmoebis teqnikasa da teqnologiaSi, Tanamedrove mecnierul-teqnikuri revoluciis miRwevaTa danergva;
 ekonomikuri zrdis mTavar orientirad iqceva maRali saboloo Sedegebi. tradiciuli maCveneblebi
_ produqciis moculoba, zrdis procentebi da sxv. _
ukve sakmarisi araa ekonomikuri zrdis daxasiaTebisaTvis. pirvel planze gamodis produqciisa da momsaxurebis xarisxi, misi odenoba mosaxleobis erT sulze,
produqciis struqturis Sesabamisoba sazogadoebis
moTxovnilebebTan;
 mkveTrad izrdeba resursebis dazogvis mniSvneloba, igi iqceva ekonomikuri zrdis erT-erT mTavar
faqtorad. aqedan gamomdinare, gadaudebeli amocanebia:
resursebis racionaluri gamoyeneba, unarCeno warmoebaze gadasvla, xelovnuri da iafi masalebis Seqmna;
 ekonomikuri zrdis Tanamedrove ti pisaTvis
damaxasiaTebelia farTo masStabis cvlilebebi
ekonomikis struqturaSi: erovnuli meurneobis dargebsa da sferoebs Soris myardeba axali Tanafardobani.
jer erTi, iqmneba da daCqarebuli tempebiT viTardeba
jgufi dargebisa, romlebic uzrunvelyofen Tanamedrove
mecnierul-teqnikur progress (qimiuri mrewveloba, atomuri energetika, eleqtronika da radioteqnika, robotebis warmoeba, kosmosis aTviseba da sxv.); meore, icvleba
Tanafardoba mompovebel da gadamamuSavebel mrewvelobas Soris am ukanasknelis sasargeblod; saboloo produqtis warmoeba ufro swrafad izrdeba, vidre nedleulis mopoveba; mesame, swrafad viTardeba momsaxure dargebi
426
(infrastruqtura); meoTxe, icvleba Tanafardoba materialuri da aramaterialuri warmoebis sferoebs Soris
meoris sasargeblod; aramaterialuri sfero gacilebiT
ufro maRali tempebiT viTardeba, vidre materialuri
warmoeba.
ekonomikuri zrdis gazomva. ekonomikuri
zrdis gazomva xdeba ori urTierTdakavSirebuli maCveneblis gamoyenebiT: pirvelia drois garkveul monakveTSi realuri mSp-is gadideba, meore ki _ amave droSi
mosaxleobis erT sulze realuri mSp-is mateba.
pirveli maCvenebeli axasiaTebs mSp-is absolutur
sidides da saSualebas gvaZlevs erTmaneTs SevudaroT
warmoebis moculoba wlebis mixedviT, agreTve vimsjeloT
qveynis ekonomikuri da samxedro potencialis Sesaxeb.
meore maCvenebeli ufro srulad asaxavs sazogadoebis
keTildReobis dones da saSualebas gvaZlevs SevadaroT calkeul qveyanaSi Tu regionSi mosaxleobis cxovrebis done. magaliTad, indoeTis mSp-is absoluturi
moculoba bevrad aRemateba Sveicariis analogiur
maCvenebels, magram cxovrebis donis mixedviT (mosaxleobis erT sulze warmoebuli produqciis moculobiT)
indoeTi 60-jer CamorCeba Sveicarias.
ekonomikuri zrdis gaangariSebis meTodebi. or periods Soris warmoebis moculobis
cvlilebis Sejamebis dros gamoiyeneba ori ZiriTadi
meTodi: 1. lasferies indeqsi; 2. paaSis indeqsi. mokled
ganvixiloT TiToeuli maTgani.
lasferies indeqsi. simartivisaTvis warmov427
idgonoT, rom ekonomikaSi iwarmoeba mxolod sami saxis
dovlaTi: kalkulatori, puris bageti da metros bileTi (ix. cxrili 8.1).
or periods Soris (1980-1990 w.w.) zrdis indeqsi Seadgens 276-s ( 32350000 x 100), anu igi miuTiTebs
11700000
2,76-jer warmoebis moculobis gadidebis Sesaxeb. am
meTodis nakli is aris, rom igi ar iTvaliswinebs sxvadasxva faqtoris (teqnikuri progresi...) gavlenas fasis cvlilebaze. amis gamo iZleva zrdis gazviadebul
Sefasebas.
paaSis indeqsi. zrdis lasferies meTodis nakcxrili 8.1
zrdis gaangariSeba lasferies meTodis
mixedviT
kalkula- puris
bageti
tori
1980 wlis raodenoba
1980 wlis fasi
(lari)
2000
100
1980 wlis raodenobis
Sefaseba 1980 wlis
fasebSi (larebSi)
200000
1990 wlis raodenoba
200000
1980 wlis fasi
(lari)
100
1990 wlis raodenobis
Sefaseba 1980 wlis
fasebSi (larebSi)
20000000
428
metros
bileTi
su l
1000000 10000000
1.5
1.0
1500000 10000000 11700000
900000 11000000
1.5
1350000
1.0
11000000 32350000
lovanebis gamosworebas emsaxureba paaSis indeqsi, romelic
iZleva ekonomikuri zrdis tempis ufro realur suraTs (ix. cxrili 8.2)
mocemul indeqsSi ucvlel fasad aRebulia ara
pirveli periodis (1980 w.), aramed meore periodis
(1990 w.) fasi.
paaSis indeqsi Seadgens 119,3 ( 20300000 ? 100).
17020000
mocemuli magaliTi simbolurad gamoxatavs definiciis arsebiT mniSvnelobas.
lasferies indeqsSi zrda Zalze sagrZnobia. aq zrdis
done Seadgens 176%-s ( 276 - 100 ), maSin, roca paaSis
100
indeqsi afiqsirebs mokrZalebul zrdas _ 19,3%-s
cxrili 8.2
zrdis gaangariSeba paaSis meTodis mixedviT
kalkula- puris
bageti
tori
1980 wlis raodenoba
2000
1990 wlis fasi
(lari)
10
1980 wlis raodenobis
Sefaseba 1990 wlis
fasebSi (larebSi)
20000
1990 wlis raodenoba
200000
1990 wlis fasi
(lari)
10
1990 wlis raodenobis
Sefaseba 1990 wlis
fasebSi (larebSi)
2000000
metros
bileTi
su l
1000000 10000000
2.0
1.5
2000000 15000000 17020000
900000 11000000
2.0
1.5
1800000 16500000 20300000
429
( 119.3 - 100 ).
100
zogierTi mkvlevari ekonomikuri zrdis gaangariSebis dros iyenebs `fiSeris indeqss`, romelic wina ori
indeqsis saSualo geometriulia:
fiSeris indeqsi =
lasferies indeqsi x paaSis indeqsi
anu
fiSeris indeqsi =
276 ? 119.3 = 181.5
ekonomikuri zrdis tempi. ekonomikuri
zrdis ukeT Sefasebis mizniT iyeneben mSp-is (agreTve
sxva maCveneblebis) zrdis wliur tempebs . zrdis
tempi iangariSeba Semdegnairad: mimdinare wlis realur
mSp-s akleben gasuli (sabaziso) wlis realuri mSp-is
sidides, miRebul sxvaobas yofen gasuli wlis mSp-is
sidideze da amravleben 100-ze. Tu, magaliTad, qveynis
realuri mSp sabaziso wels iyo 6 mlrd lari, xolo
mimdinare wels gaxda 8 mlrd lari, misi zrdis tempi
iqneba 33,3% ( 8 - 6 ? 100 = 33.3% ).
6
aRsaniSnavia, rom mcireodenma gansxvavebam zrdis
saSualowliur tempebSi droTa ganmavlobaSi SeiZleba
mniSvnelovani gavlena moaxdinos mosaxleobis erT sulze
mSp-is donis cvlilebebze. e.w. `70 sididis wesis` Tanaxmad,
1%-iani zrdis tempis pirobebSi saWiroa 70 weli (70:1),
raTa mosaxleobis erT sulze mSp gaormagdes, magram Tu
zrdis saSualowliuri tempi 3%-s Seadgens, maSin su430
ladobrivi mSp-is gaormagebisaTvis sakmarisia 23,3 weli
(70:3).*
analogiurad, qveynebs Soris zrdis wliur tempebs Soris umniSvnelo gansxvavebam grZelvadian aspeqtSi SeiZleba miiRos gadamwyveti mniSvneloba. davuSvaT,
saqarTveloSi ekonomikuri zrdis wliuri tempi Seadgens 3,5%-s, xolo somxeTSi _ 2,5%-s. zemoT aRniSnuli
`wesis` Sesabamisad, saqarTveloSi mSp-is gaormagebas
dasWirdeba 20 weli (70:3,5), xolo somxeTSi _ 28
weli (70:2,5) (ix. CanarTi 8.2).
Tu mosaxleobis erT sulze mSp-is sidide mcirdeba, es imas niSnavs, rom mocemul qveyanaSi an adgili ar
aqvs warmoebis matebas, an mSp-is zrdis tempi CamorCeba
mosaxleobis zrdis temps. am princi pis safuZvelze
Sedgenilia 8.4 cxrili.
afrikaSi warmoebis zrdis tempi, romelic kvlav
CamorCeba mosaxleobis zrdis temps, iwvevs afrikis
mosaxleobis erT sulze mTliani Sida produqtis sididis Semcirebas. es tendencia gansakuTrebiT gamovlinda saharis samxreTiT ganlagebul afrikul saxelmwifoebSi. maSasadame, am regionSi ekonomikuri zrda faqtobrivad ar SeimCneva. isic unda aRiniSnos, rom 90-iani
wlebis ekonomikur zrdas praqtikulad araviTari gavlena ar mouxdenia am regionis ufro ganuviTarebeli
qveynebis (`Savi afrikis`) mdgomareobaze. es qveynebi
axlac gamoirCevian siRatakiT, cudi socialur-ekonomikuri pirobebiT, umuSevrobis maRali doniT, gaunaTleblobiT, sicocxlis naklebi xangrZlivobiT (saSualod
46,5 weli), sikvdilianobis maRali koeficientiT.
* Джеффри Д. Сакс, Феликс Ларрен Д., Макроэкономика.
Глобальный подход. - М., 1996, с. 596
431
CanarTi 8.2. `70 sididis wesi`-s praqtikuli dasabuTeba
qvemoT motanil 8.3 cxrilSi asaxulia monacemebi msoflios 13 qveynis erT sul mosaxleze realuri mSp-is cvlilebis Sesaxeb ukanaskneli 100 wlis ganmavlobaSi.
realuri mSp-is saSualosuladobrivi monacemebi mowmobs sxvadasxva saxelmwifos mosaxleobis cxovrebis doneSi SesamCnevi gansxvavebis
Sesaxeb. ase, magaliTad, aSS-Si es maCvenebeli
cxrili 8.3
msoflios sxvadasxva qveynis
ekonomikuri zrdis maCveneblebi
qveyana
iaponia
brazilia
meqsika
germania
kanada
CineTi
argentina
aSS
indonezia
indoeTi
inglisi
pakistani
bangladeSi
432
realuri mSp 1 sul
saS.wliuri
gansaxilveli mosaxleze aSS dol
zrdis
periodi periodis periodis
tempi, %
dasawyisSi
bolos
1890-2000
1900-2000
1900-2000
1870-2000
1870-2000
1900-2000
1900-2000
1870-2000
1900-2000
1900-2000
1870-2000
1900-2000
1900-2000
1196
619
922
1738
1890
570
1824
3188
708
537
3826
587
495
23400
6240
8120
21300
21860
3570
9950
28740
3450
1950
20520
1590
1050
2.82
2.41
2.27
1.99
1.95
1.91
1.76
1.75
1.65
1.34
1.33
1.03
0.78
daaxloebiT 8-jer maRalia, vidre CineTSi da TiTqmis 15-jer meti, vidre indoeTSi. uRaribes qveynebSi is imyofeba im doneze, romelic amerikis
mier miRweuli iyo mravali aTeuli wlis winaT.
2000 wels saSualo Ci nelis Semosavali iyo
iseTive, rogoric saSualo amerikelisa 1870 wels,
xolo saSualo pakistanelze 2000 wels modioda 100 wlis win mcxovrebi aSS-is moqalaqis
Semosavlis daaxloebiT naxevari.
cxrilis bolo svetSi motanilia sxvadasxva qveyanaSi erT sul mosaxleze realuri mSp-is
zrdis tempebis maCvenebeli. magaliTad, aSS-Si
realuri saSualosuladobrivi mSp 1870 wlis
3188 aSS dolaridan gaizarda 28740 aSS dolaramde 2000 wels. maSasadame, misi zrdis tempma
130 wlis ganmavlobaSi Seadgina 1,75% wliurad.
Cvens mier gansaxilvel cxrilSi qveynebi
dalagebulia maTi ekonomikuri zrdis tempebis
klebis mixedviT. masSi pirvel striqons ikavebs
iaponia, romelSic ekonomikuri zrdis tempma Seadgina 2,8% wliurad. 100 wlis winaT saSualo
iaponelis Semosavali CamorCeboda saSualo germanelis, argentinelis, kanadelis, amerikelisa da
inglisel is Semosavals. magram naxtom iseburi
ekonomikuri zrdis wyalobiT iaponia gadaiqca
msoflioSi erT-erT zesaxelmwifod da 2000 wlisaTvis TiTqmis gauTanabrda aSS-s mosaxleobis
erT sulze Semosavlebis mixedviT.
cxrilis bolo striqonze imyofeba bangladeSi, romlis ekonomikuri zrdac XX saukune-
433
Si iyo umniSvnelo (0,78%), mosaxleobis keTildReobis done ki darCa TiTqmis iseTive, rogoric
iyo 100 wlis winaT.
sxvadasxva qveynis ekonomikuri zrda xasiaTdeba uTanabrobiT _ iaponiam SeZlo mkveTrad
gaWriliyo win, xolo inglisma da argentinam,
piriqiT, dakarges yofili poziciebi. 1870 wels
didi britaneTi iyo msoflios umdidresi qveyana.
misi saSualosuladobrivi Semosavali iyo orjer meti, vidre kanadaSi da 20%-iT maRali,
vidre aSS-Si. axla ki yofili metropolia SesamCnevad CamorCeba missave or yofil kolonias.
XX saukunis dasawyisSi argentinas gaaCnda Semosavali erT sul mosaxleze gaangariSebiT TiTqmis samjer meti, vidre mezobel brazilias, dReisaTvis ki es maCvenebeli orive qveyanaSi TiTqmis Tanabaria.
motanili monacemebi TvalnaTliv gviCveneben,
rom yvelaze mdidari qveyanac ki ar aris garantirebuli Semdgomi ayvavebiT, ekonomikuri autsaiderebi ki ar arian ganwiruli mudmivi siRatakisaTvis.
8.3 cxrilze Sexedvisas SeiZleba warmoiSvas STabeWdileba, rom gansaxilveli qveynebis
ekonomikuri zrdis tempebSi gansxvaveba umniSvneloa. zrdis yvelaze maRali tempebi uaxlovdeba
3%-s, yvelaze dabali (bangladeSis gamoklebiT)
Seadgens daaxloebiT 1%-s. viTom 2%-Si gansxvavebas aqvs aseTi didi mniSvneloba?
aRmoCndeba, rom is metad arsebiTia. mdgra-
434
di ganviTarebis arcTu maRali maCveneblebic ki,
romlebic qaRaldze gamoiyureba Zalze mokrZalebulad, droTa ganmavlobaSi iwveven STambeWdav
Sedegebs, ramdenadac am SemTxvevaSi amuSavdeba
e.w. `geometriuli progresiis efeqti`.
ganvixiloT martivi situacia. davuSvaT, rom
kolejis ori kursdamTavrebuli _ giorgi da
vaxtangi 22 wlis asakSi pirvelad moewyvnen samuSaoze erTnairi xelfasiT (30000 lari weliwadSi). axla warmovidginoT, rom giorgis da vaxtangis Semo savlebi izrdeba Sesab amisad 1 da
3%-iani siswrafiT weliwadSi. 40 wlis Semdeg,
e.i. 62 wlis asakSi giorgi weliwadSi miiRebs
45000 lars, vaxtangi ki 98000 lars. erTi SexedviT, araarsebiTi 2%-iani sxvaobis wyalobiT, erTi
saswavleblis kursdamTavrebulTa Semosavlebi 2jer da metad gansxvavdeba erTmaneTisagan.
zrdis siswrafisa da geometriuli progresiis
efeqtis ufro ukeTesad gasagebad ganvixiloT
Zveli wesi, romelic cnobilia `70 sididis wesis` saxelwodebiT. am wesis Tanaxmad, Tu romeliRac cvladi izrdeba weliwadSi X% siswrafiT,
maSin misi sidide gaormagdeba 70/X wlis Semdeg.
kerZod, Cvens magaliTSi giorgis Semosavali unda
gaormagdes 70(70/1) wlis Semdeg, xolo vaxtangis Semosavali 23,3 (70/3) wlis Semdeg.
es wesi gamoyenebadia ara mxolod Semosavlebis, aramed agreTve danazogebis gansazRvrisaTvis. 1791 wels benJamin franklinma Tavis anderZSi Semdgomi 200 wlisaTvis samedicino saswavle-
435
belTa studentebis sti pendiebze da samecniero
kvlevebis Catarebaze gamosayeneblad gamoyo 5000
dolari. Tu es fuli wliurad moitanda 7%-s
(rac savsebiT realuria), naanderZevi Tanxa gaormagdeboda yovel 10 weliwadSi da 200 wlis
Semdeg miaRwevda fantastikur mniSvnelobas _ 5
mlrd-s (sinamdvileSi man Seadgina 2 mln dolari, ramdenadac saxsrebis nawili gaxarjuli iqna
meanderZis nebis Sesabamisad, magram arc esaa
co ta ).
Cveni magaliTebi TvalnaTliv gviCvenebs, Tu
raoden saocar Sedegebamde mivyavarT zrdis umniSvnelo procentsac ki. SesaZloa, swored amitom uwoda erTxel albert einSteinma geometriul progresias `yvela drois udidesi maTematikuri aRmoCena`.
cxrili 8.4
afrikaSi warmoebisa da mosaxleobis zrdis
saSualowliuri tempebi 1970-2000 wlebSi*
wlebi
zrdis saSualowliuri tempi (%)
gadaxra
warmoebis (mSp)
mosaxleobis
1970-1980
3.6
2.73
+ 0.87
1980-1990
2.4
2.82
_ 0.42
1990-2000
2.3
2.46
_ 0.16
* egvi ptisa da libiis gamoklebiT.
436
ekonomikuri zrdis daCqarebis faqtorebi. yoveli qveynis ekonomikuri zrda ganisazRvre-
ba miwodebis, moTxovnisa da ganawilebis faqtorebiT.
miwodebis faqtorebi (bunebrivi resursebis raodenoba da xarisxi; Sromis raodenoba da xarisxi; ZiriTadi kapitalis moculoba da xarisxi; teqnologiis done)
ekonomikur zrdas fizikurad SesaZleblad aqceven (ix.
CanarTi 8.3).
erTimeorisagan unda ganvasxvaoT ekonomikuri zrdis SesaZlebloba da realuri ekonomikuri zrda. pirveli
yovelTvis ar gulisxmobs meores, SesaZlebloba jer
kidev ar niSnavs sinamdviles. rogorc cnobilia,
ekonomikuri triadis pirveli problema _ `ra vawarmooT?` dakavSirebulia resursis iSviaTobasa da SezRudulobasTan. magram mxolod resursi ar wyvets am
problemas. aranakleb mniSvnelovania SezRuduli resursis
bazarze warmoebul produqciaze moTxovnis arseboba.
es garemoeba ki imaze miuTiTebs, rom ekonomikuri zrda
mravalmxriv damokidebulia moTxovnis faqtorebze
(cvlileba samomxmareblo danaxarjSi, cvlileba investiciur danaxarjSi, cvlileba saxelmwifo danaxarjSi).
ekonomikur zrdaze aseve gavlenas axdens ganawilebis faqtorebi. saqme is aris, rom warmoebrivi
potencialis racionaluri gamoyeneba uzrunvelyofili
unda iyos ekonomikaSi resursebis ara mxolod sruli
gamoyenebiT, aramed am resursebis iseTi ganawilebiT, sadac
TiToeuli resursi maqsimalur wvlils Seitans warmoebis gadidebaSi.
ekonomikur zrdaze moqmedi faqtorebi urTierdakavSirebulia. magaliTad, umuSevrobis zrda kapital437
CanarTi 8.3. SesaZlebelia Tu ara
ekonomikuri zrda?
zogierTi analitikosi miiCnevs, rom bunebrivi resursebis SezRuduloba gadaulaxav bariers qmnis Semdgomi ekonomikuri zrdisaTvis. erTi
SexedviT, aseTi mtkiceba sakmaod damajereblad
gamoiyureba. marTlac, Tu Cveni planeta flobs
araaRdgenadi resursebis SezRudul maragebs, maSin
rogor SeiZleba vivaraudoT mosaxleobis, warmoebisa da cxovrebis donis Semdgomi zrda? gana
bolos da bolos ar amoiwureba navTobisa da
sxva sasargeblo wiaRiseulis sabadoebi? da es,
Tavis mxriv, ar gamoiwvevs ekonomikuri zrdis
Sewyvetas da cxovrebis donis dacemas?
msgavsi argumentebis garegnuli damajereblobis miuxedavad, ekonomistTa umravlesobas Cveni
civilizaciis ganviTarebis perspeqtivebi ase uimedod ar warmoudgenia. maTi azriT, teqnologiuri
progresi SesaZleblobas iZleva gadalaxuli iqnas resursuli SezRuduloba. ukanasknel wlebSi xom Tanamedrove mecnierebam da teqnikam arc
Tu ise mcire wvlili Seitana bunebrivi resursebis
ufro ekonomikur xarjvaSi. Tanamedrove avtomobilebi moixmaren nakleb benzins, axal saxlebs
aqvT saukeTeso Tboizolacaia da nakleb energias Txouloben gaTbobisaTvis. sawvavis alternatiuli saxeebis, magaliTad, eTilis spirtis danergva nacvlad benzinisa, saSualebas mogvcems
SevamciroT navTobis moxmareba da gavzardoT
saTbobis aRdgenadi wyaroebis gamoyeneba.
438
ormocdaTi wlis ukan zogierTma mecnierma
SeSfoTeba gamoTqva kalisa da spilenZis metismeti gamoyenebis Taobaze: maSin es liTonebi farod
gamoiyeneboda konservis qilebisa da satelefono sadenebis dasamzadeblad. maT Soris iyvnen
iseTebic, vinc gamovida am liTonebis mopovebis
moculobis SezRudvisa da kalisa da spilenZis
Semcvleli nakeTobebis savaldebulo Sekreba-utilizaciis momxred. magram dReisaTvis kvebis mrewvelobaSi sul ufro farTod gamoiyeneba plastmasis tara, xolo Cveulebrivi satelefono sadenebi icvleba optikuri boWkovani kavSiriT, romelTa sawarmoeblad gamoiyeneba Cveulebrivi qviSa.
ase rom, teqnikuri progresi SesaZleblobas iZleva
gadaiWras bunebrivi resursebis ukmarisobis mwvave
problemebi.
magram sakmarisi iqneba Tu ara aseTi Zalisxmeva ekonomikuri zrdisaTvis aucilebeli pirobebis mxardasaWerad? bazris pirobebSi xom deficiti gardauvalad aisaxeba fasebze, rac niSnavs,
rom bunebrivi resursebis Semcireba gardauvlad
gamoiwvevs nedleulis Rirebulis zrdas. magram
es argumenti ugulvebeliyofa praqtikiT, ramdenadac fasebi umravles bunebriv resursebze
(inflaciis gaTvaliswinebiT) darCeba stabiluri an Semcirdeba. es imas niSnavs, rom Cveni
SesaZleblobebi maTi dazogvis mimarTulebiT izrdeba ufro swrafad, vidre iwureba nedleulis
bunebrivi maragebi. ase rom, mimdinare sabazro
situacia ar iZleva ekonomikuri zrdis Taobaze
SeSfoTebis safuZvels.
439
is dagrovebis zrdis tempis Senelebas da gamokvlevebze danaxarjebis zrdis Semcirebas iwvevs. Tavis mxriv,
kapitalis dagroveba da teqnikuri progresi umuSevrobis mizezi SeiZleba gaxdes. amasTan, TiToeuli faqtori
ganicdis cvlilebas, asrulebs ekonomikur zrdaze zemoqmedebis gansxvavebul funqcias da sxvadasxva maCveneblebiT izomeba.
ekonomikuri zrdis faqtorebs Soris mTavaria
miwodebis faqtorebi. kerZod, ekonomikur zrdas gansazRvravs erToblivi miwodebis iseTi faqtorebi, rogoricaa: 1. fasebis cvlileba resursebze; 2. cvlileba Sromis mwarmoeblurobaSi; 3. samarTlebrivi normebis cvlileba.
saboloo angariSiT, SeiZleba iTqvas, rom realuri
mSp-is gadideba xorcieldeba ori gziT: pirvelia warmoebaSi ufro meti resursebis CarTva (eqstensiuri zrda);
meore ki _ resursebis ufro mwarmoebluri gamoyeneba
(intensiuri zrda).
yvela SemTxvevaSi, realuri mSp-is sidide ganisazRvreba SromiTi danaxarjebisa (kac-saaTebSi)
da Sromis mwarmoeblurobis (erT dasaqmebulze
realuri saaTobrivi gamomuSaveba) namravliT . sqematurad igi naCvenebia 8.3. naxazze.
es sqema asaxavs im faqts, rom realuri mSp SegviZlia warmovidginoT rogorc namuSevari saaTebis jamisa da saSualo saaTobrivi gamomuSavebis
namravli .
davuSvaT, rom hi poTezur ekonomikaSi dasaqmebulia 10 kaci, romelTagan TiToeuli wlis ganmavlobaSi
gamoimuSavebs 2000 saaTs (50 kvira ? 40 saaTze). am440
1. dasaqmebulTa
raodenoba
2. namuSevari saaTebis
saSualo ricxvi
SromiTi
danaxarjebi
= (namuSevari
saaTebis
jami)
1. fizikuri kapitali
(Sromis
fondaRWurviloba)
2. adamianuri
kapitali (samuSao
Zalis ganaTleba da
Sromis
profesionalizmi)
mwarmoeb3. bunebrivi
= luroba
resursebis moculoba
(saSualo
da xarisxi
saaTobrivi
4. teqnologiuri
gamomuSaveba)
codna (teqnikuri
progresi)
5. resursebis
ganawilebis da
gamoyenebis efeqtianoba
6. sxva faqtorebi
 warmoebis
realuri
moculoba
(mSp)

nax. 8.3. SromiTi
danaxarjebisa da Sromis
mwarmoeblurobis sqematuri gamosaxuleba
rigad namuSevari saaTebis jami iqneba 20000 saaTi (2000
X 10). Tu saSualo saaTobrivi gamomuSaveba Seadgens 3
lars, maSin warmoebis realuri moculoba, anu mSp iqneba
60000 lari (20000 X 3).
sqemidan Cans, rom SromiT danaxarjebs gan441
sazRvravs dasaqmebulTa raodenoba da namuSevari saaTebis saSualo ricxvi (samuSao kviris xangrZlivoba).
dasaqmebulTa raodenoba, Tavis mxriv, damokidebulia
Sromisunariani mosaxleobis ricxvze da warmoebaSi maTi
Cabmis sisruleze. samuSao kviris xangrZlivoba regulirdeba kanonmdeblobiT da koleqtiuri xelSekrulebebiT.
rac Seexeba Sromis mwarmoeblurobas , igi ganicdis iseTi faqtorebis zemoqmedebas, rogoricaa fizikuri kapitali (Sromis fondaRWurviloba), adamianiseuli kapitali (samuSao Zalis ganaTleba, profesionalizmi), bunebrivi resursebis moculoba da xarisxi,
teqnologiuri codna (teqnikuri progresi), resursebis ganawilebis da gamoyenebis efeqtianoba da sxv.
Sromis mwarmoebluroba da ekonomikuri zrda. mdidari da Raribi qveynebis ekonomikuri
zrdis doneebSi arsebuli mniSvnelovani gansxvavebis
(romelic 8.3 cxrilSi iyo warmodgenili) axsna, erTi
mxriv, sakmaod martivad warmogvidgeba da, rogorc SemdgomSi davinaxavT, SeiZleba dayvanil iqnas Sromis mwarmoeblurobis martiv maCvenebelze. meore mxriv, Sromis mwarmoeblurobis ganmsazRvreli faqtorebis detaluri da
yovelmxrivi gamokvlevis gareSe aseTi axsna ar SeiZleba
damakmayofileblad CaiTvalos.
Sromis mwarmoeblurobis maCveneblis
mniSvneloba ekonomikuri zrdisaTvis. Cven
Sromis mwarmoeblurobis maCvenebels ukve SevexeT (Tema
4) misi arsisa da gazomvis poziciidan. axla ki igi
442
ganxiluli iqneba misi faqtorebisa da ekonomikur zrdasTan kavSiris TvalsazrisiT.
modiT, Sromis mwarmoeblurobisa da ekonomikuri
zrdis problemis Seswavla daviwyoT daniel defos
cnobili romanis `robinzon kruzo`-s mTavari gmiris
cxovrebidan motanili martivi magaliTis daxmarebiT.
rogorc gaxsovT, robinzon kruzo iyo mezRvauri, romelic
upatronod mitovebuli aRmoCnda dausaxlebel kunZulze. is cxovrobda srul simartoveSi da iZulebuli
iyo TviTon daeWira Tevzi, moeyvana bostneuli da daemzadebina saojaxo aveji. robinzonis SromiTi saqmianoba
ekonomikis umartivesi modelis magaliTia, Tumca, misi
analizi ufro rTuli da srulyofili modelebisaTvis
samarTliani daskvnebis gakeTebis SesaZleblobas iZleva.
maS ase, robinzonis cxovrebis dones gansazRvravda misi sakuTari Sroma. rac ufro met Tevzs iWerda,
bostneuli moyavda da yoveldRiuri moxmarebis nivTebs
amzadebda, igi miT ufro kargad cxovrobda. ramdenadac
kruzo moixmarda mxolod imas, rasac TviTon awarmoebda, misi cxovrebis done mTlianad iyo damokidebuli
misi Sromis Sedegebze.
Sromis mwarmoebluroba asaxavs muSakis mier samuSao drois erT saaTSi warmoebuli saqonlisa da gaweuli momsaxurebis raodenobas. robinzonis magaliTi
gviCvenebs, rom Sromis mwarmoebluroba cxovrebis donis ganmsazRvreli faqtoria; Sesabamisad, pirveli maCveneblis gadideba ganapirobebs meoris amaRlebas. rac ufro
met Tevzs daiWerda kruzo erT saaTSi, miT ufro maZRrisi (yuaTiani) iqneboda misi sadili. rac ufro ukeTesad SearCevda igi adgils TevzaobisaTvis, miT maRali
443
iqneboda misi mwarmoebluroba. Sromis mwarmoeblurobis zrda ki robinzons SesaZleblobas aZlevda an mierTva bevri Tevzi an naklebi dro daexarja sakvebis
mopovebaze da dakavebuliyo sxva saqmeebiT.
cxovrebis donis gansazRvraSi Sromis mwarmoeblurobis fundamenturi rolis Sesaxeb mtkiceba samarTliania rogorc dausaxlebel kunZulze migdebuli
mezRvauris, aseve nebismieri didi da mcire saxelmwifosaTvis. gaixseneT, rom mSp erTdroulad zomavs or
maCvenebels: yvela saqonlisa da momsaxurebis mwarmoebelTa Semosavlebis saerTo jamsa da am saqonlisa da
momsaxurebis SeZenaze momxmarebelTa danaxarjebis saerTo
jams, da orive mniSvneloba unda iyos Tanabari. sxva
sityvebiT, nebismieri qveynis ekonomikaSi Semosavlebis
saerTo jami unda uTanabrdebodes danaxarjebis saerTo
jams.
rogorc daniel defos gmiris situaciaSi, saxelmwifos cxovrebis donec ganisazRvreba masSi warmoebuli saqonlisa da momsaxurebis raodenobiT. aSS-is moqalaqeni cxovroben nigerielebze ukeT imitom, rom amerikeli muSebis Sromis mwarmoebluroba ufro maRalia.
iaponiaSi cxovrebis donis zrdis tempebi maRalia, vidre argentinaSi imitom, rom iaponeli muSebis Sromis
mwarmoebluroba izrdeba argentinelebisaze swrafad.
maSasadame, sxvadasxva qveynebSi cxovrebis doneTa
gansxvavebulobis mizezebisa da maTi cvlilebebis procesebis gasagebad aucilebelia yuradRebis koncentrireba saqonlisa da momsaxurebis warmoebis sakiTxebze.
magram cxovrebis donesa da Sromis mwarmoeblurobas
Soris kavSiris dadgeniT Cven mxolod pirveli nabiji
gavakeTeT. axla Cven unda vi povoT pasuxi kiTxvaze, Tu
444
qveyanaTa erT nawilSi ratomaa saqonlisa da momsaxurebis warmoeba ufro efeqtiani, vidre qveyanaTa meore
nawilSi.
Sromis mwarmoeblurobis ganmsazRvreli faqtorebi. robinzon kruzos Sromis mwar-
moeblurobis done (rac umniSvnelovanes rols TamaSobs misi cxovrebis standartebis gansazRvraSi) ganisazRvra mravali faqtoriT.
Tu saubari midioda Tevzis daWeris Sesaxeb, misi
warmateba didad iyo damokidebuli ankesebis raodenobasa da xarisxze, ankesiT Tevzaobis Cvevebze, sanapiro
wylebSi TevziT uxviani adgilebis SerCevaze. TiToeul
am faqtorTagans, romlebic ekonomistebis mier ganisazRvreba rogorc fizikuri kapitali, adamianiseuli
kapitali, teqnologiuri codna da bunebrivi resursebi*, analogebi aqvs nebismieri saxelmwifos realur
ekonomikaSi.
fizikur kapitalSi, an ubralod kapitalSi gagebulia mowyobilobebi, Senobebi da nagebobebi, romlebic
gamoiyeneba saqonlisa da momsaxurebis sawarmoeblad.
magaliTad, avejis warmoebisas gamoiyeneba xerxebi, saxarato Carxebi da saxraxnisi wnexebi. rac ufro farTea
instrumentebis nakrebi, miT swrafad da xarisxianad
sruldeba samuSao. muSa, romelic mxolod martiv instrumentebs iyenebs, erTi da imave droSi amzadebs ufro
* Менкью Н.Г., Принципы макроэкономики, 2-е изд.- СПБ.:
Питер, 2003, с. 273.
445
nakleb avejs, vidre Tanamedrove xisdamamuSavebeli mowyobilobebis gamomyenebeli muSaki.
Cven warmoebis faqtorebi ukve ganvsazRvreT (Tema
1 da 4) rogorc saqonlisa da momsaxurebis warmoebisaTvis gamoyenebuli resursebi (Sroma, kapitali da a.
S.). kapitalis umniSvnelovanesi niSani is aris, rom is
TviTon warmoadgens warmoebis produqts. ase magaliTad, avejis mwarmoebeli muSa magidis fexebs amzadebs
saxarato Carxze, romelic gamoSvebuli iqna xisdamamuSavebeli mowyobilobebis gamomSveb sawarmoSi. es sawarmo,
Tavis mxriv, Carxebis Sesaqmnelad iyenebs sxva manqanebsa
da meqanizmebs. sxva sityvebiT, kapitali warmoebis faqtoria, romelic gamoiyeneba saqonlisa da momsaxurebis
(axali kapitaluri saqonlis CaTvliT) sawarmoeblad.
adamianiseul kapitalSi ekonomistebi gulisxmoben muSakebis mier swavlebisa da SromiTi saqmianobis
procesSi SeZenil codnasa da SromiT Cvevebs. adamianiseu-li kapitalis dagroveba mimdinareobs rogorc
skolamdel asakSi, ise skolaSi, kolejSi, universitetSi,
gadamzadebisa da kvalifikaciis amaRlebis kursebze.
miuxedavad imisa, rom codna da SromiTi Cvevebi ar
miekuTvneba materialurad xelSesaxeb sagnebs (rogoricaa Carxebi, buldozerebi an Senobebi), adamianiseul kaapitals mainc bevri msgavsi niSnebi gaaCnia fizikur kapitalTan mimarTebaSi. erTic da meorec adidebs sazogadoebis mier axali saqonlisa da momsaxurebis warmoebis SesaZleblobebs, erTic da meorec TviTon warmoadgens sawarmoo procesebis Sedegs. ase magaliTad, adamianiseuli kapitalis Sesaqmnelad aucilebelia maswavlebeli, biblioTeka, treiningi da dro swavlebisaTvis.
446
zogjer studentebs ganixilaven rogorc erTgvar muSebs,
romlebic dakavebulni arian adamianiseuli kapitalis
matebiT, romelic gamoyenebuli iqneba momavalSi.
bunebrivi resursebi Sromis mwarmoeblurobis
mesame umniSvnelovanesi ganmsazRvreli faqtoria. maT
miekuTvneba: miwa, wyali, nedleulisa da sasargeblo wiaRiseulis maragebi, romlebic warmoadgenen mravali sawarmoo
procesis amosaval elements.
gansxvaveba bunebrivi resursebis maragebis moculobebSi zegavlenas axdens mravali qveynis mosaxleobis cxovrebis donis maCveneblebze. magaliTad, aSS-is
pirveli ekonomikuri miRwevebi nawilobriv dakavSirebuli iyo sasoflo-sameurneo gamoyenebisaTvis vargisi
Tavisufali miwebis siuxvesTan. amJamad axloaRmosavleTis zogierTi qveyana (quveiTi, saudis arabeTi) aRmoCnda umdidres saxelmwifoTa rigebSi mxolod imitom, rom floben navTobis didZal dazveril maragebs.
Tumca, bunebrivi resursebis maragebi ekonomikuri
ayvavebis erT-erTi umniSvnelovanesi faqtoria, maTi arseboba amis gamo sruliadac ar iTvleba maRalefeqtiani
warmoebis Seqmnis savaldebulo pirobad. magaliTad,
iaponia gadaiqca msoflios erT-erT umdidres qveynad,
Tumca flobs bunebrivi resursebis sakmaod umniSvnelo
maragebs. misi ekonomikuri `aRmafrena` didad gaxda
SesaZlebeli warmoebis maRali kulturisa da sagareo
vaWrobaSi mopovebuli warmatebebis wyalobiT. iaponias
importiT Semoaqvs sasargeblo wiaRiseulis mravali
saxeoba, upiratesad xe-tye da navTobi da gaaqvs qveynis
nedleuliT gacilebiT ufro uzrunyofili mza produqcia.
447
Sromis mwarmoeblurobis meoTxe ganmsazRvreli
faqtoria teqnologiuri codna, anu sazogadoebis mier
saqonlisa da momsaxurebis warmoebis saukeTeso xerxebis gageba.
jer kidev 100 wlis winaT amerikelebis umravlesoba muSaobda fermebSi, ramdenadac maSin cnobili sasoflo-sameurneo teqnologiebi sursaTiT mosaxleobis
uzrunvelyofisaTvis Sromis did danaxarjebs moiTxovda. amJamad, mecnierebisa da mrewvelobis warmatebaTa
wyalobiT, aSS-is Sromisunariani mosaxleobis umniSvnelo nawili sursaTiT uzrunvelyofs mTel qveyanas. ase
rom, axali sasoflo-sameurneo teqnologiebis ganviTarebam
Sroma gaxada ufro efeqtiani da SesaZleblad aqcia
saqonlisa da momsaxurebis warmoebis gadideba.
teqnologiuri codna arsebobs sxvadasxva formaSi. zogierTi maTgani sakmaod martivia da gamoyenebis
Semdeg isini swrafad pouloben farTo gavrcelebas.
magaliTad, rodesac henri fordma pirvelad ganaxorciela konvenieris idea avtomobilis awyobisaTvis, misi
siaxle myisierad iqna atacebuli msxvili mwarmoeblebis mier. sxva teqnologiebi patentdeba da warmoadgens
maTi dammuSavebeli kompaniebis sakuTrebas, rogorc aris
`laRiZis wylebis` an `koka-kolas` SemTxvevaSi, rodesac sawarmoebi saidumlod inaxaven cnobili sasmelis
damzadebis receptebs. zogierT SemTxvevaSi patentis
moqmedebis vada SezRudulia. ase magaliTad, Tu aSS-Si
farmacevtuli firma SeimuSavebes axal preparats, maSin
sapatento samarTlis Sesaxeb qveynis kanonis mixedviT
igi SesaZleblobas Rebulobs garkveuli drois ganmavlobaSi iyos misi monopoliuri mwarmoebeli. rodesac
448
patentis moqmedebis vada amoiwureba, preparatis warmoebis uflebas ukve Rebulobs yvela msurveli firma.
teqnologiuri codnis sxvadasxva formebs sagangebod
didi mniSvneloba aqvT ekonomikisaTvis.
CvenTvis azri aqvs zRvaris gavlebas teqnologiur
codnasa da adamianiseuli kapitals Soris, ramdenadac
am cnebaTa siaxlovis miuxedavad, maT gaaCniaT arsebiTi
ganmasxvavebeli niSnebi. teqnologiur codnas miekuTvneba sazogadoebis warmodgena sawarmoo procesebis Sesaxeb.
adamianiseuli kapitali ganisazRvreba am warmodgenebis
SromiT CvevebSi gadazrdaze Zalebis danaxarjebiT.
xatovnad rom vTqvaT, teqnologiuri codna gansazRvravs
saxelmZRvanelos xarisxs, romliTac swavlobs sazogadoeba, xolo adamianiseul kapitali izomeba mis wakiTxvaze daxarjuli droiT. Sromis mwarmoebluroba damokidebulia rogorc saxelmZRvanelos xarisxze, aseve misi
Seswavlisadmi miZRvnil droze.
warmoebis faqtorTa danaxarjebsa da gamoSvebuli
produqciis moculobas Soris kavSiris aRwerisaTvis
ekonomikaSi gamoiyeneba warmoebiTi funqciis cneba .
Tu gamoSvebuli produqciis moculobas aRvniSnavT YiT, Sromis raodenobas _ L-iT, fizikuri kapitalis moculobas _ K-iT, adamianiseuli kapitalis moculobas _
H-iT, da bunebrivi resursebis moculobas _ N-iT, warmoebiTi funqcia gamoisaxeba Semdegnairad:
Y=AF(L, K, H, N),
sadac F() aris warmoebis fatorTa danaxarjebis
mniSvnelobebisagan gamoSvebuli produqciis moculo449
bis damokidebulebis ganmsazRvreli funqcia, xolo A _
sawarmoo teqnologiebis efeqtianobisagan damokidebuli cvladi.
mraval warmoebiT funqcias gaaCnia masStabisagan
mudmivi ukugebis Tviseba. Tu warmoebiTi funqcia flobs
am Tvisebas, maSin erTi da imave sididiT warmoebis
yvela faqtoris erTdrouli cvlilebisas isic imave
sididiT icvleba.
maTematikurad es imas niSnavs, rom X-is nebismieri
dadebiTi ricxvisaTvis
xY=AF(xL, xK, xH, xN).
magaliTad, rodesac X=2, e.i. warmoebis yvela faqtori gaormagebulia, produqciis gamoSvebis moculobac aseve orjer izrdeba.
masStabisagan mudmivi ukugebis Tvisebis mqone warmoebiTi funqciis meSveobiT SeiZleba miviRoT erTi saintereso Sedegi. davuSvaT, rom X=1/L, maSin toloba miiRebs Semdeg saxes:
resursebis (N/L) raodenobis da teqnologiis ganviTarebis (A) donisagan, e.i. im oTxi ZiriTadi faqtorisagan, romelTac Cven zemoT gavecaniT.
msoflio ekonomikuri zrdis tendenciebi mokled
SeiZleba ganzogaddes Semdeg debulebaSi: mTeli XX saukunis ganmavlobaSi warmoebis realuri moculoba (mSp)
metad Tu naklebad mudmivi tempebiT izrdeboda. mateba
ramdenadme aRemateboda Sromis, kapitalisa da resursdabandebis zrdis saSualo maCveneblebs, rac aixsneba
mecnierul-teqnikuri aRmoCenebis warmoebaSi danergviT.
marTalia, SeuZlebelia absoluturi sizustiT dadgindes, didxans iqneba Tu ara SenarCunebuli ekonomikis
Tanamedrove mdgomareoba, magram erTis aRniSvna mainc
SeiZleba: logikis mixedviT, ar arsebobs safuZveli vamtkicoT, rom mimdinare XXI aswleuli didad iqneba gansxvavebuli winasagan.
Y
K H N
= AF (1 ,
,
,
).
L
L L L
miaqcieT yuradReba imas, romYY/L asaxavs produqciis raodenobas erT muSakze, e.i. warmoadgens Sromis
mwarmoeblurobis maCvenebels.
amdenad, Cveni toloba gamoxatavs Sromis mwarmoeblurobis damokidebulebas erT muSakze fizikuri da
adamianiseuli kapitalis (K/L, H/L) sididis, bunebrivi
450
451
leqcia 23. ekonomikuri zrda da
mis uzrunvelyofaze mimarTuli
samTavrobo politika
`saxelmwifo cdilobs ekonomikuri zrdis maRali siswrafis miRwevas drois grZelvadiani periodis ganmavlobaSi.
sxva sityvebiT, saxelmwifo cdilobs stabiluri zrdis miRwevas vardnebisa da moklevadiani
aRmavlobebis Tavidan acilebiT.
Tumca, mas zogjer (gansakuTrebiT arCevnebis win) awyobs bumi
ekonomikaSi~.
j.solou
Cven wina leqciaze davadgineT, rom qveynis ekonomikuri zrdis siswrafe da sazogadoebis cxovrebis
done ganisazRvreba saxelmwifos unariT awarmoos saqoneli da momsaxureba, mwarmoebluroba ki damokidebulia
fizikuri da adamianiseuli kapitalis, bunebrivi resursebisa da teqnologiuri codnis arsebobaze. axla mivmarTavT sakiTxs, romliTac dakavebulia mTeli msoflios
politikosTa goneba: rogor zemoqmedebs saxelmwifos
politika Sromis mwarmoeblurobasa da, Sesabamisad,
ekonomikur zrdasa da mosaxleobis cxovrebis doneze?
sicxadisaTvis gamovyofT da cal-calke ganvixilavT
ramdenime ZiriTad sakiTxs:
452
danazogebisa da investiciebis mniSvneloba. ramdenadac kapitali miekuTvneba warmoebis
kvlavwarmoebad faqtors, misi sidide didad ganisazRvreba
sazogadoebis mier. Tu ekonomika dRes awarmoebs kapitalis formaSi gamosayenebel bevr axal saqonels, misi
potenciali izrdeba da xval is mosaxleobas uzrunvelyofs saqonlisa da momsaxurebis ufro mravalferovani arCevaniT. amrigad, Sromis mwarmoeblurobis amaRlebis erT-erTi gzaa investiciebis gadideba sawarmoo
sferoSi.
kapitalis dagrovebis sakiTxSi gansakuTrebul
mniSvnelobas iZens arCevanis problema. sinamdvileSi, Cveni resursebis SezRudulobis pirobebSi investiciebis
nebismieri gadideba kapitalis (manqanebis, Senobebis, mowyobilobebis) kvlavwarmoebaSi iwvevs mimdinare moxmarebisaTvis gamosayenebeli saqonlisa da momsaxurebis gamoSvebaze mimarTuli resursebis Semcirebas. sxva sityvebiT, ekonomikis ganviTarebaze meti resursebis misamarTad sazogadoebas uwevs mimdinare moxmarebaze gamosayenebeli resursebis SezRudva da kapitalis dagrovebis gadideba. ekonomikuri zrda miiRweva maRal fasad
da sazogadoebisagan moiTxovs materialur msxverpls
momavali ayvavebis saxiT.
erT-erT momdevno TemaSi Cven dawvrilebiT gavecnobiT sakiTxs imis Sesaxeb, Tu finansuri berketebiT
saxelmwifo rogor axerxebs danazogebisa da investiciebis moculobaTa koordinirebasa da regulirebas. magram ukve axla Cven SegviZlia SevniSnoT, rom danazogebisa da investiciebis waxalisebis saxelmwifo
politika ekonomikuri zrdis da, Sesabamisad, mo453
saxleobis cxovrebis donis amaRlebis daCqarebis erT-erTi gzaa.
mivmarToT 8.4 naxazs. (a) diagrama Seicavs monacemebs msoflios 15 saxelmwifos ekonomikuri zrdis
tempebis Sesaxeb 1960-2000 wlebSi. saxelmwifoebi gan-
(a) mosaxleobis erT sulze
mSp-is zrdis tempebis
maCveneblebi (1960-2000 w.w.)
(b) investiciebis
zrdis tempebi
(1960-2000 w.w.), %
samxreT korea
singapuri
iaponia
israeli
kanada
brazilia
dasavleT germania
meqsika
didi britaneTi
nigeria
aSS
indoeTi
bangladeSi
Cile
lagebuli arian gansaxilveli maCveneblis klebis rigiT. (b) diagramaze naCvenebia mSp-is wili (procentebSi),
romelic imave qveynebis mier imave wlebSi mimarTulia
investiciebze. motanili monacemebis analizi miuTiTebs
sakmaod mtkice kavSirze investiciebis moculobebsa da
ekonomikuri zrdis tempebs Soris. rac ufro met saSualebebs mimarTavs qveyana warmoebis ganviTarebaze (iaponia,
singapuri), miT maRalia misi ekonomikuri zrdis maCvenebeli. saxelmwifoebs, romelnic mSp-is nakleb wils mimarTaven investiciebSi (ruanda, bangladeSi), Sesabamisad
gaaCniaT zrdis dabali maCveneblebi. Cveni daskvna ufro
farTo gamokvlevebiTac mtkicdeba.
magram miRebuli Sedegebi uSveben sxva msjelobasac. rogorc cnobilia, or cvlads Soris kavSiris
arsebobidan SeuZlebelia erTmniSvnelovani daskvnis gakTeba imis Sesaxeb, rom erT-erTi maTganis cvlileba warmoadgens meoris cvlilebis mizezs da ara Sedegs. amitom savsebiT koreqtuli iqneba imis daSveba, rom investiciebis gadidebis ZiriTadi faqtoria ekonomikuri zrda
(an orive es procesi ganpirobebulia romeliRac mesame
faqtoris cvlilebebiT). magram ramdenadac kapitalis
dagroveba aSkarad da uSualod zemoqmedebs Sromis
mwarmoeblurobis zrdaze, ekonomistTa umravlesoba Tvlis,
rom ekonomikuri zrdis ZiriTadi pirobaa investiciebis gadideba.
ruanda
0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7
zrdis maCveneblebi
(%)
0 10 20 30 40
investiciebi
(mSp-dan %-Si)
nax. 8.4. ekonomikuri zrda da investiciebi
454
klebadi Semosavlianoba da `swrafi
startis` efeqti. davuSvaT, rom romeliRac sax-
elmwifos mTavrobam, zemoT aRniSnuli daskvnebis gavleniT, gadawyvita gaedidebina dazogvis norma, e.i. dana455
zogebze mimarTuli mSp-is wili. raSi gamoixateba aseTi
politikis Sedegi? cxadia, rom danazogebis zrdis
pirobebSi mimdinareobs samomxmareblo saqonlis warmoebaze mimarTuli resursebis SezRudva da diddeba
kapitaluri saqonlis gamoSvebaze mimarTuli resursebis wili. Sedegad, kapitalis gadideba gamoiwvevs Sromis
mwarmoeblurobisa da mSp-is zrdis tempebis amaRlebas.
magram aq ismis kiTxvebi: ramdenad did xans SenarCundeba
es tendencia? iZleva Tu ara dazogvis axali, ufro
maRali norma imis SesaZleblobas, rom SenarCunebuli
iqnas mSp-is zrdis miRweuli maCveneblebi? Tu droTa
ganmavlobaSi mSp-is zrdis miRweuli maCveneblebi TandaTanobiT Semcirdeba?
warmoebis procesze tradiciuli Sexedulebis
Tanaxmad, kapitalis erT-erTi ZiriTadi maxasiaTebelia
misi klebadi Semosavlianoba. es imas niSnavs, rom
kapitalis Tanabari damatebiTi dabandebebi iwvevs produqciis gamoSvebis klebad matebas. sxva sityvebiT, Tu erT
muSakze modis kapitalis mniSvnelovani raodenoba, romelic SesaZlebels xdis produqciis raRaca moculobis
warmoebas, mis Semdgom matebas mosdevs Sromis Sedegebis SefardebiTi Semcireba. klebadi Semosavlianobis Sedegad dazogvis normis gadideba Tavdapirvelad iwvevs
daCqarebul ekonomikur zrdas. im dros, rodesac dazogvis axali, ufro maRali norma xels uwyobs akumulirebuli kapitalis gadidebas, misi zrdiT motanili
sargebeli xdeba sul ufro umniSvnelo, warmoebis zrdis tempebi ki mcirdeba. grZelvadian periodSi dazogvis ufro maRali norma iwvevs Sromis mwarmoeblurobisa da Semosavlis ufro maRal do456
neebs, magram sruliadac ara am cvladebis daCqarebul zrdas. magram msgavsi mdgomareobis miRweva
swrafad ar xdeba. kerZod, msoflio ekonomikis ganviTarebis Sesaxeb monacemebis Tanaxmad, dazogvis normis
gadidebas ekonomikuri zrdis tempebis arsebiTi mateba
mohyveba ramdenime aTwleulis ganmavlobaSi.
kapitalis klebadi Semosavlianobis fenomenis analizi SesaZleblobas gvaZlevs gavakeToT kidev erTi
mniSvnelovani daskvna: sxva Tanabar pirobebSi, dabali ganviTarebis donis mqone qveyanas gaaCnia ufro
swrafi ekonomikuri zrdis winamZRvrebi.
Semdgomi zrdis tempebze sawyisi pirobebis gavlenis aseTi Sedegi iwodeba `swrafi startis` efeqtad .
Rarib qveynebSi muSakebs xSirad ar gaaCniaT yvelaze
martivi instrumentebic ki, amitom Sromis mwarmoebluroba
Zalian dabal doneze imyofeba. Sedegad ki, misi sagrZnobi zrda SesaZloa miRweuli iqnas yvelaze umniSvnelo
investirebis drosac. ganviTarebul qveynebSi ki warmoebis teqnikuri SeiaraReba Zalian maRalia. amis Sedegad,
erT muSakze kapitalis mniSvnelovani matebac ki Sromis
mwarmoeblurobis sakmaod mokrZalebul zrdas iwvevs.
sxvadasxva qveynebis ekonomikuri zrdis maCveneblebis
analizi amtkicebs `swrafi startis` efeqtis arsebobas: sxva maCveneblebis, kerZod, investiciebze mimarTuli mSp-is wilis Tanasworobis pirobebSi, Raribi qveynebi zrdis ufro maRal tempebs aRweven, vidre mdidrebi.
`swrafi startis` efeqti SesaZleblobas gvaZlevs
avxsnaT 8.4 naxazze motanili zogierTi gansacvifrebeli cifri. ase magaliTad, 40 wlis ganmavlobaSi aSS-ma
457
da samxreT koream investiciebze mimarTes mSp-is TiTqmis erTi da igive wili, magram mosaxleobis erT sulze
mSp-is zrdam aSS-Si Seadgina saSualod daaxloebiT 1,8%
maSin, rodesac samxreT koreaSi am maCvenebelma 7%-s
miaRwia.
mocemul fenomens Cven vxsniT `swrafi startis`
efeqtiT. 1960 wels samxreT koreas hqonda mosaxleobis erT sulze mSp-is maCveneblis TiTqmis 10-jer naklebi mniSvneloba, vidre aSS-s, rac nawilobriv xsnida
investiciebis dabal donesac. sawyisi kapitalis didi
mniSvnelobis Sedegad misma akumulaciam SesaZlebeli
gaxada sasurveli Sedegebis swrafad miRweva, ramac ganapiroba kidec mSp-is matebis maRali maCvenebeli am qveyanaSi.
`swrafi startis` efeqti sxvadasxva aspeqtiT gamovlindeba Cvens cxovrebaSi. magaliTad, moswavlem, romelmac
sagrZnob progress miaRwia swavlaSi, rogorc Cans, saswavlo weli daiwyo erTob saSualo niSnebiT. muyaiTad
swavlas miCveuli moswavle, piriqiT, Znelad Tu miaRwevs
ufro maRali niSnebis miRebas, magram samagierod misi
codna iqneba ufro sruli da mtkice. analogiurad,
samxreTkoreuli ekonomika ganviTarda ufro maRali
tempebiT, vidre amerikuli, magram aSS-Si iyo da rCeba
kidec mosaxleobis erT sulze mSp-is maRali maCvenebeli.
ucxouri investiciebi. aqamde Cven vix-
ilavdiT sakiTxs imis Sesaxeb, Tu dazogvis normis gadidebaze mimarTulma ekonomikurma politikam rogor
SeiZleba gamoiwvios investiciebis moculobis gadideba
458
da, amdenad, grZelvadiani ekonomikuri zrda. magram kapitalis gamravleba mimdinareobs ara mxolod Sida
resursebis xarjze. misi meore wyaro SeiZleba iyos
ucxouri investiciebi.
arsebobs ucxour kapitaldabandebaTa sxvadasxva
formebi. ase magaliTad, saavtomobilo korporacia Fordma SesaZloa axali sawarmoebi gaxsnas meqsikaSi. ucxouri firmebis sakuTrebaSi da mmarTvelobis qveS myofi kapitaldabandebebi iwodebian pirdapir ucxour
investiciebad. sxva SemTxvevaSi aSS-is moqalaqes ufleba
aqvs SeiZinos meqsikuri kompaniis aqciebi (e.i. gaxdes
misi Tanamflobeli), kompaniam ki aqciebis gayidvidan
miRebuli saSualebebiT ganaviTaros axali warmoeba. ucxouri wyaroebidan miRebuli kapitaldabandebebi, romlebic imyofebian samamulo mwarmoebelTa mmarTvelobis
qveS, iwodebian portfelur investiciebad. orive magaliTSi saerToa is, rom dabandeba meqsikur ekonomikaSi warmoebs amerikuli resursebis xarjze. sxva sityvebiT, amerikelTa Siga danazogebi gamoiyeneba meqsikuri
ekonomikis dasafinanseblad.
rodesac ucxoelebi saSualebebs abandeben sxva
qveynis ekonomikaSi, isini varaudoben, rom investiciebi
maT moutans mogebas. kompania Ford-is saavtomobilo
sawarmo xels uwyobs meqsikis gankargulebaSi arsebuli kapitalis da, maSasadame, qveyanaSi Sromis mwarmoeblurobisa da mSp-is donis gadidebas, magram miRebuli
Semosavlebis nawils korporacia abrunebs aSS-Si. swored
aseve, meqsikuri kompaniis aqciebis SemZeni amerikeli investoric Rebulobs misi mogebis nawilis miRebis uflebas.
459
maSasadame, ucxouri investiciebi sxvadasxva
zegavlenas axdens mSp-sa da mep-ze . gavixsenoT, rom
mSp aris yvela Semosavlebis jami, romlebic miRebulia
qveynis teritoriaze rogorc misi moqalaqeebis, aseve
ucxoelebis mier; mep ki moicavs saxelmwifos moqalaqeTa
yvela Semosavlebs, maTi miRebis adgilis miuxedavad.
amitom Ford-is sawarmo meqsikaSi, romlis Semosavlebis
nawili repatrirdeba aSS-Si, ufro metad adidebs meqsikis
mSp-s da ara mep-s.
ucxouri investiciebi erovnuli ekonomikis zrdis erT-erTi wyaroa. miuxedavad imisa, rom ucxouri
kapitaliT Seqmnil sawarmoTa mogebis nawili gadis
sazRvargareT, dafinansebis sazRvargareTuli wyaroebi xels uwyoben qveynis sawarmoo potencialis
gadidebas, Sromis mwarmoeblurobisa da, Sesabamisad, ekonomikuri zrdis tempebis amaRlebas. garda amisa, ucxouri investiciebi SesaZleblobas aZlevs
ganuviTarebel qveynebs aiTvison mrewvelurad ganviTarebul qveynebSi SemuSavebuli da gamoyenebuli yvelaze
mowinave teqnologiebi. am mizeziT ganuviTarebeli qveynebis mTavrobaTa mravali ekonomikuri mrCeveli aqtiurad uWers mxars ucxouri investiciebis mozidvis
politikas.
ganuviTarebeli qveynebis ekonomikur zrdaze mimarTuli mravali sainvesticio proeqti xorcieldeba
msoflio bankis egidiT. es saerTaSoriso organizacia
mrewvelurad ganviTarebuli saxelmwifoebisagan miRebul saSualebebs iyenebs sustadganviTarebuli qveynebisaTvis kreditebis misacemad (gzebisa da wyalkanalis
sistemebis, skolebisa da sxva sasicocxlod mniSvnelo460
vani obieqtebis mSenebloba). amasTan, banki maT uwevs
sakonsultacio momsaxurebas nasesxeb saSualebaTa
saukeTesod gamoyenebis sferoSi. msoflio banki da misi
monaTesave organizacia _ saerTaSoriso savaluto fondi Seqmnil iqna meore msoflio omis Semdeg, romlis
erT-erTi gakveTili mdgomareobda imaSi, rom arcTu iSviaTad swored ekonomikuri gasaWiri iwvevs Sigapolitikur arastabilurobas, saerTaSoriso daZabulobis
zrdas da SeiaraRebul konfliqtebs. amitom msoflio
bankisa da saerTaSoriso savaluto fondis saqmianoba
mimarTulia msoflios yvela qveynis ekonomikur ayvavebaze.
ganaTlebasa da profesionalizms, romelic arsebiTad warmoadgens investicias adamianiseul kapitalSi, mdgradi
ekonomikuri zrdis miRwevisaTvis aqvs aranaklebi mniSvneloba, vidre axal fulad dabandebebs fizikur kapitalSi. statistikis monacemebiT, aSS-Si individis mier
axali codnis misaRebad gamoyenebuli yoveli weli niSnavs, rom misi xelfasi gaizrdeba 10%-iT. naklebad
ganviTarebul saxelmwifoebSi, sadac adamianiseuli kapitalis deficiti gansakuTrebiT mwvaved igrZnoba, gansxvaveba maRalkvalificiuri profesionalebisa da dabali kvalifikaciis muSakTa xelfasSi kidev ufro arsebiTia. amrigad, ekonomikur zrdasa da mosaxleobis cxovrebis donis amaRlebaze mimarTuli saxelmwifos Siga
politikis erT-erTi mimarTulebaa skolebisa da sxva
saswavlo dawesebulebaTa sistemis ganviTareba da ganaTlebis miRebisadmi mosaxleobis miswrafebis waxaganaTleba da profesionalizmi.
461
liseba.
investiciebi adamianiseul kapitalSi, fizikur kapitalSi dabandebada msgavsad, dakavSirebulia alternatiul danaxarjebTan. magaliTad, ufrosklaselebi, eswrebian ra saskolo mecadineobebs, faqtobrivad uars
amboben im xelfasisagan, romlis miRebac maT SeeZloT
samuSao adgilebze. sustadganviTarebul qveynebSi, ganaTlebis miRebis aSkara sargeblianobis miuxedavad, bavSvebi arcTu iSviaTad iZulebulni arian ukve adreul
asakSi miatovon skola da eZion samuSao, raTa materialuri daxmareba aRmouCinon TavianT ojaxebs.
zogierTi mecnieri amtkicebs, rom adamianiseuli
kapitali gansakuTrebiT mniSvnelovania ekonomikuri
aRmavlobisaTvis, ramdenadac mas Tan axlavs dadebiTi
gare efeqtebi. es ukanaskneli aris individis moqmedebis arapirdapiri Sedegi, riTac igi gavlenas axdens irgvliv myofTa keTildReobaze. magaliTad, SeiZleba maRalkvalificiurma specialistma wamoayenos axali ideebi
saqonlisa da momsaxurebis warmoebis srulyofis mimarTulebiT. rodesac es ideebi sayovelTao monapovrad
iqceva, maTi gamoyenebis SesaZlebloba eZleva ganaTlebis
dadebiTi gare zemoqmedebis sferoSi yovel moxvedrils.
sakmaod xSirad naklebganviTarebuli qveynebi awydebian e.w. `tvinebis gadinebas` _ yvelaze kvalificiuri
specialistebis emigracias maRali cxovrebis donis mqone
qveyanaSi. Tu adamianiseuli kapitali namdvilad flobs
gare efeqtebs, `tvinebis gadineba` gamoiwvevs im qveynis
mdgomareobis Semdgom gauaresebas, romelsac stoveben
yvelaze kvalificiuri specialistebi. es problema warmoSobs sakmaod mraval sirTules politikosebisaTvis.
462
erTi mxriv, aSS flobs umaRlesi ganaTlebis saukeTeso
sistemas, amitom dainteresebuli qveynis mTavrobas SeuZlia amerikaSi saswavleblad gaagzavnos saukeTeso studentebi. meore mxriv, ar arsebobs araviTari garantia
imisa, rom ramdenime wliT ucxoeTSi ganaTlebamiRebuli
axalgazrda specialisti ar moisurvebs iq samuSaod
darCenas, rac Seamcirebs misi mSobliuri qveynis isedac
dabal adamianiseul kapitals.
sakuTrebis ufleba da politikuri
stabiluroba. ekonomikuri zrdis xelSemwyobi
saxelmwifos Siga politikis kidev erTi mimarTulebaa
sakuTrebis uflebis dacva da politikuri stabilurobis ganmtkiceba. rogorc viciT, bazris pirobebSi
saqoneli warmoadgens milionobiT muSakisa da mravalricxovani firmis rTul urTierTqmedebaTa Sedegs. sxvadasxva muSakebisa da firmebis specializacia produqciis garkveuli saxeebis gamoSvebaze SesaZleblobas
iZleva miRweul iqnas warmoebis faqtorTa maqsimalurad efeqtiani gamoyeneba. maRali ekonomikuri maCveneblis misaRwevad aucilebelia rogorc calkeul firmebs,
aseve mwarmoeblebsa da momxmareblebs Soris urTierTobaTa regulirebis meqanizmis Seqmna. sabazro ekonomikaSi aseTi regulatoris saxiT gvevlineba sabazro fasebi,
romlebic uzrunvelyofen balanss warmoebasa da moxmarebas Soris.
sabazro ekonomikis normaluri funqcionirebis
umniSvnelovanesi wanamZRvaria sakuTrebis uflebis
pativiscema da dacva. sakuTrebis uflebaSi igulisxmeba
adamianTa SesaZlebloba Tavisuflad gankargavdnen maT
463
mflobelobaSi arsebul resursebs. amitom sabazro
ekonomikaSi did rols asrulebs sakuTrebis uflebis
damcavi kanonebi. sisxlis samarTali gvicavs Cven Cvens
qonebaze pirdapiri Zaladobisagan, samoqalaqo samarTali ki aregulirebs urTierTobebs gamyidvelsa da myidvels Soris.
maRalganviTarebuli qveynebis mcxovrebni srulad
sargebloben sakuTrebis yvela uflebiT, magram arsebobs bevri saxelmwifo, sadac sakuTrebis uflebis damcavi kanonebis ar arseboba warmoadgens seriozul problemas. mraval qveyanaSi cudadaa organizebuli samarTalwarmoebis sistema, xSirad gvxvdeba kontraqtebis
pirobaTa daucvelobisa da dausjeli TaRliTobis SemTxvevebi. cnobilia magaliTebi, rodesac mTavroba ara mxolod ar icavs sakuTrebis uflebas, aramed, piriqiT,
urcxvad arRvevs maT. zogierT qveyanaSi biznesis warmatebiT gaZRolisaTvis aucilebelia qrTamis micema maRali Tanamdebobis samTavrobo CinovnikebisaTvis. korufcia xels uSlis sabazro meqanizmebis normalur
funqcionirebas, Siga danazogebis stimulirebasa da ucxouri investiciebis mozidvas.
sakuTrebis uflebis dacvas safrTxes uqmnis Sigapolitikuri arastabilurobac, gansakuTrebiT iq, sadac
revoluciebi da saxelmwifo gadatrialebani Cveulebriv
movlenad iqceva. Tu axali revoluciuri mTavroba advilad axdens kerZo kompaniaTa sakuTrebis eqspropriacias, rogorc es araerTgzis momxdara komunisturi gadatrialebisas, mosaxleoba kargavs dazogvis, investiciebis,
sakuTari saqmis dawyebis stimulebs. amitom revoluciuri Zvrebis safrTxec ki xels uSlis ekonomikur zr464
das da mosaxleobis cxovrebis donis amaRlebas.
amrigad, ekonomikuri zrda zogjer damokidebulia
saxelmwifoSi damkvidrebul Sigapolitikur situaciaze.
qveynebs, efeqtiani sasamarTlo sistemiT, arakorumpirebuli mTavrobiT da mtkice konstituciuri wesrigiT,
yovelTvis eqnebaT ekonomikuri zrdisa da mosaxleobis
cxovrebis ufro maRali done, vidre saxelmwofoebs,
romlebSic ar icaven kanonebs, Cinovnikebi iReben qrTams
da arsebobs putCebisa Tu revoluciebis mudmivi safrTxe.
Tavisufali vaWroba. zogierTi uRaribe-
si qveyana Seecada ufro swrafi ekonomikuri zrdis
miRwevas daxuruli karis politikis meSveobiT. aseTi
politikis mizania mosaxleobis cxovrebis donis amaRleba danarCen msofliosTan saqmiani kontaqtebis
imavdrouli Semcirebis pirobebSi im motiviT, rom Siga
mwarmoeblebi xSirad saWiroeben ucxouri saqonlis
konkurenciisagan dacvis RonisZiebebs. msgavsi argumentebi, gamoxatavs ra erovnul mwarmoebelTa sisustes, ucxoelebisadmi undoblobis zogadi ganwyobiT xSirad aiZulebs ekonomikurad CamorCenil saxelmwifoTa
mTavrobebs Seqmnan maRali sabaJo barierebi da SemoiRon
sagareo vaWrobis SezRudvis sxva zomebi.
magram dReisaTvis ekonomistTa umravlesoba erTsulovania imaSi, rom ufro efeqtiania Ria karis politika, romelic orientirebulia sustadganviTarebuli
saxelmwifoebis integraciaze msoflio meurneobaSi. marTlac, saerTaSoriso vaWroba xels uwyobs qveynis
ekonomikur zrdasa da, Sesabamisad, mosaxleobis cxovre465
bis donis amaRlebas, ramdenadac vaWroba, garkveuli gagebiT,
gansakuTrebuli teqnologiuri procesia. kerZod, xorblis eqsportiori da foladis importiori qveyana faqtobrivad iZens erTi saqonlis meoreSi gardaqmnis axal
teqnologias. amitom saxelmwifo, saerTaSoriso vaWrobaze
SezRudvebis moxsniT, iqmnis ekonomikuri zrdis iseTsave wanamRZvrebs, rogorsac warmoebis axali teqnologiebis danergvisas.
daxuruli karis politikis uaryofiTi Sedegebi
gansakuTrebiT aSkaraa, Tu mxedvelobaSi miviRebT sustadganviTarebuli qveynebis ekonomikis mcire zomebs.
ase magaliTad, argentinis mSp daaxloebiT uTanabrdeba
filadelfiis analogiur maCvenebels. warmoidgineT situacia, rodesac qalaqis xelisufleba ukrZalavs mis mcxovrebT ivaWron aSS-is danarCen mosaxleobasTan. vaWrobisagan miRebuli sargeblianobis gamoyenebis aRkveTili
SesaZlebloba filadelfias iZulebuls gaxdida ewarmoebina ara mxolod samomxmareblo, aramed kapitaluri
saqonelic. qalaqis mosaxleobis cxovrebis done umal
daecemoda da ganagrZobda Semcirebas. swored aseTi
suraTi SeiniSneba argentinaSi, romelic XX saukunis
didi nawilis ganmavlobaSi atarebda daxuruli karis
politikas. meore mxriv, iseTma qveynebma, rogoricaa
samxreT korea, singapuri da taivani, Tavisufal vaWrobaze orientirebiT miaRwies ekonomikuri zrdis maRal
maCveneblebs. sagareo vaWrobis moculoba SesaZloa damokidebuli iyos ara mxolod saxelmwifos politikaze,
aramed agreTve mis geografiul mdebareobazec. kerZod,
zRvaze gasasvlelis mqone qveynebi TavianT vaWrobas ufro
aqtiurad anviTareben, vidre kontinentis siRrmeSi gan466
lagebulni. amitom SemTxveviTi araa, rom msoflios bevri iseTi umsxvilesi qalaqi, rogoricaa niu-iorki, sanfrancisko an hong-kongi, ganlagebulia zRvebisa da okeaneebis sanapiroebze. yoveli mxridan xmeleTiT garSemortymuli qveynebi ki ganicdian sagareo ekonomikuri kavSirebis damyarebisa da mxardaWeris problemebs da amitom xSirad, swored am mizezis gamo, maTi ekonomikuri
zrda da mosaxleobis cxovrebis done ramdenadme ufro
dabalia, vidre mezobeli qveynebisa.
mosaxleobis zrdis kontroli. Sromis mwarmoeblurobisa da cxovrebis donis maCveneblebi
nawilobriv damokidebulia mosaxleobis matebis tempebze. cxadia, rom qveynis mosaxleobis ricxovnoba gansazRvravs mis Sromis resursebs. gasakviri araa, rom
didi ricxovnobis mosaxleobis mqone iseT qveynebs, rogoricaa, magaliTad, aSS da iaponia, aqvT sakmaod ufro maRRali mSp, vidre luqsemburgsa da niderlandebs. magram,
rogorc ukve aRvniSneT (Tema 7), TavisTavad mSp-is done
ver gamodgeba ekonomikuri keTildReobis obieqtur kriteriumad. cxovrebis donis gansazRvrisaTvis ufro mniSvnelovania mosaxleobis erT sulze mSp-is maCveneblis
codna.
rogor moqmedebs mosaxleobis mateba saSualosuladobrivi mSp-is maCvenebelze? cxadia, _ Semcirebis
mimarTulebiT, ramdenadac momuSaveTa ricxovnobis gadidebisas mcirdeba erT kacze mosul sxva warmoebis
faqtorTa wili. kerZod, mosaxleobis swrafi zrdis
pirobebSi TiToeuli momuSavis uzrunvelyofa warmoebis saSualebaTa sakmarisi raodenobiT xdeba sakmaod
467
problematuri. erT momuSaveze mosuli kapitalis raodenobis dabali maCvenebeli gansazRvravs misi Sromis mwarmoeblurobis Sesabamis dones da, maSasadame, mosaxleobis erT sulze mSp-is dabal donesac.
mosaxleobis zrdis siswrafis maCveneblebi qveynebis mixedviT sagrZnoblad gansxvavebulia. ase magaliTad, aSS-sa da dasavleT evropis maRalganviTarebul
saxelmwifoebSi XX saukunis ukanasknel aTwleulSi
mosaxleoba izrdeboda daaxloebiT 1%-iT wliurad.
mosalodnelia, rom momavalSi es maCvenebeli kidev ufro
Semcirdeba.* sapirispirod, afrikis bevr uRaribes qveyanaSi mosaxleoba yovelwliurad matulobs 3%-iT. aseTi tempebis SenarCunebis pirobebSi is gaormagdeba yovel 23,3 weliwadSi.
zogadi azriT, ganviTarebadi qveynebis mosaxleobis zrdis tempebis Semcireba maTi cxovrebis donis
amaRlebis erT-erTi gzaa. zogierT saxelmwifoSi am miznis
* keTildReobis zrdis kvalobaze Sobadobis dacemis ekonomikuri axsna ekuTvnis hari bekers. misi azriT, maRali keTildReobis sazogadoebaSi qalisa da mTlianad ojaxisaTvis sakmaod mniSvnelovani xdeba bavSvis dabadebis arCevanis fasi. es
fasi ganisazRvreba im SemosavliT da karieriT, romelzec qalma
uari unda Tqvas bavSvis yolis survilis SemTxvevaSi. amis gamo
qalebi an uars amboben bavSvis yolaze an ifarglebian erTi
bavSviT, romelic, ra Tqma unda, arasakmarisia qveynis mosaxleobis ricxovnobis SesanarCuneblad, araferi rom ar vTqvaT mosaxleobis matebaze. saqarTveloSic ki, sadac cxovrebis done
sakmaod dabalia, SeiniSneba Sobadobis klebis tendencia (1985
wels _ 18,5%; 1990 wels _ 17,0%; 1995 wels _ 11,5 %, 2000
wels _ 8,9%).
468
miRweva xorcieldeba ojaxSi bavSvTa ricxvis mareglamentirebeli kanonebis daxmarebiT. magaliTad, CineTSi
daojaxebul wyvils ekrZaleba erTze meti bavSvis yola.
am wesis damrRvevs emuqreba seriozuli jarima. ufro
liberalur qveynebSi msgavsi amocana wydeba kontracefciis
saSualebaTa farTod danergvis gziT.
da bolos, Sobadobis Semcirebis kidev erTi gza
dakavSirebulia gr. menqius `ekonomikis aTi princi pi`dan erT-erTis gamoyenebasTan, romlis Tanaxmad, stimulebi
gansazRvraven adamianTa qcevebs. bavSvis gaCena, nebismieri
qcevis msgavsad, dakavSirebulia gaSvebul SesaZleblobaTa danaxarjebTan. Tu alternatiuli danaxarjebi maRalia, adamianebi amjobineben mcirericxovan ojaxebs. kerZod, rogorc zemoT aRvniSneT, ganaTlebis miRebisa da
karieris gakeTebis SesaZleblobis mqone qali upiratesobas aniWebs naklebi bavSvebis yolas, vidre is qali,
romelic ver xedavs Tavis perspeqtivas ojaxis gareT.
maSasadame, sqesTa Tanasworobis faqtobriv uzrunvelyofaze mimarTuli saxelmwifo politika daexmareba
sustad ganviTarebul qveynebs mosaxleobis zrdis tempebis dastabilizebasa da SemcirebaSi (ix. CanarTi 8.4).
mecnieruli kvlevebi da damuSavebebi. mTavari mizezi imisa, rom Tanamedrove amerikelTa
cxovrebis done arsebiTad maRalia, vidre igi iyo 100
wlis ukan, mdgomareobs axal teqnologiur codnaSi.
miuxedavad imisa, rom gamogonebaTa umravlesoba
keTdeba kerZo kvleviTi firmebisa da talantiani erTeuli pirovnebebis mier, sazogadoebaSi yovelTvis arsebobs daintereseba maTi Zalisxmevis stimulirebaSi.
469
CanarTi 8.4. Tomas malTusi mosaxleobis
zrdis Sesaxeb
Tavis cnobil wignSi `cda xalxTmosaxleobis kanonis Sesaxeb` T.malTusma (1766-1834) gaakeTa metismetad uimedo prognozi kacobriobis
ganviTarebis perspeqtivebis Taobaze. kerZod, avtori amtkicebda, rom mosaxleobis zrda SezRudavs sazogadoebis SesaZleblobebs uzrunvelyos
Tavisi Tavi yvela aucilebliT. Sedegad kacobrioba aRmoCndeba ganwiruli siRatakeSi sacxovreblad.
T.malTusis logika iyo sakmaod martivi.
dasawyisisaTvis man aRniSna, rom `sursaTi aucilebelia adamianis arsebobisaTvis` da rom `xorcieli urTierTobebi sxvadasxva sqesis warmomadgenelTa Soris gardauvalia da SenarCundeba maTi
dRevandeli saxiT`. Sedegad man gaakeTa daskvna
imis Sesaxeb, rom `adamianTa SesaZleblobani gamravlebisadmi ramdenadme aRemateba bunebis SesaZleblobebs uzrunvelyos isini kvebis produqtebiT`. T.malTusis Tanaxmad, mosaxleobis zrdis
erTaderTi dabrkolebaa `siRatake da ubedureba`. siRaribesTan brZolis saxelmwifo Tu saqvelmoqmedo organizaciaTa mcdelobebi aRmoCndeba
kontrproduqtiuli, ramdenadac isini mxolod xels
uwyoben Raribebs iyolion kidev meti bavSvebi,
rac kidev ufro metad zRudavs sazogadoebis
warmoebriv SesaZleblobebs.
sabednierod, T.malTusis es uimedo prognozi aRmoCnda mcdari. Tumca, dedamiwis mosaxleoba ukanaskneli ori saukunis ganmavlobaSi
470
gaizarda 6-jer, magram adamianTa cxovrebis done
saSualod gaxda maRali, vidre winaT iyo. ekonomikuri zrdis Sedegad masobrivi SimSili bevrad ufro iSviaT movlenad iqca, vidre iyo T.
malTusis droSi. masobrivi SimSilis SemTxvevebs
adgili aqvs Cvens droSic, magram, Cveulebriv,
isini Semosavlebis usamarTlo ganawilebis an
politikuri arastabilurobis Sedegia da ara
sursaTis deficitisa.
maS, raSi mdgomareobda T.malTusis Secdoma? is ar varaudobda, rom adamianTa gamomgonebloba ufro swrafad gaizrdeboda, vidre maTi ricxovnoba. axalma ideebma saqonlisa da kvebis produqtebis warmoebis Sesaxeb uzrunvelyo ekonomikuri
zrdis imdenad maRali done, romlis ganWvretac
ar SeeZloT arc T.malTuss da arc vinme sxva
mis Tanamedroves. teqnikuri progresis zegavlenam keTildReobis doneze daakompensira mosaxleobis ricxovnobis gadidebis yvela negatiuri
efeqti.
dReisaTvis mravali ekonomisti amtkicebs,
rom mosaxleobis zrda SesaZloa daexmaros kidec
kacobriobas cxovrebis ufro maRali donis uzrunvelyofaSi. dedamiwaze rac ufro metia adamiani,
maT Soris miT metia teqnikur progresSi Tavisi
wvlilis Semtani mecnieri, gamomgonebeli da inJineri, rac uzrunelyofs axal dovlaTs yvelasa
da TiToeulisaTvis. SesaZloa, xalxTmosaxleobis zrda, nacvlad imisa, rom T.malTusis Teoriis Tanaxmad, gamxdariyo kacobriobis gaRatakebis
mizezi, gadaiqca teqnikuri progresis Zravad da
ekonomikuri zrdis wyarod.
471
farTo gagebiT, codna warmoadgens sazogadoebriv dovlaTs: erTi adamianis mier gakeTebuli aRmoCena xvdeba
codnis saerTo `yulabaSi` da xelmisawvdomi xdeba TiToeulisaTvis. ramdenadac xelisufleba, sazogadoebrivi
keTildReobis uzrunvelyofis mixedviT Tavisi valdebulebebis Sesabamisad, dakavebulia Tavdacvis sakiTxebiT, igi waaxalisebs kvlevebsa da aRmoCenebs axali teqnologiebis sferoSi.
magaliTisTvis, aSS-is mTavrobam xangrZlivi drois
ganmavlobaSi mniSvnelovani roli iTamaSa teqnikuri codnis Seqmnasa da gavrcelebaSi. jer kidev 100 wlis win
igi afinansebda kvlevebs soflis meurneobis dargSi da
aswavlida fermerebs miwis efeqtianad gamoyenebas. XX
saukunis ukanasknel aTwleulebSi mTavrobam udidesi
mxardaWera aRmouCina (gauwia) aeronavtikis erovnul
marTvas da kosmosuri sivrcis kvlevebs (NASA), ris
Sedegadac amJamad amerika ikavebs wamyvan adgils saaviacio da kosmosuri teqnikis mwarmoebelTa Soris. mTavroba axalisebs mecnierebis ganviTarebas grantebis daxmarebiT, agreTve mowinave damuSavebebSi monawile firmebisaTvis sagadasaxado SeRavaTebis micemis gziT.
sagamomgoneblo saqmianobisadmi mxardaWeris sxva
mimarTulebaa sapatento sistemis dacva da srulyofa.
magaliTad, calkeuli gamomgonebeli an firma Seqmnis
axal, originalur produqts, saxelmwifo maT aZlevs
patentis miRebis SesaZleblobas. dapatentebuli produqciis mwarmoebeli flobs misi damzadebis gansakuTrebul uflebas rigi wlebis ganmavlobaSi. arsebiTad, patenti gamomgonebels aniWebs mis aRmoCenaze sakuTrebis
uflebas da aZlevs sazogadoebriv monapovrad qceuli
472
ideidan piradi Semosavlis amoRebis SesaZleblobas.
maSasadame, sapatento sistema qmnis materialur stimuls
SemoqmedebiTi azris ganviTarebisaTvis da wanamZRvrebs
ekonomikuri zrdisaTvis.
zemoT Cven ganvixileT ekonomikur zrdaze orientirebuli saxelmwifo politikis mniSvneloba. yovelive aRniSnulidan gamomdinareobs Semdegi ucilobeli
daskvna: saxelmwifos ekonomikuri zrdis tempebis daCqareba SeuZlia Siga danazogebisa da investiciebis waxalisebiT, ucxouri investorebis mozidviT, ganaTlebis
sistemis ganviTarebiiT, sakuTrebis uflebis dacviTa da
politikuri stabilurobis SenarCunebiT, sagareo savaWroekonomikuri kavSirebis gafarToebiTa da Tavisufali
vaWrobisadmi mxardaWeriT, mosaxleobis zrdis kontroliT, mecnieruli kvlevebisa da axali teqnologiebis damuSavebisaTvis keTilsasurveli pirobebis SeqmniT. faqtobrivad, imaze, Tu dRes politikosebi ramdenad warmatebiT gaiazreben ekonomikuri zrdis determinantebs, didadaa damokidebuli momaval TaobaTa cxovreba.
473
leqcia 24. ekonomikuri
ganviTareba _ `mesame samyaros`
qveynebis umTavresi problema
`ganviTareba _ es aris mosaxleobis inteleqtualuri da
socialuri cvlilebebis kombinacia, romelic mas saSualebas
aZlevs kumulaciurad da stabilurad gazardos Tavisi erToblivi realuri produqti...
ganviTareba erT mTlianSi aerTianebs da xels uwyobs zrdas.~
f.peru
`mniSvnelovani gansxvavebulobis miuxedavad, siRaribe da
uTanasworoba yvela am qveynebisaTvis damaxasiaTebeli saerTo movlenaa.~
g.miurdali
ekonomikuri ganviTarebis arsi da
zogadi tendenciebi. `ekonomikuri zrdis` cneba,
Cveulebriv, gamoiyeneba industriulad ganviTarebuli
qveynebis ekonomikis mdgomareobis aRsawerad. es is qveynebia, sadac, rogorc wesi, maRalia mosaxleobis erT
sulze mSp-is maCvenebeli. Sesabamisad, am qveynebSi Zalze
maRalia cxovrebis done.
474
sul sxva mdgomareobaa industriulad ganuviTarebel, anu e.w. `mesame samyaros`* qveynebSi, sadac mosaxleobis erT sulze gacilebiT naklebi mSp iwarmoeba.
ganuviTarebel qveynebSi ekonomikuri mdgomareobis
aRsawerad ufro xSirad gamoiyeneba `ekonomikuri ganviTarebis` cneba. es imiT aixsneba, rom ganuviTarebeli
qveynebi ekonomikuri zrdis procesSi sul sxva problemebis gadaWras cdiloben, vidre industriulad ganviTarebuli qveynebi. saqme is aris, rom ganviTareba unda
gavigoT, rogorc Seteva Cveni planetis Tanamedrove ubedurebebze: SimSili, avadmyofoba, uwignuroba, ubinaoba,
umuSevroba, uTanasworoba. amrigad, ganviTarebaSi igulisxmeba mosaxleobis cxovrebis donis amaRleba, romlis miRweva SesaZlebelia mxolod ekonomikuri zrdis
safuZvelze. amasTan, zrda avtomaturad ar gulisxmobs
ganviTarebas. savsebiT SesaZlebelia, rom misi nayofiT
mxolod sazogadoebis SeZlebulma nawilma isargeblos.
am SemTxvevaSi araTu gaumjobesdeba mosaxleobis cxovrebis done, aramed, piriqiT, gaRrmavdeba uTanasworoba
Semosavlebis ganawilebaSi, Tumca gaizrdeba mosaxleobis erT sulze gaangariSebiT mSp-is sidide.
meore msoflio omis Semdgom periodSi `mesame
samyaros~ mravalma qveyanam SeZlo zrdis maRali tempebis miRweva. magaliTad, 1970-1980 wlebSi zrdis wli-
* es cneba pirvelad XX saukunis 50-iani wlebis dasawyisSi
gaCnda. masSi igulisxmeboda agraruli da koloniuri qveynebi,
romlebic ekonomikurad da politikurad maSindel imperialistur saxelmwifoebs emorCilebodnen.
475
uri tempiT ganuviTarebeli qveynebi TiTqmis orjer
uswrebdnen industriulad ganviTarebul qveynebs. kidev
ufro gaizarda es sxvaoba 1990-2000 wlebSi (ix. cxrili
8.5). magram am qveynebis mosaxleobis uRaribesi 50%-is
mdgomareoba (dasaqmeba, simdidris ganawileba, cxovrebis
pirobebi...) umniSvnelod gaumjobesda, ar Seicvala an
kidevac gauaresda. adrindeli gansazRvriT (ekonomikuri
cxrili 8.5
msoflio warmoeba qveyanaTa jgufebis
mixedviT (wliuri zrdis tempi, %-Si)
1970- 1981- 19912000 2001 2002
1980 1990 2000
msoflio _ mTlianad
aqedan:
ganviTarebuli qveynebi
ganuviTarebeli qveynebi
m.S.:
afrika*
azia
Sua aRmosavleTi**
laTinuri amerika
gardamavali qveynebi***
m.S. saqarTvelo
4.3
3.4
3.3
4.7
2.3
3.0
3.6
5.5
3.2
4.1
2.7
5.6
3.8
5.7
0.9
3.9
1.8
4.6
3.6
5.1
6.4
6.1
5.0
_
2.4
6.9
2.8
1.5
2.7
2.9
2.3
7.6
4.0
3.4
-3.0
-6.6
2.8
6.8
5.8
4.0
6.6
2.0
3.6
5.7
1.4
0.6
5.1
3.8
3.4
6.5
4.5
-0.1
4.1
5.4
* egvi ptisa da libiis garda.
** avRaneTi, irani da pakistani. aq Sedis agreTve egvi pte,
libia, malta da TurqeTi.
*** eqs-ssrk, bulgareTi, yofili Cexoslovakia, rumineTi,
yofili iugoslavia, poloneTi, ungreTi, albaneTi.
476
zrdis mixedviT), es qveynebi `viTardebodnen`, magram axali kriteriebis mixedviT (siRaribis done, uTanasworoba,
dasaqmeba...), amis mtkiceba ar SiZleba.
XX saukunis 90-ian wlebSi, rogorc cxrilidan
Cans, ekonomikuri situacia gauaresda, gansakuTrebiT
afrikasa da gardamavali ekonomikis qveynebSi, maT Soris
saqarTveloSic. amasTan, gaizarda mravali ganuviTarebeli qveynis sagareo davalianeba. aseT pirobebSi am qveynebis mTavrobebi iZulebulni arian SekumSon ekonomikuri
da socialuri ganviTarebis isedac SezRuduli programebi.
amrigad, ekonomikuri ganviTareba SeiZleba ganvixiloT rogorc mravalmxrivi procesi, romelic iwvevs
radikalur cvlilebebs socialur struqturaSi, adamianTa qcevebSi, sazogadoebriv institutebSi; ekonomikuri
zrdis daCqarebas; uTanasworobis Semcirebasa da dasaqmebis amaRlebas. sxva sityvebiT rom vTqvaT, ganuviTarebel
qveynebSi ekonomikuri ganviTarebis arsia qveynis ekonomikuri cxovrebis yvela aspeqtis modernizacia, romelSic
igulisxmeba:
 mrewvelobis Seqmna, anu qveynis industrializacia;
 qalaqebis ganviTareba soflis mosaxleobis Semcirebis xarjze (urbanizacia);
 mosaxleobis kulturuli da saganmanaTleblo
donis amaRleba;
 ekonomikuri da socialuri infrastruqturis
Seqmna da ganviTareba;
 qveynis ekonomikis funqcionirebis moqnili ekonomikuri meqanizmis Seqmna.
477
ra Tqma unda, dasaxelebuli amocanebis warmatebiT
gadaWra drois mcire monakveTSi SeuZlebelia, miT ufro
sakuTari resursebis xarjze. am mxriv metad mniSvnelovania saerTaSoriso mxardaWera, magram am mxardaWeras
maSin SeuZlia sargeblis motana, Tu mocemuli qveyana
aqtiurad qmnis Tavisi ganviTarebis pirobebs. am amocanebis
gadaWriT, qveynis ekonomika qmnis warmoebis gadidebis
met SesaZleblobas, amaRlebs cxovrebis saerTo dones.
saqarTvelos metnaklebad gadaWrili aqvs ekonomikuri ganviTarebis uzrunvelyofis pirveli sami problema (mrewveloba, urbanizacia, kulturuli da saganmanaTleblo done). amave dros unda aRiniSnos saqarTvelos mrewvelobis sisuste. igi aisaxeba saxelmwifo
sakuTrebis maRali wiliT (52,4%), gansakuTrebiT msxvil warmoebaSi (75%). es imaze miuTiTebs, rom qveynis
ekonomikaSi arasaxelmwifo seqtori srulad ver Camoyalibda ekonomikis mTavar seqtorad da igi jer kidev
Tavisi formirebis sawyis stadiaSi imyofeba. sakmaod
mZimea ZiriTadi kapitalis mdgomareoba. eqspertTa SefasebiT, igi saWiroebs gadaudebel modernizacias.
mTlianad Sesacvlelia mrewvelobis sawarmoTa
ZiriTadi kapitalis 24,5%. jerjerobiT samuSaod gamosadegia maTi mxolod 46.4%. saSualo da mcire sawarmoebTan SedarebiT, ZiriTadi kapitalis mdgomareoba msxvil
sawarmoebSi mniSvnelovnad uaresia. aq modernizacias
saWiroebs an mTlianad Sesacvlelia sawarmoTa 38,2%.
aseve unda aRiniSnos warmoebrivi simZlavreebis
datvirTvis dabali done (37%). amasTan, sawarmoTa 72%
naxevarze naklebadaa datvirTuli, gansakuTrebiT regionebSi. isic unda aRiniSnos, rom saqarTvelos sawarmoebi
478
nedleulisa da masalebis moTxovnis did nawils importiT ikmayofileben. mcirea im sawarmoTa wili (13%),
visi produqciac nawilobriv an mTlianad saeqsportoa.
aseve mcirea mrewvelobis wili mTliani Sida produqtis SeqmnaSi (17,6%).
urbanizaciis koeficienti saqarTveloSi Seadgens
55,7%-s. am maCvenebliT igi CamorCeba industriulad
ganviTarebul qveynebs, magram aRemateba ganuviTarebeli
qveynebis analogiur maCvenebels. igive SeiZleba iTqvas
kulturul-saganmanaTleblo donesa da ekonomikuri
ganviTarebis uzrunvelyofis danarCen or problemazec
(ekonomikuri da socialuri infrastruqturis SeqmnaganviTareba da qveynis ekonomikuri meqanizmis srulyofa).
industriulad ganuviTarebeli qveyneb i s e k o no m i ku r i T a vi s e bu r e be b i d a
zogadi damaxasiaTebeli niSnebi. ganuvi-
Tarebel qveynebs mravali saerTo niSani aerTianebs, romelTa Soris umTavresia: siRaribe, mosaxleobis swrafi zrda,
ganaTlebis dabali done, soflis meurneobis maRali
wili ekonomikaSi, mrewvelobis ganuviTarebloba, mZime
sagareo davalianeba, sxva qveynebze damokidebuleba da
uTanasworoba, agreTve demokratiuli reJimis uqonloba. davaxasiaToT zogierTi maTgani.
siRaribe. msoflio bankis monacemebiT, absolu-
turi siRaribis zRvari dRiurad erT sulze erTi
amerikuli dolaris Semosavalia. aseT pirTa raodenoba
ki msoflioSi erT mlrd kacs Seadgens.
479
siRatakis gasazomad gamoiyeneba mSp-is wliuri raodenoba mosaxleobis erT sulze. 2000 wlis mixedviT,
yvelaze Rataki qveynebis ricxvs miekuTvneba: mozambika
(191 dolari), tanzania (260 dolari), eTiopia (97
dolari), siera-leone (163 dolari), kongo (101 dolari), burandia (102 dolari), nigeria (173 dolari), malavia (146 dolari). rac Seexeba saqarTvelos, igi mocemuli maCvenebliT ekonomikurad sustad ganviTarebuli saxelmwifoebis ricxvs miekuTvneba.
siRaribis gamzomi es kriteriumi saSualo sididea, romelic garkveulad maRalSemosavlian da mosaxleobis yvelaze Rarib jgufebs Soris uTanasworobas
niRbavs. am maCvenebelSi asaxuli ar aris arc TviTmoxmareba (naturaluri meurneobis arseboba) da arc faruli ekonomika.
aseTi Seusabamobis dasaZlevad yidviTunarianobis paritetis meTodi gamoiyeneba, romelic aSS-Si
analogiur produqciaze fasebis dones iTvaliswinebs.
magaliTad, saqarTveloSi mosaxleobis erT sulze wliurad saSualod iwarmoeba 609 dolaris mSp. amiT
saqarTveloSi imdeni produqti SeiZineba, romelzec aSSSi daixarjeboda 2560 dolari. Sesabamisad, realuri
mSp mosaxleobis erT sulze saqarTveloSi 2560 dolaria, rac oTxjer aRemateba adrindel maCvenebels (609
dolari). samagierod, iaponiisaTvis analogiuri maCvenebeli 32797 dolaridan 25130 dolaramde daiklebs,
rac iaponiaSi maRali fasebis dones gamoxatavs.
siRaribis gasaSifravad yidviTunarianobis paritetic arasakmarisia. am mizniT gamoiyeneba e.w. `sazogadoebrivi ganviTarebis indeqsi` . es axali indika480
tori 1990 wlidan gaiangariSeba da realur yidviTunarianobas, sicocxlis xangrZlivobas, srulasakovani
mosaxleobis ganaTlebis dones, janmrTelobis donesa
da erovnuli Semosavlis dones aerTianebs (ix. CanarTi
8.5).
dReisaTvis `sazogadoebrivi ganviTarebis indeqsis` mixedviT msoflioSi pirvel adgilzea norvegia,
romlis mSp, mimdinare kursis mixedviT, mosaxleobis
erT sulze 37441 amerikuli dolaria, sicocxlis
xangrZlivoba _ 78,7 weli, wera-kiTxvis codnis maCvenebeli ki _ 99%. es maSin, rodesac norvegia mSp-is mixedviT (yidviTunariani pariteti) mosaxleobis erT-sulze
msoflioSi meeqvse adgilzea (29620 dolari).
rac ufro CamorCenilia ekonomikurad qveyana, miT
ufro dabalia misi `sazogadoebrivi ganviTarebis indeqsi`. magaliTad, saqarTvelo am maCveneblis mixedviT, 88e adgilzea msoflioSi. igi CamorCeba ruseTs, TuqmeneTs,
irans, ukrainasa da sxv.
Warbmosaxleoba. 2003 wlis monacemebiT, msof-
lio mosaxleobam Seadgina 6032 mln kaci (1970 wels _
3698 mln), maT Soris afrikaSi _ 851 mln (362 mln),
laTinur amerikaSi _ 543 mln (286 mln), CrdiloeT
amerikaSi (meqsikis gamoklebiT) _ 326 mln, aziaSi _
3823 mln (2147), evropaSi _ 726 mln (656), okeaneTSi _
32 mln.
prognoziT, 2025 wlisaTvis msoflio mosaxleoba
7851 mln-s gadaaWarbebs. ZiriTadad es ganviTarebadi
qveynebis mosaxleobis zrdis xarjze moxdeba. afrikis
mosaxleoba 1,3 mlrd kaci iqneba, xolo aziisa _ 4,474
481
CanarTi 8.5. sazogadoebrivi
ganviTarebis indeqsi _ adamianuri
keTildReobis sazomi?
1990 wels gaero-s `ganviTarebis programaSi` gamoqveynda sazogadoebrivi ganviTarebis
axali wliuri indeqsi. es iyo mcdeloba imisa,
rom gaangariSebuliyo ganviTarebis ufro farTo
sabazo sidide, vidre mSp-ia. sazogadoebrivi ganviTarebis indeqss gaaCnia mniSvneloba 0-dan 1mde da dafuZnebulia Semdeg sam cvladze: 1.
Sobadobis mosalodneli done; 2. ganaTleba (ganaTlebuli mozrdili adamianebis saSualo ricxvi
(2/3) da swavlebis wlebis saSualo raodeoba
(1/3); 3. mosaxleobis erT sulze mSp-is realuri sidide.
mSp izomeba amerikul dolarebSi da gadaiangariSeba inflaciisa da yoveli qveynis valutis yidviTunaria nobis gaTval iswinebiT. s xva
sityvebiT, gamoiyeneba valutis kursis yidviTunarianobis Tanasworoba. es kursia valutaTa gacvla amerikul dolarze, rac miuTiTebs imaze, Tu
erovnuli valutis ra raodenoba iZleva aSS-Si
imave raodenobis saqonlis SeZenis SesaZleblobas, rogorisac Tvisi qveynis SigniT. mSp aseve im
faqtsac asaxavs, rom dolaris faseuloba adamianebisaTvis mdidar qveynebSi ufro naklebia, vidre RaribSi.
sazogadoebrivi ganviTarebis indeqsis mniS-
482
vnelobebis mixedviT qveynebi ganlagdebian sam
jgufSi: sazogadoebrivi ganviTarebis maRali done
(0,8-1,0), saSualo done (0,5-0,799) da dabali
(0,5-ze qveviT). qvemoT motanil 8.6 cxrilSi,
romelic Sedgenilia
sazogadoebrivi ganviTarebis Sesaxeb monacemebis mixedviT, asaxulia indeqsebi zogierTi qveynisaTvis da miTiTebulia,
Tu romel kategorias miekuTvneboda qveyana 1998
wels. aqve mocemulia mosaxleobis erT sulze
mSp-is realuri maCveneblebic (Tavisi kategoriebiT). cxrilis bolo sveti gviCvenebs gansxvavebas zemoT aRniSnul or kategorias Soris (Tu
ricxvi dadebiTia, qveyanas gaaCnia sazogadoebrivi ganviTarebis ufro maRali indeqsi, vidre
mosaxleobis erT sulze mSp-isa).
zogierTo qveynisaTvis, rogoricaa, magaliTad, kuba, Svecia da tanzania, mosaxleobis erT
sulze mSp-is maCvenebeli sazogadoebrivi ganviTarebis doneze dabalia maSin, rodesac sxva
qveynebisaTvis, rogoricaa, magaliTad, quveiTi,
saudis arabeTi da botsvana, mSp mosaxleobis
erT sulze sazogadoebrivi ganviTarebis doneze
maRalia. amrigad, mosaxleobis erT sulze mSpis done senegalSi 2-jer metia, vidre nigeriaSi,
sazogadoebrivi ganviTarebis indeqsi ki ufro
dabalia. mosaxleobis erT sulze mSp-is done
botsvanaSi 2-jer metia, vidre kubaSi, magram
sazo gadoeb rivi g anviTa rebis indeqs i mniS vnelovnad dabalia. gansakuTrebuloba mdgomareobs
imaSi, rom erovnuli Semosavlis erTnairi donis
483
cxrili 8.6
sazogadoebrivi ganviTarebis indeqsi
zogierTi qveynisaTvis (1998 w.)
qvey an a
sazogado- sazogadomSp
mSp-is
e br iv i
e br iv i
m o sa x - ka te go ganviTar- g a n v i T a - le o b i s
ria
e bi s
r e b i s 1 sulze
i n d e q si s i n d e q si (do l.)
kategoria
sx v a o b a
saz.
g a n v .- i s
indeqssa
da mSp-s
So ri s
ganviTarebis maRali done
kanada
norvegia
aSS
iaponia
Svecia
didi britaneTi
singapuri
quveiTi
1
0.932
22380
13
2
0.927
24450
7
3
0.927
29010
3
4
0.924
20070
90
6
0.923
10790
24
10
0.918
20730
19
22
0.888
28460
4
35
0.833
25314
5
ganviTarebis saSualo done
kuba
58
0.765
3100
105
ruseTi
71
0.747
4370
79
saudis arabeTi
78
0.740
10120
41
CineTi
98
0.701
3130
104
botsvana
122
0.609
7690
52
indoeTi
132
0.545
1670
131
kenia
136
0.519
1190
152
ganviTarebis dabali done
nigeria
146
0.456
920
161
bangladeSi
150
0.440
1050
156
senegali
153
0.426
1730
129
tanzania
156
0.421
580
172
eTiopia
172
0.298
510
173
siera-leone
174
0.254
410
174
12
5
0
5
18
9
-18
-30
47
8
-37
6
-70
-1
16
15
6
-24
16
1
0
wyaro: Human development Report 1999 - Human Development Index (united Nations Development Program). (http: //www. undp.org/
hdro/HDI. html).
484
mqone qveynebma SesaZloa sxvadasxvanairad gamoiyenon TavianTi Semosavlebi.
amJamad sazogadoebrivi ganviTarebis indeqsi iTvaliswinebs iseT faqtorebs, rogoricaa
Semosavlebis sruli ganawileba, Tanabroba sqesisa da aRmsareblobis niSnis, eTnikuri jgufebis
mixedviT. amrigad, sazogadoebrivi ganviTarebis
sruli indeqsi SeiZleba iqnas Semcirebuli, raTa
aisaxos yvela aRniSnuli uTanasworoba. aseTi
indeqsebi SeiZleba aseve gaangariSdes qveynis SigniT calkeuli regionebis, eTnikuri jgufebis,
qalebisa da mamakacebisaTvis.
mlrd-s miaRwevs. umniSvnelod gaizrdeba CrdiloeT
amerikis mosaxleoba (394 mln), evropis mosaxleoba ki
699 mln kacamde Semcirdeba.
amrigad, ganuviTarebel qveynebSi mosaxleoba ufro
swrafad izrdeba (magaliTad, afrika _ 2,06%, laTinuri
amerika _ 2,26%, azia _ 1,15%), vidre industriulad
ganviTarebul qveynebSi (CrdiloeT amerika _ 0,94%, evropa
_ minus 0,14%).
ganuviTarebel qveynebSi mosaxleobis swrafi zrda
mraval problemas warmoSobs. kerZod, Tu mosaxleobis
zrdis tempi warmoebis zrdis temps aRemateba an
utoldeba, am SemTxvevaSi mSp mosaxleobis erT sulze
an Semcirdeba, an ucvleli darCeba. swored aseTi situacia SeimCneva afrikaSi, sadac mosaxleobis saSualo
wliuri zrdis tempi 1990-2000 wlebSi 2,45%, warmoe485
bis zrdis tempi ki 2,3% iyo.
mosaxleobis zrdis tempis gadaWarbeba warmoebis
zrdis tempTan SedarebiT, ra Tqma unda, auaresebs mosaxleobis erT sulze mSp-is warmoebas da kidev ufro
zrdis gansxvavebas industriulad ganviTarebul da ganuviTarebel qveynebs Soris suladobrivi moxmarebis doneebis mixedviT.
ganaTlebis dabali done. ganuviTarebel qvey-
nebSi mozrdilTa wera-kiTxvis ucodinaroba 25,5%-ia.
SimSiloba, kvalificiuri samedicino daxmarebisa da ganaTlebis susti materialuri baza, erTad aRebuli,
ekonomikur ganviTarebas aferxebs. gansakuTrebuli naklia energiul mewarmeTa fenis ararseboba; Zalze deficituria is kadric, romelmac ganviTarebis programis
yoveldRiuri kontrolis funqcia unda Seasrulos.
amasTan, am qveynebidan SeimCneva maRalkvalificiuri kadrebis (eqimebis, inJinrebis da sxv.) emigracia industriulad ganviTarebul qveynebSi, sadac maT maRali
anazRaureba da daostatebis didi SesaZlebloba aqvT.
ekonomikuri ganviTarebis faqtorebi. ekonomikuri zrdis daCqarebis procesSi qveynebis
erTma jgufma (aSS-ma, iaponiam, germaniam, SvedeTma...) did
warmatebas miaRwia, rac maTi cxovrebis donis gaumjobesebaSic aisaxa. qveynebis meore jgufi (indoeTi, pakistani, bangladeSi...) ki Zalze CamorCa.
am CamorCenaSi, ra Tqma unda, garkveuli roli koloniuri sistemis arsebobam Seasrula, ris xarjzec axlandel industriulad ganviTarebul saxelmwifoebSi
486
kapitalis dagroveba da ekonomikuri zrda xorcieldeboda.
industriulad ganviTarebuli da ganuviTarebeli
qveynebis mosaxleobas Tavisi ekonomikuri saqmianoba
gansxvavebul materialur da socialur-kulturul
pirobebSi uxdeba. amJamad, zogierTi qveynis warmatebisa
Tu warumateblobis mizezad swored es garemoeba unda
iqnas miCneuli. Tumca, ekonomikuri zrdis daCqarebis
gzebi ganviTarebuli da ganuviTarebeli qveynebisaTvis
ZiriTadad erTnairia. aq, uwinares yovlisa, arsebuli
bunebrivi resursebis maragis ufro efeqtiani gamoyeneba igulisxmeba, rac iwvevs: erTi mxriv, samuSao Zalis
dasaqmebis donis amaRlebas da, meore mxriv, kapitaluri
resursebis maragis gadidebas. yoveliove amis Sedegia
warmoebrivi SesaZleblobis zrda .
`mesame samyaros` qveynebSi bunebrivi resursebis maragi Zalze uTanabrodaa ganawilebuli. amitom
Znelia Tqma imisa, Tu mTlianobaSi ra rols asrulebs
igi am qveynebis ekonomikur winsvlaSi.
zogierT ganuviTarebel qveyanas navTobis, boqsitebis, spilenZis, manganumis, kalis, volframis da a.S. soliduri samrewvelo maragi aqvs. magaliTad, saudis arabeTi msoflioSi pirvel adgilzea nedli navTobis mopovebiT (msoflio warmoebis 11,5%), mexuTe adgilzea
meqsika (5,1%), meeqvseze _ irani (4,7%). CineTi naxSiris
mwarmoebeli pirveli qveyanaa msoflioSi (msoflio
warmoebis 28,4%), mesame adgilzea indoeTi (7,6%). gvineas boqsitebis msoflio warmoebis 12,2% uWiravs, iamaikas _ 9,3%, brazilias _ 9,3%, indoeTs _ 6,7%
ekuTvnis. spilenZis umsxvilesi mwarmoebelia Cile (msof487
lio warmoebis 34,2%), meore adgilzea indonezia (8,6%).
yvelaze met vercxls perusa (14,5%) da meqsikaSi (14,9%)
moi poveben.
ganuviTarebelma qveynebma TavianTi bunebrivi simdidris meSveobiT, calkeul SemTxvevebSi, swrafi
ekonomikuri zrda da cxovrebis donis gaumjobeseba
moaxerxes. gamonaklisia CineTi, romelic msoflioSi meore adgilze gavida mSp-is absoluturi moculobiT,
magram mosaxleobis erT sulze mSp-is warmoeba ganviTarebuli qveynebis analogiur maCvenebels Zlier CamorCeba.
aRsaniSnavia, agreTve, quveiTis, kataris da arabTa
gaerTianebuli emiratebis swrafi ekonomikuri zrda.
mosaxleobis erT sulze mSp-is moculobis (yidviTunariani paritetis) mixedviT quveiTi 34-e qveyanaa msoflioSi (18,7 aTasi dolari), katari _ 33-e (18,8 aTasi
dolari), xolo arabTa gaerTianebuli emiratebi _ 36-e
(17,9 aTasi). Tumca, es naklebad aisaxa am qveynebis mosaxleobis cxovrebis donis amaRlebaze.
unda aRiniSnos, rom mraval SemTxvevaSi ganuviTarebeli qveynebis resursebi industriulad ganviTarebuli
qveynebis saerTaSoriso kompaniebs ekuTvnis an mTlianad
maT mier kontrolirdeba. amis gamoa, rom resursebis
gamoyenebidan miRebuli mogeba sazRvargareT miedineba.
aseve, nedleulis produqciaze fasebis mniSvnelovani
meryeoba ganuviTarebeli qveynebis ekonomikur winsvlaze
arasasurvel gavlenas axdens.
ekonomikurad CamorCenili mravali qveyana sasargeblo wiaRiseuls umniSvnelo odenobiT flobs da saTesi miwisa da energoresursebis naklebobasac ganicdis.
488
ra Tqma unda, es am qveynebis didi naklia, radgan warmoebis sxva faqtorebisagan gansxvavebiT, bunebrivi resursebis
bazis gafarToeba praqtikulad SeuZlebelia. es ekonomikuri zrdis Zlieri Semaferxebelia. Tumca, Sveicaria,
israeli da iaponia imis naTeli magaliTia, Tu rogor
SeiZleba cxovrebis maRali donis miRweva SezRuduli
resursebis pirobebSic.
sayovelTao aRiarebiT, ekonomikuri ganviTarebis
umniSvnelovanesi faqtoria kapitalis dagroveba. am
cnebaSi investiciuri saqoneli (warmoebiTi nagebobani,
manqanebi da mowyobilobani, socialuri infrastruqtura...) igulisxmeba. rac ufro met da srulyofil teqnikas gamoiyenebs adamiani, miT ufro meti iqneba misi Sromis Sedegi anu Sromis mwarmoebluroba. Sesabamisad, erTi
dasaqmebulis realuri Semosavali anu yidviTunariani
moTxovnileba (moTxovna) gaizrdeba, mis dakmayofilebas
meti raodenobis saqonlisa da momsaxurebis warmoeba
daWirdeba.
kapitaldabandebis moculobasa da mSp-is zrdas
Soris pirdapiri kavSiri arsebobs. gamokvleulia, rom
ganuviTarebeli qveynebis mSp-Si kapitaldabandebis wilis
1%-iT gadideba ekonomikuri zrdis tempis 0,55-iT matebas
iwvevs.
samwuxarod, mraval ganuviTarebel qveyanaSi investiciis norma dabalia. magaliTad, saqarTveloSi investiciis wili mSp-is mimarT mxolod 4%-ia, haitSi _ 2%,
ukrainaSi _ 5%, nigeriasa da ruandaSi _ 6%, zambiaSi _
7%, moldovaSi _ 8%, somxeTSi _ 10%.
investiciis aseT dabal normas, ra Tqma unda, ganapirobebs am qveynebis mosaxleobis Semosavlis simcire.
489
cnobilia, rom miRebuli Semosavali or nawilad iyofa:
pirvelia moxmarebis fondi, anu Semosavlis is nawili,
romelic adamianis materialuri da sulieri moTxovnilebis minimumis dasakmayofilebladaa aucilebeli, meorea _ dagrovebis fondi (mTliani Semosavali minus
moxmarebis fondi). es ukanaskneli investirebis safuZvelia. rac metia Semosavali, miT metia investiciebis
moculoba.
investiciuri Tanxis erTi nawili fizikuri (nivTieri) kapitalis gansaaxleblad da gasafarToeblad
gamoiyeneba, meore _ kvalificiuri kadrebis mosamzadeblad (adamianiseuli kapitali), mesame _ warmoebis organizaciis srulyofa-gasaumjobeseblad, meoTxe _ teqnikuri progresis dasaCqareblad.
`mesame samyaroSi` ekonomikuri zrdis uzrunvelsayofad gamoyofili investiciebi arasakmarisia. im SemTxvevaSic ki, roca investiciis ganxorcielebisaTvis sakmarisi Tanxa Cndeba, investirebis stimuli mainc dabalia.
es aixsneba rogorc samuSao Zalis dabali kvalifikaciiT, ise saSinao bazris simciriT. saqme is aris, rom
dabali Semosavali, praqtikulad, samrewvelo produqciaze moTxovnas ar warmoSobs. aranakleb mniSvnelovani
faqtoria adekvaturi infrastruqturis ararseboba
_ gzebis uvargisoba, energiis arastabiluri miwodeba,
moZvelebuli komunikaciebi da a.S.
`mesame samyaros` qveynebSi ekonomikur zrdas
aferxebs agreTve socialur-kulturuli da instituciuri faqtorebi. pirvel rigSi, igulisxmeba
adaTebi da tradiciebi, religiuri wes-Cveulebani. magaliTad, saqarTveloSi, arsebuli tradiciis mixedviT,
490
vTqvaT, naTesavis an axloblis lxinsa Tu dakrZalvaze
ixarjeba piradi Semosavlis mniSvnelovani nawili, romlis dasafarad xSirad sakuTari Semosavalic arasakmarisia. yvela es xarji investicias akldeba.
ekonomikuri zrdis Semaferxebeli instituciuri
faqtorebidan aRsaniSnavia: korufcia da meqrTameoba;
ganaTlebasa da socialuri momsaxurebis sferoSi susti mmarTvelobis sistema; mouqneli da usamarTlo sagadasaxado sistema. aseT SemTxvevebSi, politikuri gadawyvetilebebi xSirad saerTaSoriso prestiJis da ara
ekonomikuri ganviTarebis waxalisebis mizniT miiReba.
ganuviTarebeli qveynebisaTvis damaxasiaTebeli zogadi niSnebi (siRaribe, Warbmosaxleoba, dagrovebis dabali norma...) erTdroulad am qveynebis siRaribis mizezicaa da Sedegic. marTlac, yvela ganuviTarebeli qveynisaTvis, Tu mxedvelobaSi ar miviRebT navTobis eqsportior zogierT qveyanas (quveiTi, katari, arabTa gaerTianebuli emirati, saudis arabeTi), ZiriTadi damaxasiaTebeli niSania mosaxleobis erT sulze mcire Semosavali. magaliTad, 2005 wels saqarTveloSi mosaxleobis erT sulze saSualo Tviurma fuladma Semosavalma
da transferebma 59,7 lari Seadgina. aseTi Semosavali
danazogis warmosaSobad arasakmarisia, radgan TiTqmis
mTeli Semosavali arsebobisaTvis aucilebeli saqonlis SeZenas xmardeba. danazogis uqonloba investirebisagan TavSekavebas niSnavs. es ukanaskneli ki ekonomikis
zrdis dabal tempSi aisaxeba. Tavis mxriv, rac ufro
dabalia ekonomikuri zrdis tempi, miT ufro naklebia
warmoebuli mSp mosaxleobis erT sulze, anu qveyanaSi
kvlav dabalia Semosavali da rCeba siRaribe. ikvreba
491
`mojadoebuli wre` , romelSic, saqarTvelos garda,
msoflios mravali qveyana imyofeba (ix. nax. 8.5).
rogorc naxazidan Cans, msoflios dabali ganviTarebis qveynebis `mojadoebeli wrisaTvis` damaxasiaTebelia: kapitalis dagrovebis, Sromis mwarmoeblurobis, xelfasisa da danazogebisaken midrekilebis dabali
done; kapitalis zrdasTan SedarebiT dasaqmebulTa
ricxovnobis winmswrebi zrda.
am mdgomareobidan gamosavali qveynis Siga da gare
faqtorebis gonivrul Sexamebasa da gamoyenebaSia.
kapitalSeiaraRebis
dabali done
Sromis
mwarmoeblurobis
dabali done

dasaqm ebulTa
ric xovnobis
winmswrebi zrda
kapitalis zrdasTan
da nazogebisak en
dabali midrekileba
nax. 8.5. sustad ganviTarebis
`mojadoebuli wre`
492

xelfasis
dabali done

kapitalis
dagrovebis dabali
d on e
ucxoeTis daxmareba ganuviTarebeli
qveynebisadmi. kapitalis dagrovebis simcire sax-
elmwifos kerZo dagrovebisa da investiciebis gazrdas
aiZulebs sagadasaxado RonisZiebebis gamoyenebiT.
aq SesaZlebelia ramdenime alternativis warmoSoba:
pirvelia gadasaxadebis gadideba, sagadasaxado Semosavlis namati saxelmwifoebrivi mniSvnelobis obieqtebis dafinansebas unda moxmardes. es gza xSirad mraval
mwvave problemas warmoSobs da sagadasaxado kodeqsis
dacvas arTulebs, amasTan, xels uwyobs korufciis gaZlierebas sagadasaxado sferoSi; meorea inflaciis
gziT iZulebiTi danazogis Seqmnis stimulireba.
es saxelmwifos mier damatebiT gamoSvebuli fulis
meSveobiT, kapitalis dagrovebis dafinansebiT, an am mizniT
saxelmwifo obligaciebidan miRebuli fuladi Semosavlis
gamoyenebiT miiRweva; mesamea kerZo seqtorisaTvis iaffasiani kreditis miwodeba an misTvis, kapitalis
dagrovebis sanacvlod, sagadasaxado SeRavaTebis micema.
roca qveynis SigniT kapitalis dagroveba ekonomikuri ganviTarebis dasaxuli miznis misaRwevad arasakmarisia, maSin yuradReba garedan miRebul daxmarebaze gadaitaneba. igi warmoSobis mixedviT SeiZleba iyos rogorc
kerZo, ise saxelmwifoebrivi. es kapitali ZiriTadad
infrastruqturis (janmrTelobis dacvis, ganaTlebis,
transportis, kavSirgabmulobis, Waobebis daSrobis...)
gansaviTareblad gamoiyeneba.
garedan moziduli kapitali upiratesad infrastruqturis gasaumjobeseblad gamoiyeneba, upirvels
yovlisa, imis gamo, rom infrastruqturis aucilebeli
done aris rogorc erovnuli, ise ucxouri kapitalis
493
mozidvis wanamZRvari, wamaxalisebeli.
ucxoeTidan miRebuli subsidiebi da sesxebi qveynis SigniT kapitalis dagrovebas ganapirobebs da man
`mojadoebuli wridan` gamosvlaSi SeiZleba gadamwyveti roli Seasrulos.
sazRvargareTidan miRebuli daxmareba SeiZleba iyos
pirdapiri da arapirdapiri. calkeuli saxelmwifoebisagan miRebuli daxmareba (subsidiebi da sesxebi) pirdapiria, xolo rodesac es saerTaSoriso organizaciebis
meSveobiT xdeba _ daxmareba arapirdapiria.
`mesame samyaros` qveynebi kerZo kapitalis formiTac Rebuloben daxmarebas. am SemTxvevaSi kreditorebad,
upiratesad, msxvili kompaniebi da bankebi gvevlinebian.
saqarTvelo Rebulobs mniSvnelovan finansur daxmarebas rogorc pirdapiri, aseve arapirdapiri formiT.
am aspeqtiT saqarTelosaTvis mTavari donori qveynebia:
aSS (1995-2003 wlebSi 227,85 mln dolari), SeerTebuli samefo (130,52 mln dolari), ruseTi (41,8 mln
dolari), TurqeTi (77,2 mln dolari). sul saqarTvelom
1995-2003 wlebSi pirdapiri daxmarebis formiT 318,8
mln amerikuli dolari miiRo. rac Seexeba garedan miRebul arapirdapir daxmarebas, aq aRsaniSnavia msoflio
banki (314,2 mln dolari) da ganviTarebisa da rekonstruqciis evropuli banki (27,4 mln dolari), romlebmac mniSvnelovani investireba ZiriTad kapitalSi
ganaxorcieles.
ganuviTarebeli qveynebis sagareo davalianeba. XX saukunis 80-90-ian wlebSi msoflio
ekonomikaSi gansakuTrebuli simwvaviT gamovlinda ganuvi494
Tarebeli qveynebis sagareo davalianebis zrda. am valma
2,4 trilion dolars miaRwia. misgan gamomdinare Sedegebi ganuWvreteli da saSiSia rogorc gamsesxebeli, ise
msesxebeli qveynebisaTvis. yvelaze didi valis mqone
kontinentebia laTinuri amerika (1970 w _ 27,7 mlrd
dolari, 2002 w. _ 789,4 mlrd dolari) da azia (Sesabamisad 19,3 mlrd dolari; 676,3 mlrd dolari).
gansakuTrebiT didi davalianebis mqone saxelmwifoebs
miekuTvneba: meqsika (154,4 mlrd dolari), brazilia (229,1
mlrd dolari), argentina (136,7 mlrd dolari), indoeTi (97,3 mlrd dolari), indonezia (135,7 mlrd dolari), ruseTi (134 mlrd dolari), CineTi (180 mlrd
dolari) da TurqeTi (115,1 mlrd dolari).
ganuviTarebeli qveynebis sagareo davalianebis problema gansakuTrebiT gamwvavda mas Semdeg, rac axal miRebul sesxsa da adre miRebuli sesxebis gastumrebas
Soris uaryofiTi saldo warmoiSva. magaliTad, 1984
wels `mesame samyaros` qveynebma adre aRebuli sesxis
momsaxurebasa da valis dafarvaze 92 mlrd dolari
gadaixades, xolo axali sesxi 85 mlrd dolaris odenobiT miiRes. 1983-86 wlebSi, sagareo valTan dakavSirebiT, ganuviTarebelma qveynebma 400 mlrd dolari
(maT Soris sargebeli 204 mlrd dolari) gadaixades.
amave periodSi maT mxolod 344 mlrd dolaris axali
sesxi (uaryofiTi saldo _ 56 mlrd dolari) miiRes.
es cifrebi metyveleben axali mwvave ekonomikuri
problemebis gaCenaze - sesxebi xmardeba adre aRebuli
valis dafarvas da ara kapitalis dagrovebas, romelic,
rogorc ukve iTqva, ekonomikuri zrdis aucilebeli
495
pirobaa, anu `mojadoebuli wridan` erTaderTi gamosavalia. aseTma situaciam movale qveynebis ekonomikuri
zrdis tempebi Seamcira.
sagareo davalianebis sferoSi Camoyalibebuli
mdgomareoba metad mniSvnelovania saqarTvelosaTvis,
romlis sagareo valma 2005 wlisaTvis 1,5 mlrd dolars
gadaaWarba. sakmarisia aRiniSnos, rom 2000-2005 wlebis monacemebiT, saqarTvelos sagareo valze gadasaxdelebma
(momsaxurebis Tanxebma) eqsportis 95% Seadgina. sakmaod SesamCnevia sagareo valis wili mSp-Si. momavalSi
saqarTvlos kvlav mouwevs sagareo sesxebis aReba. amis
gareSe SeuZlebeli iqneba qveynis ekonomikuri ganviTareba da efeqtiani CarTva Sromis saerTaSoriso danawilebaSi.
saqarTvelos ekonomikuri ganviTarebis perspeqtivebi. ekonomikuri zrdisa da ganvi-
Tarebis Sesaxeb zogadi warmodgena SesaZleblobas iZleva gamoviyenoT igi Cveni erovnuli ekonomikis awmyos
Sefasebisa da erTiani samomavlo xedvis SemuSavebisaTvis.
qveynisaTvis, ra Tqma unda, ganmsazRvreli mniSvneloba
aqvs politikuri damoukideblobis, demokratizaciis,
sabazro ekonomikis TandaTanobiT srulyofis process.
marTalia, cxovrebis donis, Semosavlebis mixedviT
saqarTvelo jerjerobiT uRaribesi qveynebis jgufSia,
magram samagierod, ganaTlebis doniT, anu adamianiseuli
kapitaliT igi saSualod ganviTarebuli industriuli
qveynebis jgufs ganekuTvneba. rogori iqneba saqarTvelo momavalSi, es damokidebulia imaze, Tu rogor gam496
oiyenebs igi arsebul potencials.
amisaTvis aucilebelia dRes arsebuli mZime mdgomareobidan gamosvlis daCqareba, ekonomikuri reformis
sistemuri da Tanmimdevruli ganxorcieleba da msoflio meurneobaSi efeqtiani integracia.
dRemde ekonomikuri strategiis safuZvelia antiinflaciuri politika erToblivi moTxovnis SemcirebiT da fulis masis regulirebiT. maRali inflaciis
daZleva amiT marTlac miRweulia, magram es sakmarisi ar
aris. axlandeli da momavali Taobebis cxovrebis maRali xarisxis uzrunvelsayofad saWiroa myari ekonomikuri
zrdis damkvidreba.
saqarTvelos uaxloesi da Soreuli momavali,
uwinares yovlisa, imaze iqneba damokidebuli, Tu rogori
warmatebuli iqneba qveyanaSi mimdinare reformebi, rogor
SeZlebs qveyana konkurentuli upiratesobis dauflebas
msoflio meurneobis sistemaSi da masSi efeqtian integracias.
reformis strategiam unda uzrunvelyos mTavari
- rogorc inflaciis daZleva, finansuri stabilizaciis
miRweva, aseve myar ekonomikur ganviTarebaze gadasvla. amisaTvis ki aucilebelia: jer erTi, krizisidan
gamosvlis formulis realizacia, romelic gulisxmobs
erTdroulad da Tanabari proporciiT investiciebisa
da samomxmareblo moTxovnis stimulirebas; da meorec,
ekonomikuri zrdis, anu simdidris formulis realizacias, romlis mixedviTac, rac ufro mdidaria mosaxleoba, miT ufro maRalia misi yidviTunarianoba, miT ufro
metia warmoebis gafarToebisa da ganaxlebis SesaZle497
bloba.
saqarTvelos konkurentuli upiratesobebis damkvidrebisaTvis, ra Tqma unda, udidesi mniSvneloba aqvs mis
satranzito-savaWro funqcias, `abreSumis gzis`
saerTaSoriso proeqtis ganxorcielebas. igi udavod
did wvlils Seitans sazRvargareTuli investiciebis
mozidvaSi, saqarTvelos usafrTxoebis uzrunvelyofaSi.
magram mxolod es sakmarisi ver iqneba.
aucilebelia saeqsporto warmoebis daCqarebuli ganviTareba. am mxriv didi SesaZleblobebia
mtknari mineraluri wylebis, soflis meurneobrivi da
kvebis mrewvelobis produqciis, feromanganumis, Savi da
feradi metalurgiis, eleqtroteqnikuri nawarmis eqsportisaTvis.
aseve didi SesaZleblobebia sxvadasxva daniSnulebis mecnierebatevadi produqciis, avtomobilebisa
da TviTmfrinavebis eqsportis ganviTarebisaTvis. kvalificiuri kadrebisa da mecnieruli potencialis arseboba amis realur saSualebas iZleva. udavod didi
perspeqtivebia turizmis ganviTarebisaTvisac.
am SesaZleblobebis ganxorcieleba damokidebulia
saerTaSoriso garemoze, imaze, Tu rogor Caewereba
saqarTvelo msoflio meurneobaSi.
miuxedavad Tanamedrove siZneleebisa, sakmaod damaimedebeli tendenciebi ikveTeba. maT Soris aris saqarTvelos mWidro urTierTobebi saerTaSoriso ekonomikur
organizaciebTan, misi gawevrianeba evropis sabWoSi. ganixileba winadadeba 2010 wlisaTvis evropis kavSirSi 28
saxelmwifos gaerTianebis Sesaxeb, erTiani evropis Camoy498
alibebis proeqtis farglebSi, rac imas niSnavs, rom
gaZlierdeba TanamSromloba am organizaciasTan saqarTvelos socialur-ekonomikuri ganviTarebis daCqarebis
mizniT.
demokratiuli ganviTareba, sabazro ekonomikaze
gadasvla, msoflios axali wesrigis Camoyalibeba saqarTvelos ganviTarebisaTvis sruliad axal SesaZleblobebs
warmoSobs. mas inteleqtualuri da yvela sxva resursi
aqvs imisaTvis, rom istoriulad xanmokle periodSi
daZlios CamorCeniloba da maRalganviTarebul qveynad
gadaiqces.
499
?
testebi SeZenili codnis
SemowmebisaTvis
1. mosaxleobis erT sulze mSp-is sididis
Semcireba imas niSnavs, rom mocemul qveyanaSi:
a. adgili aqvs warmoebis arsebiT matebas;
b. mosaxleobis zrdis tempi CamorCeba mSp-is
zrdis temps;
g. mSp-is zrdis tempi CamorCeba mosaxleobis
zrdis temps;
d. adgili aqvs mosaxleobis umniSvnelo zrdas.
2. `70 sididis wesis` Tanaxmad, 3,5%-iani
zrdis wliuri tempis pirobebSi mosaxleobis
erT sulze mSp-is gaormagebisaTvis saWiroa:
a. 10 weli;
b. 15 weli;
g. 20 weli;
d. 25 weli.
3. klasikur makroekonomikur wonasworobaSi ekonomikis ganviTarebas gulisxmobs:
a. nulovani zrdis koncefcia;
b. maCvenebliTi zrdis koncefcia;
g. faqtobrivi zrdis koncefcia;
d. gawonasworebuli zrdis koncefcia.
4. erovnuli warmoebis moculobis wliuri
500
procentuli gadidebis SesaZleblobas aRniSnavs:
a. eqstensiuri zrda;
b. potenciuri zrda;
g. intensiuri zrda;
d. faqtobrivi zrda.
5. produqciis gamoSvebis intensiuri zrdis
warmoebis faqtorebis erToblivi mwarmoeblurobisagan damokidebulebis modeli maTematikurad
aRwera:
a. forestiem;
b. rostoum;
g. lasferiem;
d. soloum.
6. giorgi 22 wlis asakSi moewyo samuSaoze
(30000-lariani wliuri SemosavliT). amasTan, misi
Semosavali izrdeba 2,5%-iani siswrafiT weliwadSi. `70 sididis wesis` Tanaxmad, 28 wlis Semdeg, e.i. 50 wlis asakSi giorgi weliwadSi miiRebs:
a. 40000 lars;
b. 50000 lars;
g. 60000 lars;
d. 65000 lars;
7. `fordis` sawarmo meqsikaSi, romlis Semosavlebis nawili repatrirdeba aSS-Si, yelaze metad adidebs:
a. meqsikis mSp-s;
b. aSS-is mSp-s;
g. meqsikis mep-s;
501
d. aSS-is mep-s.
8. keTildReobis zrdis kvalobaze Sobadobis
dacemis ekonomikuri axsna ekuTvnis:
a. hari bekers;
b. robert solous;
g. Jan batist seis;
d. Tomas malTuss.
9. maRalganviTarebul qveynebSi ekonomikuri
zrdis mTavari faqtori aris:
a. samuSao drois moculobis gadideba;
b. gamoyenebuli kapitalis moculobis gadideba;
g. uaxlesi teqnologiebis gamoyeneba warmoebaSi;
d. ekonomikuri zrdis xelSemwyobi saxelmwifos fulad-sakredito politikis ganxorcieleba.
10. ganuviTarebeli qveynebis mSp-Si kapitaldabandebis wilis 1%-iT gadideba iwvevs ekonomikuri
zrdis tempis matebas:
a. 0,35-iT;
b. 0,45-iT;
g. 0,55-iT;
d. 0,65-iT.
502
9
Tema
m a kr oe ko n o m i ku r i
ganviTarebis
arastabiluroba:
ekonomikuri meryeoba,
umuSevroba da inflacia
`arc yvelaze mdidari qveynebisaTvis aris sruliad garantirebuli maTi Semdgomi ayvaveba da arc ekonomikuri autsaiderebi arian ganwiruli samudamo siRatakisaTvis.~
gr.menqiu
stabilur ekonomikaSi cxovreba yvela adamianis
sanukvari ocnebaa, radgan igi uzrunvelyofs warmatebis
SesaZleblobas da sazogadoebas icavs arasasurveli
moulodnelobebisagan. Znelia am ocnebis axdena dRevandel saqarTveloSi, sadac mimdinareobs erTi ekonomikuri
sistemidan meoreSi mtkivneulad gadasvla. bevr iseT
qveyanasac ki, sadac demokratia da sabazro ekonomika
503
didi xania arsebobs, mudmivi ekonomikuri stabiluroba
aseve rCeba miuwvdomel miznad. am qveynebs periodulad
aryevs ekonomikuri destabilizacia.
wina TemaSi aRiniSna, rom ekonomikuri zrda ar
aris ekonomikis TandaTanobiTi (narnari) aRmasvla. igi,
praqtikulad, zemoT da qvemoT mimarTuli naxtomebis
seriis saxiT xorcieldeba da, amdenad, ar SeiZleba misi
grafikuli gamosaxva aRmavali pirdapiri xazis meSveobiT. aseT SemTxvevaSi bunebrivad Cndeba kiTxva: maS, rogoria
sinamdvileSi ekonomikuri moZraobis xazi? am kiTxvaze
pasuxs mocemuli Temis SeswavliT vi poviT.
leqcia 25. ekonomikuri meryeoba
da ekonomikis ganviTarebis
cikluroba
` ek o no m ikur i cx o vre bis
TiTqmis yvela movlena, rogorc
bevri sxva procesi: socialuri,
meteorologiuri da sxv., mimdinareobs aRmavali da daRmavali moZraobiT, talRebis Tanmimdevrobis saxiT.~
e. slucki
ekonomikuri meryeobis arsi, mizezebi da formebi. yoveli sazogadoeba cdilobs mi-
aRwios uwyvet ekonomikur zrdas, sruli dasaqmebisa da
fasebis stabiluri donis pirobebSi. msoflio ekonomikis
istoriaSi SeimCneva ekonomikis sagrZnobi zrda da cxovrebis donis mateba. magram grZelvadian ekonomikur
zrdas periodulad Tan axlda da axlavs ekonomikuri
arastabiluroba, rac gamoixateboda warmoebis mkveTri
daqveiTebiT.
mokled rom vTqvaT, adamianTa saqmianobis praqtika
miuTiTebs ekonomikuri ganviTarebis pirobebis cvalebadobaze. ekonomikurma aRmavlobam SeiZleba ganapirobos
ekonomikuri daqveiTeba, anu ekonomikuri krizisi, romelsac
mohyveba mSp-is, dasaqmebisa da mosaxleobis realuri
Semosavlis Semcireba. Semdeg, es procesi SeiZleba ganmeordes, anu aRmavlobas kvlav mohyves axali daqveiTeba
(krizisi).
504
505
aRmavlobisa da daqveiTebis amgvar monacvleobas
xSirad saqmiani aqtivobis cikls an, ubralod,.ekonomikur cikls uwodeben. magram, ciklebis umetesi nawilisagan gansxvavebiT, ekonomikuri cikli Zalze araregularulia da, amdenad, umjobesia es perioduli aRmavloba da daqveiTeba, uwinares yovlisa, ekonomikur meryeobad
ganvixiloT. amrigad, saqmiani aqtivobis cikli (anu
ekonomikuri cikli) aris aRmavlobisa da daqveiTebis monacvleoba ekonomikaSi (ekonomikuri meryeoba).
ekonomikuri meryeoba warmoadgens makroekonomikis umniSvnelovanes maCvenebelTa gadaxras maTi mdgradi mdgomareobidan, moZraobis traeqtoriidan (uwyveti
xazidan). amgvar gadaxrebs, romlebic gvaxsenebs talRisebur ryevebs, warsulSic hqonda adgili da momavalSic eqneba. maT SeiZleba iwvevdes ekonomikuri pirobebis cvlilebebi, saerTaSoriso movlenebi, politikuri
gadawyvetilebebi, omebi da teqnologiuri cvlilebebi.
talRisebur ryevebs eqvemdebareba erovnul meurneobaSi gadamwyveti socialur-ekonomikuri cvlilebebis maxasiaTebeli Semdegi ZiriTadi maCveneblebi:
 warmoebisa da Semosavlis moculoba mTlianad
qveyanaSi (mSp da erovnuli Semosavali);
 samuSao Zalis dasaqmeba;
 fasebis done qveynis ekonomikis masStabiT.
am ZiriTad maCveneblebze didad aris damokidebuli Semdegi warmoebuli cvladi sidideebi:
 mTliani mogebis moculoba erovnul meurneobaSi (damokidebulia warmoebis moculobasa da fasebis
doneze);
506
 sasesxo sargeblis norma (damokidebulia mogebis normasa da fasebis doneze).
clkeuli ekonomikuri ryevebi erTimeorisagan gansxvavdebian TavianTi masStabebiTa da vadianobiT. am niSnis mixedviT, isini SeiZleba iyos: a) moklevadiani, b)
saSulovadiani da g) grZelvadiani.
moklevadiani ekonomikuri ryevebi asaxavs erovnuli
warmoebis moculobis, samuSao Zalis dasaqmebis da fasebis
donis SedarebiT mcire masStabisa da xangrZlivobis
cvlilebebs.
aseTi meryeobebi gamowveulia, magaliTad, sasoflo-sameurneo produqtebis bazris koniunqturis (mdgomareobis) sezonuri cvlilebebiT. axali mosavlis aRebis
Semdeg izrdeba, vTqvaT, bostneulisa da xilis gayidvebi
da mcirdeba maTi fasebi. gazafxulisaTvis am produqtebis gayidvaTa moculobebi mcirdeba, fasebi ki izrdeba.
mTlianad, wlis ganmavlobaSi ekonomikuri zrda midis
ZiriTadi xazidan mcireodeni gadaxrebiT.
saSualovadiani ekonomikuri ryevebi niSnavs mniSvnelovan gadaxrebs wonasworobis mdgomareobidan
erovnul meurneobaSi. rogorc istoria mowmobs, XIX
saukunidan dawyebulma aseTi ryevebis veeberTela amplitudam (rxevaTa manZilma) daarRvia sameurneo ganviTarebis normaluri msvleloba da safrTxe Seuqmna
erovnul ekonomikur usafrTxoebas. saSualo sididis
talRebma gamoiwvia ekonomikuri cikli (saqmiani aqtivobis cikli).
grZelvadiani ekonomikuri ryevebi (anu `grZelvadiani talRebi`) xasiaTdeba warmoebis Zalian didi
aRmavlobebiTa da dacemebiT. mecnieruli hipoTezis Tanax507
mad, aseTi ryeva meordeba daaxloebiT yoveli 50 wlis
Semdeg. isini warmoiSoba Sromis saSualebaTa ganaxlebis Sedegad sazogadoebis masStabiT da dakavSirebulia
mogebis normis amaRlebasTan an daqveTebasTan.
grZelvadiani ekonomikuri meryeoba seriozul mecnierul gamokvlevas saWiroebs. amitom Cven aq detalurad gavecnobiT SedarebiT xSirad ganmeorebad `saSualo talRebs`, miT ufro, rom, rogorc ukve aRvniSneT,
swored isini edeba safuZvlad ekonomikur ciklebs.
ekonomikuri ciklis zogadi mimoxilva. ekonomikurma mecnierebam, da sameurneo praq-
tikam jer kidev XIX saukuneSi daadgina, rom ekonomikur
ciklSi monacvleobs qveynis meurneobis ori sruliad
gansxvavebuli mdgomareoba.
pirveli maTgania erovnuli meurneobis ZiriTadi proporciebis (magaliTad, dovlaTis warmoebasa
da moxmarebas, yvela saqonlis miwodebasa da maTze moTxovnas, saqonlisa da fulis nakadebs Soris) wonasworoba. ekonomikis aseTi mdgomareoba uzrunvelyofs
warmoebis procesis, samuSao Zalis dasaqmebis mdgradobas da sabazro fasebis ucvlelobas.
meore SemTxvevaSi mkveTrad irRveva makroekonomikis mTavari proporciebis dadgenili wonasworoba, rac gamowveulia sasaqonlo warmoebisa da bazris stiqiuri ganviTarebiT. wonasworobis aseTma darRvevam SeiZleba iseT krizisul mdgomareobas miaRwios,
rac gamoiwvevs ekonomikuri organizmis Zlier `daavadebas`.
TvalsaCino warmodgenas, magaliTad, sazRvao gemis
508
mdgradobis an aramdgradobis Sesaxeb iZleva wyalxazi
_ xomaldis bortis gaswvriv gavlebuli xazi, romelic
uCvenebs gemis zRvrul wyalSigs misi sruli datvirTvisaTvis. erovnuli meurneobisaTvis Taviseburi wyalxazis rolSi gamodis makroekonomikur maCvenebelTa zRvrulad dasaSvebi mniSvnelobebi. isini iZlevian signals
erovnuli Semosavlis saSiSi Semcirebis, samuSao Zalis
dasaqmebis klebis (umuSevrobis zrdis), fasebis donis
amaRlebisa da sazogadoebis cxovelmoqmedebis sxva mniSvnelovani pirobebis Sesaxeb.
ekonomikur ciklebs mniSvnelovani adgili ukavia
erToblivi miwodebisa da erToblivi moTxovnis
ekonomikur analizSi. aq gansakuTrebul garkvevas saWiroebs sakiTxi imis Sesaxeb, Tu erToblivi miwodebis da
erToblivi moTxovnis ra cvlilebebi udevs safuZvlad
ekonomikuri ciklis ti pur brunvas. davuSvaT, rom investiciebis Semcirebis Sedegad ekonomika gamovida wonasworobis wertilidan. aseT SemTxvevaSi mkveTrad mcirdeba erToblivi moTxovna, xolo erToblivi miwodeba
praqtikulad ucvleli rCeba. saboloo angariSiT, ekonomika aRmoCndeba wonasworobis axal wertilSi: Semcirdeba gamoSvebac da fasebic. aRmavlobis dros ki sawinaaRmdego tendencia yalibdeba: izrdeba er|Toblivi moTxovna; matulobs gamoSveba, romelic uaxlovdeba an aWarbebs potenciur mSp-s; izrdeba fasebi.
ekonomikur ciklSi xdeba sxvaobis Semcireba an
gadideba potenciur da realur mTlian Sida
produqtebs Soris . ekonomikuri daqveiTebis dros
sxvaoba maT Soris izrdeba, xolo warmoebis moculobis Semcireba, Tavis mxriv, iwvevs umuSevrobis donis
509
amaRlebas. moTxrobaSi `alisa saswaulebis qveyanaSi` _
vxvdebiT aseT gamoTqmas: `zogjer saWiroa irbino mxolod imisaTvis, rom imave adgilze darCe`. es mosazreba zustad Seesabameba mSp-is zrdasa da umuSevrobas,
radgan rom ar amaRldes umuSevrobs done, realuri mSp
iseve swrafad unda izrdebodes, rogorc potenciuri
mSp. vTqvaT, potenciuri mSp wliurad izrdeba 5%-iT, am
SemTxvevaSi umuSevrobis done rom ar amaRldes, aucilebelia realuri mSp-is 5%-iT wliuri zrda.
rogorc aRiniSna, ekonomikur ciklamde mivyavarT
erToblivi miwodebisa da erToblivi moTxovnis urTierTqmedebas, magram rogoria ekonomikuri ciklis istoria? ra ZiriTadi niSnebiT xasiaTdeba ekonomikuri
cikli? rogoria ekonomikuri ciklis ZiriTadi Teoriebi
da modelebi? ra urTierTkavSiri arsebobs ekonomikur
da politikur riskebs Soris? rogor SeiZleba
ekonomikuri ciklis garegan da Sinagan faqtorTa Sefaseba da prognozireba? yvela am kiTxvaze metnaklebad
pasuxs iZleva ekonomikuri ciklebis ufro zusti
faqtobrivi aRwera da analizi .
ekonomikuri ciklis istoria. calkeu-
li ekonomikuri ciklebi erTimeorisagan gansxvavdebian
xangrZlivobiT da intensiurobiT. arc erTi cikli zustad ar imeorebs meores. magram, miuxedavad amisa, maT
mainc aqvT bevri saerTo niSani: daqveiTeba (krizisi),
depresia (fskeri), aRmavloba (gamococxleba) da bumi
(piki) yoveli ekonomikuri ciklisaTvis damaxasiaTebeli saerTo fazebia, romelTa saxelwodebebi ekonomikur
literaturaSi sxvadasxvagvrad aris warmodgenili.
510
garkveuli gagebiT, ekonomikuri ciklebi mTis qedebs
gvagonebs, romelTac aqvT mwvervalebisa da xeobebis
sxvadasxva done. zogi xeoba Zalze Rrmaa, rogorc es
iyo 1929-1933 ww. msoflio ekonomikuri krizisis dros,
zogi ki _ nakleb Rrma (1980-1982 ww.).
ekonomikuri ciklebi periodulad meordeba. droiTi
momentis gaTvaliswinebiT, ekonomikur cikls uwodeben periods erTi krizisidan meoremde an erTidan
Semdgom bumamde. saSualod, daaxloebiT 5 weli gadis
erTi krizisis dawyebidan meoris dawyebamde, an erTidan
Semdgom bumamde.
pirvelad ekonomikuri cikli aRiniSna 1825 wels
inglisSi, roca ifeTqa pirvelma sayovelTao krizisma.
Semdeg mas ,mohyva 1836 wlis ekonomikuri krizisi. mesame krizisi daiwyo 1847 wels, meoTxe ki _ 1857 wels.
es ukanaskneli ukve warmoadgenda msoflio ekonomikur
kriziss.
XIX saukunis meore naxevarSi ekonomikuri krizisebi ufro gaxSirda. ase magaliTad, 1857 wlis kriziss mohyva 1866 wlis krizisi. Semdeg krizisebi ganmeorda 1873, 1882 da 1890 wlebSi.
XX saukunis pirveli ekonomikuri krizisi daiwyo
1900 wels, romelsac mohyva 1907 wlis krizisi. pirvelma
msoflio omma daarRvia momdevno krizisis ganmeoreba,
magram omis damTavrebis Semdeg (1920-1921 ww.) daiwyo
axali ekonomikuri krizisi. mas mohyva industriuli
qveynebis ekonomikis stabilizacia, romelmac warmoSva
manamde arnaxuli siZlieris 1929-1933 wlebis ekonomikuri krizisi, romelic umagaliTo iyo Tavisi siRrmiT,
simwvaviT da xangrZlivobiT. swored am krizisma mouRo
511
8.3
4.3
6
2.4
1.2
6
1990-1991
6.4
8.1
15
2.6
15
1981-1982
3.2
8.5
4.4
6
9.1
3
1980
2.4
9.1
13.2
18
3.5
15
1973-1975
4.3
5.0
6.0
15
1.5
9
1969-1970
1.1
7.4
7.4
12
1.4
9
1960-1961
1.0
3.6
11.9
15
7.0
6
1957-1958
3.5
8.1
8.1
12
3.0
12
3.0
6.1
1953-1954
samrewvelo warmoeba
7.5
15
2.0
2.0
12
daqveiTebis
xangrZlivoba
(TveebSi)
wlebi
1948-1949
daqveiTebis
siRrme
(%)
mTliani erovnuli produqti
daqveiTebis
wl iu ri
tewmpi
(%)
cxrili 9.1
meore msoflio omisSemdgomi periodis ekonomikuri krizisebi aSS-Si
daqveiTebis
xangrZlivoba
(TveebSi)
512
daqveiTebis
siRrme
(%)
* unda SevniSnoT, rom ekonomikuri krizisebi mravalgvaria
TavianTi gamovlenis formebiT. maTSi gamoiyofa, uwinares yovlisa, warmoebis saerTo daqveiTeba mTlianad erovnul
meurneobaSi. maTTan erTad an calke mimdinareobs kerZo krizisebi (meurneobis romelime sferosa Tu dargSi), magaliTad,
finansuri krizisi _ saxelmwifo finansebis siRrmiseulad
moSla; savaluto krizisi _ erovnuli valutis gaufasureba; fulad-sakredito krizisi _ komerciuli da sabanko
kreditebis mkveTrad Semcireba; agraruli krizisi _ sasoflo-sameurneo produqciis gasaRebis mkveTrad Seferxeba.
daqveiTebis
wl iu ri
tewmpi
(%)
bolo Laisser faire doqtrinas da ganapiroba ekonomikaSi
saxelmwifos rolis gaZliereba. 1937-1938 wlebSi ifeTqa axalma ekonomikurma krizisma, magram meore msoflio omis dawyebam xeli SeuSala mis Semdgom gaRrmavebas.
meore msoflio omis Semdgom periodSi, marTalia,
ar yofila damangreveli siZlieris ekonomikuri krizisi,* magram isini periodulad mainc `azanzarebdnen`
industriul qveynebs, gansakuTrebiT aSS-s (ix. cxrili
9.1).
cxrilSi asaxuli statistikuri maCveneblebi mowmobs meore msoflio omis Semdgomi periodis aSS-Si
momxdar warmoebis 9 daqveiTebaze (krizisze). sagulisxmoa,
rom XXI saukunis dasawyisSi aSS-ma gadaitana axali
ekonomikuri krizisi, xolo 2003 wlidan daiwyo warmoebis aRmavlobis faza.
es kidev erTxel adasturebs im WeSmaritebas, rom
warmoebis perioduli daqveiTeba mxolod calkeuli
qveynebis xvedri ki ar aris, sadac raRaca mizezTa gamo
513
ekonomikuri ciklis fazebis daxasiaTeba. ekonomikur cikls, weliwadis msgavsad, aqvs
`droebi`: daqveiTebas cvlis aRmavloba. amis gaTvaliswinebiT, ekonomikuri cikli warmoadgens erovnuli
ekonomikis iseT ukuqceviT-winsvliT moZraobas, romlis
msvlelobaSi is gadadis erTi dapirispirebuli mdgomareobidan meoreSi _ warmoebis daqveiTebidan mis aRmavlobaSi. cikluroba (wriuli moZraobis ganmeoreba)
vlindeba imaSi, rom sameurneo saqmianobaSi periodulad
meordeba ganviTarebis zemoT aRniSnuli oTxi faza (momenti): 1. daqveiTeba (krizisi), 2. depresia (fskeri), 3.
aRmavloba (gamococxleba) da bumi (piki) (ix. nax. 9.1).
amrigad, ekonomikuri cikli aris makroekonomikis
wriuli moZraoba, romelSic Tanmimdevrulad meordeba fazebi _ daqveiTeba (krizisi), depresia
(fskeri), aRmavloba (gamococxleba) da bumi (piki).
9.1 naxazze warmodgenili ekonomikuri ciklis
saerTo konturi gviCvenebs, Tu rogor moZraobs erovnuli ekonomika depresiidan bumamde da, piriqiT. es aris
stilizebuli cikli, is Tanabaria da regularuli. aq
Cven SegviZlia movnaxoT ciklis oTxive fazas Soris
arsebuli gansxvavebani. magram, rogorc ukve aRiniSna,
ekonomikuri cikli, praqtikulad, araregularulia. miuxedavad amisa, ciklebi advilad gasarCevia erTimeorisagan. es gansakuTrebiT SesaZlebeli iqneba im SemTxvevaSi,
Tu vertikalur RerZze aisaxeba ganviTarebis siswrafe
da ara warmoebis done.
514
bumi
erovnuli warmoebis done
warumateblad moewyo sameurneo ganviTareba, aramed is
damaxasiaTebelia `ayvavebuli` saxelmwifoebisTvisac.
a R m a v lo b a
bumi
t en d
a R m a v lo b a
da qv ei Te ba
da qv ei Te ba
e nc i
a
d e p r e si a
d e p r e si a
5
10
15
dro wlebSi
nax. 9.1. ekonomikuri ciklis fazebi
aseTi mdgomareoba naCvenebia 9.2 naxazze, sadac gamosaxulia saqmiani aqtivobis ciklebi iaponiaSi, did
britaneTSi, safrangeTSi, germaniasa da aSS-Si 1971-dan
2000 wlis CaTvliT. marTalia, es naxazi martiv suraTs
ar hgavs, magram sakmaod kargad asaxavs ekonomikuri
aRmavlobisa da daqveiTebis monacvleobas. ekonomikis
ayvavebis periodebi Sua xazis zemoTaa, xolo ekonomikur
siZneleTa periodebi _ am xazis qvemoT
ekonomikuri ciklis fazebs Soris arsebuli ZiriTadi gansxvavebis Sesaxeb SeiZleba vimsjeloT 9.2 cxrilis mixedviT.
ekonomikuri ciklis amosaval fazas, tradiciulad,
515
warmoadgens daqveiTeba (krizisi) . am fazas maSin aqvs
adgili, rodesac realuri mSp mcirdeba zedized ori
kvartlis (6 Tvis) ganmavlobaSi. saubaria imis Sesaxeb,
rom rodesac qveyanaSi mimdinareobs saqonlisa da momsaxurebis Warbwarmoeba (miwodeba mniSvnelovnad aWarbebs moTxovnas), am momentSi ekonomikuri zrdis done
da tempebi zRvrulad dasaSveb zomaze qvemoT ecema.
samrewvelo da savaWro sawarmoTa didi masa kotrdeba.
darCenili sawarmoebi samuSaodan iTxoven muSakebs, amcireben nedleulis moculobas, rasac mosdevs warmoebis Sekveca da umuSevrobis zrda. warmoebis Semcireba
asustebs moTxovnas nedleulze. Sesabamisad, klebulobs
nedleulis fasebi da mcirdeba maTi miwodeba. sazogadoebaSi irRveva sakredito kavSirebi, yvela mewarme ganicdis mwvave moTxovnlebas sakredito saSualebebze
swrafad warmoqmnili valebis dasafarad da amitom mniS-
516
ekonomikis
mdgomareoba
ci k l is
depresia
(fskeri)
miwodebisa da
moTxovnis
wonasworoba
bazari (miwodebisa miwodeba
da moTxovnis Tana- mniSvnelovnad
fardoba)
aWarbebs moTxovnas
bumi
(piki)
dasaqmebis swrafi zrda
miwodebis zrda kri- miwodeba win uswrebs
moTxovnis zrdas
zisamdel donemde
dasaqmebis gadideba
warmoebis aRdgena kr- warmoebis krizisamdeizisiamdel donemde li donis gadameteba
aRmavloba
(gamococxleba)
fa ze bi
krediti da saban- mwvave moTxovnileba sabanko sargeblis
ko sargebeli
kreditze, izrdeba dabali ganakveTi
sabanko sargebeli
fulze moTxovnis ama- didi moTxovna sakreRleba, sabanko sargeb- dito saSualebebze,
maRali sabanko sargelis zrda
beli
saqonelTa fasebi fasebis Semcireba
fasebis dabali done sabazro fasebis amaRleba fasebis spekulaciuri
zrda
mogeba
mogebis moculobisa mogebis dabali
kapitalis momgebiano- mogebis umaRlesi
norma
da normis vardna
norma
bis amaRleba
umciresi dasaqmeba
samuSao Zalis da- dasaqmebis mkveTri
saqmeba
Semcireba
warmoebis
warmoebis gaCereba
moculobaTa dacema (uZraoba)
daqveiTeba
(krizisi)
cxrili 9.2
ekonomikuri ciklis fazaTa ZiriTadi gansxvavebebi
nax. 9.2. saqmiani aqtivobis ciklebi zogierT
ganviTarebul qveyanaSi (1971-2000 ww.)
warmoeba
wliuri siCqare
iaponia
didi b r itaneT i
s af r a ng e T i
g e r ma n i a
aS S
517
vnelovnad izrdeba sabanko sargeblis norma. ekonomikuri
daqveiTebis dros mkveTrad ecema mogebis moculoba da
norma. amis winaswari mauwyebelia aqciebis kursis dacema.
sxva ra mizezebic ar unda iyos, sawarmoTa da momxmarebelTa xarjebis Semcireba daqveiTebis (krizisis)
dasawyiss moaswavebs.
daqveiTeba mTavrdeba meore faziT _ depresiiT.
depresiis periodSi ekonomika ciklis yvelaze dabal
wertils (fskers ) aRwevs, sadac iqmneba pirobebi krizisidan gamosasvlelad; sawarmoTa umravlesoba arasruli simZlavriT muSaobs an, saerTod, gaCerebulia; umuSevroba maRal donezea; umniSvnelo moTxovnis gamo, izrdeba
Tavisufali fuladi kapitalis moculoba da minimumamde mcirdeba sabanko sargeblis ganakveTi; saqonlisa da
momsaxurebis miwodeba wyvets moTxovnaze gadaWarbebas,
saqonlis gamoSvebis Sewyveta ki amcirebs maTs miwodebas moTxovnis donemde; ekonomikis momgebianoba imyofeba dabal doneze; mcirdeba fasebi warmoebis saSualebebze da iafdeba krediti, rac xels uwyobs gafarToebuli kvlavwarmoebis aRdgenas axal teqnikur da teqnologiur safuZvelze.
garkveuli drois Semdeg ekonomika gajansaRebas
iwyebs, Sedis ra saqmiani aqtivobis ciklis rigiT mesame
_ aRmavlobis (gamococxlebis) fazaSi. aRmavlobis
periodSi warmoeba da, Sesabamisad, miwodeba farTovdeba
krizisamdel donemde; sasaqonlo maragebis moculoba
dgindeba bazris Seuferxebeli momaragebisaTvis aucilebel doneze; iwyeba sabazro fasebis amaRleba, rac
gamowveulia syidviTunariani moTxovnis gadidebiT; izrdeba samuSao Zalis dasaqmeba; izrdeba moTxovna fulad
518
kapitalze da sabanko sargeblis ganakveTi, rasac Tan
mohyveba kapitalis momgebianobis donis amaRleba. aRmavlobis faza, Cveulebriv, sul cota 3 wels grZeldeba
xolme. Tumca, yvelaze xangrZlivi aRmavloba aSS-is*
istoriaSi 1991 wlis martSi daiwyo da 2000 wlis
bolomde gagrZelda.
da bolos, dgeba bumis (pikis) faza. am periodSi
ekonomika yvavis: saqonlis gamoSveba aWarbebs krizisamdel dones da adgili aqvs samuSao Zalis dasaqmebis
swraf zrdas; syidviTunariani moTxovnis gafarToebas
mosdevs saqonelze fasebis spekulaciuri zrda; diddeba moTxovna sakredito saSualebebze da, Sesabamisad,
izrdeba sabanko sargeblis ganakveTi; sagrZnoblad
maRldeba warmoebis momgebianoba. amrigad, bumis dros
sawarmoTa investiciebisa da momxmarebelTa xarjebis
done yvelaze maRalia. miuxedavad amisa, vinaidan ekonomika
sruli an TiTqmis sruli datvirTviT muSaobs da
saqonelsa da momsaxurebaze moTxovna diddeba, izrdeba
fasebic da, Sesabamisad, momgebianobac.
saqmiani aqtivobis ciklis zemoT aRwerili moZraoba ZiriTadad damaxasiaTebelia sabazro urTierTobaTa
Camoyalibeba-ganviTarebis adreuli periodisa da dRevandeli gardamavali ekonomikis qveynebisaTvis. maRalganviTarebuli saxelmwifoebisaTvis ki upiratesad ti pi-
* unda SevniSnoT, rom aSS-isa da sabazro sistemis sxva
saxelmwifoTa ekonomikas gamococxlebis SesaniSnavi unari
axasiaTebs.
519
uria bumis faziT dawyebuli samiani aqtivobis ciklebi.
ek on om i kur i cik li s T eor iu li
evolucia. ciklebis warmoqmnisa da gavrcelebis
erT-erT mniSvnelovani modeli dafuZnebulia im praqtikaze, rom ciklis aRmavlobis fazaSi izrdeba xangrZlivi moxmarebis saqonlis gayidva, xolo misi realizacia ecema ekonomikuri daqveiTebis fazaSi. es mdgomareoba gasakviri ar unda iyos, radganac maRali fasebis
pirobebSi Cven SegviZlia gadavdoT axali mowyobilobis SeZena da sicocxle gavuxangrZlivoT Zvels, magram
igive moqmedeba gamoricxulia sasursaTo saqonelze.
ubralod, aq adamians SesaZlebloba ara aqvs ucados
fasebis daklebas.
bunebrivia, rom ekonomikuri ciklebis Teoriebis
umetesoba gansakuTrebul mniSvnlobas aniWebs xangrZlivi moxmarebis saqonlisa da investiciebis rols
ciklis formirebasa da ganviTarebaSi.
yvelaze adreuli ekonomikuri ciklis Teoriaa
naklebmoxmarebis koncefcia . igi ekonomikuri krizisebis mizezad miiCnevda mSromelTa masis siRaribes.
amasTan dakavSirebiT, es Teoria amarTlebda aramwarmoebluri moxmarebis gadidebas. wvrilburJuaziuli mimarTulebis warmomadgenlebi _ `wvrilburJuaziuli kritikosebi` (J.S.l.s. sismondi, j.a. hobsoni) am koncefcias iyenebdnen mSromelTa interesebis dasacavad.
aseve mSromelTa interesebis dacvas isaxavda miznad
ciklisa da ekonomikuri krizisebis marqsistuli
Teoria, romelic yvelaze srulyofiladaa mocemuli
520
marqsisa da engelsis 1857-1859 da 1861-1863 wlebis
ekonomikur xelnawerebSi da maT momdevno periodis
SromebSi. am Teorias SeiZleba aseTi formulireba mieces: ekonomikuri cikli mocemulia 4 fazaSi _ krizisi,
depresia, gacxoveleba da aRmavloba. Warbwarmoebis
ekonomikuri krizisebi kapitalizmis ganuyofeli Tanamgzavria. igi vlindeba ekonomikis yvela sferoSi. krizisebis dros saqonlis Warbwarmoeba SefardebiTia da
ara absoluturi. es imas niSnavs, rom saqonlis siWarbe
gamowveulia mosaxleobis syidviTunariani moTxovnilebis
dabali doniT da ara sazogadoebis namdvili moTxovnilebiT. SefardebiTi Warbwarmoeba, garkveuli kanonzomierebis safuZvelze, periodulad meordeba drois
gansazRvrul intervalSi.
marqsizmis klasikosebi ekonomikuri krizisebis
warmoSobis ZiriTad mizezad miiCneven kapitalizmis ZiriTad winaaRmdegobas, romelSic maT esmodaT winaaRmdegoba warmoebis sazogadoebriv xasiaTsa da warmoebis Sedegebis miTvisebis kerZo kapitalistur
formas Soris . maTi azriT, kapitalizmis ZiriTadi
winaaRmdegobis gamo kapitalisturi warmoeba gamodis
mosaxleobis syidviTunarianobis viwro sazRvrebidan.
es ki iwvevs sayovelTao disproporciulobas ekonomikaSi da arRvevs erToblivi sazogadoebrivi produqtis
realizaciis pirobebs. bazari ufro nela farTovdeba,
vidre warmoeba. sxva sityvebiT rom vTqvaT, im ciklSi,
romelSic gaivlis kapitali Tavisi kvlavwarmoebis dros,
dgeba iseTi momenti, rodesac bazari Zalze viwro aRmoCndeba warmoebisaTvis. es xdeba ciklis dasasruls.
amis Sedegad iwyeba Warbwarmoebis krizisi, romlis mo521
saspobad aucilebelia misi uSualo pirveladi mizezis
_ kapitalizmis ZiriTadi winaaRmdegobis mospoba, romelic kapitalisturi wyobilebis likvidaciiT miiRweva.
aseTia kapitalisturi ekonomikis cikluri ganviTarebis marqsistuli gageba. masSi sakmaod bevria mecnieruli analizis momenti, magram kapitalisturi ekonomikis
Tanamedrove ganviTareba da miRweuli done naklebad
adasturebs marqsizmis klasikosebis mier aRwerili
sqemis WeSmaritebas.
XIX saukunis dasasrulsa da XX saukunis dasawyisSi gavrcelda ciklis sakredito-fuladi koncefcia. monetaruli Teoria ekonomikur cikls akavSirebs
fulisa da kreditebis zrdasa da SemcirebasTan.
r.j.houtri da i.fiSeri ciklis daqveiTebis fazis warmoSobis mizezad Tvlidnen disproporciebis warmoSobas
fulis masis miwodebasa da moTxovnas Soris. ukve XX
saukunis dasawyisSi warmoiSva ekonomikis ganviTarebis
pirveli endogenuri koncefciebi. am periodSi gamoqveynda mecnieruli gamokvlevebi (tugan-baranovski, a.Spihofi
g.kaseli), romlebSic cikluri meryeoba dakavSirebulia
kapitalis dagrovebis siWarbis koncefciasTan. aftalionis azriT, moxmarebis sagnebis warmoebasa da ZiriTadi kpitalis dagrovebas Soris arsebobs specifikuri
urTierTdamokidebuleba. igi imiT vlindeba, rom samomxmareblo moTxovnis mcire cvlilebas SeuZlia gamoiwvios wminda investiciis mniSvnelovani meryeoba (aqseleraciis princi pi).
kapitalis dagroebis siWarbis sakuTari varianti
wamoayena cnobilma germanelma mecnierma i.Sumpeterma,
romelmac cikluri meryeoba daukavSira teqnikur
522
progress. misi mtkicebiT, ekonomikuri zrda cikluri
procesia da ganpirobebulia warmoebis axali aRmoCenebis
danergvis naxtomiseburi xasiaTiT.
XX s aukunis 20 -ian w lebS i gamo qvey nd a
n.kondratievis naSromi _ `koniunqturis didi ciklebi` (1928 w.), romelSic ekonomikuri krizisebi warmodgenilia rogorc xangrZlivi rigis ubralo koniunqturuli depresia. mis koncefciaSi ekonomikis grZelvadiani ganviTarebis Seswavlis amosaval punqtad miCneulia
saqonlis fasebis dinamika da ekonomikuri ciklis periodizacia dafuZnebulia ciklis orfazian modelze.
misi mtkicebiT, kapitalizmis ekonomikaSi arsebobda
Semdegi `grZeli talRebi`:
a) pirveli ciklis amaRlebuli talRa iwyeba XVIIXVIII saukuneebis mijnaze da grZeldeba 1810-1817 wlebamde. pirveli ciklis daqveiTebuli talRa _ 1810-1817
wlebis periodidan 1844-1851 wlebis periodamde;
b) meore ciklis amaRlebuli talRa _ 1844-1851
wlebis periodidan 1870-1875 wlebis periodamde; meore ciklis daqveiTebuli talRa _ 1870-1875 wlebis
periodidan 1890-1896 wlebis periodamde;
g) mesame ciklis amaRlebuli talRa _ 1890-1896
wlebis periodidan 1914-1920 wlebis periodamde; mesame ciklis mosalodneli daqveiTebuli talRa _ 19141920 wlebis periodidan.
XX saukunis 20-30-ian wlebSi farTod gavrcelda
`koniunqturis Teoria`, romelic cdilobda moeca kapitalisturi samyaros sameurneo ganviTarebis prognozireba. am koncefciis erT-erTi fuZemdebelia g.kaseli, romlis naSromi rusul enazec iTargmna. msoflio ekonomikuri
523
krizisis (1929-1933 ww.) Semdeg mravali ekonomisti
(g.kaseli, k.zingeri, i.fiSeri) Seecada ekonomikuri krizisebis mizezebi aexsnaT fulad-sakredito faqtorebis
gavleniT.
ekonomikuri ciklis axsnaSi udidesi roli Seasrula keinzis naSromma _ `dasaqmebis, sargeblisa da
fulis zogadi Teoria`. keinzuri Teoria cikls ganixilavs rogorc erovnul Semosavals, moxmarebasa da kapitalis dagrovebas Soris moZraobis urTierTdamokidebulebis Sedegs. keinzur modelSi cikluri procesebi yalibdebian efeqtiani moTxovnis dinamikurobis Sedegad, romelic, Tavis mxriv, ganisazRvreba moxmarebisa da
kapitaldabandebis funqciebiT. am modelSi mniSvnelovan
rols asrulebs multi plikatoris koeficienti
(erovnuli produqtis zrdis damokidebuleba investiciis
matebaze) da aqseleratoris koeficienti (investiciis
moculobis damokidebuleba erovnuli produqtis matebaze). am Teoriis Semdgom ganviTarebas vpoulobT
r.harodis, p.samuelsonis, hansenis, hiksis SromebSi.
keinzianur Teorias upirispirdeba ciklis monetaruli Teoria (fridmeni), romlis Tanaxmad erovnuli Semosavlisa da ciklis dinamikaSi mTavar rols
asrulebs fulis miwodebis arastabiluroba. es Teoria ekonomikur cikls akavSirebs fulis da kreditis
Semcirebasa da zrdasTan.
garda aRniSnuli Teoriebisa, arsebobs sxva metnaklebad mniSvnelovani Teoriebi. magaliTad, inovaciis
Teoria (ekonomikis cikluri meryeoba aixsneba mniSvnelovani gamogonebis danergviT), fsiqologiuri Teoria (cikli ganixileba rogorc adamianTa pesimisturi
524
da optimisturi molodinebis urTierTzemoqmedebis Sedegi), gawonasworebuli Teoria (ciklur meryeobas ganapirobebs araswori aRqma da adamianTa zedmeti Sroma),
politikuri Teoria da a.S.
ekonomikuri ciklis Teoriebis istoriaSi SeiZleba
gamoiyos sami ZiriTadi etapi: pirvel etapze XIX
saukunis meore naxevridan 1929-1933 ww. msoflio
ekonomikur krizisamde gabatonebuli iyo kapitalisturi ekonomikis TviTregulirebis idea, romlis Tanaxmad, miwodeba avtomaturad warmoSobs moTxovnas; meore etapze XX saukunis 30-iani wlebidan 60-ian
wlebamde gabatonda da gavrcelda ciklis keinzianuri
Teoria, romelic iTvaliswinebda saxelmwifos daxmarebiT `efeqtiani moTxovnis` Seqmnas. am pirobebSi ekonomika
orientirebulia moTxovnaze; mesame etapi _ 70-iani
wlebidan dakavSirebulia ciklis neoklasikuri monetaruli koncefciis aRorZinebasTan: moTxovnidan yuradRebis gadatana moxda warmoebaze, romlis safuZvelze
Camoyalibda miwodebis Teoria.
Tanamedrove ekonomikuri cikli SeiZleba ganxilul iqnes rogorc konomikur sistemaze garegani gavlena. am midgomis magaliTia ciklebis politikuri
Sinaarsi. saqme is aris, rom cikli da misi fazebi
xSirad icvleba xelisuflebis arCevisa da gadarCevis
ritmis Sesabamisad. es Tvalsazrisi eyrdnoba im dakvirvebas, rom makroekonomikur politikas gansazRvraven arCeuli oficialuri pirebi, romlebic ise warmarTaven
ekonomikis ganviTarebas, rogorc igi Seesabameba maT
politikur Sexedulebas da arCevnebSi kvlav gamarjvebas. `politikuri ciklis` Teoria Semdeg sam safuZv525
els eyrdnoba:
 politikosebis gankargulebaSia ekonomikis stimulirebis mniSvnelovani saSualebebi;
 amomrCevlebs moswonT umuSevrobis dabali done,
swrafi ekonomikuri zrdisa da dabali inflaciis periodebi;
 politikosebs surT xelmeored gamarjveba
arCevnebSi.
am sami wanamZRvridan gamomdinareobs is, rom politikuri arCevnebi bevrad gansazRvravs ekonomikaze administraciis zemoqmedebis xasiaTsa da intensivobas.
magaliTad, arCevnebis Semdeg damaxasiaTebelia mkacri
ekonomiis SemoReba pirvel or weliwadSi. igi zrdis
umuSevrobas, anelebs ekonomikis zrdis temps, magram samagierod amcirebs ekonomikaze inflaciur dawolas. es
mxolod im mizniT keTdeba, rom antiinflaciuri wamlis
mware gemo daaviwydeT axali arCevnebis dRisaTvis. mogvianebiT, arCevnebamde daaxloebiT erTi wliT adre, tardeba ekonomikis stimulirebis RonisZiebebi: mcirdeba gadasaxadebi, umjobesdeba socialuri daxmarebis programebi,
mcirdeba kreditze sargeblis ganakveTi. yovelive es
imitom keTdeba, rom saarCevno ubnebSi moqalaqeebs bumi
axsovdeT da ara ekonomikuri daqveiTeba.
amrigad, ekonomikuri cxovreba feTqavs politikis
ritmTan erTad. am sindromis Seswavlis saukeTeso magaliTia r.niqsonis 1972 wlis ganmeorebiTi arCevnebis
kampania, romelSic CarTuli aRmoCnda iseTi ekonomikuri
berketebi, rogoricaa gadasaxadebis Semcireba, xelfassa
da fasebze kontrolis daweseba, mimoqcevaSi fulis miwodebis gazrda, rac arCevnebamde 15 TviT adre ganxor526
cielda. meore magaliTia j.karteris 1980 wlis ganmeorebiTi arCevnebis Sedegebi. saarCevno kampaniis dros
j.karteri qadagebda da axorcielebda mkacr ekonomikur
politikas, romelmac mas damarcxeba moutana r.reiganTan
brZolaSi.
ekonomikuri ciklis Tanamedrove Teoriebi metwilad
dafuZnebulia multi plikatorul-aqseleratoruli
modelebis urTierTmoqmedebaze. rogorc cnobilia, saqonlis realizaciis Semcireba iwvevs investiciis aCqarebul Semcirebas. raRac wertilSi investicia aRwevs
ukiduresad dabal wertils. aqseleratoris princi pis Tanaxmad, roca saqonlis realizacia swrafad
ecema, investicia gaxdeba uaryofiTi, anu miviRebT deinvesticias. magram investiciis Semcirebas aqvs Tavisi
sazRvari. es imas niSnavs, rom saqonlis warmoebis Semcirebasac aqvs Tavisi sazRvari. rodesac investicia
maqsimalurad dabali gaxdeba, igi klebas Sewyvets, ris
Semdeg mTliani kapitaldabandeba nel-nela moimatebs da
daiwyeba ekonomikuri aRmavloba. axali kapitaldabandeba gamoiwvevs saqonlis warmoebis Semdgom zrdas multi plikatoris koeficientis saSualebiT. magram
raRac wertilSi saqonlis warmoebis zrda daiwyebs
klebas da aqseleratori iwyebs ekonomikuri aRmavlobis winaaRmdeg moqmedebas. amrigad, saxezea
ekonomikuri ciklis martivi modeli .
ekonomikuri ciklebis prognozireba. ekonomikuri ciklis fazebis prognozireba xelovnebac
aris da mecnierebac. es imiT aixsneba, rom ekonomikuri
ciklebi ar warmoadgenen warsulis meqanikur gameore527
bas. isini erTmaneTs hgvanan mxolod zogadi niSnebiT.
prognozi xSirad cdeba (amindis prognozis msgavsad),
magram ekonomikuri prognozirebis siZliere imiT vlindeba, rom wlidan wlamde prognozebis profesionali
avtorebi ufro met warmatebas aRweven imaTTan SedarebiT, vinc naklebad ganswavlulia am saqmeSi an prognozirebis dros iyenebs aramecnierul saSualebebs (vTqvaT,
rodesac ekonomikuri daqveiTebis an aRmavlobis ganWvreta dafuZnebulia mTvaris fazaTa an mzis laqebis
cvlaze).
koniunqturis mdgomareobisa da prognozirebis ganmsazRvrel maCvenebelTa sistema pirvelad e.w. `harvardis skolam` daamuSava da `harvardis barometris`
saxeliT iyo cnobili. `harvardis skolis` mamamTavari
iyo amerikeli statistikosi u.m.personi, romelmac 1919
wels gamoaqveyna statia _ `aSS-Si koniunqturis gamokvlevisa da prognzirebis meTodebis Sesaxeb`.
am skolis wabaZviT mraval qveynaSi Seiqmna ekonomikuri mdgomareobis Sefasebisa da ganviTarebis prognozirebis koniunqturis institutebi.
maTi prognozebi metwilad mcire Sedegs iZleoda.
v.koqsi, romelmac gaanaliza `standart-stetistiqis`,
`bebsonis`, `harvardis`, `brukmairis`, `mudis`, `neSnel
siti benkis` prognozebis biuroTa saqmianoba, mivida im
daskvnamde, rom 40 SemTxvevidan prognozi Sedegiani iyo
mxolod 13 SemTxvevaSi, xolo 18 SemTxvevaSi misi Sedegi
umniSvnelo iyo.
1929 wels dawyebulma ekonomikurma krizisma koniunqturis prognozebs, romlebic imave wlis Semodgomi-saTvis koniunqturis xelsayrel ganviTarebas
528
winaswarmetyvelebdnen, sastiki dartyma miayena. magram
koniunqturis prognozirebis idea mTlianad ar gamqrala. meore msoflio omis wlebSi mis rols e.w. `qveynis
ekonomikuri biujeti` asrulebda, romlis rogorc koncefcia, aseve saxelwodeba amerikelma ekonomistebma
h.kolmim da g.enslim daamuSaves.
aSS-is ekonomikuri biujeti Tavdapirvelad momavali wlis ekonomikaSi mosalodneli operaciebis gansaWvretad iyo gamiznuli. Semdeg am biujetma, rogorc
prognozirebis instrumentma, misTvis damaxasiaTebeli
niSnebi dakarga da mxolod ganvlili sami wlis angariSebis dokumentad gadaiqca. magram zogierT qveyanaSi (safrangeTi, belgia, holandia, SvedeTi...) `qveynis
ekonomikuri biujetis` koncefcia, rogorc prognizirebis instrumenti, SenaCunebul iqna.
ekonomikis prognozirebis roli gansakuTrebiT
meore msoflio omis Semdgom periodSi gaizarda. 60-ian
wlebSi ganviTarda grZelvadiani prognozirebis ori ZiriTadi ti pi: 1. mep-isa da xarjebis sxvadasxva modelis
konstruireba, romlis wanmZRvrebi mniSvnelovanwilad
damokidebuli iyo mTavrobis safinanso politikasa da
momxmarebelTa moqmedebaze; 2. mep-is erTiani modeli,
romelic varaudTa erTian sistemaze iyo dafuZnebuli.
aSS-Si grZelvadiani prognozis pirveli ti pi
1952 wels h.kolmim Seadgina 1961 wlisaTvis. man amosaval punqtad aSS-is 1951 wlis mep aiRo, romelic 329
mlrd dolars Seadgenda. am prognozSi navaraudevi iyo,
rom didi omebis Tavidan acilebis SemTxvevaSi aSS-is
mep 1961 wlisaTvis 425 mlrd dolars miaRwevda.
grZelvadiani prognozis meore ti pi 1954 wels
529
Seadgina aSS-is kongresis gaerTianebuli komisiis aparatma
1965 wlisaTvis. am prognoziT mep 365 mlrd dolaridan 535 mlrd dolaramde unda gazrdiliyo. prognozis
Tanaxmad, Tu saerTaSoriso da qveynis saSinao mdgomareoba mkveTrad ar Seicvleboda, qveynis mosaxleoba 160
mln kacidan 190 mln kacamde gaizrdeboda, xolo aqtiuri mosaxleoba _ 67-dan 79 mln kacamde. aqedan navaraudevi iyo, rom sami milioni kaci armiaSi imsaxurebda,
5,5 mln _ soflis meurneobaSi iqneboda dasaqmebuli,
60 mln _ kerZo arasasoflo sawarmoebSi, 7,5 mln _
samoqalaqo saxelmwifo samsaxurSi, xolo 3 milioni
piri umuSevari darCeboda. navaraudevi iyo samuSao kviris
xangrZlivobis 4 saaTiT Semcireba, aseve samxedro xarjebis Semcireba 52 mlrd dolaridan 40 mlrd dolaramde da a.S.
faqtobrivad, zogierT muxlSi realurma cifrebma
varauds gadaaWarba, zogSi ki Zalze CamorCa.
amerikel ekonomistTa erTi nawili Seecada sxvadasxva faqtoris (gadaxdisunariani moTxovnileba, mosaxleobis zrdis gansazRvruli tempi, dasaqmebis done,
Sromis nayofierebis gadideba...) safuZvelze daemuSavebina mep-is zrdis prognozis variantebi, romelic SeiZleba sami saxis (dabali, saSualo da maRali) iyos.
prognozis _ `aSS-is resursebi momavalSi`
avtorebis (p.lansbergi, l.fiSmani, J.fiSeri) TvalsazrisiT,
mep-is zrdis maRal variants iZleva samuSao Zalis
resursebis swrafi gadideba da saqonlisa da momsaxurebis bazrebze maRali moTxovnis arseboba. am variantis SemTxvevaSi sxvadasxva faqtoris urTierTdamokidebulebis saboloo suraTi aseT saxes Rebulobs: mo530
saxleobis swrafi zrda iwvevs samuSao Zalis resursebis maqsimalur gadidebas. es zrda, Tavis mxriv, mkveTrad
afarToebs momxmarebelTa ricxvs, romelic maRal samxedro
xarjebTan SexamebiT, warmoqmnis moTxovnis maRal dones
bazarze. es ukanaskneli ki ganapirobebs Sromisunariani
mosaxleobis dasaqmebis maRal dones da erTi momuSavis
saSualo wliuri gamomuSavebis swraf zrdas.
prognozis avtorebi cdilobdnen erTdroulad
gaeTvaliswinebinaT rogorc warmoebis, aseve moTxovnis
tendenciebi, Tumca gadamwyvet rols moTxovnas, bazars
akuTvnebdnen. prognozis avtorebi samxedro xarjebs
miiCnevdnen moTxovnis maRali donis miRwevis ganuyofel
nawilad da amiT samxedro xarjebis zrdas amarTlebdnen. garda amisa, am prognozSi auxsneli iyo dasaqmebis
maRali done Tu ra gziT gamoiwvevda TiToeuli dasaqmebuli muSakis saSualo wliuri gamomuSavebis swraf
zrdas. Tu imasac davumatebT, rom prognozSi iseTi abstraqtuli daSvebebi iyo, rogoricaa ekonomikis ukriziso ganviTareba, qveynis resursebis srulad gamoyeneba,
sawarmoTa sruli datvirTva da sxv., maSin naTeli gaxdeba
es prognozi ramdenad asaxavda ekonomikis msvlelobis
realur process.
`aSS-is resursebi momavalSi` prognozis garda
aRsaniSanvia `mak grou-hilis`, erovnuli sagegmo asociaciis, j.kendrikis, erovnuli samrewvelo konferenciis
sabWos da stenfordis kvleviTi institutis prognozebi.
ekonomikuri prognozirebis aTeulobiT meToduri
xerxi da saSualeba arsebobs, romelnic pirobiTad sam
ZiriTad jgufad iyofa: saeqsperto Sefaseba, eqstrapo531
lacia da maTematikuri modelireba.
saeqsperto Sefasebis yvelaze cnobili meTodia e.w. `delfos meTodi` , romelic daamuSaves `rend
korporeiSenis` (aSS) TanamSromlebma. konkretul problemaze damoukidebeli msjelobis safuZvelze igi saSualebas iZleva miviRoT avtoritetul eqspertTa `gansaSualebuli` Sexeduleba. am meTods, SemqmnelTa azriT,
miuxedavad garegnuli simartivisa, mravali upiratesoba
aqvs. upirveles yovlisa, gamokiTxva xdeba farulad, sajaro diskusiis gareSe, raTa Tavidan iqnes acilebuli
aRiarebuli avtoritetebis zegavlena da zogierTi monawilis midrekileba miemxros umravlesobis azrs. meore
mxriv, delfos meTodiT miRebuli Sedegebi calkeuli
mecnieris `gabrwyineba` ki ar aris, aramed, garkveuli
zomiT, koleqtiuri gonebis nayofia. da mainc, es meTodi,
miRebuli prognozis saimedobis TvalsazrisiT, arasrulyofilia.
delfos meTodis mimarT uaryofiTi pozicia daikava
`sistem divelopment korporeiSnis` direqtorma dagegmvis xaziT h.ozbekxanma. misi mtkicebiT, es meTodi ufro
metad hi poTezur monacemebs iZleva. ozbekxani met upiratesobas aZlevs logikuri eqstrapolaciis meTods,
romelsac igi miCnevs am hi poTezis damtkicebis saSualebad.
eqstrapolacia arsebuli tendenciebis azrobrivad
ganviTareba, anu gaangariSebaa. eqstrapolaciaze agebuli
prognozebi im daSvebidan gamomdinareobs, rom warsulSi arsebuli damokidebuleba Tavis mniSvnelobas momavalSic SeinarCunebs.
prognozirebis erT-erT yvelaze gavrcelebul me532
Todad modelireba iTvleba. igi yoveli seriozuli
prognozis Semadgeneli nawilia. sxva sityvebiT, yvela
prognozi arsebiTad eqstrapolaciiT iwyeba da yovelTvis prognozuli modelis agebiT mTavrdeba. amave dros,
modelireba Zalze Zvirad Rirebuli samuSaocaa. amerikeli
specialistebis monacemebiT, socialur-ekonomikuri an
samxedro-politikuri procesebis sruli masStabis modelis ageba moiTxovs dros oridan eqvs wlamde, xolo
masze daxarjuli saxsrebi 25 aTasi dolaridan 2500
aTas dolaramde meryeobs.
ganasxvaveben ori ti pis ekonometrikul models: 1.
makroekonomikursa da 2. `danaxarjebisa da produqciis
gamoSvebisa` (leontieviseuli). ekonomikuri prognozirebis sferoSi orive meTodi gamoiyeneba.
Tanamedrove ekonometrikaSi uamravi ekonomikuri
modeli muSavdeba. am dargis fuZemdeblad iTvleba
i.tinbergeni, Semdeg moixsenieba kalceki, k.klarki, harodi,
hudvini, kleini, h.domari, hiksi...; am saxis modelebs xSirad
`evristikul modelebs` uwodeben. maTi mizania
ekonomikuri rxevebis (`fluqtaciis`) gamomwvevi mizezebis Seswavla, praqtikuli amocana ki _ ekonomikuri
prognozirebis ganxorcieleba.
prognozirebis intuiciur (`delfos meTodi`),
eqstrapolaciur Tu ekonometrikul modelebs Soris
Cinuri kedeli ar aris aRmarTuli. prognozirebis dros
yvela es meTodi erTmaneTTan mWidrodaa dakavSirebuli
da urTierTgadaxlarTuli. amis gamo prognozirebis
sferoSi gamokvlevis gafarToebam wamoayena prognozirebis
sxvadasxva meTodis koordinaciis aucilebloba saxelmwifo masStabiT. aseTi funqcia dakisrebuli aqvs,
533
magaliTad, 1964 wels aSS-is kongresis mier Seqmnil
avtomatizaciis, teqnikuri da ekonomikuri progresis
erovnul komisias.
Tanamedrove pirobebSi ekonomikuri ciklis prognozebi mraval maCvenebelzea dafuZnebuli. ekonomika Sevida kompiuterebisa da ufro zusti statistikis epoqaSi. es SesaZleblobas iZleva Seiqmnas farTomasStabiani makroekonomikuri modelebi. nobelis premiis laureatis holandieli ian tinbergenis kvlevis wyalobiT
Cvens xelTaa mravali makroekonomikuri modeli.
ekonomikuri modelebis dargSi warmatebisaTvis nobelis premia miiRo (1980 w.) `vartonis skolis` warmomadgenelma lorens klainma, romelmac prognozirebis
ramdenime sistema Seqmna.
farTomasStabiani modelis Semqmnelebi Cveulebriv iwyeben analitikuri sqemebiT, gantolebebiT,
romlebic warmoadgenen rogorc erTobliv, moTxovnas,
aseve erTobliv miwodebas. Tanamedrove ekonometrikis
gamoyenebiT TiToeuli gantoleba miesadageba statistikur monacemebs parametruli Sefasebis misaRebad. cxadia, rom kvlevis yovel safexurze avtorebi sakuTar
gamocdilebas da gansjas eyrdnobian. sabolood, mTeli
`modeli` Seikvreba da amoqmeddeba rogorc gantolebaTa sistema, romelic SeiZleba gamoyenebul iqnas ekonomikuri momavlis gansaWvretad.
gansazRvruli warmatebebis miuxedavad, jer-jerobiT, prognozebis SesaZleblobas aRemateba yvela maCveneblis mixedviT ekonomikis perspeqtiuli ganviTarebis
sworad gansazRvra. marTlac, ra guldasmiTac ar unda
warmoebdes gaangariSeba, misi Sedegebis sizuste, uwinares
534
yovlisa, zogadi ekonomikuri da politikuri pirobebis
varaudis daSvebis sisworezea damokidebuli. garda amisa,
am Sedegebis sizuste ganpirobebulia mTavrobisa da
kerZo seqtoris politikaze, romelic mocemul periodSi, gansazRvruli pirobebis arsebobis SemTxvevaSi, xorcieldeba. es pirobebi ar SeiZleba mecnieruli dasabuTebulobiT dadgindes, ramdenadac isini mravalricxovan faqtorzea damokidebuli, romelTagan zogierTi
SemTxveviT xasiaTs atarebs da ar SeiZleba winaswar
iqnas gaTvaliswinebuli. yovel SemTxveviT movlenas SeuZlia `gadaayiravos` sakmaod dasabuTebuli prognozi.
aseTi faqtebis raodenobis CamoTvlisas istoria ar
Zunwobs. magaliTad, 1937 wels aSS-is erovnuli resursebis komitetis iniciativiT Seqmnilma komisiam, romlis
SemadgenlobaSi cnobili mecnierebi Sediodnen, Seadgina
prognozi 1970 wlisaTvis. am prognozSi `daviwyebuli`! iyo: eleqtro-gamomTvleli manqanebis Seqmnis SesaZlebloba, atomuri birTvis gaxleCa, radiolokaciuri
danadgarebis, reaqtiuli TviTmfrinavebis, raketis, tranzistorebis... Seqmna, romlebic Tanamedrove samecnieroteqnikuri progresis gansaxierebaa. aseve araswori aRmoCnda xangrZlivi periodis prognozebis umravlesoba,
romelic aSS-is ekonomistebma meore msoflio omis
dasasruls SeimuSaves. prognozistebi moelodnen
samxedro xarjebis mkveTr Semcirebas, samoqalaqo warmoebis gafarToebis Seferxebas, umuSevarTa armiis mkveTr
gadidebas, deflaciis procesis gaZlierebas da erovnuli Semosavlis Semcirebas. sinamdvileSi, sapirispiro
mdgomareoba Camoyalibda. am viTarebam ekonomikur mecnierebaSi prognozirebis mimarT pesimisturi ganwyo535
536
cxrili 9.3
eTgo-s wevri qveynebis ZiriTadi
ekonomikuri maCveneblebis matebis
saSualo-wliuri tempebi (%)
mep
3.3
2.9
4.1
saxelmwifo xarjebi
2.8
2.3
3.7
mosaxleobis
samomxmareblo xarji
3.5
2.9
4.0
mTliani
kapitaldabandeba
2.8
3.5
4.7
saqonlisa da
momsaxurebis eqsporti
7.5
5.4
6.9
saqonlisa da
momsaxurebis importi
5.2
5.8
6.3
71
maCveneblebi
19
leontievis
prognozi 19811990 wlebSi
(bazisuri
scenari)
w w 19
. 80
81
w w 199
.
0
faqtobrivad
19
bileba gaaRrmava.
yovelive aRniSnuli mxolod imaze miuTiTebs, rom
prognozireba metad rTuli procesia . prognozebis
aradamakmayofilebelma xarisxma Caaqro maTdami adre
arsebuli enTuziazmi.
marTlac, 1973-1975 da 1980-1982 wlebSi metad
didi iyo gansxvaveba prognozul Sefasebasa da faqtobriv monacemebs Soris. saxelmwifo organoebSi, biznessa
da mecnierul wreebSi mixvdnen, rom SeuZlebelia Seiqmnas iseTi zusti da saimedo prognozi, romelzedac SeiZleba dafuZndes konkretuli gadawyvetileba.
80-iani wlebis prognozebi Zalze pesimisturad
gamoiyureboda. es imiT aixsneba, rom 70-ianma wlebma
datova mZime ekonomikuri memkvidreoba. prognozirebis
siZneleebs nawilobriv xsnida ramdenime scenaris damuSaveba, romelic saSualebas iZleoda prognozebSi
gaTvaliswinebuliyo Znelad ganWvretadi garegani faqtorebi, Tvisebrivad da raodenobrivad Sefasebuliyo
esa Tu is ekonomikuri faqtori. magaliTad, rekonstruqciisa da ganviTarebis msoflio bankis prognoziT, ganviTarebul qveynebSi mep-is saSualo wliuri zrdis pesimisturi varianti Sefasda 3,5%-iT, bazisuri _ 4,2%iT, xolo 4,9%-iT _ optimisturi varianti.
80-iani wlebis realiebTan yvelaze axlos aRmoCnda msoflio ekonomikuri ganviTarebis vrceli
kompleqsuri prognozi, romelic damuSavda nobelis
premiis laureatis v.leontievis xelmZRvanelobiT jer
kidev 70-ani wlebis dasawyisSi (ix. cxrili 9.3).
prognozebi 1991-1992 wlebisaTvis, romlebic Seiqmna
1990 wlis Semodgoma-zamTarSi, damuSavda ekonomikuri
da politikuri situaciebis globaluri cvlilebebis
fonze. prognozebis sxvadasxva scenaris damuSavebas sababi
misca sparseTis yureSi krizisis alternatiulma gadaWram, erTiani germaniis ganviTarebis gzebma, sabazro
ekonomikaze centraluri da aRmosavleT evropis qveynebis gadasvlis procesebma, xolo ufro Soreul perspeqtivaSi _ erTiani evropuli bazris Seqmnam.
537
CamoTvlili faqtorebidan yvelaze aqtualuri
problema gaxda krizisi, xolo Semdeg saomari moqmedeba
sparseTis yureSi, romelmac gamoiwvia msoflio ekonomikis
zrdis tempis daqveiTeba. omis damTavrebis Semdeg Seqmnili prognozebi sruli zomiT iTvaliswinebs Secvlil
msoflio ekonomikur situacias. kerZod, sxvadasxva moklevadian prognozSi gadafasda ekonomikuri zrdis tempebi (Semcirebis mimarTulebiT). magaliTad, saerTaSoriso
savaluto fondis (ssf) mier 1990 wlis seqtemberSi
damuSavebul prognozSi eTgo-s wevri qveynebis ekonomikuri zrdis tempi 1991 wlisaTvis Sefasebuli iyo
2,4%-iT, nacvlad 2,9%-isa maisSi damuSavebul prognozSi.
90-iani wlebis umravles prognozSi sworad aRiniSna ZiriTadi ekonomikuri tendenciebi (msoflio meurneobis globaluri struqturuli gardaqmna, daZabulobis gaZliereba sagareo bazarze, inflaciasTan brZola
Siga moTxovnis SezRudvis gziT...). prognozebis Seswavla da realur mdgomareobasTan maTi Sepirispireba
gviCvenebs, rom yvelaze sarwmunoa modelebze agebuli
saqmiani aqtivobis ganWvreta. gansakuTrebiT es iTqmis
saSualo an didmasStabur kompiuterul modelebze,
romlebic eyrdnobian mravalricxovan statistikur
monacemebs. bolodroindeli prognozebi yvelaze sarwmuno iyo realuri mep-is cvlilebis varaudSi, xolo
naklebad sarwmuno _ inflaciis zrdis tempis winaswarmetyvelebaSi.
da bolos, isic unda aRiniSnos, rom swor prognozirebasac SeuZlia gamoiwvios arajansaRi movlenebi.
magaliTad, prognozebis gamoyenebas sabazro procesebSi
538
Sehyavs spekulaciuri da kontrspekulaciuri elementebi, romlebic garkveul zemoqmedebas axdenen bazris
mdgomareobaze da, saboloo angarSiT, SeuZliaT prognozebis moqmedebis Sewyveta. sakiTxis aseTi dayeneba
srulebiTac ar niSnavs ekonomikuri prognozebis Seufaseblobas. prognozebi saSualebas iZleva, met-naklebi
zomiT, ukeT gaverkveT ekonomikuri ganviTarebis perspeqtivaSi, mis ZiriTad tendenciebsa da mimarTulebebSi.
ekonomikis ganviTarebis tendenciebis gamosavlenad,
misi momavlis zusti prognozirebisa da ukeTesi gadawyvetilebebis misaRebad saxelmwifos oficialuri pirebi,
sawarmoTa xelmZRvanelebi da ekonomistebi agroveben
da aanalizeben informacias ekonomikuri aqtivobis ZiriTadi indikatorebis Sesaxeb, romlebic sam jgufad
iyofa: dawinaurebul, damTxvevis da dagvianebul indikatorebad.
dawinaurebuli ekonomikuri indikatorebi
mimarTulebas icvlis ekonomikaSi mosaxden mniSvnelovan cvlilebebamde sul ramdenime kviriT an TviT adre.
es indikatorebi ekonomikuri daqveiTebisa da aRmavlobis adreul niSnebs gviCvenebs, maTi moZraobis dinamikidan
gamomdinare: `zemoT` miemarTebian daqveiTebis dasrulebis
win da `qvemoT` _ rodesac ekonomikuri aRmavloba dasasruls uaxlovdeba.
damTxvevis ekonomikuri indikatorebi zustad mihyveba saqmiani aqtivobis ciklis yvela aRmasvlasa da daqveiTebas. isini naTlad migvaniSneben, Tu sad
imyofeba ekonomika drois mocemul momentSi.
dagvianebuli ekonomikuri indikatorebi kurss
539
icvlis ukve ekonomikaSi momxdari cvlilebebis Semdeg.
indikatorTa samive jgufis Seswavla ekonomikuri
movlenebis yvelaze zust suraTs iZleva. magram, vinaidan
mTavrobisa da sawarmoTa liderebi yvelaze metad samomavlo moqmedebaTa dagegmviT arian dainteresebulni, maTi
gansakuTrebuli interesis sagans dawinaurebuli indikatorebi warmoadgens. sul 10 aseTi indikatori arsebobs da dawinaurebuli indikatorebis indeqsi maTematikurad aerTianebs maT erTian maCveneblad. qvemoT motanilia dawinaurebul indikatorTa CamonaTvali:
 sawarmoo samuSao saaTebi (Manufacturing Labor
Hours) _ kviraSi namuSevari saaTebis saSualo raodenoba;
 ganacxadebi umuSevrobaze (Unemployment Claims)
_ kviraSi umuSevrobis sadazRvevo anazRaurebis gadaxdaze gakeTebul ganacxadTa raodenoba;
 xangrZlivi moxmarebis axali saqonlis SekveTebi (New Durable Goods Orders)_ samrewvelo samomxmareblo saqonlisa da masalebis SekveTebi;
 dagvianebuli miwodebebi (Delayed deliveries) _ im
firmebis procentuli wili, romelTac SekveTebi dagvianebiT miewodaT;
 axali Senoba-nagebobebi da mowyobiloba (New
Plants and Equipment) _ Senoba-nagebobebTan da mowyobilobasTan dakavSirebuli kontraqtebi da SekveTebi;
 mSeneblobis nebarTvebi (Building Permits) _ Tvis
ganmavlobaSi gacemuli mSeneblobis nebarTvebis jamuri
raodenoba;
 aqciaTa kursebi (Stock Prices, Standard & Poors
500) _ 500 Cveulebrivi aqciis kursi;
540
 fulis masa (Money Supply ) _ M2-is saSualo
yovelTviuri maCvenebeli;
 gansxvaveba saprocento ganakveTebs Soris (Interest Rate Spread) _ 10-wliani saxelmwifo obligaciebi;
 momxmarebelTa molodinis indeqsi (Index of Consumer Expectations) _ asaxavs momxmarebelTa damokidebulebas momavali ekonomikuri pirobebisadmi.
mTelma im informacim, romelsac es da sxva indikatorebi iZleva, SeiZleba gafiqrebinoT, rom ekonomistebs
zustad SeuZliaT momavlis winaswarmetyveleba. magram
es maCveneblebi ekonomikis mxolod erT nawils asaxavs
_ iseve, rogorc Tqvens niSnebs ar SeuZlia Tqveni inteleqtis, unarisa da SesaZleblobaTa srulad Sefaseba. magaliTad:
sawarmoo samuSao saaTebi ar Seicavs informacias momsaxurebis sferos Sesaxeb. marTlac, dawinaurebuli indikatorebis umetesoba martooden warmoebis
Sesaxeb informaciaze amaxvilebs ZiriTad yuradRebas;
aqciaTa kursebi da M2 arcTu iSviaTad cvalebadi da arasaimedo maCveneblebia. `87 wlis kraxi` cru
gangaSi gamodga. M2-ma 1980 wlis mcire recesia iwinaswarmetyvela, magram ver SeZlo 1981-1982 wlebis ufro
seriozuli recesiis prognozireba;
gamoricxuli ar aris Secdomebi. 1991 wlis
pirvel kvartalSi aSS-is Sromis saministrom umuSevarTa raodenoba 650000 kaciT naklebi aRricxa. amis Sedegad, mTavrobaSi gadawyvetilebaTa mimRebebma sworad
ver Seafases recesiis seriozuloba, ramac daayovna im
gadawyvetilebaTa miReba, romelTac ekonomikuri zrdis
stimulireba SeeZloT;
541
saukeTeso ekonomikur indikatorebsac ki ar
ZaluZT omebisa da Cvens ekonomikasa Tu msoflioSi
momxdari moulodneli movlenebis winaswar ganWvreta.
magaliTad, sparseTis yuris omma Zlieri gavlena moaxdina navTobis fasebze, rasac verc erTi ekonomikuri
indikatori ver iwinaswarmetyvelebda.
ekonomikuri indikatorebis zemoT aRniSnul naklovanebaTa gamo, amJamad ekonomistebi ekonomikis mdgomareobis Sesaxeb informaciis Sesagrovebeli ukeTesi
sistemis SemuSavebaze muSaoben.
leqcia 26. umuSevroba da
dasaqmebis regulireba
`gamocdileba gviCvenebs, rom
sruli an daaxloebiT sruli
dasaqmeba iSviaTi da swrafwarmavali movlenaa~.
j.m.keinzi
` adam ianTa um ravles obisaTvis samuSaos dakargva cxovrebis donis daqveiTebas aRniSnavs da maT seriozul fsiqologiur dartymas ayenebs. amitom gasakviri araa, rom umuSevroba politikuri diskusiis sagnad iqca.~
gr.menqiu
axla ganvixilavT cvlilebebs samuSao Zalis dasaqmebis sferoSi, romelic asaxavs gadasvlas erTi dapirispirebulidan meorisaken: umuSevrobidan dasaqmebisaken
da, piriqiT.
umuSevrobis arsi da zogadi tendenciebi. umuSevroba sabazro ekonomikis erT-erTi mniS-
vnelovani socialur-ekonomikuri problema da makroekonomikuri ganviTarebis arastabilurobis ZiriTadi indikatoria, romlis dros Sromisunariani mosaxleobis erTi nawili ver poulobs samuSaos, iqceva `Warb`
542
543
544
umuSevroba (%)
mosaxleobad da qmnis Sromis sarezervo armias.
umuSevroba, rogorc socialuri movlena, gansakuTrebiT farTod gavrcelda XIX saukuneSi, XX saukunis
ganmavlobaSi ki gaxda mravali qveynis ekonomikuri Tanamgzavri. evropaSi, CrdiloeT amerikaSi, avstraliasa da
mraval ganuviTarebel qveyanaSi umuSevrobis problema
gansakuTrebiT gamwvavda XX saukunis 80-iani wlebis
dasawyisSi, ramdenadac msoflioSi daiwyo 30-iani wlebis
droindeli didi depresiis msgavsi udidesi daqveiTeba,
magram Semdeg, rodesac msoflio ekonomika gamovida depresiuli mdgomareobidan, 80-iani wlebis meore naxevris
ganmavlobaSi SeiniSneboda stabiluri ekonomikuri zrda
da umuSevrobis donis Semcireba, Tumca umuSevrobis done
amaRlda, rodesac 90-iani wlebis dasawyisSi kvlav aRiniSna ekonomikuri daqveiTeba. im zomiT, rogoriTac msofliom nel-nela daaRwia Tavi ekonomikur daqveiTebas
90-iani wlebis SuaxanebSi, umuSevrobis donemac kvlav
daiwyo Semcireba. qvemoT motanil 9.3 naxazze naCvenebia
umuSevrobis donis aRniSnuli cikluri moZraoba zogierT ganviTarebul qveyanaSi.
umuSevrobis donis meryeobis paralelurad, mraval
qveyanaSi umuSevrobis saSualo done ekonomikuri ciklidan ciklamde izrdeba. es ilustrirebulia 9.4 cxrilSi,
romelic gviCvenebs umuSevrobis saSualo dones did
britaneTSi, ekonomikuri TanamSromlobisa da ganviTarebis organizaciasa (eTgo) da evropis kavSirSi oTxi
ekonomikuri ciklis ganmavlobaSi. umuSevrobis saSualo done 80-ian da 90-ian wlebSi iyo ufro maRali,
vidre 70-ian wlebSi, xolo umuSevrobis saSualo done
70-ian wlebSi, Tavis mxriv, iyo maRali, vidre 50-ian da
ia po ni a
britaneTi
safrangeTi
germania
aSS
eTgo
nax. 9.3. umuSevrobis done zogierT
ganviTarebul qveyanaSi (1970-2000 ww.)
60-ian wlebSi. zogierT iseT qveyanaSi ki, rogoricaa
aSS da didi britaneTi 90-iani wlebis bolos da 2000iani wlebis dasawyisSi umuSevrobis done Semcirda.
Tanamedrove pirobebSi umuSevroba qronikul xasiaTes atarebs da metad mwvave problemaa saqarTvelosaTvis. Sinameurneobebis SerCeviT gamokvlevebis monacemebis mixedviT 2003 wels umuSevarTa raodenoba 235,9
aTasi, xolo umuSevrobis done 12% iyo. amave wels
registrirebul umuSevarTa raodenoba Seadgenda 45,9
aTass da umuSevrobis done 2,1%-s, Tumca cxadia, rom
orive monacemi ararealuria. Tundac is faqti, rom
saqarTveloSi da sxva postsabWour qveynebSi umuSevrobis
done odnav aRemateba an naklebia evrokavSiris qveynebSi
arsebul umuSevrobis doneze (ix. cxrili 9.5), miuTiTebs, rom statistikuri monacemebi umuSevrobis mdgomareobis Sesaxeb yofili sabWoTa kavSiris qveynebSi
miaxloebiTac ver asaxavs arsebul mdgomareobas. si545
cxrili 9.4
umuSevrobis saSualo done ekonomikuri
ciklebis ganmavlobaSi (%)
cxrili 9.5
umuSevrobis done yofili sabWoTa kavSiris
zogierT qveyanasa da evrokavSirSi
1997-2003 ww.
periodi
di di
britaneTi
evrokavSiri
1964-1973
3.0
2.7
3.0
qveyana
1974-1979
5.0
4.7
4.9
1980-1989
10.0
9.3
7.3
1990-1999
8.4
10.3
7.2
saqarTvelo
azerbaijani
belorusia
moldova
ruseTi
somxeTi
ukraina
estoneTi
latvia
litva
8
1
3
_
12
11
9
10
_
_
15
1
2
9
13
9
11
9
14
13
14
1
2
11
13
12
12
11
14
14
evrokavSiris
qveynebi:
15 qveyana
25 qveyana
10
10
9
9
9
9
eTgo
namdvileSi, umuSevrobis mdgomareoba gacilebiT ufro
rTulia.
umuSevrobis maRali norma, ekonomikuri gagebiT ,
aris resursebis nawilobrivi gamoyeneba, naklebi produqciis warmoeba da, Sesabamisad, mosaxleobis dabali Semosavali. politikuri gagebiT , umuSevroba miCneulia
`socialur dinamitad`, romelic SeiZleba yovel wams
afeTqdes da daemuqros arsebul ekonomikur sistemas.
fsiqologiuri TvalsazrisiT , umuSevroba badebs
arasrulfasovnebis kompleqss. samuSaos dakargva iseTi
fsiqologiuri travmaa, romelic axloblis dakargviT
gamowveul stress Tu Seedreba. igi amwvavebs ojaxur
urTierTobas da sazogadoebaSi emociur daZabulobas
aRrmavebs. samarTlebrivi TvalsazrisiT , umuSevroba
konstituciuri moTxovnis darRvevaa. am SemTxvevaSi ojaxi
kargavs marCenals. saboloo angariSSi, izrdeba kriminalur danaSaulTa ricxvi.
546
(Sr om is
s a erT a Sori s o or ga niz a ciis
1997 1998
k rit eriu m iT )
2001
2002
2003
10
1
2
9
10
11
12
13
14
16
11
1
2
7
9
10
11
12
13
16
13
1
3
7
9
11
10
10
13
14
12
1
3
8
8
10
9
10
11
13
8
9
7
9
8
9
8
9
1999 2000
umuSevrobis arsSi ufro Rrmad Casawvdomad saWiroa,
jer erTi, davazustod TviT cneba `umuSevari` da meorec, movniSnoT umuSevrebis kuTvnili adgili mosaxleobis socialur-ekonomikur struqturaSi.* amisaTvis qvey-
* SesaZloa zogierTma studentma gauswros movlenebs da,
garegnuli msgavsebidan gamomdinare, umuSevrebi miakuTvnos
ekonomikurad araaqtiuri mosaxleobis ricxvs, rac, ra Tqma
unda, arasworia.
547
nis mosaxleobas, Sromis saerTaSoriso organizaciis
(Sso) mier miRebuli klasifikaciis mixedviT, yofen or
did jgufad: 1. ekonomikurad araaqtiuri mosaxleoba
da 2. ekonomikurad aqtiuri mosaxleoba.
ekonomikurad araaqtiur mosaxleobas miekuTvnebian qveynis is mcxovrebni, romlebic ar Sedian samuSao Zalis (muSaobisaTvis mzadmyofi Sromisunariani
mosaxleobis) SemadgenlobaSi.*
ekonomikurad aqtiur mosaxleobas Seadgens
Sromisunariani asakis mosaxleobis** nawili, romelic
samuSao Zalas sTavazobs saqonlisa da momsaxurebis
warmoebisaTvis. amitom igi xSirad samuSao Zaladaa
wodebuli. ufro konkretulad, ekonomikurad aqtiuri
mosaxleoba (samuSao Zala) moicavs fiqsirebuli asakis
(16 da meti wlis) orive sqesis ekonomikuri saqmiano-
* ufro konkretulad, ekonomikurad araaqtiuri mosaxleobis SemadgenlobaSi Sedian: a) dRis saswavlo dawesebulebaTa
moswavleebi da studentebi, romlebic mxolod swavliT arian
dakavebulni; b) pensionerebi (moxucebulobiTa da sxva safuZvelze), romlebic ar eZeben samuSaos; g) saojaxo meurneobis
warmmarTveli pirebi (maT Soris, bavSvebis, avadmyofebis da a.S.
momvlelebi); d) isini, visac ar SeuZlia samoSaos moZebna; e)
pirebi, romlebisTvisac aucilebeli ar aris muSaoba (maTi
Semosavlis wyaroebisagan damoukideblad).
** Sromisunariani asakis mosaxleoba aris kanoniT dadgenili Sromis asakis mosaxleoba (saqarTveloSi 16-64 wlis kacebi da 16-59 wlis qalebi).
548
biT* dasaqmebul da umuSevar mosaxleobas. maSasadame,
samuSao Zala gaiangariSeba dasaqmebulTa da umuSevarTa
raodenobis SejamebiT.
qveynis mosaxleobis aRniSnuli struqturidan
gamomdinare, ganisazRvreba mosaxleobis ekonomikuri
aqtivobis done _ ekonomikurad aqtiur adamianTa wili
Sromisunariani asakis mosaxleobis saerTo ricxovnobaSi.
rogorc 9.6 cxrilidan Cans, saqarTveloSi 2003 wels
mosaxleobis ekonomikuri aqtivobis done iyo 66%, rac
ar CamorCeba evrokavSiris qveynebis analogiur maCveneblebs
(saSualod 69%). Tumca, mosaxleobis maRali ekonomikuri
aqtiuroba saqarTveloSi ar aisaxeba efeqtian dasaqmebaSi da garkveulwilad cxovrebis dabali doniTa da
Semosavlebis simwiriT aris gamowveuli. aRniSnuls adasturebs is, rom saqarTveloSi uCveulod maRali
ekonomikuri aqtivobis done aqvT sapensio asaks gadac-
* ekonomikuri saqmianoba moicavs sabazro warmoebas da
arasabazro warmoebas. sabazro warmoeba, Tavis mxriv, moicavs
saqmianobas fabrikebSi, qarxnebSi, fermebSi, maRaziebsa da saojaxo sawarmoebSi, sadac iwarmoeba saqoneli da momsaxureba
SemdgomSi bazarze gasayidad. sabazro warmoeba moicavs agreTve
saqmianobas saxelmwifo da sxva socialur da kulturul
dawesebulebebSi, romelTa produqciac SeiZleba ar iyos gayiduli bazarze. arasabazro warmoeba ki moicavs saqmianobis Semdeg oTx jgufs: 1. sakuTari moxmarebisaTvis pirveladi produqciis warmoeba; 2. sakuTari moxmarebisaTvis pirveladi produqciis gadamuSaveba TviTon mewarmeTa mier; 3. sakuTari saWiroebisaTvis ZiriTadi fondebis warmoeba; 4. sakuTari saWiroebisaTvis arapirveladi produqtebis warmoeba, romelic SeiZleba
gatanili iqnes agreTve bazarze gasayidad.
549
cxrili 9.6
ekonomikurad aqtiuri mosaxleobis
ricxovnoba da ekonomikuri aqtivobis done
msoflios zogierT qveyanaSi
qveyana
weli
ekonomikurad aqtiuri ekonomikuri
mosaxleobis
aqtivobis
ricxovnoba, aTasi kaci
done, %
aSS
iaponia
CineTi
ruseTi
saqarTvelo
2000
2000
2000
2002
2003
140863
67660
711830
71919
2050
51
53
57
50
66
evrokavSiris
qveynebi
(25 qveyana)
2003
_
69
ilebul moqalaqeebs. magaliTad, 65 wels gadacilebul
mamakacTa daaxloebiT 57% da qalTa 41% ekonomikurad
aqtiuria, rac daaxloebiT 12-jer aRemateba evrokavSiris
qveynebSi mamakacTa da 20-jer qalTa analogiur
maCveneblebs.
ekonomikurad aqtiuri mosaxleoba, Tavis mxriv, iyofa
or jgufad:
 dasaqmebulebi _ is adamianebi, romlebic
miekuTvnebian Semdeg kategorias: a) daqiravebulebi; b)
TviTdasaqmebulebi;
 umuSevrebi _ is adamianebi, romlebic asakobrivad miekuTvnebian ekonomikurad aqtiuri mosaxleobis
ricxvs, ar ewevian ekonomikur saqmianobas, mzad arian
550
muSaobis dasawyebad da eZeben samuSaos.
sadReisod, dasavleTis qveynebSic ki ar arsebobs
dasaqmebisa da umuSevrobis zusti aRricxva. calkeuli
qveynebis monacemebi dasaqmebisa da umuSevrobis sidideze erTimeorisagan gansxvavdeba informaciis wyaroebiT, dasaqmebisa da umuSevrobis aRicxvisa da damuSavebis meTodebiT. ufro metic, zogierT qveyanaSi dasaqmebisa da umuSevrobis aRricxvis ramdenime organo arsebobs (magaliTad, aSS-Si _ Sromis saministro, Sromis
statistikis biuro...). amasTan dakavSirebiT gaZnelebulia erTi qveynis monacemebis Sepirispireba meoresTan.
amrigad, kiTxvaze imis Sesaxeb, Tu vin aris dasaqmebuli (da ra formiT) Tu umuSevari, pasuxi mravalgvaria. yvela gansazRvrebidan klasikuria Sromis saerTaSoriso organizaciis (Sso) definicia, romlis Tanxmad:
dasaqmebulad (daqiravebulad an TviTdasaqmebulad) iTvleba 16 wlis da meti asakis piri, romelic
gamosakvlevi kviris ganmavlobaSi minimum erTi saaTiT
mainc iyo dakavebuli ekonomikuri samianobiT.
daqiravebulad (rogorc saxelmwifo, ise kerZo
seqtorSi) iTvleba piri, romelic gamosakvlev periodSi asrulebda gansazRvrul samuSaos xelfasis an sxva
saxis anazRaurebis (fuliT an naturiT) miRebis mizniT.
agreTve piri, romelsac aqvs samuSao adgili, magram
droebiT ar muSaobs SvebulebaSi yofnis, avdmyofobis,
samuSaodan droebiT daTxovnis an msgavsi mizezebis gamo.
TviTdasaqmebulad iTvleba mesakuTre, romlis
saqmianobis mizans gamosakvlev periodSi warmoadgens
mogebis an ojaxuri Semosavlis (fuliT an naturiT)
551
miReba; agreTve ojaxur sawarmoSi an meurneobaSi usasyidlod momuSave piri (ojaxis damxmare piri, romelic
anazRaurebis gareSe muSaobs naTesavis mflobelobaSi
myof sawarmoSi an SinameurneobaSi).
umuSevrad iTvleba 16 wlis da meti asakis anu
samuSao asakSi myofi Sromisunariani piri, romelic gamosakvlevi kviris ganmavlobaSi ar aris dakavebuli
ekonomikuri saqmianobiT (erTi saaTiTac ki), bolo oTxi
kviris ganmavlobaSi aqtiurad eZebs samuSaos da Sovnis
SemTxvevaSi mzad aris Seudges muSaobas. es aris umuSevrobis gansazRvra mkacri kriteriumiT .
Sso-is rekomendaciis safuZvelze umuSevrobis
maCvenebels gansazRvraven agreTve e.w. Serbilebuli
kriteriumiTac. am kriteriumiT umuSevrad iTvleba 16
wlis da meti asakis, anu samuSao asakSi myofi Sromisunariani piri, romelic gamosakvlevi kviris ganmavlobaSi
ar aris dakavebuli ekonomikuri saqmianobiT (erTi saaTiTac ki), bolo oTxi kviris ganmavlobaSi ar eZebs samuSaos, radgan gadaewura Sovnis imedi, magram misi Sovnis
SemTxvevaSi mzad aris Seudges muSaobas. registrirebul umuSevrad ki iTvleba 16 wlis da meti asakis
piri, romelsac ara aqvs samuSao da xelfasi (SromiTi
Semosavali), cxovrobs saqarTvelos teritoriaze, registrireblia dasaqmebis samsaxurSi sacxovrebeli adgilis mixedviT samuSaos Sovnis mizniT da Sovnis SemTxvevaSi mzad aris Seudges muSaobas.
saqarTveloSi ekonomikurad aqtiuri mosaxleobis
dinamikasa da struqturaze naTel warmodgenas gviqmnis
9.7 cxrilSi motanili monacemebi, romlebic moicavs
saqarTvelos statistikis departamentisa da didi
552
britaneTis saerTaSoriso ganviTarebis saagentos erToblivi proeqtis (`socialuri statistikis srulyofa saqarTveloSi`) farglebSi samuSao Zalis SerCeviTi kvlevis (1998-1999 ww.), Sinameurneobebis biujetebis SerCeviTi kvlevis (2000-2001 ww.) da Sinameurneobebis biujetebisa da samuSao Zalis integrirebuli
formiT Catarebuli kvlevis (2002-2003 ww.) safuZvelze mopovebul zogad informacias.
rogorc cnobilia, qveynis mudmivi mosaxleobis
ricxovnoba 2002 wlis aRweris monacemebiT, 1989 wlis
aRweris monacemebTan SedarebiT, Semcirda 19%-iT da
4371,5 aTasi kaciT dafiqsirda. mosaxleobis saerTo
raodenobaSi, wina aRwerasTan SedarebiT, Semcirebulia
Sromisunarian asakze ufrosi asakis mosaxleobis wili
(1989 wlis 26,3%-dan 21,0%-mde 2002 wels), gazrdilia
Sromisunariani asakis mosaxleobis wili (1989 wlis
56,3%-dan 64,0%-mde 2002 wels)* da Sesabamisad, _ 16
wlis da meti asakis mosaxleobis wili (1989 wlis
73,7%-dan 79,0%-mde 2002 wels).
9.7 cxrilSi motanili monacemebis Tanaxmad, 2003
wels, wina welTan SedarebiT, ekonomikurad aqtiuri
mosaxleobis raodenoba Semcirda daaxloebiT 3,0%-iT
da 2049,6 aTasi kaci Seadgina. ekonomikurad aqtiuri
mosaxleobis saSualo asaki 44 wels Seadgens, ekonomi-
* am movlenis ZiriTadi mizezia qveyanaSi Sromis asakis
gazrda, Sesabamisad, qalebis _ 55-dan 60 wlamde da kacebis _
60-dan 65 wlamde.
553
cxrili 9.7
ekonomikurad aqtiuri mosaxleobis dinamika
da struqtura saqarTveloSi (1998-2003 ww.)
1998 1999 2000 2001 2002 2003
aTasi kaci
ekonomikurad aqtiuri
mosaxleoba (samuSao
Zala), sul
2025.8 2009.5 2051.6 2113.3 2104.1 2049.6
maT Soris:
dasaqmebulebi
1742.1 1732.6 1839.3 1877.7 1839.2 1813.7
aqedan:
daqiravebulebi
TviTdasaqmebulebi
umuSevrebi*
747.6
969.6
294.7
731.5 684.3 654.3 650.9 618.4
982.8 1042.9 1135.9 1184.9 1195.3
276.9 212.2 235.6 265.0 235.9
procentobiT jamTan
ekonomikurad aqtiuri
mosaxleoba, sul
100
100
100
100
100
100
maT Soris:
dasaqmebulebi
85.5
86.2
89.7
88.9
87.4
88.5
aqedan:
daqiravebulebi
TvTdasaqmebulebi
36.9
47.8
36.4
48.9
33.4
50.8
31.0
53.8
30.9
56.3
30.2
58.3
umuSevrobis done*
14.5
13.8
10.3
11.1
12.6
11.5
* Sromis saerTaSoriso organizaciis mkacri kriteriumis
mixedviT.
554
kurad aqtiuri mosaxleobis yoveli mesame piri 50
welze meti asakisaa. es tendencia 1998-2003 wlebSi
stabiluria da sagrZnoblad ar Secvlila. mosaxleobis ekonomikuri aqtivobis yvelaze maRali done aRiniSna 2003 wels (66,0%). mosaxleoba ufro aqtiuria
soflad; ekonomikurad aqtiuri mosaxleobis TiTqmis
60% soflad cxovrobs da 40%-ze odnav meti 50 wlis
da meti asakisaa. ekonomikurad aqtiuri mosaxleobis
ganawileba dasaqmebis statusis mixedviT gviCvenebs, rom
maTi didi nawili _ 88,5% dasaqmebulia, xolo 11,5% _
umuSevaria.
unda aRiniSnos, rom qveyanaSi 1998-2003 wlebSi
dasaqmebulTa ricxovnoba 4,8%-iT gaizarda da 1813,7
aTasi kaci Seadgina. dasaqmebulTa zrdis saSualo wliurma tempma 1,0% Seadgina. asakobrivi jgufebis mixedviT, yvelaze maRali wili dasaqmebulebSi 65 da meti
wlis asakobriv jgufze modis. dasaqmebis statusis
mixedviT dasaqmebulTa 30,2% daqiravebuli SromiTaa
dasaqmebuli. aRsaniSnavia, rom 1998-2003 wlebSi daqiravebiT dasaqmebulTa ricxovnoba mcirdeba; 2003 wels,
1998 welTan SedarebiT, maTi ricxovnoba 17,3%-iT Semcirda, anu saSualod weliwadSi 3,5%-iT mcirdeboda.
amave periodSi TviTdasaqmebiT dasaqmebulTa ricxovnoba 23,3%-iT gaizarda, anu saSualod weliwadSi 4,7%iT izrdeboda. SeiZleba davaskvnaT, rom daqiravebiT
dasaqmebulTa didi nawili TviTdasaqmebuli gaxda.
umuSevarTa ricxovnoba 2003 wels 20%-iT Semcirda 1998 welTan SedarebiT, anu saSualod weliwadSi 4,0%-iT mcirdeboda. Tumca, es maCvenebeli kvlav
maRalia (235,9 aTas kaci). umuSevrebis saSualo asaki
555
1998 welTan SedarebiT 2003 wels Semcirda 0,7 procentuli punqtiT da 36 weli Seadgina. umuSevrobis
done aRniSnul periodSi 3,0 procentuli punqtiT Semcirda da 11,5% Seadgina 2003 wels. rac Seexeba
umuSevrobis dones 30 wlamde asakis mosaxleobaSi, igi
gaizarda 2,6 procentuli punqtiT amave periodSi da
26,4% Seadgina 2003 wels, xolo 30 wlis da meti
asakis mosaxleobaSi umuSevobis done, piriqiT, Semcirda
3,8 procentuli punqtiT da 8,5% Seadgina. yvelaze
maRalia umuSevrobis done q.TbilisSi (26,0%). umuSevrebis 38,0% umaRlesi ganaTlebiTaa.
u m uS e v r ob i s mi z e z e bi , s ax e e b i d a
ti pebi. umuSevrobis arsis ukeT gasagebad mniSvnelo-
vania misi mizezebis gamovlena.
adamianebi umuSevrebi arian sxvadasxva mizezis gamo.
es mizezebi SeiZleba ukavSirdebodes maT motivacias,
arsebuli samuSaos xasiaTs, profesiul unar-Cvevebs, samuSao Zalad maTi yofnis vadasa da ekonomikis saerTo
mdgomareobas.
arsebiTad, umuSevrobis mizezebi gansazRvravs misi
ZiriTadi saxeebisa da ti pebis arssa da Taviseburebebs,
romelTa CamoTvla da daxasiaTeba arc ise advilia.
amitom, modiT, erTad mivmarToT umuSevrobis warmoSobis
mizezebis, misi ZiriTadi saxeebisa da ti pebis analizs.
umuSevroba bevrad aris damokidebuli ekonomikuri
ciklis daqveiTebis (krizisis) fazasTan. daqveiTeba,
rogorc ukve aRiniSna, aris ekonomikuri daRmavloba.
igi aRniSnavs warmoebis zrdis adrindeli tempis dacemas, magram ekonomikuri zrdis tempis yoveli Seneleba
556
ar gulisxmobs mocemuli qveynis Sesvlas daqveiTebis
(krizisis) fazaSi. mas maSin aqvs adgili, roca mSp
Semcirdeba zedized ori kalendaruli kvartlis (6 Tvis)
ganmavlobaSi.
dasaqmeba yvela demografiul jgufSi, rogorc wesi,
mcirdeba daqveiTebis dros, ramdenadac daqveiTebas Tan
axlavs warmoebis Semcireba da samuSaodan muSakTa nawilis daTxovna. amitom umuSevrobis erT-erTi mTavari
mizezi swored samuSaos iZulebiTi dakargvaa. daveiTebis dros izrdeba samuSaos damkargavTa ricxvi, axali
samuSaos povnas ki didi dros sWirdeba. am SemTxvevaSi
saqme gvaqvs iZulebiT umuSevrobasTan. igi warmoiqmneba mouqneli Sromis fasis pirobebSi da exeba realuri xelfasis simkveTres , anu mis mouqnelobas, _
wonasworobaSi moiyvanos bazarze warmoSobili miwodeba
da moTxovna.
roca realuri xelfasi imyofeba samuSao Zalis
miwodebisa da masze moTxovnis wonasworobis doneze
maRla, maSin Sromis bazarze warmoiSoba miwodebis siWarbe da izrdeba umuSevrobis done. am SemTxvevaSi, adamiani imitom ki ar xdeba umuSevari, rom mas surs misi
kvalifikaciis Sesaferisi samuSaos povna, aramed imis
gamo, rom mocemuli maRali xelfasis donis pirobebSi
samuSao Zalis miwodeba aRemateba masze moTxovnas da
igi iZulebulia daelodos samuSaos miRebas. aseT situacias ewodeba molodinis umuSevroba. am saxis umuSevrbis warmoSoba dakavSirebulia xelfasis simveTris (mouqnelobis) sam mizezTan. esenia: 1. kanoni minimaluri xelfasis Sesaxeb; 2. profkavSirebis monopoluri Zalis
557
arseboba; 3. sawarmoebis mier mastimulirebeli xelfasis daweseba.
Tavisufali konkurenciis pirobebSi moTxovnisa
da miwodebis kanoni xels uwyobda xelfasis SenarCunebas wonasworobis doneze. magram samTavrobo socialuri politika astimulirebs xelfasis simkveTris
SenarCunebas. saqme is aris, rom xelfasis minimumis
kanoni yvela sawarmosaTvis awesebs minimaluri xelfasis savaldebulo ganakveTs. es kanoni yvelaze ufro
xelsayrelia arakvalficiuri da gamoucdeli muSebisaTvis, radgan maTi xelfasi aRemateba wonasworobis
dones, samagierod, igi amcirebs sawarmos moTxovnas msgavs Sromaze.
xelfasis simkveTris meore mizezad miCneulia
profkavSirebis monopoliuri Zala . es ganpirobebulia im garemoebiT, rom drois gansazRvrul monakveTSi xelfasi fiqsirebulia, ramdenadac profkavSirebis
koleqtiuri xelSekrulebebi sawarmoebis administraciebTan gadaisinjeba ramdenime weliwadSi erTxel.
rogorc wesi, fiqsirebuli xelfasi aRemateba wonasworobis dones, magram sawarmos administracias SesaZlebloba aqvs damoukideblad gadawyvitos misTvis aucilebeli muSebis raodenoba. koleqtiuri xelSekrulebis Sedegia daqiravebuli muSakebis ricxovnobis Semcireba da molodinis umuSevrobis zrda.
profkavSirebis saqmianobiT gamowveuli umuSevroba warmoadgens sawarmoSi dasaqmebul muSakebsa (insaiderebi) da umuSevrebs (autsaiderebi) Soris konfliqtis erT-erT mizezs. es konfliqti SeiZleba gada558
iWras sawarmos doneze (magaliTad, aSS) an erovnul
doneze (magaliTad, SvedeTi).
realuri xelfasis simkveTris mesame mizezia stimulirebadi xelfasis daweseba, romelic aRemateba
wonasworobis dones. igi cnobilia efeqtiani xelfasis Teoriis saxelwodebiT da iqidan gamomdinareobs,
rom maRali xelfasi amaRlebs Sromis mwarmoeblurobas
da zrdis sawarmos mogebas. es garemoeba ki amcirebs
sawarmos moTxovnas axal samuSao Zalaze da, Sesabamisad,
adidebs molodinis umuSevrobas.
umuSevroba SeiZleba maSinac aRmocendes, roca adamianebs ar surT SeTavazebul xelfasze muSaoba. am
saxis umuSevrobas uwodeben nebayoflobiT umuSevrobas. aRniSnuli adamianebi muSaobas maSin iwyeben, roca
anazRaurebas moumateben. nebayoflobiTi umuSevroba maSinac warmoiSoba, roca adgili aqvs erTi samuSaodan
meoreze gadasvlas an sacxovrebeli adgilis gamocvlas; roca adamianisaTvis mocemuli samuSao `araprestiJulia`, an xels ar uwyobs mis SemoqmedebiT ganviTarebas, an roca igi ver egueba SromiT koleqtivs, an misi
Sroma naklebmwarmoebluria.
umuSevrobis mizezTa zemoT motanili CamonaTvali
imavdroulad warmoadgens umuSevrobis saxeebs, romlebic
SesaZloa or kategoriad gaerTiandes: 1. uwonasworobiTi umuSevroba (iZulebiTi da molodinis umuSevroba)
da 2. wonasworobiTi umuSevroba (nebayoflobiTi
umuSevroba). maT Soris arsebuli gansxvavebis asaxsnelad saWiroa gavecnoT samuSao Zalis bazris funqcionirebis zogad meqanizms .
559
xelfasis saSualo (realuri)
ganakveTebi
qvemoT warmodgenil 9.4 naxazze naCvenebia erToblivi
moTxovna samuSao Zalaze da misi erToblivi miwodeba.
xelfasis saSualo sidide naCvenebia vertikalur RerZze.
amasTan, xelfasis saSualo sidide asaxavs mis yidviTunarianobas. maSasadame, is gaiangariSeba fasebis gaTvaliswinebiT.
samuSao Zalis erToblivi miwodebis mrudi
(ASL) gviCvenebs im muSakTa ricxvs, romelTac surT
samuSaoze daqiraveba xelfasis sxvadasxva ganakveTis
pirobebSi. es mrudi SefardebiT elastikuria, ramdena-
muSakTa ricxvi
nax. 9.4. uwonasworobiTi umuSevroba
560
dac samuSao Zalis raodenobas mniSvnelovnad Secvla ar
SeuZlia. magram is mTlianad araelastikuri araa, ramdenadac maRali xelfasis pirobebSi zogierTi adamiani
(magaliTad, mSoblebi, romlebic dakavebulni arian bavSvebis aRzrdiT) moindomebs samuSao Zalis bazarze gasvlas da umuSevrebic moisurveben samuSaos Sesaxeb SemoTavazebuli winadadebis miRebas ufro maRalanazRaurebadi samuSaos Ziebis gagrZelebis nacvlad.
samuSao Zalaze erToblivi moTxovnis mrudi
(ADL) daRmavalia. rac ufro maRalia xelfasi, firmebi
miT ufro moisurveben dazogvas (ekonomias), naklebi
muSakebis daqiravebiT da maTi warmoebis sxva faqtorebiT Canacvlebis gziT.
Sromis bazari imyofeba wonasworobaSi xelfasis
We sididis pirobebSi, romlis drosac moTxovna samuSao Zalaze misi miwodebis tolia. Tu xelfasis done
iqneba We-ze maRali, wonasworoba Sromis bazarze dairRveva. xelfasis W1 sididis pirobebSi adgili aqvs
samuSao Zalis miwodebis siWarbes (A-B). es iwodeba
uwonasworobiT umuSevrobad .
im SemTxvevaSic ki, roca Sromis bazari imyofeba
wonasworobaSi, samuSaos yvela mZebneli ver miiRebs mas.
zogierTi upiratesobas mianiWebs umuSevrad darCenas,
ufro maRalanazRaurebadi samuSaos povnis surviliT.
9.5 naxazze N mrudi gviCvenebs samuSao Zalis saerTo
raodenobas. N mrudsa da samuSao Zalis erToblivi
miwodebis ASL mruds Soris horizontaluri sxvaoba
gviCvenebs Tu ramdenad ufro metia samuSaos mZebnel
adamianTa ricxvi, vidre imaTi, vinc namdvilad mzadaa
561
xelfasis saSualo (realuri)
ganakveTebi
wavides SeTavazebul samuSaoze. Qe gviCvenebs dasaqmebis
wonasworobiT dones, xolo dacileba D-sa d E-s Soris
_ umuSevrobis wonasworobiT dones . mas xSirad
umuSevrobis bunebriv donesac uwodeben.
umuSevrobis zemoT aRniSnuli saxeebi calkeuli
ti pebis formiT gamovlindeba.
daviwyoT uwonasworobiTi umuSevrobis tipebis ganxilviT. ekonomistebi gamoyofen uwonasworobiTi umuSevrobis warmoqmnis sam ZiriTad mizezsa da,
Sesabamisad, mis sam ti ps:
muSakTa ricxvi
nax. 9.5. wonasworobiTi umuSevroba
562
 realuri xelfasis doniT gam owveuli
umuSevroba Cndeba maSin, roca profkavSirebi iyeneben
TavianT monopoliur Zalauflebas, raTa bazarze arsebuli wonasworobis donis zemoT awion xelfasebi. 9.4
naxazze xelfasis aseTi sidide We-s zeviTaa.
XX saukunis 80-ian da 90-ian wlebSi tetCerisa
da meijoris mTavrobam ganacxada, rom gadidebulma xelfasebma gamoiwvia umuSevroba am periodSi. realuri xelfasis doniT gamowveuli umuSevrobis warmoSobis
SesaZlebloba iyo qveyanaSi minimaluri xelfasis sididis Semcirebis erT-erTi mizezi.
erTi SexedviT SeiZleba mogveCvenos, rom realuri
xelfasis doniT gamowveuli umuSevrobis problemis
gadawyveta martivad SeiZleba xelfasis donis SemcirebiT, magram Tu Rrmad CavukvirdebiT, davinaxavT, rom amis
gakeTeba arc Tu ise advilia, ramdenadac profkavSirebi
yovelTvis xelfasis ganakveTebis gadidebas iTxoven. im
SemTxvevaSic ki, Tu saxelmwifos miecema xelfasis saSualo sididis Semcirebis SesaZlebloba, problema Cndeba
imasTan dakavSirebuli, rom momxmareblebi daiwyeben naklebi saxsrebis xarjvas, rac imas niSnavs, rom moTxovna
samuSao Zalaze Semcirdeba, ris Sedegadac umuSevrobis
done SeiZleba ar daeces;
 miwodebis siWarbiT gamowveuli umuSevroba
warmoiSoba im SemTxvevaSi, rodesac samuSao Zalis miwodebis zrdas Tan ar axlavs masze moTxovnis zrda da
xelfasis wonasworobiTi done mcirdeba. es umuSevrobis warmoSobis seriozuli mizezi araa, ramdenadac samuSao Zalis miwodeba SedarebiT nela icvleba. Tumca,
563
Tundac skoladamTavrebulTa samuSaoTi uzrunvelyofis
problema dgeba yovelwliurad, ramdenadac maTi saxiT
mimdinareobs samuSao Zalis modinebis gadideba Sromis
bazarze.
drois didi periodis ganmavlobaSi potenciurad
SeiZleba warmoiSvas bavSviani qalebis dasaqmebis problema, ramdenadac socialuri situaciis gamwvavebasTan
dakavSirebiT, bavSvian qalTa didi nawili daiwyebs samuSaos Zebnas. magram, praqtikulad, arasrul ganakveTze
momuSave adamianTa raodenobis swrafi zrdisa da qalebis
mier miRebuli ufro dabali xelfasebis pirobebSi, es
ar warmoadgens samuSao Zalis miwodebis siWarbis ZiriTad problemas.
 moTxovnis deficitiT gamowveuli umuSevroba asocirdeba ekonomikur daqveiTebasTan. ekonomikuri
zrdis tempis dacemasTan dakavSirebiT, rogorc wesi,
samomxmareblo moTxovna mkveTrad mcirdeba, sawarmoebi
veRar yidian maT gankargulebaSi arsebul saqonels,
garkveuli periodis ganmavlobaSi maT SeuZliaT gauyidavi saqoneli daasawyobon, magram male isini daiwyeben
warmoebis moculobis Semcirebas da, Sesabamisad, samuSaodan muSakTa daTxovnasac. yovelive amis Sedegad
umuSevroba masobriv xasiaTs Rebulobs. 9.4 naxazze
ADL mrudi gadaadgildeba marcxniv. rac ufro Rrmaa da
did xans grZeldeba ekonomikuri daqveiTeba (krizisi)
da depresia, miT ufro maRalia moTxovnis deficitiT
gamowveuli umuSevroba.
depresiidan ekonomikis gamosvlisa da ekonomikuri
aRmavlobis dawyebasTan dakavSirebiT moTxovnis defic564
itiT gamowveuli umuSevrobis done mcirdeba. vinaidan
moTxovnis deficitiT gamowveuli umuSevrobis zomebi
ekonomikuri ciklis fazebisagan damokidebulebiT meryeobs, mas xSirad ciklur umuSevrobas * uwodeben.
moTxovnis deficitiT gamowveuli umuSevroba SeiZleba sakmaod xangrZlivi droiTac arsebobdes, Tu ekonomika ver axerxebs Tavisi potencialis srulad realizebas. ekonomikuri ciklis aRmavlobis fazaSic ki warmoebis realuri done SesaZlebelia mniSvnelovnad CamorCebodes potenciurs, ris gamoc Sromis bazari uwonasworobiT mdgomareobaSi iqneba.
da bolos, unda aRiniSnos isic, rom cikluri
umuSevrobis sabolood Tavidan acileba SeuZlebelia,
ramdenadac igi iseve gardauvalia, rogorc misi gamomwvevi mizezi _ ekonomikis cikluri ganviTareba. Tumca,
antikrizisuli RonisZiebebis gatarebiT SeiZleba
* cikluri umuSevrobis erTgvar nairsaxeobad SeiZleba
CaiTvalos e.w. faruli umuSevroba. misi arsi isaa, rom
ekonomikuri krizisis Sedegad, nawilobrivi datvirTviT funqcionirebis pirobebSi, sawarmoebi TanamSromlebs ki ar aTavisufleben samuSaodan, aramed gadahyavT isini muSaobis Sekvecil
reJimze (arasruli samuSao kvira an arasruli samuSao dRe), an
kidev uSveben uxelfaso SvebulebaSi ganusazRvreli vadiT. am
garemoebaTa gamo isini oficialurad ar aRiricxebian umuSevarTa rigebSi, metic, iTvlebian dasaqmebulebad maSin, roca arsebiTad umuSevrebi arian. amitomac uwodeben mas farul
umuSevrobas. amis ti piuri magaliTia saqarTvelos dRevandeli
mdgomareoba, sadac mrewvelur sawarmoTa umravlesobis
datvirTvis koeficienti 25-30%-s ar aRemateba.
565
ekonomikuri dacemis erTgvari Serbilebis miRweva da,
Sesabamisad, droebiT gamoTavisuflebul muSakTa ricxvis Semcireba.
msoflios wamyvan qveynebSi XX saukunis 80-90iani wlebis ganmavlobaSi arsebuli umuSevrobis maRali donis ZiriTadi mizezi iyo wonasworobiTi umuSevrobis zrda.
miuxedavad imisa, rom mTlianad ekonomikaSi SeiZleba arsebobdes wonasworoba (e.i. erToblivi moTxovna samuSao Zalaze toli iyos misi erToblivi miwodebisa), ris Sedegadac adgili ar eqneba uwonasworobiT
umuSevrobas, mikroekonomikur doneze moTxovna samuSao
Zalaze SeiZleba ar utoldebodes mis miwodebas. amasTan
dakavSirebiT, Cndeba wonasworobiTi umuSevroba.
ekonomistebi gamoyofen wonasworobiTi umuSevrobis or ZiriTad ti ps:
 friqciuli umuSevroba ewodeba SromisunarianTa droebiT, gardauval dausaqmeblobas, rac dakavSirebulia erTi samuSaodan meoreze gadasvliT, sacxovrebeli adgilis gamocvliT, cxovrebis sxvadasxva
etapiT da warmoebis sezonurobiT ganpirobebul samuSaos ZiebasTan an samuSaos molodinTan.
TviT termini `friqciuli umuSevroba` gamoxatavs
samuSaos Zebnas, samuSaos molodins da gamoiyeneba imaT
mimarT, vinc samuSaos eZebs, an axlo momavalSi mis miRebas elodeba. gansazRvreba `friqciuli` zustad asaxavs
movlenis arss: Sromis bazari funqcionirebs mouqnelad
da TanafardobaSi ver mohyavs samuSao adgilebisa da
SromiTi resursebis raodenoba.
friqciuli umuSevroba kidev ufro martivad Sei566
Zleba aseTnairad avxsnaT. mis kontingents warmoqmnian,
jer erTi, pirebi, romlebmac samuSaos nebayoflobiT
daanebes Tavi, raTa ukeTes samuSaoze gadavidnen. TviT am
gadasvlas xom garkveuli dro sWirdeba (maSinac, roca
axali samuSao winaswarve napovnia da, miT umetes, Tu is
mosaZebnia); meore, SomisunarianTa didi nawili samuSaos
Tavs anebebs sacxovrebeli adgilis gamocvlis gamo, amitom, sanam misTvis sasurvel adgilas i povis Sesaferis
samuSaos, es nawilic dausaqmebelia; mesame, axalgazrdebi,
romlebmac daamTavres saswavlebeli da eZeben specialobis mixedviT samuSaos, garkveuli xnis ganmavlobaSi
rCebian dausaqmeblad; meoTxe, sezonurad momuSave pirebi, romlebic weliwadis garkveul dros nebayoflobiTi
umuSevrobis mdgomareobaSi atareben. magaliTad, oficiantebi, romlebic Tavs zafxulis an zamTris kurortebze muSaobiT irCenen, Semodgomisa da gazafxulis TveebSi umuSevrebad iTvlebian.
es erTjeradi procesi araa. marTalia, mocemuli
momentisaTvis arsebul umuSevarTa zemoT xsenebuli kontingenti bolos da bolos i povis samuSaos da dasaqmdeba, magram imave mdgomareobaSi axla sxva Sromisunariani pirebi aRmoCndebian da umuSevrobis es forma mudmivad arsebobs.
friqciuli umuSevrobis SemcirebasTan dakavSirebuli problema mdgomareobs informaciis arasrulyofilebaSi. damqiraveblebs ar gaaCniaT mTliani informacia imis Sesaxeb, Tu rogori kvalifikaciis da profesiis muSakebi imyofebian umuSevarTa Soris. umuSevrebi ki
ar floben srul informacias imaze, Tu rogori samuSaos miReba SeuZliaT da ra pirobebiT. amitom muSake567
bic da damqiraveblebic imyofebian mudmiv ZiebaSi: damqiraveblebi eZeben Sesaferisi profesiisa da kvalifikaciis samuSao Zalas, muSakebi ki _ sakadris samuSaos.
problemis gadaWra mdgomareobs Sromis bazris
Sesaxeb sruli sainformacio bazis SeqmnaSi. aseTi sainformacio baza unda efuZnebodes mTavrobis mier organizebuli dasaqmebis centrebis, dasaqmebis kerZo saagentoebis, adgilobrivi da saerToerovnuli sainformacio
saSualebebis monacemebs.
 struqturuli umuSevroba ewodeba ekonomikis
struqturul cvlilebebTan dakavSirebul umuSevrobas,
romelsac maSin aqvs adgili, roca Zveli warmoeba da
dargebi axals uTmoben adgils. amasTan, axali samuSao
adgilebisaTvis ver pouloben saWiro kvalifikaciis
muSakebs, xolo Zveli muSakebi, arasakmarisi kvalifikaciis
gamo, samuSaodan Tavisufldebian da umuSevarTa sarezervo armias avseben. am SemTxvevaSi samuSao Zalaze
moTxovnisa da samuSao Zalis miwodebis profesiuli struqturebi erTmaneTs ar Seesabameba.
arsebobs struqturuli umuSvrobis gamomwvevi
ramdenime mizezi:
* dargis mier Tavisi saeqsporto bazrebis
dakargva msoflioSi mimdinare mZafri konkurenciis
pirobebSi. qveynis romelime dargma SesaZlebelia dakargos Tavisi saeqsporto bazrebi da dauTmos isini sxva
qveynebis ganviTarebad dargebs. iaponiis, taivanis, samxreT
koreisa da hong-kongis mxriv gaZlierebulma konkurenciam swored aseTi zemoqmedeba moaxdina ramdenime britnul da amerikul dargze, ramac am dargebSi struqtu568
ruli umuSevrobis warmoSoba ganapiroba.
* moTxovnis modelis Secvla. droTa ganmavlobaSi moTxovna zogierTi dargis produqciaze ecema,
zogierTisaze ki _ izrdeba. moTxovnis dacema SesaZlebelia ganapirobos tradiciuli produqciis romelime
efeqturi Semcvlelis SemuSavebam an momxmarebelTa gemovnebis cvlilebebma. magaliTad, navTobis rogorc energiis wyaros gamoyenebam qvanaxSirze moTxovnis dacema
gamoiwvia; saavtomobilo transportis modernizaciam
mkveTrad Seamcira moTxovna sarkinigzo transportze;
reaqtiuli avialainerebis eqsploataciaSi Seyvanam
sagrZnoblad Seamcira saokeano gemebiT mgzavrobis survili. ai, am zemoT aRniSnul safuZvlebze warmoiSva
struqturuli umuSevroba, Sesabamisad: qvanaxSiris mompovebel mrewvelobaSi, sarkinigzo transportze da saokeano transportze.
* struqturuli umuSevroba SeiZleba agreTve
gamowveuli iyos teqnikuri progresiT ganpirobebuli
cvlilebebiT warmoebis meTodebSi. teqnikuri progresi revoluciur cvlilebebs iwvevs warmoebis mravali dargis teqnologiaSi (mikrosqemebis, kompiuterebis,
robotebis da a.S. gamoyeneba). bevr SemTxvevaSi produqciis saWiro moculobis sawarmoeblad gacilebiT naklebi muSaxelia sakmarisi. am mizeziT gamowveul
umuSevrobas zogjer `teqnologiur umuSevrobas`
uwodeben. ramdenime aTeuli wlis winaT swored aseTi
procesi aRiniSna saqarTvelos Cais mrewvelobaSi. aq
didi xnis manZilze Cais awonva-dafasoeba xeliT sruldeboda, rac Zlier Sromatevadi samuSao iyo. Semdeg dainerga
ucxouri warmoebis manqana-avtomatebi, romelTagan Ti569
Toeulma aseulobiT muSa gamoaTavisufla da, rogorc
ityvian, umuSevari datova. amisi kargi magaliTia agreTve
Tanamedrove kompiuteruli teqnikis danergva. magaliTad, Tu amJamad umaRlesi kvalifikaciis 40 ti pografiul muSas SeuZlia saaTSi daaxloebiT 170 aTasi niSnis
akrefa, kompiuteruli teqnologiebis daxmarebiT ukve
10 kacs SeuZlia imave droSi akrifos daaxloebiT 1
mln niSani, ris Sedegadac teqnologiuri umuSevroba
20-jer izrdeba.
* struqturuli umuSevroba, arcTu iSviaTad, warmoiSoba qveynis mxolod calkeul regionebSi. am SemTxvevaSi mas uwodeben regionul umuSevrobas . amas xSirad
adgili maSin aqvs, roca mrewvelobis garkveuli dargebi
gaadgilebulia qveynis gansazRvrul regionebSi. magaliTad, qvanaxSiris mompovebeli mrewvelobis Cavardnam
dasavleT saqarTveloSi ganapiroba umuSevrobis maRali
done qveynis am nawilSi. zogierT SemTxvevaSi, regionuli umuSevrobis mizezia calkeuli regionebis sfecifikuri bunebriv-ekonomikuri pirobebi (mciremiwianoba,
mouxerxebeli reliefi da a.S.). saqarTveloSi aseT rgionebs tradiciulad ganekuTvneba: raWa-leCxumi, svaneTi, mTiani
aWara da sxv.
struqturuli umuSevrobis done damokidebulia
Semdeg sam ZiriTad faqtorze:
dargTa regionuli koncentraciis xarisxi .
krizisSi aRmoCenili dargebi rac ufro metad iqneba
koncentrirebuli gansazRvrul regionebSi, miT ufro
meti iqneba struqturuli umuSevrobis done;
moTxovnisa da miwodebis cvlilebebis siswrafe ekonomikaSi. rac ufro swrafad mimdinareobs
570
teqnologiuri cvlilebebi an icvleba momxmarebelTa
gemovneba, miT meti iqneba struqturuli umuSevrobis
done;
samuSao Zalis mobilurobis xarisxi. rac
ufro naklebia samuSao Zalis erTi samuSaodan meoreze
gadaadgilebis, erTi dargidan meore dargSi an erTi
regionidan meoreSi gadasvlis SesaZlebloba da survili, miT ufro meti iqneba struqturuli umuSevrobis
done.
struqturuli umuSevroba friqciulisagan gansxvav-deba imiT, rom: jer erTi, `struqturul` umuSevrebs,
rogorc wesi, ar SeuZliaT samuSaoze mowyoba dauyovnebliv (saTanado gadamzadebisa da damatebiTi swavla-ganaTlebis gareSe), `friqciul` umuSevrebs ki TiTqmis araferi uSliT xels, mTavaria monaxon Sesaferisi
samuSao; da meore, struqturuli umuSevroba, friqciulTan SedarebiT, ufro xangrZlivi da seriozulia. igi
metnaklebi zomiT yvela qveyanaSi da ganviTarebis yvela
etapze SeiniSneba.* amitom misi Tundac Serbileba did
Zalisxmevas moiTxovs.
umuSevrobis ZiriTadi maCveneblebi.
* unda SevniSnoT, rom saqarTvelo amJamad imyofeba struqturuli gardaqmnebis periodSi, ris gamoc aTeul aTasobiT
adamianma, maT Soris kvalificiurma muSakebma dakarges samuSao
adgili. aRsaniSnavia isic, rom dasaqmebis samsaxurebSi registrirebul umuSevarTa mTlian raodenobaSi umaRlesi ganaTlebis
mqone pirTa wili 31,6%-ia (2003 w.).
571
TavisTavad, umuSevroba ki ar aris problema, aramed umuSevrobis is done, romelic iwvevs socialuri konfliqtebis gamwvavebas. roca umuSevroba miaRwevs `problemur
dones`, maSin politikosebma raRac unda moimoqmedon,
rac mTavrobis mxridan dakavSirebulia ganazRvrul danaxarjTan. aq ukve SeiZleba wamoiWras kiTxva imis Sesaxeb, Tu umuSevrobis romeli donea dasaSvebi da rogor
SeiZleba misi Secnoba?
rogorc ukve aRiniSna, friqciuli da struqturuli umuSevroba mudmivad arsebobs da momavalSic iarsebebs. problemuria mxolod uwonasworobiTi umuSevrobis ti pebi da, gansakuTrebiT, cikluri umuSevroba. amitom `sruli dasaqmeba` ar niSnavs umuSevrobis absolutur ararsebobas. roca msjelobaa sruli dasaqmebis
Sesaxeb, igulisxmeba ara umuSevrobis ararseboba saerTod, aramed is, rom uwonasworobiTi umuSevroba nulis
tolia. sxvanairad rom vTqvaT, sruli dasaqmeba ewodeba
situacias, roca dasaqmeba 100%-ze naklebia, xolo
umuSevarTa raodenoba ar aRemateba friqciuli
da struqturuli umuSevrobis jams. maSasadame, `sruli dasaqmeba` ganisazRvreba rogorc dasaqmeba, romelic
samuSao Zalis 100%-ze naklebia.
umuSevarTa raodenobas, romelic Seesabameba
friqciuli da struqturuli umuSevrobis jams,
bunebrivi umuSevroba, anu umuSevrobis bunebrivi
done ewodeba. ase magaliTad, Tu samuSao Zalis ricxovnoba qveyanaSi Seadgens 2 mln kacs, aqedan friqciuli
umuSevaria 60 aTasi kaci, xolo struqturuli umuSevari _ 40 aTasi kaci (umuSevrobis sxva saxeebs adgili
ara aqvs), maSin umuSevrobis bunebrivi done udris
572
5%-s [(60000+40000):2000000]?100.
umuSevrobis bunebriv donesTan dakavSirebul mSpis realur moculobas ekonomikis warmoebrivi potenciali ewodeba. es aris produqciis is realuri moculoba, romlis warmoebac SeuZlia ekonomikas resursebis `sruli gamoyenebis` pirobebSi.
umuSevrobis bunebrivi done warmoiSoba samuSao
Zalis bazris dabalansebulobis dros, anu roca samuSaos mZebnelTa raodenoba da Tavisufali samuSao adgilebi (vakansiebi) erTmaneTis tolia. Tanamedrove ekonomikaSi umuSevrobis bunebrivi done warmodgenilia rogorc
ukiduresad dasaSvebi done. igi sxvadasxva qveyanaSi gansxvavebulia da sakmaod mobiluri.
mxolod friqciuli da struqturuli umuSevrobis drosac ki umuSevrobis faqtiuri done SeiZleba
iyos bunebrivze maRali an dabali. maRali iqneba, Tu
samuSaos mZebnelTa raodenoba sagrZnoblad aRemateba
arsebul vakansiebs, anu samuSao Zalis bazari daubalansebelia imis gamo, rom miwodeba aWarbebs moTxovnas
da, piriqiT, dabali iqneba, Tu Tavisufali samuSao adgilebis raodenoba aRemateba samuSaos mZebnelTa ricxvs,
anu samuSao Zalis bazari daubalansebelia imis gamo,
rom moTxovna aWarbebs miwodebas. praqtikaSi aseTi ram
iSviaTad, magram mainc gvxvdeba. magaliTad, meore msoflio omis periodSi, roca aSS-Si umuSevrobis bunebrivi
done 3-4%-s Seadgenda, samxedro warmoebis saWiroebam
moTxovna samuSao Zalaze TiTqmis ganusazRvrelad gazarda. Cveulebrivi movlena gaxda SemTavsebloba da zeganakveTuri muSaoba. mTavroba krZalavda mrewvelobis mravali strategiuli dargidan momuSaveTa gaTavisuflebas
573
da amiT xelovnurad mcirdeboda friqciuli umuSevroba. ai, aman ganapiroba umuSevrobis faqtiuri donis, bunebriv donesTan SedarebiT, mkveTrad dacema.
umuSevrobis bunebrivi done ucvleli sidide rodia.
misi cvalebadoba damokidebulia im faqtorebze, romlebic gavlenas axdenen friqciul da struqturul cvlilebebze. am momentis gaTvaliswinebiT, magaliTad, aSSSi XX saukunis 60-ian wlebSi umuSevrobis bunebrivi
done Seadgenda 4%-s, xolo 80-ian wlebSi _ 6-7%-s.
umuSevrobis bunebrivi donis aseTi arasasurveli zrdis mizezebi iyo samuSao Zalis SemadgenlobaSi qalebis,
mozardebis, erovnuli umciresobis warmomadgenlebis sul
ufro aqtiuri CarTva da struqturuli umuSevrobis
gaZliereba. Tumca, mogvianebiT, 2000 wlidan umuSevrobis bunebrivi done kvlav daubrunda 60-iani wlebis
niSnuls (4%-s), rac miewera mTeli ekonomikis masStabiT mwarmoeblobis zrdas, umTavresad axali teqnologiis
danergvis Sedegad. amrigad, dRevandel amerikaSi srul
dasaqmebad iTvleba situacia, roca Sromisunariani mosaxleobis 96% muSaobs.
zemoT, umuSevrobis bunebriv donesTan erTad,
araerTxel vaxseneT `umuSevrobis faqtiuri done`, magram misTvis saTanado axsna ar migvicia.
umuSevrobis faqtiuri done , sazogadod, gaiangariSeba umuSevarTa ricxovnobis SefardebiT ekonomikurad aqtiuri mosaxleobis (samuSao Zalis) ricxovnobasTan, gamosaxuli procentebSi. Tu, magaliTad, umuSevari 180 aTasi Sromisunariani, xolo samuSao Zalis
saerTo raodenoba qveyanaSi Seadgens 3 mln kacs, umuSevrobis faqtiuri done iqneba 6% (180000:3000000X100).
574
9.8 cxrilSi warmodgenilia umuSevrobis standartizebuli faqtiuri doneebi msoflios zogierT
qveyanaSi sxvadasxva demografiuli jgufis mixedviT.
rogorc cxrilSi motanili monacemebidan Cans, yvela CamoTvlil qveyanaSi sxvadasxva demografiuli jgufebis mixedviT arsebiTad gansxvavebulia mosaxleobis
umuSevrobis done. igi yvelaze maRalia 16-25 wlis
asakobriv jgufSi da, gansakuTrebiT qalebSi, rac ganpirobebulia am demografiul jgufSi SromiTi mowyobis dabali da samuSaodan gaTavisuflebis maRali maCveneblebiT.
dReisaTvis saqarTveloSi umuSevrobis dones faqtiurad angariSoben mkacri kriteriumiT, Serbilebuli
kriteriumiT da registrirebul umuSevarTa mixedviT.
umuSevrobis done mkacri kriteriumiT gaiangariSeba 16 wlis da meti asakis mosaxleobis, romelic
ar eweva ekonomikur saqmianobas, eZebs samuSaos da mzad
aris daiwyos muSaoba, SefardebiT 16 wlis da meti
asakis mosaxleobasTan, gamosaxuli procentebSi.
umuSevrobis done Serbilebuli kriteriumiT
gaiangariSeba 16 wlis da meti asakis mosaxleobis, romelic ar eweva ekonomikur saqmianobas, mzad aris daiwyos
muSaoba, magram ar eZebs samuSaos, radgan gadaewura misi
Sovnis imedi, SefardebiT 16 wlis da meti asakis mosaxleobasTan, gamosaxuli procentebSi.
registrirebuli umuSevrobis done gaiangariSeba
registrirebul umuSevarTa ricxovnobis SefardebiT
ekonomikurad aqtiuri mosaxleobis (samuSao Zalis)
ricovnobasTan, gamosaxuli procentebSi.
umuSevrobis donis maCvenebelTa sizustes mniS575
15.3
18.1
16.6
7.3
10.3
8.6
(15 qveyana)
14.3
9.4
10.1
12.4
13.4
9.7
3.8
6.4
5.4
4.3
4.0
6.0
didi
britaneTi
aSS
evrokavSiri
20.7
34.3
26.9
9.8
14.4
espaneTi
21.2
10.2
4.6
7.8
7.2
9.1
5.9
5.1
2.1
4.9
2.9
iaponia
holandia
4.6
3.9
9.8
6.6
8.1
6.6
9.0
6.6
7.9
4.9
8.4
4.9
germania
irlandia
9.0
4.8
23.1
18.9
23.3
23.2
23.2
20.9
7.3
8.5
10.1
12.2
8.5
10.2
belgia
safrangeTi
25 welze
naklebi
asakis
mamak acebi
25 welze
naklebi
asakis
qalebi
25 welze
naklebi
asakis yvela
moqalaqe
mamak acebi
(yvela
asakis)
qalebi
(yvela
asakis)
saerTo
raodenoba
(yvela asakis)
qveyana
cxrili 9.8
umuSevrobis faqtiuri (standartizebuli) doneebi msoflios zogierT
qveyanaSi sxvadasxva demorafiuli jgufis mixedviT (2000 w.)
576
vnelovanwilad gansazRvravs is, Tu ramdenad sworad
iqneba dadgenili samuSao Zalis saerTo ricxovnoba da
faqtiuri umuSevroba. samuSao Zalis raodenobisa da,
maT Soris, umuSevarTa ricxovnobis gasaangariSeblad
iyeneben mosaxleobis aRweris, SerCeviTi gamokiTxvis da
SromiTi dasaqmebis biuroebis monacemebs, magram saqmisadmi didi gulmodginebis gamoCenis SemTxvevaSic ver
xerxdeba utyuari Sedegebis miReba. ti piur cdomilebaTa magaliTebad SeiZleba davasaxeloT Semdegi:
 oficialuri statistikis mixedviT, arasruli
samuSao dRiT dasaqmebulebi mTlianad dasaqmebulTa
kategoriaSi Sedian. es metnaklebad gamarTlebulad SeiZleba CaiTvalos im pirebis mimarT, romlebic arasruli
datvirTviT muSaoben TavianTi neba-surviliT. magram
gaumarTlebelia im pirTa mimarT, romelTac surT sruli datvirTviT muSaoba, magram amas ver aRweven da iZulebulni arian dasjerdnen arasruli samuSao dRiT
muSaobas. aseTi pirebis srul dasaqmebulebad aRiarebiT, oficialuri statistika, cxadia, xelovnurad amcirebs umuSevrobis donis maCvenebels.
 oficialurad, umuSevrad iTvleba is dausaqmebeli, romelic aqtiurad eZebs samuSaos. sxva sityvebiT,
umuSevari, romelic aqtiurad ar iRwvis samuSaos mosapoveblad, `samuSao Zalis Semadgenlobidan` gamosulad
iTvleba. arada, arcTu cotaa iseTi umuSevari, romelTac
mobezrdaT samuSaos sapovnelad uSedego xangrZlivi xetiali da ukve imeddakargulebi eTiSebian samuSaos aqtiur maZebarTa kategorias. am nawilis umuSevarTa kategoriaSi SeutanlobiT, oficialuri statistika aseve
amcirebs umuSevrobis donis maCvenebels.
577
 umuSevrobis done xelovnurad izrdeba imis gamo,
rom zogierTi respodenti (gamosakiTxi piri) iZleva
cru informacias _ TiTqos is mowadinebiT eZebs samuSaos, Tumca es sinamdviles ar Seefereba. aseTi qcevis
mizania is, rom miiRos umuSevrobis kompensacia an socialuri uzrunvelyofis daxmareba.
 umuSevrobis oficialur dones xelovnurad zrdis Crdilovani ekonomikis arseboba. amgvar saqmianobaSi Cabmuli pirebi sruli datvirTviT muSaoben, magram
formalurad umuSevarTa kategorias ganekuTvnebian _
TavianT Tavs umuSevars uwodeben.
zemoT aRniSnulidan SeiZleba im daskvnis gamotana,
rom, marTalia, umuSevroba qveynis ekonomikuri mdgomareobis erT-erTi umniSvnelovanesi maCvenebelia, magram igi
yovelTvis rodi SeiZleba CaiTvalos ekonomikis sijansaRis uSecdomo barometrad.
umuSevrobis kidev erTi mniSvnelovani maCvenebelia
umuSevrobis xangrZlivoba _ dro, romlis ganmavlobaSic adamiani dausaqmebelia.
samuSaos povnis xangrZlivoba bevrad aris damokidebuli umuSevrobis saxeze. yvelaze xangrZlivia cikluri (iZulebiTi) umuSevroba. statistikuri gaangariSebiT, umuSevrobis erTobliv xangrZlivobaSi yvelaze meti wvlili SeaqvT im pirebs, romlebic samuSaos
ver pouloben xangrZlivi drois ganmavlobaSi. magaliTad, 1974 wels, roca aSS-Si umuSevrobis done Seadgenda 5,6%-s, umuSevrobis 60%-ma samuSao ipova erTi Tvis
ganmavlobaSi. miuxedavad amisa, umuSevrobis erToblivi
xangrZlivobis 69% grZeldeboda or da met Tves. es
ori faqti ar ewinaaRmdegeba erTmaneTs. magaliTad, da578
vuSvaT, rom 2007 wlis 1 marts samuSao dakarga 14
kacma, aqedan 12 kacma samuSao moZebna 1 aprilamde,
xolo 2 kacma samuSao ver i pova momavali wlis 1
martamde. sabloo angariSiT, aRniSnul 14 kacs ar umuSavia
36 Tve (12?1)+(2?12). mocemul magaliTSi umuSevarTa
did nawils (86%) samuSao ar hqonda drois mcire
monakveTSi (1 Tve), umuSevarTa mcire nawili (14%) ki
dausaqmebeli iyo 12 Tvis ganmavlobaSi. miuxedavad am
garemoebisa, umuSevrobis erToblivi xangrZlivobis didi
nawili (67%) modis swored am or kacze (24:36?100).
monacemebs umuSevrobis xangrZlivobaze didi mniSvneloba
aqvs samTavrobo politikis dasamuSaveblad. Tu am politikis mizania umuSevrobis donis mniSvnelovani Semcireba, maSin misi sagani unda gaxdes grZelvadiani umuSevroba,
radgan mas Seaqvs yvelaze didi wvlili umuSevrobis
erTobliv xangrZlivobaSi.
umuSevrobis ekonomikuri da socialuri Sedegebi. umuSevroba mwvave problemaa da mas-
Tan dakavSirebulia ekonomikuri da socialuri xasiaTis uaryofiTi movlenebi. umuSevrobis mTavari uaryofiTi Sedegi isaa, rom produqtis warmoebis potenciuri SesaZleblobis nawili samudamod ekargeba sazogadoebas, e.i. faqtobrivad iwarmoeba imaze naklebi, vidre
SesaZlebeli iyo sruli dasaqmebis (e.i. umuSevrobis
bunebrivi donis) pirobebSi.
magram cikluri umuSevrobis uaryofiTi Sedegi ar
amoiwureba warmoebis danakargebiT. igi amave dros socialuri travmacaa. samuSaos dakargva iwvevs dekvalifikacias, sakuTari Tavis arasrulfasovnebis sindroms,
579
ojaxis ngrevas, sazogadoebriv daZabulobas. amerikeli
ekonomistebi p.samuelsoni da v.nordhausi weren:
`umuSevroba Tanamedroveobis centraluri problemaa.
samuSaos dakargva iseTi fsiqikuri travmaa, romelic
stresis ZaliT uaxloesi naTesavis gardacvalebas an
dapatimrebas Tu Camouvardeba`.
umuSevrobis problemis simwvavidan da uaryifiTi
Sedegebis simravlidan gamomdinare, ekonomistebi calcalke gamoyofen mis `ekonomikur danakargebs` da `socialur danaxarjebs`.
umuSevrobis ekonomikuri danakargebi ZiriTadad dakavSirebulia produqciis gamouSveblobasTan.
umuSevrobis `mTavari fasi` gamouSvebeli produqciaa.
amas ki maSin aqvs adgili, roca ekonomikas ar ZaluZs
sakmarisi samuSao adgilebis Seqmna imaTTvis, visac muSaoba
surs da SeuZlia. rogorc Cans, umuSevroba xels uSlis
sazogadoebis winsvlas, mis potenciur SesaZleblobaTa
srulad gamoyenebas. ekonomistebi am gamouSvebel produqcias gansazRvraven, rogorc mSp-is CamorCenas (danakargs), romelic im moculobis tolia, romliTac faqtobrivi mSp naklebia potenciurze. potenciuri mSp ganisazRvreba ekonomikuri zrdis normaluri tempebis safuZvelze, umuSevrobis bunebrivi donis gaTvaliswinebiT.
rac ufro maRalia umuSevrobis done, miT ufro didia
mSp-is CamorCena.
makroekonomikis sferoSi cnobilma mkvlevarma
artur oukenma maTematikurad gamosaxa Tanafardoba
umuSevrobis donesa da mep-is moculobis CamorCenas
Soris. es Tanafardoba, romelic cnobilia oukenis
kanonis saxelwodebiT, gviCvenebs, rom Tu umuSevrobis
580
faqtobrivi done 1%-iT aRemateba bunebriv dones, maSin
mep-is moculobis CamorCena potenciuri warmoebisagan
Seadgens 2,5%-s. es Tanafardoba (1:2,5), anu Tanafardoba umuSevrobis donesa da mep-is moculobis CamorCenas
Soris, SesaZleblobas gvaZlevs gamovTvaloT produqciis absoluturi danakargi yoveli umuSevrobis donis
pirobebSi. magaliTad, 1985 wels aSS-Si umuSevrobis
done Seadgenda 7,2%-s, anu igi 1,2%-iT aRemateboda
navaraudev umuSevrobis bunebriv dones. Tu am 1,2%-s
gadavamravlebT oukenis koeficientze (2,5), miviRebT, rom
1985 wels mep-is moculobis CamorCena Seadgenda 3%-s.
am wels aSS-is mep-is nominaluri moculoba Seadgenda
4014,9 mlrd dolars. am SemTxvevaSi ekonomikam dakarga 122,8 mlrd dolaris produqcia (4014,9?3%) imis
gamo, rom ekonomikaSi umuSevrobis faqtobrivi norma
(7,2%) aRemateboda umuSevrobis bunebriv dones (6%).
umuSevrobis meore mniSvnelovani ekonomikuri danakargia Semosavlis Semcireba. umuSevroba mkveTrad
amcirebs ara marto TviT umuSevris Semosavals (ramdenadac umuSevrobisaTvis daxmareba gacilebiT naklebia
xelfasze), aramed saxelmwifos Semosavalsac (ramdenadac saxelmwifos mier ibegreba momuSavis Semosavali
da ara umuSevris mier mizeruli odenobiT miRebuli
daxmareba). sagadasaxado Semosavlebis klebasTan erTad
saxelmwifos Semosavlebi mcirdeba imis gamoc, rom igi
Tavis Tavze Rebulobs umuSevrebis daxmarebis gamcem
organizaciaTa marTvasa da funqcionirebis uzrunvelyofasTan dakavSirebuli xarjebis gawevas.
umuSevrobiT gamowveul ekonomikur danakargebze
msjelobisas ar SeiZleba ar movixsenioT resursebis
581
solidur danakargebTan dakavSirebuli iseTi mniSvnelovani momentebic, rogoricaa: kapitalisa da `tvinis` (mecnierTa da maRalkvalificiur specialistTa
kadrebis) `gadineba`, danazogebisa da syidviTunariani
moTxovnilebis Semcireba, investiciuri moTxovnis Semcireba, miwodebis Sekveca, muSakTa dekvalifikacia da a.S.
umuSevrobis socialuri danaxarjebi dakavSirebulia sazogadoebrivi paTologiis (fizikuri da
fsiqikuri daavadeba, damnaSaveoba da sikvdilianoba) masStabis gadidebasTan.
pirvel msxverplad TviT umuSevrebi xdebian. umuSevarTa umravlesobisaTvis samuSaos dakargva ufro mets
niSnavs, vidre Semosavlis Semcireba. mis gareSe pirovneba kargavs ojaxis marCenalis mdgomareobas, megobrebTan
yoveldRiur urTierTobas da cxovrebis ritms. TiTqmis mTlianad ikargeba yvela sasicocxlo stimuli. uimedobis grZnoba ufro metad izrdeba axali samuSao adgilis warumatebel ZiebaSi.* umuSevroba zrdis danaSaulisa da avadmyofebis ricxovnobas. am movlenis Sedegia
sazogadoebrivi danaxarjis gadideba.**
jon hopkinsis saxelobis universitetis wamyvanma
eqspertma m.harvei brenerma daadgina raodenobrivi urT-
ierTkavSiri ekonomikuri ciklis ZiriTad maCveneblebsa
da sazogadoebrivi paTologiis maCveneblebs Soris. yvelaze aSkara urTierTkavSiri arsebobs umuSevrobis donesa
da `socialur paTologias` Soris. brenerma es daamtkica xangrZlivi periodis (1940-1973 ww.) monacemTa
damuSavebis bazaze. analizma moicva aSS mTlianobaSi da
misi calkeuli Stati (kalifornia, masaCusetsi, niuiorki), agreTve didi britaneTi da SvedeTi. gamokvlevam
cxadyo, rom umuSevrobis zrda iwvevs kumulaciur efeqts
`socialuri paTologiis` maCvenebelTa zrdaSi xuTi
wlis ganmavlobaSi. magaliTad, sikvdilianobis piki dgeba umuSevrobis pikidan daaxloebiT ori wlis Semdeg.
mTlianobaSi, ekonomikuri stresebis zemoqmedebiT
`socialuri paTologiis` calkeuli saxeebis zrda nawildeba maTi obieqturi xasiaTisa da reagirebis siCqaris Sesabamisad: pirvel sam weliwadSi izrdeba fsiqikurad daavadebulTa (saavadmyofoSi moTavsebulTa),
danaSaulis (cixeebSi myof patimarTa)*, TviTmkvlelobisa da mkvlelobis ricxvi. momdevno wlebSi upiratesad izrdeba e.w. qronikuli reaqcia _ sikvdilianobis
zogadi da kerZo maCveneblebis gadideba (sisxl-ZarRvTa
daavadebis, RviZlis cerozis Sedegad). gamokvlevam cxa-
*aSS-is Sromis saministros monacemebiT, umuSevarTa 45%
saboloo angariSSi tovebs Sromis bazars.
** statistikuri monacemebiT, 80-iani wlebis pirveli naxevris niu-iorkis cixeSi erTi damnaSavis wliuri Senaxvis
xarjebi Seadgenda 26 aTas dolars, xolo stacionaruli avadmyofis movla-mkurnalobisa _ 78 aTas dolars.
* rogorc statistika gviCvenebs, damnaSaveTa udidesi umravlesoba umuSevarTa rigebidanaa da bevrs mrude gzisaken, albaT,
swored am faqtorma ubiZga. aseTi daskvnis siswores dReisaTvis saqarTveloSi arsebuli mdgomareobac adasturebs. ai,
ratomaa xelisuflebis sazrunavTa Soris erT-erTi umTavresi
SromisunarianTa dasaqmeba.
582
583
dyo, rom umuSevrobis gadideba 1%-iT (Tu igi SenarCunebuli iqneba xuTi wlis ganmavlobaSi) mosaxleobis
sikvdilianobas 2%-iT adidebs, umuSevrobis erTi weli
ki adamians arTmevs sicocxlis xuT wels.
umuSevroba, rogorc makroekonomikuri arastabilurobis gamovlineba, saboloo angariSiT, ra Tqma unda,
negatiuri movlenaa, magram calkeuli dadebiTi momentebi mis SedegebSic SeiniSneba. mxedvelobaSi gvaqvs is,
rom:
* umuSevroba niSnavs dausaqmebeli (Tanac, ZiriTadad kvalificiuri da gamocdili) samuSao Zalis
rezervis arsebobas, romelic, sxva faqtorebTan erTad,
warmoebis zrdis uzrunvelyofis garants warmoadgens.
sabWoTa periodSi intensiuri ganviTarebis relsebze
gadayvanis siZneleebi mniSvnelovanwilad dakavSirebuli
iyo e.w. srul dasaqmebasTan. axali raionebis aTvisebas,
warmoebis axali mimarTulebebis ganviTarebas seriozulad aferxebda kvalificiur muSakTa Tavisufali, sarezervo armiis ararseboba. dasaqmebuli muSakebi, cxadia,
irCevdnen muSaobis gagrZelebas Zvel, tradiciul, wlebis ganmavlobaSi SeCveul adgilebze;
* friqciuli umuSevroba, ara marto gardauvalad,
aramed raRac zomiT sasurveladac iTvleba imitom, rom
mravali momuSave dabalanazRaurebadi, naklebproduqtiuli samuSaodan gadadis ufro maRalanazRaurebad da
produqtiul samuSaoze. amis Sedegad, erTi mxriv, izreba
maTi Semosavali da keTildReoba, xolo, meore mxriv,
farTovdeba maRalproduqtiuli, prioritetuli produqciis warmoebis masStabebi;
* umuSevrobis arseboba zrdis profkavSirebis
584
aqtiurobas umuSevarTa interesebis dasacavad, romelsac momdevno etapze, dasaqmebasTan erTad, xSirad Tan
sdevs xelfasebis momateba da mewarmeobrivi saqmianobis stimulebis gaZliereba;
* samuSaos dakargvisa da umuSevarTa sarezervo
armiis rigebSi gadasvlis SiSi Sromis disci plinis
ganmtkicebis sakmaod Zlier maorganizebel Zalad gvevlineba;
* umuSevrebi erTimeoris konkurentebi arian, amitom cdiloben damqiraveblebs ufro srulyofili samuSao Zala SesTavazon da intensiurad imaRleben profesionalizms, xolo samuSaos miRebis Semdeg keTilsindisierad asruleben dakisrebul movaleobas.
aRniSnuli mizezebis gamo, zomier (SromisunarianTa daaxloebiT 4-dan 6%-mde odenobiT) umuSevrobas
sabazro ekonomikis ganviTarebis aucilebel Tanamgzavrad miiCneven.
dasaqmebis stimulirebis ekonomikuri
politika da Sromis bazris regulireba. Tanamedrove pirobebSi mraval qveyanaSi mTavar so-
cialur-ekonomikur amocanas warmoadgens samuSao Zalis dasaqmebis donis amaRleba da am mizniT xorcieldeba dasaqmebis stimulirebis ekonomikuri politika.
rogorc ukve aRiniSna, sruli dasaqmeba ar gulisxmobs yvela Sromisunarianis erToblivad (100%-ian)
dasaqmebas. amdenad, igi aTwleulebis ganmavlobaSi ucvleli sidide ki ar aris, aramed realurad TiTqmis
ganuwyvetliv icvleba Semdeg faqtorTa gavleniT:
* qveynis mosaxleobis ricxovnobis dinamika;
585
* teqnikuri da teqnologiuri progresi erovnuli meurneobis yvela dargSi;
* makroekonomikis struqturis cvlileba;
* qveynis saerTaSoriso kavSirebis cvlileba;
* Zvrebi samuSao Zalis profesiul struqturasa
da kvalifikaciis doneSi;
* saSualo-profesiuli da umaRlesi saswavlo
dawesebulebebis studentTa ricxovnobis ryevebi.
amitom, bunebrivad dgeba grZelvadiani periodisaTvis qveynis mosaxleobis dasaqmebis prognozirebis
aucilebloba, yvela zemoT aRniSnuli faqtoris gaTvaliswinebiT. aseTi prognozireba dasaqmebis efeqtiani saxelmwifo politikis safuZvelia.
samarTlebriv saxelmwifoSi moqmedebs mSromelTa
ekonomikuri usafrTxoebis uzrunvelyofis socialuri
garantiebis mTeli sistema.
am sistemis umTavresi elementia dasaqmebis regulireba, romlis mizania kvlavwarmoebis procesis normaluri msvlelobis uzrunvelyofa, agreTve, Sromasa da
kapitals Soris winaaRmdegobis Serbileba.
unda aRiniSnos, rom XX saukunis 80-ian wlebamde
dasaqmebis regulirebis politika muSavdeboda keinzianuri Teoriis safuZvelze, romelic dasaqmebis SenarCunebis mTavar saSualebad Tvlis erToblivi moTxovnis
stimulirebas. TandaTanobiT gamoikveTa keinzianuri
politikis dabali efeqtianoba. es srulebiTac ar aixsneba saxelmwifos mier `sruli dasaqmebis` misaRwevad
saxsrebis gamoyofis naklebobiT. upirveles yovlisa,
SeSfoTeba gamoiwvia umuSevrobisa da inflaciis Sexamebam, romelic Rrmavdeboda ekonomikuri koniunqturis
586
mkveTri cvlilebebiT.
am pirobebSi erTimeores upirispirdeba ekonomikuri
politikis sxvadasxva saSualebebi: erToblivi moTxovnis stimulireba iwvevs inflaciis zrdas, xolo aqtiuri saqmianobis Senelebis antiinflaciuri RonisZiebebi _ umuSevrobis donis gadidebas.
keinzianuri politikis `sruli dasaqmebis` marcxma
gaaZliera `monetaruli skolis` gavlena. am skolis
warmomadgenlebi moiTxoven saxelmwifo regulirebis
programebis Sekvecas, socialur saWiroebaze danaxarjis Semcirebas, sakredito-fuladi SezRudvis gadidebas koniunqturuli meryeobis asacileblad. monetaristebi eyrdnobian sabazro ekonomikis funqcionirebis
neoklasikur models da maT aqcenti gadaaqvT ekonomikis
TviTregulirebad Zalebze, romlebsac SeuZliaT ekonomika
avtomaturad gadaiyvanon myar gawonasworebul mdgomareobaSi. mis swrafad misaRwevad da SesanarCuneblad
monetaristebi gvTavazoben Sesabamisi sakredito-fuladi politikis gamoyenebas. Tanamedrove amerikuli `neoliberalizmis` wamyvanma Teoretikosma, `Cikagos skolis`
meTaurma m.fridmenma maRali dasaqmebis donis SenarCunebis SesaZleblobis keinzianur Teziss daupirispira
umuSevrobis `bunebrivi donis` aucileblad arsebobis
Tezisi.
dasaqmebis regulirebis saSualebebi da meTodebi
gansxvavebulia qveynebis mixedviT. 90-iani wlebidan msoflios wamyvan qveynebSi, dasaqmebis politikis intensifikaciis mizniT, Sromis bazarze zemoqmedebis konkretuli RonisZiebebi gamoiyeneba Semdegi oTxi mimarTulebiT:
 samuSao adgilebis miwodebis zrda. misi
587
ganxorcielebis meqanizmia: a) samuSao Zalis dasaqiraveblad mewarmeebisaTvis saxelmwifo dotaciis gacema; b)
im umuSevarTa (damwyeb mewarmeTa) materialuri waxaliseba, romlebsac Tavisi sakuTari saqmis wamowyeba
aqvT ganzraxuli; g) samuSao adgilebis miwodebis zrda
momsaxurebis sferoSi; d) axali samuSao adgilebis
Seqmnis tradiciuli saSualebebi (igulisxmeba samuSao
adgilebis Seqmnis saxelmwifo programebis realizacia,
romelic sakmaod ZviradRirebuli RonisZiebaa) da sazogadoebrivi samuSaoebis organizeba (infrastruqturis sferoSi _ maRalxarisxiani gzebis mSenebloba da
a.S.), gansakuTrebiT xangrZlivi drois manZilze samuSaos
armqone pirebisa da axalgazrdebisaTvis.
 arsebuli samuSaos moculobis gadanawileba: a) arsebuli samuSao adgilebis gadanawileba
SromaSi axalgazrdebis CarTvis asakis gadawevis, ucxoeli samuSao Zalis daqiravebis Semcirebis gziT; b)
samuSao adgilebis Seqmna samuSao drois kanonmdeblobiT dadgenili xangrZlivobis Semcirebis, saSualo Svebulebis gaxangrZlivebis, sapensio asakis Semcirebisa da
pensiaze vadaze adre gasvlis waxalisebis xarjze. amasTan,
cudi koniunqturis pirobebSi arsebuli samuSaos moculobis gadanawilebisa da samuSao Zalis miwodebis
regulirebis instrumentia agreTve nawilobrivi
dasaqmeba, romlis drosac saxelmwifo xSirad kompensaciis saxiT ixdis wminda xelfasis 50%-ze mets;
 `Seguebis strategiis` gamoyeneba: a) samuSao Zalaze moTxovnisa da misi miwodebis Tvisebrivi
Segueba samuSao Zalis gadamzadebis, kvalifikaciis amaRlebisa da reabilitaciis gziT; b) samuSao Zalis pro588
fesiuli da regionuli mobilurobis zrda umuSevrebis
mier profesiis an sacxovrebeli adgilis Secvlis SemTxvevaSi maTi materialuri waxalisebis xarjze;
 samuSao Zalis miwodebis Semcireba Sromis bazarze da samuSao adgilebis SenarCuneba: a)
muSaobis msurvelTa imigraciis (qveyanaSi Semosvlis)
SezRudva da ucxoelTa repatriaciis (samSobloSi dabrunebis) stimulireba; b) arsebuli samuSao adgilebis
SenarCuneba sagadasaxado SeRavaTebis, dotaciisa da sxva
RonisZiebaTa gamoyenebis meSveobiT.
da bolos, unda aRiniSnos, rom dapirispirebulTa
Tanafardobis (`umuSevroba-dasaqmeba`) regulireba uSualod aris dakavSirebuli mosaxleobis umetesi nawilis mier xelfasis saxiT miRebuli fulis raodenobis
cvlilebisa da, saerTod, qveynis fuladi mimoqcevis cvlilebisagan, rac xSirad makroekonomikuri arastabilurobis meore mniSvnelovani maCvenebliT _ inflaciiT
vlindeba.
589
leqcia 27. inflacia da
antiinflaciuri regulireba
`inflaciis uSualo mizezi
yovelTvis da yvelgan erTi da
igivea: fulis raodenobis uzomod swrafi zrda w armoebis
moculobasTan SedarebiT~.
m.fridmeni
`ganuwyveteli inflaciis
meSveobiT saxelmwifos SeuZlia
Tavisi moqalaqeebis simdidris
mniSvnelovani nawilis mTlianad
da SeumCnevlad konfiskacia~.
j.m.keinzi
am Temas davasrulebT uwonasworobis da wonasworobis ganxilviT Tanamedrove ekonomikis iseT sasicocxlod mniSvnelovan sferoSi, rogoricaa fuladi mimoqceva. es ukanaskneli Tavis TavSi moicavs ori pirdapir dapirispirebuli mdgomareobis (1. saqonlisa da
fulis RirebulebaTa Tanasworobis da 2. am Tanasworobis darRvevis) SesaZleblobas. amasTan dakavSirebiT, axla Cven mogviwevs msoflioSi farTod gavrcelebuli da yvela adamianSi usiamovno gancdebis aRmZvreli
iseTi movlenis Seswavla, rogoricaa inflacia.
inflaciis arsi da zogadi tendenciebi. inflacia makroekonomikuri ganviTarebis ara-
590
stabilurobis meore mniSvnelovani indikatoria. termini `inflacia` (laT. Inflatio _ gaberva) pirvelad gamoiyenes aSS-Si 1861-1865 wlebSi mimdinare samoqalaqo
omis dros, Semdeg ki _ inglissa da safrangeTSi.
ekonomikur literaturaSi es termini farTod damkvidrda pirveli msoflio omis Semdeg.
Tanamedrove gansazRvrebiT, inflaciaSi igulisxmeba qaRaldis fulis msyidvelobiTi unaris (Rirebulebis) dacema da amis Sedegad fasebis saerTo
donis amaRleba. am ukanasknels xazs vusvamT imitom,
rom inflaciis periodSi yvela saqonelsa da momsaxurebaze erTdroulad rodi izrdeba fasebi. inflaciis
sakmaod swrafi zrdis drosac ki zogierT saqonelze
(momsaxurebaze) fasi SeiZleba stabiluri darCes, xolo
zogierTze Semcirdes kidec. an kidev, rogorc wesi, fasebi
izrdeba araTanabarzomierad: saqonlisa da momsaxurebis erT nawilze matulobs naxtomiseburad, meoreze _
Tanabari tempebiT, xolo mesame nawilze saerTod ar
matulobs.
TviT fasebis zrdac yovelTvis rodi gamoxatavs
inflaciur process. rogorc viciT, fasebis zrda dakavSirebulia samomxmareblo saqonlis moTxovnis miwodebaze gadametebasTan. magram calkeul saqonlur bazarze
aseTi disproporciiT ganpirobebuli maRali fasebi jer
kidev araa inflacia. inflaciur xasiaTs igi Rebulobs
maSin, roca disproporcia moTxovnis sasargeblod xangrZlivi da sayovelTao xasiaTis matarebelia da mTeli
qveynis masStabiT matulobs fasebis saerTo done.
aqve unda iTqvas, rom fasebis yovelgvari mateba
araa inflaciis mauwyebeli. saqonlisa da momsaxurebis
591
fasi SeiZleba gaizardos xarisxis gaumjobesebis, bunebrivi resursebis mopovebis gaZnelebis, sazogadoebis
moTxovnilebaTa Secvlis da sxva garemoebaTa Sedegad.
fasebis aseTi zrda araa inflaciuri movlena, romelsac
safuZvlad udevs Seusabamoba mimoqcevaSi arsebuli fulis
masasa da sarealizacio saqonlisa da momsaxurebis fasTa
jams Soris. sxva sityvebiT rom vTqvaT, inflacias adgili aqvs maSin, rodesac mimoqcevaSi imaze meti qaRaldis fulia, vidre sarealizacio saqonlis (momsaxurebis) yidva-gayidvas sWirdeba.
aq isic unda aRiniSnos, rom inflacia axasiaTebs
mxolod qaRaldis fulad sistemas. liTonis fuladi
sistemis dros inflacia gamoricxulia, radgan Zvirfasi liTonebis fuli ar SeiZleba mimoqcevaSi aRmoCndes
imaze meti raodenobiT, vidre saWiroa savaWro garigebebisaTvis. aq saqonlis (momsaxurebis) Rirebulebis da
fulis masis sidideTa wonasworoba miiRweoda rogorRac `avtomaturad`. Tu raime mizeziT sarealizacio
saqonlis miwodeba Semcirdeboda, Zvirfasi liTonebis
monetebis nawili mimoqcevidan gadioda da ganZad iqceoda. Tuki fuli kvlav gaxdeboda saWiro savaWro
garigebebisaTvis, igi kvlav xvdeboda mimoqcevaSi. inflacias adgili ar hqonda oqros standartis epoqaSic, rodesac qaRaldis fuli Tavisuflad icvleboda
oqroze. magram, rodesac aseTi gacvla uqmdeba (amJamad
igi gauqmebulia mTel msoflioSi), ukve aRar arsebobs
saqonlisa da fulis nakadebis wonasworobis winandeli avtomaturad Semkavebeli meqanizmi, qaRaldis fuli
mudmivad rCeba mimoqcevaSi da ganuwyvetliv ufasurdeba.
592
qaRaldis fulis msyidvelobiTi unaris (Rirebulebis) dacema (gaufasureba) gamomdinareobs iqidan,
rom mas sakuTari Rirebuleba ar gaaCnia. igi oqros
fulis Semcvlelia, warmomadgenelia mimoqcevaSi. amitom
ra raodenobiTac ar unda iyos igi gamoSvebuli, yovelTvis
warmoadgens oqros fulis im raodenobas, rac sWirdeba
mimoqcevas.
saqonlis fasi SeiZleba gaizardos liTonis fuladi sistemis drosac, magram arc esaa inflacia. magaliTad, cnobilia, rom amerikis oqros sabadoebis aRmoCenis Semdeg evropaSi sabazro fasebi erTob gaizarda,
magram es moxda imis gamo, rom amerikis mdidar sabadoebSi oqros mopoveba gaiafda da, amis Sedegad, misi
Rirebuleba Semcirda, xolo saqonlis fasi da fulis
Rirebuleba ukuproporciul damokidebulebaSia erTmaneTTan.
drosa da sivrceSi lokalizebul inflaciebs didi
xnis istoria aqvs. Cv. w/aR-mde III saukunis bolos
hanibalma, romis winaaRmdeg warmoebuli omis dros, Tavisi
xarjebis dafinansebisaTvis pergamentis* fuli gamouSva, romelic male gaufasurda da mimoqcevidan amoiRes.
XIII saukuneSi Cingis-xanis SviliSvilma xubilai-yaenma,
CineTis taxtze yofnisas, veeberTela samxedro xarjebis dafinansebisaTvis qaRaldis fuli gamouSva, romelic
* pergamenti _ gansakuTrebuli wesiT damuSavebuli xbos,
batknis an Tiknis tyavia, romelsac qaRaldis gamogonebamde
sawerad iyenebdnen.
593
male gaufasurda. XVIII saukunis dasawyisSi nadir Sahma Tavisi samxedro xarjebis dafinansebisaTvis abreSumis qsovilis fuli gamouSva, romelic aseve male gaufasurda da amoRebuli iqna mimoqcevidan. inflaciebs adgili hqonda aSS-Si damoukideblobisaTvis omis dros
(1775-1783 ww.), safrangeTSi _ didi burJuaziuli revoluciis dros (1789-1794 ww.), ruseTSi _ ekaterine IIis mefobis dros (ruseT-osmaleTis omi, 1769-1775 ww.).
yvela am SemTxvevaSi inflacia omebTan iyo dakavSirebuli, romelTa damTavrebisas inflacia wydeboda,
mimoqcevis arxebs kvlav liTonis fuli ikavebda da
qveynis ekonomika Cveulebrivi mimarTulebiT viTardeboda.
inflaciam yovlismomcveli xasiaTi mxolod maSin
SeiZina, roca oqros fuli mimoqcevidan mTlianad gamoidevna da misi adgili qaRaldis fulma daimkvidra.
ase, pirveli msoflio omis periodSi (1914-1918 ww.)
meomarma saxelmwifoebma TavianTi samxedro da sxva xarjebis dafinansebisaTvis farTod mimarTes qaRaldis
fulis emisias, ramac arnaxulad gaaufasura igi.
marTalia, omis damTavrebis Semdeg iyo oqros fulis mimoqcevis aRdgenis warumatebeli mcdeloba, magram
qaRaldis fulma, misma fuladma sistemam mimoqcevidan
mTlianad da sabolood gamodevna oqros fuli, misi
sistema.
adreuli epoqis inflaciebsa da XX saukunis 20iani wlebis Semdgomi periodis inflaciebs Soris arsebiTi gansxvavebebia. adreuli periodis inflaciebi
lokaluri xasiaTisa iyo da isini erT romelime qveya594
naSi raime eqstremalur viTarebas ukavSirdeboda. Tanamedrove periodis inflacia umravles qveynebSi, rogorc
omebis, aseve mSvidobianobis periodSic TiTqmis uwyvetad
mimdinareobs.
XX saukunis 20-iani wlebidan inflacias yovlismomcveli xasiaTi aqvs da TiTqmis normad iqca, Tumca
calkeul periodebSi SeiniSneboda arsebiTi gansxvavebani fasebis zrdis siswrafeSi. magaliTad, rogorc 9.9
cxrilidan Cans, aSS-Si inflacias sxvadasxva parametrebiT adgili hqonda XX saukunis aTidan 8 aTwleulSi,
cxrili 9.9
inflaciisa da deflaciis saSualo wliuri
maCveneblebi XX saukunis aSS-Si
(aTwleulebis mixedviT)
aTwleulebi
inflaciis (+) da deflaciis (_)
saSualo wliuri maCveneblebi (%-obiT)
1900-1909
1910-1919
1920-1929
1930-1939
1940-1949
1950-1959
1960-1969
1970-1979
1980-1989
1990-1999
1.1
7.9
-1.8
-1.7
5.6
1.0
2.7
7.8
5.6
3.0
595
infl acia ( sacalo fasebi s zrdi s %)
rodesac dolaris msyidvelobiTi unari ecemoda, xolo
fasebis saerTo done maRldeboda. amasTan, adgili hqonda deflaciis or aTwleulsac, romlis ganmavlobaSi
dolaris msyidvelobiTi unari izrdeboda, fasebis saerTo
done ki mcirdeboda.
sxvadasxva qveynebis inflaciis maCvenebelTa analizi miuTiTebs maT mniSvnelobaTa kidev ufro farTo
diapazonze. ase magaliTad, 80-90-ian wlebSi inflaciis
saSualo wliuri maCvenebeli Seadgenda: germaniaSi 2,6%s, aSS-Si _ 5,6%-s, did britaneTSi _ 6,5%-s, safrangeTSi _ 6,3%-s, italiaSi _ 9,6%-s.
qvemoT motanil 9.6 naxazze naCvenebia inflaciis
done iaponiaSi, did britaneTSi, evrokavSirSi (15 qveyana), aSS-sa da eTgo-Si XX saukunis meore naxevrisaTvis.
i ap o ni a
didi britaneTi
evrokavSiri (15 qveyana)
aSS
eTgo
nax. 9.6. inflaciis done zogierT ganviTarebul
qveyanasa da qveyanaTa jgufSi (1966-2000 ww.)
596
rogorc Cans, inflaciis done gansakuTrebiT maRali iyo
1973 da 1983 wlebs Soris periodSi da SedarebiT
dabali _ 80-iani wlebis Sua xanebsa da Semdgom wlebSi.
inflaciis mizezebi. Tanamedrove pirobeb-
Si saqonlisa da momsaxurebis fasebis inflaciuri gaZvirebis mizezebi mravalnairia. sakiTxis gamartivebisaTvis,
isini SeiZleba daiyos or jgufad: Siga da gare (saerTaSoriso) mizezebad.
inflaciis Siga mizezebs miekuTvneba:
* saxelmwifo xarjebis gadameteba Semosavlebze, rac gamoixateba saxelmwifo biujetis deficitSi da, romlis drosac mTavroba Cveulebriv mimarTavs Siga saxelmwifo valis gadidebas (fasiani qaRaldebis gamoSveba, kreditis aReba, romlebic SemdegSi misive
gasastumrebelia);
* damatebiTi gadaxdisunariani moTxovnilebis
Seqmna samxedro asignebaTa gadidebis gziT, rac
apirobebs fuladi masis zrdas Sesabamisi saqonluri
masiT dafarvis gareSe. es pirveli mizezis gaRrmavebuli da specifikuri variantia, ramdenadac, saboloo angariSiT, saxelmwifo biujetis mwvave deficiturobaSi
poulobs gamoxatulebas;
* centraluri bankis mier daSvebuli fulis
gaZlierebuli emisia, saxelmwifos mzard saWiroebaTa dasafaravad, rac fulis mkveTrad gazrdasa da gaufasurebas iwvevs;
* komerciuli bankebis mier ganxorcielebu597
li sakredito eqspansia (kreditebis gacema msesxeblebze valis dabrunebis SesaZleblobaTa gauTvaliswineblad). saqme isaa, rom bankebis mier kreditebis gacema
mimoqcevaSi qaRaldis fulis masas zrdis, xolo movaleTa mier bankisaTvis kreditebis dabruneba fulis
masas amcirebs.* amitomaa, rom kreditis moZraobas sWirdeba mkacri kontroli. centralurma bankma unda daareguliros komerciuli bankebis saqmianoba kreditis gacemis sferoSi;
* grZelvadiani kapitaluri dabandebis masStabebis gadideba, rac iwvevs imas, rom didi xnis ganmavlobaSi qveyana ver Rebulobs raimenair ukugebas daxarjuli fulidan;
* bazris struqturis Secvla XX saukuneSi.
mxedvelobaSi gvaqvs srulyofili konkurenciis bazris
Secvla ZiriTadad oligopoliuri bazriT, romelic
uzrunvelyofs xelovnurad maRali (monopoliuri) fasebis dawesebas da xangrZlivi droiT SenarCunebas.
konkurentebi cdiloben saqonelze maRali fasis SenarCunebas da dainteresebulni arian xelovnurad Seqmnan
deficiti _ Seamciron saqonlis warmoeba da miwodeba;
* SeiZleba vinmem ifiqros: ra mniSvneloba aqvs fuls bankidan
gaitan Tu bankSi Seitan, sazogadoebaSi arsebuli fulis masa
amiT xom ar Seicvlebao. saqme imaSia, rom fulis niSani namdvil
fuls warmoadgens mxolod maSin, roca igi sabanko sistemis
gareTaa. fulis niSani bankis seifSi ar aris namdvili fuli, is
namdvil fulad iqceva, roca `xelzea`, e.i. bankidan gamosulia.
598
* inflaciis molodini. es SeiZleba warmovidginoT Semdegnairad: jer erTi, momxmareblebi yiduloben
xangrZlivi drois ganmavlobaSi saqonelsa da momsaxurebas maRal fasebSi da, vinaidan kargaven imeds maTs
Semcirebaze, iZenen saqonels mimdinare moTxovnebTan SedarebiT meti odenobiT; meore, paralelurad ibrZvian
xelfasis momatebisaTvis, rac ganxorcielebis SemTxvevaSi xels Seuwyobs mimdinare samomxmareblo moTxovnis gafarToebas; mesame, mwarmoeblebi TavianT produqciaze aweseben sul ufro maRal fasebs im motiviT, rom
uaxloes xanSi mosalodnelia nedleulis, masalebis da
makompleqtebeli nawarmis kidev ufro gaZvireba. amave
mizeziT isini afarToeben warmoebis resursebis SeZenas.
yovelive amis Sedegad fasebi izrdeba ara marto adre
daukmayofilebeli gadaxdisunariani moTxovnilebis
donemde, aramed mosalodnel oficialur sididemdec.
inflaciis gare (saerTaSoriso) mizezebs miekuTvneba:
* saxelmwifos mier Tavisi sagareo valis
gadideba sxva qveynebisa da saerTaSoriso safinanso
organizaciebisagan sesxebis aRebis gziT;
* centraluri da komerciuli bankebis mier
erovnuli fulis niSnebis ucxour valutaze gacvlis operaciebis warmoeba, rac qaRaldis fulis
niSnebis damatebiTi gamoSvebis aucileblobas warmoSobs;
* msoflio bazarze warmoebis saSualebaTa
fasebis zrda, rac iwvevs maTi fasebis gadidebas qveynis SigniTac;
* bunebrivi resursebis SemcirebasTan dakavS irebuli s truqturuli kriz is ebi m s of lio
599
ekonomikaSi, romlebic iwveven warmoebis faqtorTa
gaZvirebas yvela qveyanaSi;
* saxelmwifoTaSoris warmoebuli omebi, romlebsac Tan axlavs udidesi moTxovna fulze, ramac SeiZleba calkeul qveynebSi fulad da saqonlur masas
Soris disbalansi gamoiwvios.*
inflaciis mizezebis umravlesoba praqtikulad
yvela qveyanaSi SeiniSneba. Tumca, am procesis sxvadasxva
faqtorTa kombinacia damokidebulia ama Tu im periodSi arsebul konkretul ekonomikur pirobebze. magaliTad, meore msoflio omis damTavrebisTanave dasavleT
evropis qveynebSi inflacia dakavSirebuli iyo mravali
saxeobis saqonlis mwvave deficitTan. momdevno periodSi inflaciis procesis gaRrmavebis umTavres faqtorebad iqca saxelmwifos xarjebis zrda, fasebsa da
xelfass Soris axali Tanafardoba, inflaciis importi
da sxv. postsocialistur qveynebSi da maT Soris
saqarTveloSic 90-iani wlebidan moyolebuli inflaciis
erT-erT umniSvnelovanes mizezad mogvevlina fasebis
liberalizacia saqonlis mwvave deficitis pirobebSi.
ekonomikur literaturaSi gamoiyofa zemoT CamoTv-
* unda SevniSnoT, rom meore msoflio omis periodSi amgvari situacia warmoqmna da gaaZliera, erTi mxriv, germanelebis
mier yalbad moWrili sabWoTa fulis (maneTis) mimoqcevaSi
didi raodenobiT gaSvebam da, meore mxriv, okupirebul raionebSi sabWoTa kavSiris mier didZali materialuri simdidris
dakargvam.
600
lil mizezTa sxvadasxva kombinaciiT gamowveuli inflaciis sami ti pi: 1. moTxovniseuli (moTxovnis siWarbiT gamowveuli) inflacia; 2. danaxarjebiseuli (danaxarjebis zrdiT gamowveuli) inflacia da 3. struqturuli (moTxovnis ZvrebiT gamowveuli) inflacia.
 moTxovniseuli inflacia niSnavs erTobliv
moTxovnasa da erTobliv miwodebas Soris wonasworobis darRvevas, romelic ganpirobebulia saqonlisa da
momsaxurebis realur moculobasTan SedarebiT mosaxleobisa da sawarmoebis fuladi Semosavlebis ufro
swrafi tempebiT zrdiT. sxva sityvebiT rom vTqvaT, es
aris situacia, romelsac iwvevs erToblivi moTxovnis
siWarbe erTobliv miwodebasTan SedarebiT; situacia,
roca `erTob bevri fuli nadirobs saqonlis erTob
mcire raodenobaze`.
tradiciulad, cvlilebebi fasebis doneSi Warbi
erToblivi moTxovniT aixsneba. am ukanasknels ki, Tavis
mxriv, safuZvlad udevs saxelmwifos (samxedro da socialuri) SekveTebis gafarToeba, warmoebis saSualebebze sawarmoTa mxridan moTxovnis gadideba, Semosavlebis zrdis kvalobaze mosaxleobis gadaxdisunarianobis
donis amaRleba da a.S. bevr SemTxvevaSi saxelmwifos ar
ZaluZs upasuxos am Warb moTxovnas saqonlisa da momsaxurebis Sesabamisi moculobis gadidebiT, radgan
ekonomika `srulad datvirTulia`. aseT viTarebaSi es
Warbi moTxovna apirobebs saqonlis (momsaxurebis)
fasebis zrdas da moTxovniseul (anu moTxovnis siWarbiT gamowveul) inflacias.
erToblivi moTxovnis siWarbiT gamowveuli inflacia, Cveulebriv, asocirdeba bumTan ekonomikaSi. ami601
tom mravali ekonomisti amtkicebs, rom es aris moTxovnis deficitiT gamowveuli umuSevrobis sawinaaRmdego
movlena. rodesac ekonomika imyofeba daqveiTebis fazaSi,
moTxovnis deficitiT gamowveuli umuSevroba iqneba
Zalian maRali, xolo moTxovnis siWarbiT gamowveuli
inflacia _ Zalian dabali. rodesac, piriqiT, ekonomika
uaxlovdeba saqmiani aqtivobis ciklis bumis fazas, moTxovnis siWarbiT gamowveuli inflacia iqneba maRali,
moTxovnis deficitiT gamowveuli umuSevroba ki _ dabali.
 danaxarjebiseuli inflacia ewodeba warmoebis xarjebis zrdiT gamowveul fasebis gadidebas.
maSasadame, am SemTxvevaSi inflaciis mizezi xdeba warmoebis xarjebis zrda. danaxarjebis zrda SeiZleba
gamowveuli iyos: xelfasis zrdiT; nedleulis, masalebisa da saTbobis gaZvirebiT; axali teqnikisa da teqnologiis aTvisebiT da a.S. warmoebis xarjebis zrda
iwvevs warmoebisa da miwodebis Sekvecas da, amrigad,
fasebis matebas, e.i. inflaciur process.
inflaciis zemoT CamoTvlili ti pebi erTimeorisagan Zneli gansasxvavebelia, ramdenadac isini mWidrod
urTierTzemoqmedeben. magaliTad, xelfasi SeiZleba warmogvidges, erTi mxriv, moTxovniseuli inflaciisa da,
meore mxriv, danaxarjebiseuli inflaciis wyarod.
sabazro ekonomikis qveynebis praqtika mowmobs, rom
xSirad erTdroulad SeiniSneba moTxovnis siWarbiT
gamowveuli (moTxovniseuli) da danaxarjebis zrdiT
gamowveuli (danaxarjebiseuli) inflacia. Semosavlisa
da danaxarjebis zrdis ganmsazRvrel subieqtebad gvevlinebian: profkavSirebi, saxelmwifo da firmebi. ai, rogor
602
xdeba es: saxelmwifo maRal fasebs uxdis misi SekveTebis Semsruleblebs. mewarmeebs saSualeba eZlevaT, SeiZinon Zvirfasi nedleuli da masalebi, muSakebs gadauxadon maRali xelfasi. amave dros, saWiroebis mixedviT,
saxelmwifo aZlierebs fulis emisias, zrdis sakredito sargebels. yovelive amiT xelSemwyobi pirobebi iqmneba inflaciisaTvis.
rac Seexeba profkavSirebs, isini ibrZvian muSakTa
xelfasis gadidebisaTvis, romlis realizacia aZlierebs
rogorc moTxovniseul, ise danaxarjebiseul inflacias.
analogiuri Sedegi mosdevs monopoliebis mier TavianT
produqciaze monopoliuri fasebis dawesebas.
 arsebobs agreTve struqturuli inflacia ,
romelic gamowveulia makroekonomikuri dargTaSorisi
daubalanseblobiT. aseT pirobebSi calkeuli dargebi
ver axerxeben TavianTi nawarmiT bazris gajerebas, rac
iwvevs fasebis inflaciur zrdas deficitad qceul
produqciaze.
struqturuli inflacia Zalian Zneli dasaZlevia,
ramdenadac igi saWiroebs didZal investiciebs, xolo
misgan ukugebis miReba mokle periodSi ver xerxdeba.
inflaciis es forma SedarebiT iSviaTad gvxvdeba. igi
Tavs iCens ZiriTadad teqnikuri progresiT gamowveuli
Zireuli Zvrebis periodSi, samxedro warmoebis konversiis ganxorcielebisas da sxva analogiur eqstremalur
situaciebSi.
aRsaniSnavia, rom XX saukunis meore naxevarSi xangrZlivi drois manZilze ekonomikurad ganviTarebul
arc erT qveyanaSi erTdroulad ar SeiniSneboda sruli
dasaqmeba, Tavisufali bazari da fasebis stabiluroba.
603
fasebi izrdeboda mudmivad, 60-iani wlebis dasasrulidan TviT ekonomikuri dacemisa da uZraobis periodebSic, rac uCveulo iyo ganviTarebis adreul etapebze. am
movlenam stagflaciis (stagnacia plus inflacia)
saxelwodeba miiRo, rac gamoxatavs fasebis inflaciur
zrdas warmoebis uZraobis, stagnaciisa da ekonomikuri
krizisis pirobebSi.
inflaciis gazomva. inflaciis yovelmxrivi
Seswavla gulisxmobs ara marto misi Tvisebrivi raobis (arsis) garkvevas, aramed raodenobriv gazomvasac. am
mizniT iyeneben inflaciis donisa da tempis maCveneblebs.
inflaciis done izomeba fasis indeqsis gamoyenebiT.
fasis indeqsi aris SefardebiTi sidide, romelic
gviCvenebs fasis cvlilebas droSi. misi gaangariSebisaTvis saWiroa sabaziso wlis fasebi CaiTvalos 100is tolad, xolo danarCeni wlebis fasebis cvlileba
gamoiangariSeba mis mimarT procentobiT. magaliTad, Tu
samomxmareblo saqonlis garkveuli kompleqtis fasebis jami 2000 wels Seadgenda 20 aTas lars, xolo
2005 wels miaRwia 40 aTas lars, es imas niSnavs, rom
fasebis indeqsi 2005 wels Seadgenda 200%-s (40:20X100),
anu samomxmareblo saqonlis fasebi 2005 wels 100%iT maRali iyo, vidre 2000 wels. fasis indeqsi inflaciis donis maCvenebelicaa, radgan masSi gamoxatulia is, Tu rogor Seicvala fulis msyidvelobiTi unari. Tu `samomxmareblo kalaTis` fasis indeqsi 200%ia, anu 2,0-s Seadgens, es imas niSnavs, rom samomxmareblo
saqonlis (momsaxurebis) fasebi 2-jer gaizarda, e.i. 2jer daeca fulis msyidvelobiTi unari.
604
fasebis indeqsebis daxmarebiT angariSoben inflaciis temps . inflaciis tempi udris mimdinare wlis
fasebis indeqss minus sabaziso wlis fasebis indeqsi,
gayofili sabaziso wlis indeqsze da gamravlebuli
100-ze. magaliTad, Tu sabaziso (2000) wlis samomxmareblo fasebis indeqsi Seadgenda 105%-s, maSin Cveni
magaliTis mixedviT, mimdinare (2005) wels inflaciis
200-105
tempi iqneba 90,5% (
x100), inflaciis saSualo
105
wliuri tempi ki iqneba 18,1% (90,5:5).
qvemoT motanili 9.10 cxrili naTel warmodgenas
iZleva imaze, Tu rogori iyo inflaciis done (samomxmareblo fasebis indeqsis mixedviT) msoflios zogierT qveyanaSi XX-XXI saukuneebis mijnaze.
saqarTveloSi inflaciis donis gasazomad samomxmareblo fasebis indeqsis (sfi) gaangariSeba daiwyes
1992 wlidan saerTaSoriso savaluto fondis teqnikuri daxmarebis proeqtis farglebSi da rekomendaciebis safuZvelze.*
sfi zomavs im fasebis cvlilebas, romelsac qalaqis mosaxleoba ixdis saqonlisa da momsaxurebis fiqsirebuli kalaTis SesaZenad.
samomxmareblo fasebis indeqsis gaangariSebisaTvis gamoiyeneba ori ti pis monacemTa baza.
1. monacemebi saSualo fasebis cvlilebis Sesaxeb,
* sfi dReisaTvis erTaderTi maCvenebelia, romelic zomavs
qveyanaSi inflaciis dones.
605
cxrili 9.10
samomxmareblo fasebis indeqsi msoflios
zogierT qveyanaSi 2002 wlisaTvis (1990=100)
qveyana
didi britaneTi
germania
italia
kanada
CineTi
fasebis
indeqsi
140
127
152
128
213
qveyana
aSS
safrangeTi
iaponia
poloneTi
rumineTi
fasebis
indeqsi
138
123
107
11-jer
1842-jer
romelic miiReba fiqsirebul samomxmareblo kalaTaSi
Semavali saqonlisa da momsaxurebis yovelTviuri registraciis gziT.
2. mosaxleobis samomxmareblo xarjebis struqtura.
samomxmareblo fasebis (tarifebis) yovelTviuri
registracia xorcieldeba saqarTvelos xuT did qalaqSi
(Tbilisi, baTumi, quTaisi, gori da Telavi). samomxmareblo kalaTa, romelSic Sedis 311 dasaxelebis saqoneli
da momsaxureba erTidaigivea xuTive qalaqisaTvis. samomxmareblo kalaTisaTvis SerCeulia is saqoneli da
momsaxureba, romelsac SeiZens ti puri momxmarebeli.
samomxmareblo fasebisa da tarifebis yovelTviuri registraciis gziT ganisazRvreba saSualo Sesadari fasebi. Sesadarad iTvleba fasi, romelic dafiqsirebulia erTidaigive savaWro wertilSi (momsaxureb-
606
is centrSi) yoveli Tvis erTidaigive periodSi (yoveli Tvis 10-dan 20 ricxvamde), erTidaigive saxis, specifikis saqonelze (momsaxurebaze).
saqonlisa da momsaxurebis fasebi (tarifebi),
romlebic gamoiyeneba sfi-s gamosaTvlelad, grovdeba
daaxloebiT ori aTas sacalo vaWrobisa da momsaxurebis obieqtSi _ maRaziebSi, bazrebSi, bazrobebze, supermarketebSi, benzingasamarT sadgurebSi, klinikebSi da a.S.
individualuri indeqsebis bazaze gaiangariSeba
agregirebuli indeqsebi TiToeuli sasaqonlo jgufisaTvis rogorc TiToeuli qalaqisaTvis, aseve mTlianad
qveynisaTvis. mosaxleobis xvedriT wilebad gamoiyeneba
dasakvirvebeli qalaqis mosaxleobis ricxovnobis wili
saqarTvelos mTliani mosaxleobidan.
rac Seexeba xvedriT wonebs samomxmareblo kalaTis 311 sasaqonlo poziciisaTvis, isini Camoyalibebulia 2002-2003 wlebSi Catarebuli Sinameurneobebis
kvlevis safuZvelze.
sfi-s gamosaTvlelad gamoiyeneba formula:
I=
p 1q 0
p 0q 0
sadac
p1 aris saqonlis fasi Sesadar periodSi;
p0 _ saqonlis fasi sabaziso periodSi;
qo _ sabaziso periodSi moxmarebul saqonelze
xarjis moculoba.
samomxmareblo fasebis indeqsi asaxavs fasebis
cvlilebas sabaziso welTan SedarebiT. dReisaTvis gaangariSebis bazas warmoadgens 2003 wlis dekemberi =
607
100. amasTan, gaingariSeba inflaciis tempi, romelic axasiaTebs samomxmareblo fasebis indeqsis procentul
cvlilebas wina periodTan SedarebiT. qvemoT miTiTebulia procentuli cvlilebis gamosaTvleli magaliTi:
sfi mimdinare wels 107,5
gamovakloT wina periodis sfi 103,9
udris 3,6
gavyoT wina periodis sfi-ze 103,9
udris 0,0346
Sedegi gavamravloT 100-ze 0,0346X100
udris procentul cvlilebas 3,46.
samomxmareblo fasebis indeqsi ZiriTadad gamoiyeneba rogorc:
ekonomikuri indikatori. sfi gamoiyeneba, rogorc
inflaciis yvelaze farTo sazomi. igi aris mniSvnelovani ekonomikuri indikatori.
deflatori sxva ekonomikuri maCveneblebisaTvis. sfi da misi komponentebi gamoiyeneba sxva ekonomikuri
maCveneblebis mosawesrigeblad fasebis cvlilebis mixedviT da am maCveneblebis gamosaxatavad inflaciis gamoricxviT.
fuladi Semosavlebis koreqtirebis saSualeba.
sfi SeiZleba gamoyenebuli iqnes xelfasebis gasaangariSeblad inflaciis gaTvaliswinebiT.
2004 wlis ianvridan saqarTvelos statistikis
departamentma ganaxorciela samuSaoebi samomxmareblo
fasebis indeqsis gaangariSebaSi monawile samomxmareblo kalaTis gafarToebisa da xarisxobrivi ganaxlebis
mimarTulebiT. SinameurneobaTa axali kvlevebis masalebis
safuZvelze Tbilisisa da sxva qalaqebisaTvis ganaxle608
bul iqna wonebi sfi-s sasaqonlo jgufebis doneze.
2004 wlis ianvris sfi-s gaangariSeba ganxorcielda
COICOP-is (samomxmareblo saqonlisa da momsaxurebis
individualuri moxmareba miznebis mixedviT) klasifikatoris mixedviT.
qvemoT motanili 9.11 cxrili da 9.1 diagrama naTel warmodgenas iZleva samomxmareblo fasebis wliur
indeqsebsa da wliuri inflaciis doneze saqarTveloSi
XXI saukunis pirveli xuTwleulis ganmavlobaSi.
inflaciis saxeebi. inflaciis saxeobaTa
gansazRvrisas, Cveulebriv, xelmZRvaneloben oTxi krite-
cxrili 9.11
samomxmareblo fasebis wliuri indeqsebi
gamsxvilebuli jgufebis mixedviT
saqarTveloSi (2001-2005 ww.)
wlebi
saS .
dekemberi wina wlis dekemberTan
wl iu ri
sa q o n e li
saS .
sxva
da
su rsa T i
wliurTan
momsaxureba
sa q o n e li
momsaxureba
su l
2001
2002
2003
2004
2005
104.7
105.6
104.8
105.7
108.2
103.4
105.6
107.0
107.5
106.2
103.7
108.1
109.4
113.6
108.3
100.6
100.1
105.1
103.2
103.6
105.2
102.9
99.9
100.1
104.3
609
diagrama 9.1
wliuri inflaciis done saqarTveloSi
(2001-2005 ww.)
9
7.5
7.0
6.2
6
5.4
3.4
3
0
2001
2002
2003
2004
2005
riumiT. pirvelia fasebis (fasebis indeqsis) zrdis
tempi; meore _ sxvadasxva jgufis saqonlis fasebis
zrdis dabalansebulobis xarisxi; mesame _ inflaciis
mosalodneloba da winaswarmetyveleba; meoTxe _ bazrebis inflaciuri uwonasworobis forma.
 fasebis zrdis tempebis mixedviT ganaxvaveben inflaciis sam saxeobas: zomiers, Wenebadsa da hi perinflacias.
zomieri inflaciis (mas xSirad mcocav inflaciasac uwodeben) dros fasebi nela izrdeba (wliurad 10%-ze naklebi), fulis Rirebuleba faqtobrivad
SenarCunebulia, xolo fasebis zrdis Sedegi umniSvneloa.
Tanamedrove ekonomikuri Teoria inflaciis am
610
saxeobas miiCnevs ekonomikur ganviTarebaze keTilmyofel faqtorad. igi iZleva moTxovna-miwodebis cvalebadi pirobebis Sesabamisad fasebis koreqtirebis saSualebas. ganviTarebuli qveynebis ekonomikisaTvis metwilad
inflaciis swored es saxeobaa damaxasiaTebeli;
Wenebadi (monavarde) inflaciis dros fasebi wliurad 20-dan 200%-mde izrdeba. amis gamo kontraqtebis umetesoba mijaWvulia fasebis zrdasTan an
konvertirebul valutasTan (amerikuli dolari, evro...).
fuli iwyebs swraf materializacias saqonelSi da naklebad dainteresebulia ukontrolo sargeblis ganakveTiT.
saqme is aris, rom Wenebad inflaciasTan dakavSirebuli problemebi mTlianad gamowveulia ganuWvretelobiT. es problemebi ki aRmocendebian ara imitom,
rom fulis Rirebuleba ecema, aramed imitom, rom fulis
momavali Rirebuleba ganuWvretelia. swored amis gamo
inflaciis maRali, magram Tanabari tempi ufro nakleb
problemebs warmoSobs, vidre inflaciis ufro dabali,
magram uTanabro tempi.
hi perinflacia inflaciis gansakuTrebuli
saxea, romlis dros mimoqcevaSi gaSvebuli fulis raodenoba da saqonlis fasebi astronomiuli tempebiT matulobs (fasebis zrdis wliuri tempi, Cveulebriv, 200%s aRemateba), fasebi da xelfasebi katastrofulad Sordeba erTmaneTs, ecema sazogadoebis yvelaze uzrunvelyofili fenebis keTildReobis donec ki. hi perinflaciis Tavisebureba isaa, rom igi praqtikulad umarTavia.
hi perinflacia metwilad mosalodnelia omisa da
omisSemdgom periodebSi. istoriam mravali aseTi ma611
galiTi icis. ase magaliTad, avstriaSi 1921-1922 wlebSi fasebis umaRlesma Tviurma zrdam 134%-s miaRwia.
amis gamo ludis barebSi misulebi erTbaSad ludis or
porcias ukveTavdnen, ramdenadac fasebi izrdeboda ufro
swrafad, vidre ludi gemosa da Zalas dakargavda.
am TvalsazrisiT gansakuTrebiT STambeWdavi magaliTia 20-iani wlebis, I msoflio omSi damarcxebuli
germania. gamarjvebulma qveynebma germaniisagan moiTxoves mniSvnelovani reperaciis * gadaxda. aman gamoiwvia
germaniis saxelmwifo biujetis uzarmazari deficiti,
romlis dafarva xdeboda fulis emisiis xarjze. fulis
miwodebis kolosalurad gadidebam, Tavis mxriv, gamoiwvia fasebis donis swrafi zrda. sakmarisia aRiniSnos,
rom gazeTis fasma, romelic 1921 wlis ianvarSi Seadgenda 0,3 germanul markas, or welze naklebi drois
Semdeg 70 mln markas miaRwia. fasebi sxva saqonelzec
TiTqmis aseTive siswrafiT izrdeboda. 1923 wlisaTvis
girvanqa karaqi 1,5 mln marka Rirda, 1 kg xorci _ 22
mln, 1 kg puri _ 200 aTasi marka. sagulisxmoa, rom 1922
wlis dekembridan 1923 wlis dekembramde fasebis saSualo Tviurma zrdam germaniaSi Seadgina astronomiuli
cifri _ 500%.**
* reperacia (laT. reperatio _ aRdgena) _ saerTaSoriso
samarTlis mixedviT, damarcxebuli saxelmwifos mier sxva qveynebisaTvis miyenebuli zaralis anazRaureba.
** am periodis fotoebze gamosaxulia germaneli diasaxlisi, romelic Rumels qaRaldis fuliT anTebs da bavSvebi, romlebic qaRaldis fulisagan Sekruli burTiT TamaSoben.
612
aseT katastroful inflacias, romelmac, bunebrivia, mZlavri dartyma miayena germaniis ekonomikas, xSirad
faSizmis gavrcelebisa da II msoflio omis gamomwvev
mizezTa ricxvSi ganixilaven. Tanamedrove germaneli
politikosebi, kargad gaacnobieres da aiTvises ra
ekonomikuri istoriis mware gakveTili, fasebis zrdis
problemas sagangebo yuradRebas uTmoben, ris Sedegadac
ukanaskneli 50 wlis ganmavlobaSi inflaciis tempebi
germaniaSi iyo bevrad ufro dabali, vidre aSS-sa da
zogierT sxva ganviTarebul qveyanaSi.
hi perinflacia metad iSviaTi movlenaa, magram
mravalma qveyanam ukve ganicada misi mwvave Sedegebi. magaliTad, boliviaSi 1984 wels inflaciam Seadgina 2000%,
xolo 1985 wels _ TiTqmis 8000%; argentinaSi 1984
wels fasebis zrdis tempma miaRwia 1100%-s, braziliaSi _ 2360%-s, peruSi _ 8292%-s, nikaraguaSi _ 8555%s; saqarTveloSi 1993-1994 wlebSi kuponis gaufasurebis saSualo Tviuri tempi Seadgenda 100%-s* da a.S.
 sxvadasxva jgufis saqonlis fasebis zrdis dabalansebulobis mixedviT gamoyofen inflaciis
or saxeobas: dabalansebul da daubalansebel inflacias.
dabalansebuli inflaciis dros fasebis zrda
* am periodSi profesoris Tviuri xelfasi kuponebSi,
amerikul valutaze gadayvaniT, 0,5 dolars ar aRemateboda,
amitom igi maSinve cdilobda mis moSorebas da gadacvlas
amerikul dolarze. winaaRmdeg SemTxvevaSi misi Semosavali
Tvis bolos orjer gaufasurdeboda.
613
saqonlisa da momsaxurebis umravlesobaze zomieri da
erTdroulia. amitom sxvadasxva jgufis saqonlis fasebis
doneTa urTierTTanafardoba ucvleli rCeba. aseT SemTxvevebSi fasebis yovelwliuri zrdis proporciulad
matulobs sargeblis (procentis) ganakveTi, rac stabilurfasebiani ekonomikuri situaciis tolfasia;
daubalansebeli inflaciis dros sxvadasxva
jgufis saqonelze fasebi izrdeba gansxvavebuli tempebiT. amitom fasebis donis mixedviT maT Soris Tanafardoba sistematurad icvleba.
 inflaciis mosalodnelobisa da winaswarmetyvelebis TvalsazrisiT gamoyofen: mosalodnel
da moulodnel inflacias.
m os alo dneli inf laciis gardauvaloba
winaswarve cnobilia da SeiZleba misi prognozireba
romeliRac periodisaTvis. arcTu iSviaTad `igegmeba`
igi qveynis mTavrobis mier, amitom SedarebiT organizebul xasiaTs atarebs;
moulodneli inflacia xasiaTdeba fasebis uecari (moulodneli) naxtomiseburi aweviT, rac friad
uaryofiT gavlenas axdens fulis mimoqcevasa da gadasaxadebiT dabegvris sistemaze. aseT viTarebaSi mosaxleoba (Tuki aqvs adrindeli periodis odnavi gamocdileba mainc), misi Semosavlis Semdgomi gaufasurebis Tavidan
acilebis mizniT, intensiurad iZens saqonelsa da momsaxurebas (xSirad misTvis araaucilebelsac ki), rac,
Tavis mxriv, siZneleebs uqmnis ekonomikas, araswor warmodgenas iZleva sazogadoebaSi arsebul moTxovnaze da
arTulebs meurneobis proporciuli ganviTarebis uzrunvelyofas.
614
gamoricxuli araa aseTi situaciac: _ Tu fasebis
uecari naxtomiseburi aweva daiwyo mosalodnel inflaciaze mosaxleobis sruliad Seumzadeblad, momxmareblebi mas miiCneven droebiT movlenad da Tavs Seikaveben
saqonlis SeZenisagan. es Seamcirebs moTxovnas da gavlenas moaxdens fasebis dawevaze, rac xels Seuwyobs wonasworobis aRdgenas.
 imis mixedviT, Tu rogor formebs iRebs
bazrebis inflaciuri wonasworoba , ganasxvaveben: Ria
da daTrgunvil (CaxSobil) inflacias.
Ria inflacia Tavs iCens bazrebze, sadac moqmedebs Tavisufali fasebi. misTvis damaxasiaTebelia
fasebis zrdis tendencia. amasTan, Ria inflacia savsebiT uTavsdeba bazrebze calkeuli saqonlis fasebis
periodul Semcirebas an, ukeTes SemTxvevaSi, maTi zrdis
Senelebas. fasebis araTanabarzomieri zrdis pirobebSi
Ria inflacia, marTalia, iwvevs sabazro meqanizmis deformirebas, magram ar spobs mas. vidre sabazro meqanizmi
cocxalia, arsebobs inflaciis daZlevis imedic.
daTrgunvili (CaxSobili) inflaciis dros,
romelic warmoiqmneba mkacrad regulirebadi an fiqsirebuli fasebis mqone ekonomikaSi, fasebis zrda SeiZleba arc ki iyos SesamCnevi, fulis gaufasureba ki
gamoxatulebas poulobdes mwvave deficitsa da grZel
rigebSi. aseTi inflaciis arsebobisas, fasebis zrdiT
Sewuxebuli saxelmwifo ebmeba masTan brZolaSi da awesebs
mkacr kontrols fasebsa da Semosavlebze, e.i. yinavs maT
gansazRvrul doneze. magram, didi mcdelobis miuxedavad,
aseTi RonisZiebebi radikalur Sedegebs ver uzrunvelyofs. swored movlenis amgvar mdgomareobasTan gvqonda
615
saqme 1995-2003 wlebis saqarTveloSi.
inflaciis ekonomikuri da socialuri Sedegebi. uwinares yovlisa, unda aRiniSnos,
rom inflacia ekonomikaze moqmedebs ori mimarTulebiT:
pirveli, igi aisaxeba warmoebis mTlian moculobaSi (makroekonomikuri efeqti). rogorc cnobilia, inflacia
Zlierdeba maRali dasaqmebisa da warmoebis moculobis
zrdis fazaSi da, piriqiT, inflaciis Semcireba Seefardeba
warmoebis dacemas da umuSevrobis zrdas. magram, rogorc
Tanamedrove makroekonomika mowmobs, inflacias, warmoebis moculobis donesa da umuSevrobas Soris pirdapiri kavSiri ar arsebobs; meore mimarTuleba aisaxeba
resursebis gadaadgilebasa da ekonomikur efeqtianobaSi ( mikroekonomikuri efeqti ). inflaciis mikroekonomikuri Sedegebi naRdi fulis gaufasurebiT
warmoiSoba.
inflaciis dros fasebi da xelfasebi sxvadasxva
tempiT moZraobs. amitom xdeba Semosavlebis da simdidris gadanawileba mosaxleobis sxvadasxva jgufebs Soris.
aRsaniSnavia erTi garemoebac _ Teoriuladac da
praqtikuladac, maSinac ki, roca gairkveva inflaciis
namdvili sidide, sazogadoebis yvela wevrs ara aqvs
moqmedebis erTnairi SesaZlebloba. magaliTad, zogierT
bazarze (sasoflo-sameurneo produqtebi, nedleuli...)
fasebi wesdeba mokle vadiT, xolo zogierTi saqonlis
bazarze (saijaro qira, binis gadasaxadi...) fasebi fiqsirebulia kontraqtebSi da ar icvleba didi xnis ganmavlobaSi. igive SeiZleba aRiniSnos muSebisa da mosamsaxu-reebis xelfasze, romelic fiqsirebulia grZelva616
dian SeTanxmebaSi. ra Tqma unda, SeTanxmeba SeiZleba Seicavdes gansazRvrul daTqmas.
sabazro ekonomikaSi inflaciis erT-erTi yvelaze
seriozuli Sedegia urTierTndobis Seryeva. TanamSromloba, romelic sazogadoebisa da civilizaciis safuZvelia, sazogadoebis wevrebisagan moiTxovs TviTSezRudvas da sakuTari miznis miRwevis dros sxva adamianebis
interesebis gaTvaliswinebas: Tu adamianebi im daskvnamde mivlen, rom maT atyueben, maSin isini advilad Camoicileben Semakavebel eTikur normebs.
inflaciasTan dakavSirebulia ganuWvretlobis problemis warmoSoba, romlis msxverpli SeiZleba gaxdes urTierTTanxmoba, romelzec dafuZnebulia
sabazro ekonomikis sazogadoeba. SeiZleba Tamamad iTqvas, rom inflaciis mier Seqmnili problemebi TiTqmis
mTlianad dakavSirebulia ganusazRvrelobasTan. es problemebi, rogorc ukve aRiniSna, imitom ki ar warmoiSoba,
rom fulis fasi ecema, aramed imis gamo, rom momavali
fasi ganuWvretelia. igive SeiZleba iTqvas deflaciasa
da dezinflaciaze (inflaciis tempis Senelebaze).
inflaciis realuri xarjia simdidris TviTneburi gadanawileba socialur jgufebs Soris, xolo
mis bazaze warmoSobil urTierTdaukmayofileblobas
SeuZlia daamsxvrios sazogadoebis wevrTa miswrafeba
TanamSromlobisaken.
aranakleb mniSvnelovania inflaciisagan dacvis
xarji. ukanasknel wlebSi gamoqveynebuli mravalricxovani literatura iZleva sxvadasxva saxis rekomendacias inflaciisagan Tavis dasacavad.
inflaciis xarjis analizi SeiZleba ganxiluli
617
iqnas ori poziciidan: pirveli, ramdenad dabalansebulia inflacia, anu ekonomikaSi zomieri inflaciaa Tu
Wenebadi; meore, ramdenadaa ekonomika adaptirebuli inflaciasTan. pirvel SemTxvevaSi yovelwliuri fasebis
zrdas, davuSvaT 4-5%-iT, Seesabameba `samomxmareblo kalaTis` Rirebulebis gadideba. erTdroulad icvleba
sargeblis ganakveTic. msgavsi inflacia arafers cvlis
ekonomikaSi.
daubalansebeli inflaciis SemTxvevaSi, pirvel
rigSi, zaraldeba fulis mimoqceva da sagadasaxado sistema. saqme isaa, rom inflaciis 10%-iT zrdis pirobebSi
imave 10%-iT ecema realuri sargeblis ganakveTi fulze.
es exeba yvela im aqtivs, romelsac fiqsirebuli fuladi sargeblis ganakveTi aqvs.
garda amisa, inflaciis zrda aiZulebs mosaxleobas damatebiTi xarji gaiRos maTTvis aucilebeli
saqonlis SesaZenad. es iwvevs pirad sabanko angariSebze
mosaxleobis naRdi fulis Semcirebas.
inflaciis zrda xels uwyobs gadasaxadis formiT mosaxleobidan saxsrebis amoRebis gadidebas, rac
ekonomikur literaturaSi cnobilia `inflaciis gadasaxadis` saxelwodebiT. inflacia arTulebs rogorc
nominaluri, ise realuri Semosavlebis gazomvas. dRemde
verc erT qveyanaSi ver moxerxda Semosavlis koreqtireba
inflaciis zrdis kvalobaze. amrigad, daubalansebeli
inflacia, romelic adaptirebuli araa ekonomikasTan,
warmoSobs Semosavlebisa da simdidris gadanawilebas.
inflaciuri procesebi gansakuTrebiT uaryofiTad
moqmedeben mosaxleobis realuri Semosavlebis doneze.
amasTan, gansakuTrebiT Zlieria es moqmedeba im fenebze,
618
romlebic Rebuloben fiqsirebul Semosavlebs. am SemTxvevaSi gadanawileba xdeba imaT sasargeblod, vinc Rebulobs arafiqsirebul maRal Semosavlebs.
ekonomikur literaturaSi inflaciasTan dakavSirebuli kidev ramdenime xarjia cnobili, romelTagan TiToeuli gviCvenebs, rom fulis miwodebis uwyveti zrda,
ama Tu im gziT, garkveul zemoqmedebas axdens sazogadoebis cxovrebis doneze.
inflaciuri danakargis pirveli saxe dakavSirebulia inflaciur gadasaxadTan, romelic iwvevs mosaxleobis gankargulebaSi fulis realuri maragis Semcirebas. es garemoeba aiZulebs moqalaqeebs xSirad moxsnan
bankSi arsebuli anabridan maTTvis saWiro Tanxa. am
movlenas xSirad uwodeben `fexsacmlis spontanur
xarjs`, radgan bankSi xSirad siaruli aCqarebs fexsacmlis cveTas.
inflaciuri danakargis meore saxe dakavSirebulia
saqonlisa da momsaxurebis fasebis xSiri Secvlis aucileblobasTan. igi moiTxovs axali katalogebis dabeWdvasa da gavrcelebas. es ki mewarmisagan moiTxovs damatebiTi xarjis gaRebas. am danakargma miiRo `menius
xarjis` saxelwodeba, ramdenadac, rac ufro maRalia
inflaciis tempi, miT ufro xSirad uxdebaT restornebs
dabeWdon axali meniu.
inflaciuri danakargis mesame saxe dakavSirebulia
sagadasaxado kanonmdeblobis formasTan. saqme is
aris, rom sagadasaxado dabegvris mravali debuleba ar
iTvaliswinebs inflaciur zemoqmedebas. magaliTad, davuSvaT, rom inflaciis wliuri tempi Seadgens 20%-s,
xolo moqalaqis mier nayidi aqciis Tavdapirveli fasi
619
iyo 100 lari. momaval wels imave realuri fasis misaRebad aucilebelia misi realizacia 120 larad (100l
+ 20% inflacia). mocemul SemTxvevaSi sagadasaxado
kanonmdebloba am operacias ganixilavs rogorc 20 laris
Semosavlis miRebas TiToeul gayidul aqciaze da, Sesabamisad, mas begravs. es imiT aixsneba, rom ibegreba ara
realuri Semosavali, aramed nominaluri. es ki amcirebs
mocemuli moqalaqis realur Semosavals.
inflaciuri danakargis sxva saxea cvalebadi fasebis donis samyaroSi cxovrebis mouxerxebloba.
realur cxovrebaSi fuli gamodis Taviseburi `saxazavis` rolSi, romliTac izomeba ekonomikuri operaciebi.
inflaciis dros icvleba am saxazavis sigrZe. magaliTad, davuSvaT, rom saqarTvelos parlamentma miiRo kanoni,
romlis Tanaxmad 2005 wels erTi metri iqneba 80
santimetris toli, 2006 wels _ 50 sm, 2007 wels _ 30
sm da a.S. ra Tqma unda, metris sigrZis aseTi cvlileba
Zalze mouxerxebelia. igi moiTxovs sigrZis sazomis
mudmiv dazustebas romelime mudmiv ricxvTan.
analogiurad, Tu laris yidviTunarianoba ganuwyvetliv
meryeobs, maSin igi kargavs Rirebulebis sazomis funqcias, radgan am situaciaSi lari sistematurad moiTxovs `inflaciur` Sesworebas.
Tu ufro konkretulad gavaanalizebT inflaciis
ekonomikur da socialur Sedegebs, SeiZleba gamovyoT
Semdegi momentebi:
* fuladi Semosavlis gaufasureba. mxedvelobaSi gvaqvs fulis msyidvelobiTi unaris Semcireba, rac
realuri Semosavlis dacemas iwvevs. Tu ojaxis nominaluri fuladi Semosavali Seadgenda, vTqvaT, 200 lars
da amiT SeeZlo ojaxs 200 kg Saqris SeZena, fulis
620
orjer gaufasurebis Semdeg, imave TanxiT mxolod 100
kg Saqris SeZena SeuZlia, e.i. realuri Semosavali orjer mcirdeba. aseTi procesi warmoiqmneba maSin, roca
nominaluri Semosavali stabiluria an inflaciis tempTan SedarebiT ufro nela izrdeba.
inflaciis Sedegad, ai, ratom zaralobs yvelaze
ufro metad fiqsirebuli nominaluri Semosavlis mqone
da socialurad daucveli nawili sazogadoebisa (maswavleblebi, eqimebi, mecnierebi, pensionerebi da a.S.);
* Semosavlisa da simdidris gadanawileba.
inflaciis dros SeiZleba moqalaqeTa erTi nawili dazaraldes, meorem ki moigos. vTqvaT, erTma moqalaqem meores erTi wliT asesxa 500 lari, romliTac mocemul
momentSi SeeZlo 500 kg Saqris yidva. erTi wlis Semdeg,
inflaciis Sedegad, orjer gaufasurda fuli da valSi
dabrunebuli 500 lariT man mxolod 250 kg Saqris
yidva SeZlo. waago mevalem da moigo movalem, radganac
vali gaufasurebuli fuliT gadaixada. ase xdeba mTeli
qveynis masStabiT yvela sxva angariSworebis drosac,
Tu xelSekrulebaSi winaswar araa gaTvaliswinebuli
inflaciis Sedegad fulis mosalodneli gaufasureba.
amrigad, rac ufro moulodnelad, swrafad da erTimeoris mimarT daubalanseblad gaizrdeba fasebi, miT
ufro sasargebloa calkeuli ekonomikuri agentebisaTvis
da sazaralo _ sxvebisaTvis. amis kvalobaze xdeba Semosavlisa da simdidris gadanawileba imaTgan, vinc xangrZlivi vadiT iZleva kredits, imaT xelSi, vinc Rebulobs am kredits da gansazRvruli vadis gasvlis Semdeg gaufasurebuli saxiT ubrunebs kreditors (Tu aseTi
SemTxvevisaTvis kompensaciis Taobaze winaswar raime
piroba ar iyo dafiqsirebuli xelSekrulebiT);
621
* grZelvadiani garigebebisadmi interesis Seneleba. bunebrivia, sabazro ekonomikis subieqtTa Soris
garigeba rac ufro xangrZlivia, miT ufro metia riski
da inflaciis saSiSroeba. amitom investorebi cdiloben
misgan Tavis daRwevas da xelSekrulebis mokle vadiT
Semofargvlas. Tumca es, bevri sxva TvalsazrisiT, SeiZleba xels ar aZlevdes investors. aseT SemTxvevaSi
cdiloben ganaxorcielon iseTi investiciebi (dabandebebi), romelTa rentabelobis done uzrunvelyofs ara
marto normaluri mogebis miRebas, aramed mosalodneli
inflaciiT gamowveuli zaralis kompensirebasac;
* fuladi danazogebis gaufasureba. inflacia
aufasurebs fulad danazogebs, miuxedavad imisa, iqneba
igi bankSi moTavsebuli Tu skivrSi Senaxuli, an kidev,
iqneba firmebis Tu kerZo pirebis sakuTreba. vTqvaT,
meanabrem komerciul bankSi daabanda 1000 lari, anu
iyida 1000 lariani obligacia wliuri 10%-iani ganakveTiT. wlis bolos igi miiRebs 1100 lars, magram,
inflaciis donis 20%-mde gazrdis gamo, dabandebuli
1000 laris Rirebuleba, anu msyidvelobiTi unari daecema
917 laramde (1100:1,20) da menabre, saboloo angariSiT,
mogebis nacvlad, izaralebs.
maSasadame, fuladi danazogebis msyidvelobiTunarianoba ukuproporciul damokidebulebaSia inflaciis
donesTan. amitom am ukanasknelis mosalodneloba zRudavs fulis dazogvas, zrdis mimdinare moxmarebas da
aferxebs msxvilmasStaburi investiciebis ganxorcielebas, warmoebis daCqarebul ganviTarebas;
* fuladi saxsrebis faruli konfiskacia.
inflacia firmebisa da mosaxleobis xelSi arsebuli
fuladi saxsrebis farul konfiskacias axdens gadasax622
adebis meSveobiT. es xdeba Semdegnairad: inflaciis bazaze nominaluri Semosavlis zrdis Sedegad fizikuri
da iuridiuli pirebi eqcevian gadasaxadis gadamxdelTa
ufro maRal jgufSi, riTac saxelmwifos xelSi gadanawildeba maTi ara marto mogeba, aramed mimdinare moxmarebisaTvis gankuTvnili Semosavlis nawilic.
am negatiuri movlenis Tavidan asacileblad ganviTarebul qveynebSi mimarTaven sagadasaxado ganakveTebis indeqsacias inflaciis tempis gaTvaliswinebiT.
magram igi ar iZleva sasurvel Sedegs, ramdenadac fasebis daubalansebeli zrdis kvalobaze xdeba simdidris
gadanawileba, Rrmavdeba nominalur da realur Semosavals
Soris sxvaoba, Tanac, sxvadasxva socialur jgufSi sxvadasxvanairad, sxvadasxva dros da sxvadasxva siswrafiT.
erTian indeqsacias ar ZaluZs aseTi niuansebis gaTvaliswineba, igi yvela Semosavals afasebs formalurad.
inflaciisagan zaralobs TviT saxelmwifoc, ramdenadac
gadasaxadebi saxelmwifo xazinaSi Sesvlamde sakmaod
ufasurdeba.
SedarebiT ufro mZimea da damangreveli ekonomikuri
da socialuri Sedegebi, rac Tan sdevs daTrgunvil
(CaxSobil) inflacias . igi saSineli socialuri senia imitom, rom:
 angrevs TviTregulirebis sabazro meqanizms. bazris meSveobiT ver xerxdeba dargTa Soris wonasworobis
damyareba da am funqcias saxelmwifo kisrulobs, Tumca
igi awydeba TiTqmis gadauWrel siZneleebs. investirebis procesi Wianurdeba da ecema ekonomikis efeqtianoba;
 gayinuli fasebi araxelsayrels xdis kapitalis dabandebas im dargebSi, sadac maRalia warmoebis
xarjebi. es iwvevs warmoebis kidev ufro metad dacemas
623
da deficitis gaRrmavebas. deficiti qronikul xasiaTs
Rebulobs;
 deficitis pirobebSi moTxovna srulad ver realizdeba da mosaxleobas ugrovdeba iZulebiTi danazogebi, rac apirobebs uzarmazar rigebs da did gasaqans
aZlevs spekulacias Sav bazarze.
amrigad, daTrgunvili inflaciis pirobebSi warmoeba gaCerebulia an izrdeba umniSvnelod, ris gamoc
Senelebulia mosaxleobis keTildReobis amaRlebis
procesic. amitomaa misi Tavidan acilebisaTvis zrunva
saxelmwifos erT-erTi umniSvnelovanesi amocana.
inflaciisa da umuSevrobis urTierTkavSiri. didi xania, rac cnobilia keinzianuri Tval-
sazrisi umuSevrobasa da inflacias Soris arsebuli
ukuproporciuli damokidebulebis Sesaxeb.* es sakiTxi
safuZvlianad Seiswavla da mecnierulad ganazogada ingliselma ekonomistma o.fili psma. man XX saukunis
50-iani wlebis meore naxevarSi, inglisis ekonomikis
95-wliani (1861-1956 ww.) ganviTarebis monacemebis
yovelmxrivi gaanalizebis safuZvelze daamuSava originaluri modeli (`fili psis mrudi` ), romlis Tanaxmad, umuSevrobis donis gadideba 2,5-3,0%-s zeviT iwvevs
* umartivesi keinzianuri modeli aCvenebs, rom ekonomikaSi
SeiZleba warmoiSvas an umuSevroba, romelic ganpirobebulia
warmoebis daqveiTebiT, an inflacia, romelic gamowveulia warmoebis aRmavlobiT, magram erTdroulad ar SeiZleba warmoiSvas
umuSevroba da inflacia.
624
fasebisa da xelfasebis zrdis mkveTrad Senelebas da
piriqiT, umuSevrobis Semcirebas Tan sdevs fasebisa da
xelfasis gadideba, rasac, saboloo angariSiT, inflaciamde mivyavarT (ix. nax. 9.7). gamodis, rom sazogadoebam umuSevrobis donis Semcireba unda uzrunvelyos
inflaciis tempebis daCqarebis xarjze, rac winaaRmdegobrivi xasiaTis matarebelia.
amerikeli ekonomistebis p.samuelsonisa da r.solous mier erTgvari modificirebis (kerZod, xelfasis ganakveTebis saqonlis fasebis zrdis tempebiT Senacvlebis) Semdeg, 60-iani wlebidan, sxvadasxva qveynis mTavrobebma
fili psis mrudi safuZvlad daudes TavianT ekonomikur
politikas da scades dasaqmebasa da inflacias Soris
optimaluri Tanafardobis damyareba. amgvari ekonomikuri
regulirebis praqtikam cxadyo, rom fili psis mrudis
gamoyeneba mizanSewonilia mxolod moklevadiani periodis ekonomikur situaciebSi, ramdenadac grZelvadian (510 weli) periodSi, umuSevrobis maRali donis miuxedavad, inflacia ganagrZobs zrdas,* rac aixsneba garemoebaTa mTeli kompleqsiT.
* ase magaliTad, aSS-is ekonomikaSi rogorc 1973-1974 da
1978-1980 wlebSi, aseve 1982-1990 wlebSi umuSevroba da
inflacia moZraobda erTi da imave mimarTulebiT, anu umuSevroba da inflacia ar moZraobdnen sawinaaRmdego mimarTulebiT,
rogorc amas iTvaliswinebda 60-iani wlebis fili psis mrudi.
Tumca, yuradReba unda mieqces erT mniSvnelovan garemoebas: 70ian wlebSi inflacia da umuSevroba erTdroulad izrdeboda ,
xolo 80-ian wlebSi (ekonomikuri aRmavlobis periodSi) erTdroulad mcirdeboda .
625
antiinflaciuri regulireba. saeWvoa,
saWiro iyos mtkiceba imisa, rom SeuZlebeli an Zalian
Znelia fasebis inflaciuri zrdis faqtorTa mTlianad
amoZirkva. rogorc Cans, ufro realuria vawarmooT brZola
ara imdenad fulis gaufasurebis mizezebTan, ramdenadac
maT SedegebTan. sxvanairad rom vTqvaT, inflacia gavxadoT marTvadi, xolo misi done zomieri (mcocavi). es
Tezisi safuZvlad udevs antiinflaciuri regulirebis
RonisZiebaTa mTel kompleqss.
sabazro ekonomikis qveynebis gamocdilebiT cnobilia antiinflaciuri regulirebis ori varianti: inflaciuri procesebisadmi adaptireba (Segueba) da aSkara
626
P2
2
inflaciis tempi
am xarvezis gamo, filipsis mrudi Secvala umuSevrobis bunebrivi donis Teoriam , romelic 70-iani
wlebis dasasrulsa da 80-iani wlebis pirvel naxevarSi ekonomikuri analizisaTvis farTod gamoiyeneboda
aSS-sa da inglisSi. misi arsi isaa, rom grZelvadian
perspeqtivaSi inflaciis zomier, anu sazogadoebisaTvis
xelsayrel doned SeiZleba miCneuli iqnas umuSevrobis
mxolod bunebrivi done.
mniSvnelovani upiratesobis miuxedavad, verc es
koncefcia CaiTvleba problemis saboloo da warmatebul gadaWrad, ramdenadac umuSevrobis bunebrivi donis
pirobebSic inflacia raRac drois ganmavlobaSi inerciiT ganagrZobs zrdas da ver xerxdeba misi tempebis
mkveTrad Semcireba. amasTan, umuSevrobis TviT bunebrivi
donec ukanasknel ocdaaTwleulSi praqtikulad dasavleTis yvela qveyanaSi izrdeboda da dReisaTvis, 60-iani
wlebis donesTan SedarebiT, TiTqmis gaorkecebulia.
fi
l
ip
si
s
mr
ud
i
1
P1
U2
U1
umuSevrobis done
nax. 9.7. fili psis mrudi
antiinflaciur RonisZiebaTa ganxorcieleba.
 adaptaciuri politikis arsi isaa, rom sabazro ekonomikis subieqtebi (saojaxo meurneobebi, firmebi
da saxelmwifo) TavianT moqmedebaSi winaswarve iTval627
iswineben inflaciis negatiur Sedegebs. msoflio praqtikaSi cnobilia inflaciiT gamowveuli danakargebis
kompensaciis ori meTodi: sargeblis ganakveTis sistematuri indeqsacia (anu koreqtireba) inflaciis tempebis
gaTvaliswinebiT da investiciis pirveli sawyisi Tanxis indeqsacia, romlis koeficientic aseve inflaciis
tempebiT ganisazRvreba.
saojaxo meurneobebi inflaciisadmi adaptirebas
cdiloben Semosavlis damatebiTi wyaroebis gamoZebniT,
fuladi saxsrebis materialur faseulobebSi swrafi
materializaciiT, kontraqtebis dadebisas xelfasebis
inflaciuri koreqtirebiT da a.S.
inflaciisadmi firmebis adaptirebis politika
gamoixateba, magaliTad, imaSi, rom isini xels hkideben
mxolod moklevadiani proeqtebis realizacias, raTa
swrafad daibrunon dabandebuli Tanxebi. garda amisa,
firmebi sakuTari sabrunavi saSualebebis naklebobis
Sevsebas cdiloben aqciebisa da obligaciebis gamoSvebis safuZvelze, gare wyaroebis gamoyenebiT da a.S.
 aSkara antiinflaciuri politika moicavs
saxelmwifos mier SemuSavebul da gatarebul grZelvadian da moklevadian RonisZiebaTa kompleqss.
grZelvadiani antiinflaciuri politika
moicavs iseT RonisZiebebs, rogoricaa:
* saxelmwifo biujetis deficitis Sekveca ara
fulis emisiis gaZlierebiT, aramed gadasaxadebis gadidebiT da saxelmwifo xarjebis SemcirebiT;
* fasebisa da Semosavlebis regulireba, maTi zrdis tempebis Sesabamisobis uzrunvelyofa. am miznis
miRwevis erT-erTi saSualebaa SemosavalTa indeqsacia
628
_ Semosavlebis (xelfasis) Secvla cxovrebis minimumis,
anu `samomxmareblo kalaTis` Rirebulebis Sesabamisad;
* inflaciaze gare faqtorebis gavlenis Sesusteba. igulisxmeba biujetis deficitis dasafaravad mTavrobis mier ucxouri kreditebis aRebisadmi frTxili
damokidebuleba;
* fulis mimoqcevis efeqtiani regulireba, kerZod,
fulis masis yovelwliur matebaze mkacri limitis
daweseba, rac xels Seuwyobs inflaciis donis kontrols.
fulis mimoqcevis mosawesrigeblad da gansamtkiceblad saxelmwifoebi atareben fulad reformebs. es
ukanaskneli gulisxmobs erTi fuladi erTeulidan meoreze gadasvlas an fuladi sistemis nawilobriv cvlilebebs.
istoriisaTvis cnobilia fulis reformis Semdegi saxeebi:
 erTi fuladi saqonlidan meoreze gadasvla (magaliTad, spilenZis fulidan vercxlisaze da vercxlis
fulidan oqrosaze gadasvla);
 arasrulfasovani da gaufasurebuli monetebis
Secvla srulfasovaniT an dauxurdavebeli fuladi niSnebis Secvla daxurdavebis unaris mqoneTi;
 cvlilebebi fulis emisiis sistemaSi (magaliTad, 1913 wels aSS-Si banknotebis gamoSvebis ufleba
miiRo 12 federalurma sarezervo bankma);
 axali fuladi sistemis warmoSoba saxelmwifoebriv gardaqmnasTan dakavSirebiT (magaliTad, ssr kavSiris daSlis Semdeg axalma nacionalurma saxelmwifoebma SemoiRes Tavisi fuladi sistemebi);
629
 fulis mimoqcevis stabilizacia, romelic SeiZleba ganxorcieldes sxvadasxva meTodebiT. maT Soris
yvelaze ti piuria:
* deflacia _ fulis masis Semcireba mimoqcevidan Warbi qaRaldis fulis amoRebis gziT;
* nulifikacia _ Zveli fulis niSnebis likvidacia da axali fulis SemoReba;
* denominacia _ fuladi niSnebis nominaluri
Rirebulebis Secvla axal ufro msxvil fulad erTeulebze garkveuli TanafardobiT maTi gacvliT, fasebisa da xelfasebis imavdrouli gadaangariSebiT.
moklevadiani antiinflaciuri politika mimarTulia ZiriTadad inflaciis tempebis droebiT Semcirebisaken. magaliTad, solidur Sedegs iZleva, erToblivi
moTxovnis gaudideblad, erToblivi miwodebis gafarToeba. am mizniT saxelmwifo:
* SeRavaTebs uwesebs im firmebs, romlebic TavianT ZiriTad nawarmTan erTad uSveben Tanamdev produqcias;
* axdens Tavisi sakuTrebis nawilis privatizebas,
raTa Semovides saxsrebi biujetis deficitis dasafaravad;
* axorcielebs qmediT RonisZiebebs samomxmareblo saqonlis didi raodenobiT importirebisaTvis;
* axorcielebs Zlier Setevas monopolizmis
winaaRmdeg ekonomikaSi;
* uqmnis xelsayrel pirobebs mcire da saSualo
bizness;
* iZleva rekomendacias, gaiyidos yvelaferi (resursebi, nawarmi, informacia da a.S.), risi gayidvac SeiZleba.
630
antiinflaciuri ekonomikuri politikis ganxorcielebisas Rrmad unda gavaanalizoT da gaviTvaliswinoT misi ukuSedegebic, vinaidan araa gamoricxuli, negatiurma Sedegebma gadaaWarbos pozitiurs da mniSvnelovani ziani miayenos sazogadoebas. dasavlel specialistTa gaTvliT, inflaciis 1%-iT SemcirebisaTvis aucilebelia wlis ganmavlobaSi umuSevrobis faqtiurma donem
2%-iT mainc gadaaWarbos mis bunebriv dones, rac, oukenis kanonis Tanaxmad, realur mTlian Sida produqts,
potenciur SesaZleblobasTan SedarebiT, 4%-iT Seamcirebs.
Tuki inflaciis 1%-iT Semcireba ara marto dafaravs umuSevrobis donis 2%-iT gazrdisa da realuri
mTliani Sida produqtis, potenciur SesaZleblobasTan
SedarebiT, 4%-iT Semcirebis Sedegad gamowveul danakargebs, aramed garkveul mogebasac moutans qveyanas, igi
gamarTlebul RonisZiebad SeiZleba miviCnioT. winaaRmdeg SemTxvevaSi, Tavi unda SevikavoT misgan da unda
davadgeT ufro realur gzas.
aSS-sa da zog sxva qveyanaSi sakmaod didi popularobiT sargeblobs monetaruli antiinflaciuri koncefcia, romlis mTavari Semoqmedia milton fridmeni
(igi iyo r. reiganis mrCeveli am ukanasknelis mier
stabilizaciis programis gatarebisas). am koncefciis
Tanaxmad, antiinflaciurma politikam aucileblad unda
moicvas ori bloki: erToblivi moTxovnis regulireba
da erToblivi miwodebis regulireba.
erToblivi miwodebis regulireba friad sasargeblo RonisZiebaa, magram sasurvel efeqts mxolod xangrZlivi drois Semdeg iZleva da grZelvadian antiinflaciur strategias ganekuTvneba. am mimarTulebiT swraf
631
da radikalur Sedegebs erToblivi moTxovnis SezRudva
iZleva. monetaristTa mtkicebiT, misi realizacia iyofa
sam etapad:
 pirvel etapze tardeba konfiskaciuri xasiaTis
fulis reforma. mosaxleobis xelT arsebuli fulis
masis swrafi da mkveTri Semcireba, cxadia, uceb aqveiTebs
moTxovnas;
 meore etapze xdeba biujetis deficitis Semcireba da kreditis gaZvireba. es ukanaskneli miuwvdomelia dabalefeqtiani firmebisaTvis (isini kotrdebian) da sarbielze gamodian yvelaze mZlavri mwarmoeblebi;
 mesame etapze mcirdeba sagadasaxado ganakveTebi
da msxvili kompaniebis mier gamoSvebuli nawarmiT bazris gajerebas Tan sdevs fasebis Semcireba.
amrigad, pirvel da meore etapebze gamoiyeneba berketebi, romlebic dabla sweven erTobliv moTxovnas, mesameze _ berketebi, romlebic astimulireben saqonlis
masis zrdas da erToblivi miwodebis donis amaRlebas.
* * *
Temis dasasruls, Cven SegviZlia diagnozi davusvaT makroekonomikis ZiriTad `daavadebaTa` saerTo mizezs.
es aris meurneobis mTavari parametrebis (maCveneblebis) wonasworobis darRveva. es parametrebi SeiZleba
gaumjobesdes saxelmwifos gansazRvruli socialurekonomikuri politikis zemoqmedebiT. amitom Tanamedrove pirobebSi didi mniSvneloba SeiZina erovnuli meurneobis efeqtiani marTvis (regulirebis) damkvidrebam.
632
?
testebi SeZenili codnis
SemowmebisaTvis
1. ekonomikis ciklur meryeobas araswori
aRqmiTa da adamianTa zedmeti SromiT xsnis:
a. monetaruli Teoria;
b. fsiqologiuri Teoria;
g. inovaciis Teoria;
d. gawonasworebuli Teoria.
2. ekonomikuri ciklis amosaval fazas, tradiciulad, warmoadgens:
a. depresia (anu fskeri);
b. daqveiTeba (krizisi);
g. aRmavloba (gamococxleba);
d. bumi (piki).
3. saqonlis miwodebisa da masze moTxovnis
wonasworoba damaxasiaTebelia:
a. daqveiTebis fazisaTvis;
b. depresiis fazisaTvis;
g. aRmavlobis fazisaTvis;
d. bumis fazisaTvis.
4. aRmavlobis fazisaTvis niSandoblivi ar
aris:
a. umuSevrobis Semcireba;
b. warmoebisa da miwodebis zrda;
g. kreditebis gadideba;
d. investiciebis Semcireba.
633
5. saqonlis fasebis spekulaciuri zrda damaxasiaTebelia:
a. daqveiTebis fazisaTvis;
b. depresiis fazisaTvis;
g. aRmavlobis fazisaTvis;
d. bumis fazisaTvis.
9. momxmarebelTa molodinis indeqsi miekuTvneba:
a. dawinaurebul ekonomikur indikatorebs;
b. damTxvevis ekonomikur indikatorebs;
g. dagvianebul ekonomikur indikatorebs;
d. arc erTs zemoT CamoTvlilTagan.
6. daqveiTebis periodSi ekonomikis aRmavlobis stimulirebas ufro metad SeZlebda:
a. Semosavlebis Semcireba;
b. investiciebis gadideba;
g. msyidvelobiTi unaris Semcireba;
d. umuSevrobis gadideba.
10. SemTxveva, roca kolejis umuSevari kursdamTavrebuli eZebs Tavis pirvel samuSaos, aris
magaliTi:
a. sezonuri umuSevrobis;
b. struqturuli umuSevrobis;
g. cikluri umuSevrobis;
d. friqciuli umuSevrobis.
7. fulze moTxovnis amaRleba da sabanko
sargeblis zrda damaxasiaTebelia:
a. daqveiTebis fazisaTvis;
b. depresiis fazisaTvis;
g. aRmavlobis fazisaTvis;
d. bumis fazisaTvis.
8. bumis faziT dawyebuli saqmiani aqtivobis ciklebi, upiratesad, ti piuria:
a. gardamavali ekonomikis qveynebisaTvis;
b. ganuviTarebeli qveynebisaTvis;
g. maRalganviTarebuli qeynebisaTvis;
d. administraciul-mbrZanebluri sistemis qveynebisaTvis.
634
11. umuSevrobis qvemoT CamoTvlili saxeebidan grZelvadians miekuTvneba:
a. struqturuli umuSevroba;
b. sezonuri umuSevroba;
g. friqciuli umuSevroba;
d. cikluri umuSevroba.
12. SemTxvevas, roca samuSao Zalaze moTxovnisa da samuSao Zalis miwodebis profesiuli
struqturebi erTmaneTs ar Seesabameba, ewodeba:
a. miwodebis siWarbiT gamowveuli umuSevroba;
b. moTxovnis deficitiT gamowveuli umuSevroba;
g. friqciuli umuSevroba;
d. struqturuli umuSevroba.
635
13. moTxovniseuli inflacia gamowveulia:
a. erToblivi moTxovnis deficitiT;
b. erToblivi moTxovnis siWarbiT;
g. erToblivi miwodebis siWarbiT;
d. erToblivi moTxovnisa da miwodebis wonasworobiT.
10
14. qvemoT CamoTvlilTagan, inflaciis Sedegad yvelaze metad mogebuli darCebian:
a. fiqsirebuli Semosavlis mqone pedagogebi;
b. obligaciaTa mflobelebi;
g. sesxis amRebi pirebi;
d. fulis gamsesxeblebi.
erovnuli meurneobis
regulatorebi: sabazro
TviTregulireba da
saxelmwifoebrivi regulireba
15. danaxarjebiseuli inflacia gamowveulia:
a. erToblivi miwodebis zrdiT;
b. danaxarjebis zrdiT;
g. erToblivi moTxovnis SemcirebiT;
d. danaxarjebis SemcirebiT.
16. siRatakis (diskomfortis) indeqsi ganisazRvreba:
a. siRaribis doniTa da saarsebo minimumiT;
b. umuSevrobis doniTa da inflaciis tempiT;
g. ekonomikuri zrdis tempiTa da inflaciis
tempiT;
d. ekonomikuri zrdis tempiTa da umuSevrobis
doniT.
636
Tema
`aucilebelia garkveuli balansi sabazro meqanizmis gamoyenebasa da saxelmwifos maregulirebel rols Soris~.
v.leontievi
`orive mxare _ bazari da
saxelmwifo _ arsebiTia. imis
cda, rom ekonomikis marTva ganxorcieldes romelime maTganis
ignorirebiT, hgavs mcdelobas _
taSi daukran cali xeliT~.
p.samuelsoni, v.nordhausi
saxelmZRvanelos wina ganyofilebebSi sxvadasxva
doziT gaSuqda makroekonomikis farglebSi sameurneo
saqmianobis regulirebis calkeuli mxareebi. kerZod, me637
2, me-3 da me-4 TemebSi Tanmimdevrulad iyo ganxiluli:
saxelmwifo seqtoris socialur-ekonomikuri roli,
bazris Tavisufali ganviTareba da misi regulireba, sazogadoebaSi Semosavlebis pirveladi (sabazro) da meoradi (saxelmwifoebrivi) ganawileba, agreTve qveynis masStabiT warmoebuli sameurneo saqmianobis regulirebis
sxva formebi.
dadga dro aixsnas, ras warmoadgens is sazogadoebrivi (sameurneo) meqanizmi, romelic makroekonomikis
masStabiT gansazRvrul wesrigs uqvemdebarebs meurneobis yvela subieqts, gansazRvravs da aregulirebs maT
Soris arsebuli urTierTqmedebis formebs.
makroekonomikuri regulatori erovnuli meurneobis organizaciisa da mowesrigebis sazogadoebrivi
wesia, romelic erovnul meurneobas aerTianebs erTian
mTlian sistemad, organizebas uwevs da warmarTavs
ekonomikis yvela qveda rgolis saqmianobas, anawilebs
ekonomikur resursebs dargebisa da meurneobis saxeobaTa mixedviT sazogadoebriv moTxovnilebaTa Sesabamisad.
aRniSnuli regulatori moqmedebas iwyebs gansazRvruli wanamZRvrebis arsebobisas, kerZod, erTiani
erovnuli meurneobis pirobebSi. pirvelad aseTi pirobebi
Seqmna ganviTarebulma sasaqonlo warmoebam da Tavisufalma bazarma. Sedegad, moqmedeba daiwyo sameurneo meqanizmis amosavalma ti pma _ sabazro TviTregulirebam.
marTlac, gansazRvrul pirobebSi sabazro ekonomika TviTregulirebadia da uzrunvelyofs: resursebis
racionalur ganawilebasa da gamoyenebas, wonasworobis
avtomatur damyarebas warmoebasa da moxmarebas Soris,
638
mwarmoeblis dainteresebas produqciis xarisxis gaumjobesebiT, axali teqnikisa da teqnologiis danergviT
da a.S. magram, sabazro ekonomika ar unda davsaxoT yovlisSemZled, romelsac TavisTavad, saxelmwifos Carevis
gareSe SeuZlia sameurneo organizmis gankurneba yvela
senisagan. kidev meti, igi TviTonac warmoSobs uaryofiT
movlenebs, romelTa daZleva mas mxolod saxelmwifos
daxmarebiT SeuZlia.
swored am da sxva msgavsi sakiTxebis detaluri
ganxilviT viqnebiT dakavebuli winamdebare Temis Seswavlisas.
639
leqcia 28. sabazro TviTregulireba da ekonomikaSi
saxelmwifos Carevis wanamZRvrebi
` baz rebi, ro go rc w es i,
ekonomikuri saqmianobis organizebis sakmaod kargi saSualebaa, magram am wess mniSvnelovani gamonaklisebi aqvs~.
gr.menqiu
`aucilebelia... qveynis ekonomikur cxovrebaSi saxelmwifos Careva davuSvaT mxolod
im ekonomikuri amocanebis gadasaWrelad, romelTa gadaWra
bazrebs ar SeuZliaT an wyveten uxeirod~.
i.li psici
sabazro TviTregulirebis arsi da
ZiriTadi niSnebi. albaT, yvelaze didi moulod-
neloba mdgomareobs imaSi, rom Tavisufal sabazro meurneobaSi ar arian is adamianebi da organizaciebi, romlebic moawesrigebdnen makroekonomikas mTlianad. kidev
meti, ramdenadac aseTi ekonomika viTardeba stiqiurad,
SeiZleba mogveCvenos, rom SeuZlebelia masSi arsebobdes
ramenairi wesrigi. marTalia es Tu ara?
am kiTxvaze pasuxi gasca inglisma jer kidev XVIIXVIII saukuneebSi, rodesac iq ganmtkicda kapitalizmi
640
Tavisufali konkurenciis bazriT. amitom SemTxveviTi
ar aris, rom sabazro TviTregulirebis meqanizmi
pirvelad gaxsna a.smiTma cnobil wignSi `gamokvleva
xalxTa simdidris bunebisa da mizezebis Sesaxeb`. man
axsna, rom yoveli mewarme cdilobs gamdidrdes _ miiRos rac SeiZleba meti axali Rirebuleba, magram a.smiTis
sityvebiT, `igi uCinari xeliT miemarTeba miznisaken,
romelic sruliad ar Sedioda mis ganzraxvaSi`. miuxedavad imisa, rom mewarmeebi misdeven sakuTar interesebs,
isini qmnian saqonels sxva adamianTa moTxovnilebebis
dasakmayofileblad da amitom, saboloo angariSiT, emsaxurebian sazogadoebriv sikeTes.
Tavisufali konkurenciis bazari `uCinari xeliT` mimarTavs gamyidvelTa da myidvelTa qmedebebs
Semdegnairad:
 Tavisufali bazari gulisxmobs konkurenciis
monawileTa SeuzRudav raodenobas, yvelas uflebas, _
daiwyos an Sewyvitos warmoeba, daiqiraos sxva piri an
TviTon gaaqiraos sakuTari Sromis unari. Tavisufali
konkurenciis ekonomika gamoricxavs momxmareblis (myidvelis) raime diskriminacias; TiToeul momxmarebels
aqvs Tavisi fuladi Semosavlis gankargvis ufleba.
gamyidvelTa (mwarmoebelTa) da myidvelTa (momxmarebelTa) gamaerTianebeli yvela ekonomikuri kavSiri
dgindeba horizontalurad, sameurneo garigebaTa safuZvelze. maTi simtkice ganisazRvreba imiT, rom sabazro
gacvla mis monawileebs Soris sruldeba nebayoflobiT
da mxolod im SemTxvevaSi, Tu orive mxare garigebidan
moelis materialuri sargeblis miRebas.
 aucilebeli Tanafardoba miwodebasa da moTx641
ovnas Soris miiRweva Tavisufali sabazro fasebis meqanizmis meSveobiT. Tavisufali konkurenciis bazris arc
erT monawiles ar SeuZlia gavlena moaxdinos sxva monawileTa gadawyvetilebis miRebaze. es aixsneba maTi simravliT da TiToeuli monawilis mcire wiliT gasayidi
saqonlis mTlian masaSi. es imas niSnavs, rom Tavisufal
sabazro ekonomikaSi monopoliis arc erTi ti pi ar
arsebobs, gamoricxulia inflacia (Warbi moTxovna), saqonlis deficiti (naklebi miwodeba), warmoebis simciriT
ganpirobebuli iZulebiTi umuSevroba da Warbwarmoeba.
 sabazro TviTregulirebis meqanizmi moicavs
pirdapir da uku ekonomikur kavSirebs saqonlis miwodebasa da sabazro moTxovnas Soris.
pirdapiri kavSiri gamoixateba imaSi, rom saqonlis warmoeba (miwodeba) warmoSobs sakuTar moTxovnas,
anu miwodeba da moTxovna srul SesabamisobaSi imyofebian.* yvela kerZo, erTmaneTisagan damoukidebeli mwarmoebeli erTpirovnulad wyvets myidvelTa moTxovnilebebTan (moTxovnasTan) dakavSirebul problemebs: ra, rogor
da visTvis iyos warmoebuli.
magram Tavisufali konkurenciis bazris pirobebSi
* es Sexeduleba cnobilia j.b.seis kanonis saxelwodebiT,
romelic klasikosebmac (d.rikardo, j.mili...) gaiziares. aseTi
mosazreba gamoricxavda Seusabamobas erTobliv miwodebasa da
erTobliv moTxovnas Soris, anu Tavisufali sabazro ekonomikis
pirobebSi sayovelTao Warbwarmoebisa da ekonomikuri krizisebis SesaZleblobas.
642
erTpirovnuli saqonelmflobelebi, romelTac ar SeuZliaT gavlenis moxdena sabazro fasebze, moqmedeben
TiTqosda `brmad`, ar ician-ra realuri myidvelebi maTi
saWiroebebiT. amitom stiqiurad Camoyalibebuli kavSiri warmoebasa (miwodebasa) da moTxovnas Soris SeiZleba xSirad Seferxdes da ver ganxorcieldes pirdapir dasaxuli miznebi.
amgvari SemTxvevebisagan yvela saqonelmwarmoebels
ixsnis uku kavSiri, romelic midis bazridan warmoebisaken. sabazro informacia fasebis Sesaxeb SesaZleblobas iZleva Setanili iqnes Casworebebi mewarmeTa warmoebriv qmedebebSi da Tavidan iqnes acilebuli mosalodneli garTulebebi.
rogorc Cans, sabazro urTierTobaTa ganiTarebis
sawyis safexurze sameurneo saqmianobaSi saxelmwifos
Careva iyo sruliad zedmeti. aRsaniSnavia, rom XIX saukunis inglisSi popularuli iyo lozungi cxovrebis idealuri mowyobis Sesaxeb: `anarqia plius konstabeli`
(policiuri Cini). ekonomikaSi normalurad iyo aRiarebuli uxelisufleboba (bazris monawileTa stiqiuri
TamaSi), xolo saxelmwifo mowodebuli iyo mxolod
saerTo wesrigis SenarCunebaze _ yofiliyo, rogorc
maSin ambobdnen, `Ramis daraji`.
axla SevecadoT warmovidginoT, ramdenad gansxvavdeba
Tavisufali bazris niSnebi da misi meqanizmi (moTxovna,
miwodeba, fasi) Tanamedrove realuri bazrisagan. gansxvaveba Zalian didia. saqme is aris, rom Tavisufali
bazari, am sityvis zusti gagebiT, arc erT qveyanaSi ar
Seqmnila da verc Seiqmneboda. Tavisufali bazari iseTive abstraqtuli cnebaa, rogorc, davuSvaT, sruli vak643
uumi. amasTan, yoveli realurad funqcionirebadi bazari
moicavs Tavisufali bazris elementebs. erTdroulad
masSi SeiZleba moqmedebdes arasrulyofili konkurenciis
elementebic. amrigad, srulyofili da arasrulyofili
konkurenciis elementebis sinTezi iZleva Tanamedrove,
realuri bazris suraTs.
sabazro TviTregulirebis fiasko da
misi mizezebi. XIX-XX saukuneebis mijnaze Tavis-
ufalma bazarma Sewyvita erovnuli meurneobis regulatoris rolSi gamosvla Semdegi seriozuli mizezebis
gamo:
pirveli mizezi. rogorc cnobilia, sabazro
ekonomikis yvela qveyanaSi radikalurad Seicvala
sakuTrebiTi urTierTobani. erTpirovnulma kerZo
sakuTrebam TandaTanobiT dakarga Tavisi ganuyofeli
ekonomikuri Zalaufleba. XX saukuneSi aseTi Zalaufleba
gadavida saerTo wilobriv da saxelmwifo sakuTrebaze.
amasTan dakavSirebiT, mikroekonomika, romelic viTardeboda sabazro TviTregulirebis safuZvelze, gardaiqmna
erovnuli ekonomikis erT-erT seqtorad.
meore mizezi. XIX-XX saukuneebis mijnaze sabazro Zalaufleba gadavida monopolistur gaerTianebebze. Tavisufali konkurenciis pirobebSi gamyidvelTa
da myidvelTa qmedebebi damokidebuli iyo moTxovnisa
da miwodebis kanonebiT regulirebul sabazro fasebze.
magram Semdeg sabazro fasebis karnaxi iwyes monopoliebma, daarRvies-ra amiT Tavisufali fasebis meqanizmi.
antimonopoliurma kanonmdeblobam ki ar mospo monopoliaTa upiratesi mdgomareoba bazarze, aramed mxolod
644
raRaca zomiT SezRuda monopoliuri faswarmoqmna.
mesame mizezi. XX saukunis SuaxanebSi ganmtkicebulma saxelmwifo seqtorma arsebiTad SezRuda sabazro sivrcis masStabebi. sazogadoebrivi dovlaTisa da
momsaxurebis saxelmwifo warmoeba ar eqvemdebareba
Tavisufali bazris kanonebs.
meoTxe mizezi. XX saukuneSi sabolood gairkva,
rom sabazro TviTregulirebis meqanizms ar ZaluZs
Tavidan aicilos erovnuli ekonomikuri usafrTxoebis
muqarebi, romelic SeiZleba modiodes ekonomikuri krizisebidan, umuSevrobidan da inflaciidan.
mexuTe mizezi. aRmoCnda agreTve isic, rom Tavisufal bazars, TviTregulirebis Tavisi meqanizmiT ar
SeuZlia aRmofxvras erovnuli socialuri usafrTxoebis muqara, romelic gamowveulia mzardi garRveviT simdidresa da siRaribes Soris.
gamodis, rom erovnuli ekonomikis normaluri
funqcionireba saWiroebs axal regulators, romelic
gaiTvaliswinebs saxelmwifos Carevas sameurneo saqmianobaSi.
modiT, axla ufro detalurad ganvixiloT sabazro TviTregulirebis fiasko da masze moqmedi
efeqtebi .
saqonlisa da momsaxurebis gacvla idealur SemTxvevaSi urTierTxelsayreli unda iyos gacvlaSi monawile orive mxarisaTvis, rac im SemTxvevaSi miiRweva, roca
bazarze Camoyalibebuli fasi xelsayreli iqneba rogorc
mwarmoeblisaTvis, aseve momxmareblisaTvis. ekonomikur
mecnierebaSi aseT fasad miCneulia wonasworobis fasi.
sanam bazarze aseTi fasi Camoyalibdeba, saWiroa rigi
645
pirobebis Sesruleba, romelTa Seusruleblobam SeiZleba ganapirobos bazris fiasko. bazris fiaskoze
moqmedeben rogorc gare, aseve Siga efeqtebi.
gare efeqtebSi igulisxmeba warmoebis an moxmarebis is efeqtebi, romelTa zemoqmedeba mesame pirze
(romelic arc mwarmoebelia da arc momxmarebeli) ar
aisaxeba SesaZeni saqonlis (momsaxurebis) fasis meSveobiT. magaliTad, fermerma gansazRvruli xarji gaiRo
Tavis nakveTSi wylis arxis gasayvanad da amiT miwis
nayofiereba gaaumjobesa rogorc sakuTar, aseve sxvis
miwazec, sadac am arxma gaiara. am SemTxvevaSi wylis
arxis gayvanis sikeTiT isargebla rogorc xarjis gamRebma fermerma, aseve meore fermermac im gansxvavebiT,
rom ukanasknels arc erTi TeTri ar dauxarjavs am
sikeTis misaRebad. pirveli fermeris iniciativiT meorem, romelsac xarji ar gauRia, ufro meti moigo da
Sesabamisad, am ukanasknelis warmoeba ufro efeqtiani
aRmoCndeba, xolo misi saqoneli ufro konkurentunariani iqneba.
sabazro meqanizmi, msgavs SemTxvevaSi, uZluria gazomos gare efeqti da uzrunvelyos ekonomikis fsevdowonasworobis damyareba. es mxolod saxelmwifos
saqmea. mas SeuZlia meore fermeris Semosavlis specialuri dabegvra da warmoqmnili finansuri resursis gadacema pirveli fermerisaTvis. ekonomikur mecnierebaSi
aseTma gadasaxadma miiRo pigus gadasaxadis saxelwodeba.
Siga efeqtebSi Sedis sazogadoebrivi dovlaTi
da arasakmarisi konkurencia.
yovel miwodebul saqonelsa da momsaxurebas aqvs
646
ori saerTo Tviseba: 1. miwodebis ganmaxorcielebel pirs
SeuZlia visac surs imas mihyidos Tavisi saqoneli. am
movlenas ewodeba gamoricxvis Tviseba; 2. erTi piris
an pirTa jgufis mier saqonlis erTeulebis gamoyeneba
zRudavs misi gamoyenebis SesaZleblobas sxva pirebis
mier, rasac ewodeba metoqeobis Tviseba.
zogierTi saqoneli ar flobs gamoricxvisa da
metoqeobis Tvisebebs da aseT saqonels ewodeba sazogadoebrivi dovlaTi. sazogadoebriv saqonels ar
gaaCnia gamoricxvis Tviseba, ar SeiZleba erT pirs ise
miewodos, rom ar miewodos maSinve sxvasac. amve dros,
mas ara aqvs metoqeobis Tviseba, Tu igi erTxel miewodeba
erT pirs, SeiZleba miewodos sxva pirebsac damatebiTi
danaxarjis gareSe.
yvelaze wminda saxiT sazogadoebrivi dovlaTis
magaliTia erovnuli Tavdacva. igi erTdroulad yvelas miewodeba. Tumca, wminda saxiT sazogadoebrivi
dovlaTi iSviaTad gvxvdeba. yvelaze metad gavrcelebulia SezRuduli sazogadoebrivi dovlaTi, romelsac
nawilobriv axasiaTebs gamoricxvisa da metoqeobis Tvisebebi. SezRuduli sazogadoebrivi dovlaTis TvalsaCino
magaliTia policiis momsaxureba. roca policia asrulebs sazogadoebrivi usafrTxoebis dacvis funqcias,
igi moqalaqeebs miawodebs sazogadoebriv dovlaTs, xolo
roca igi axorcielebs konkretuli danaSaulis gaxsnas,
amiT upiratesad igi dinteresebul pirs uwevs kerZo
momsaxurebas.
sazogadoebriv dovlaTTan dakavSirebiT yovelTvis
warmoiSoba `ubileTo mgzavris` (kurdReli`) problema. magaliTad, kompiuterebis programuli uzrunvely647
ofa metwilad atarebs sazogadoebrivi dovlaTis Tvisebas. magram, rogorc ki saTamaSo programa, programaredaqtori an eleqtronuli cxrili moxvdeba romelime piris gankargulebaSi, sxvebs SeuZliaT misi aslis
damzadeba, romlis xarji faqtobrivad nulis tolia.
miuxedavad am Taviseburebisa, programebis momzadeba da
gayidva kerZo biznesia.
bazris fiaskos sxva wyaroa arasakmarisi konkurencia. rogorc cnobilia, sabazro fasebi, Tu isini
efeqtianad aregulireben resursebis ganawilebas, unda
asaxavdes alternatiul Rirebulebas . gare efeqtebis wyalobiT bazarma SesaZloa fiasko ganicados imis
gamo, rom fasebi ecema alternatiul Rirebulebaze dabla. im SemTvevaSi, roca adgili aqvs arasakmaris konkurencias, bazris fiasko SeiZleba imis gamo moxdes, rom
fasebi Zalze maRalia alternatiul RirebulebasTan
SedarebiT. aseTi situacia, rogorc wesi, warmoiSoba
monopoliis SemTxvevaSi. monopolia iseTi situaciaa,
romlis dros bazarze mxolod erTi gamyidveli gamodis romelime saqonlis an momsaxurebis mimwodeblis
rolSi. am situaciis sailustraciod SeiZleba aseTi
tradiciuli magaliTis moyvana: davuSvaT, rom `Telasi`
Tbilisis momxmareblebs 1 kvt eleqtroenergias awodebs
0,18 larad. am fasSi eleqtroenergiis miyidva momxmareblisaTvis warmoadgens energiis sxva wyaroebis (magaliTad, navTobi, airi...) arCevanis gakeTebis orientirs.
mosaxleobas rom SeeZlos eleqtroenergiis yidva
Tavisufal bazarze, iseve rogorc benzinis an kartofilis yidva, maSin konkurencia gadawevda sabazro fass
alternatiuli Rirebulebis doneze. magram eleqtro648
momaragebis, iseve rogorc airmomaragebis xaziT, konkurencia ar arsebobs. komunaluri momsaxurebis mimwodebeli firmebi erTimeoresTan ar imyofebian konkurenciaSi.
marTlac, Tbilisis yoveli saxli, saboloo jamSi, SeerTeblia eleqtrogadamcem da airgamtarebel erT xazTan.
aseT situaciaSi `Telass` da `yaztransgazs` SeuZliaT
TavianTi mogebis gadideba fasebis amaRlebis xarjze,
romelic alternatiul Rirebulebaze meti iqneba. ra
Tqma unda, eleqtroenergiaze fasebis momatebas momxmarebeli upasuxebs masze moTxovnis SemcirebiT, magram
fasis zrdiT ganpirobebuli mogeba, gansazRvrul momentamde, gadawonis moTxovnis SemcirebiT gamowveul danakliss.
roca eleqtroenergiaze an airze metismetad maRali fasi dawesdeba, maSin mosaxleoba Rebulobs gadawyvetilebas _ saerTod uari Tqvas maT gamoyenebaze. `yaztransgazi` mas pasuxobs mosaxleobisaTvis airis miwodebis sruli SewyvetiT. am SemTxvevaSi momxmareblebi
Rebuloben cru signals eleqtroenergiis an airis
alternatiuli Rirebulebis Sesaxeb. mosaxleobam SesaZloa ganaxorcielos eleqtroenergiis an airis
ekonomikurad dausabuTebeli Secvla. magaliTad, TbilisSi farTo gavrceleba hpova bunebrivi airis Secvlam Txevadi airiT, romlis SeZena kerZo pirebisagan
ufro Zviri jdeba, vidre bunebrivi airisa. igive SeiZleba iTqvas navTisa da SeSis gamoyenebaze. es ukanaskneli
mkveTrad amcirebs mwvane nargavebis raodenobas TbilisSi da mTlianad saqarTveloSi. amrigad, saboloo
jamSi, momxmareblebis alternatiuli arCevani SeiZleba
iseT Tbomatareblebze SeCerdes, romelTa alternatiu649
li Rirebuleba mniSvnelovnad aRemateba airisa da
eleqtroenergiis Rirebulebas, rac isev da isev bazris
fiaskoze miuTiTebs.
ekonomikur mecnierebaSi ganixileba bazris fiaskos sxva wyaroebic. magaliTad, umuSevroba da inflacia.
magram isini warmoadgenen makroekonomikur fenomens da
amitom ar Seadgens mikroekonomikis kvlevis obieqtebs.
bazris fiasko da saxelmwifo. bazari
udides rols asrulebs ekonomikuri triadis gadawyvetaSi, magram igi ar iRebs yvela gadawyvetilebas.
zogierTi maTgani miiReba ierarqiul struqturebSi. misi
yvelaze sailustracio magaliTebia gadawyvetilebebi,
romlebic miiReba kerZo kompaniebis SigniT da saxelmwifos samTavrobo dawesebulebebSi.
ierarqiul sistemaSi wesi dgindeba ara gankerZoebul individTa spontanuri moqmedebiT, aramed direqtivebis saxiT, romlebsac menejerebi ugzavnian TavianT
daqvemdebarebul pirebsa da organizaciebs. am SemTxvevaSi fasebs, romlebic Cveulebriv did rols asruleben
informaciis gadacemaSi, cvlian sxvadasxva monacemebimoxsenebebi, instruqciebi da wesebi. materialuri
stimulebi (premia, dawinaureba...) moqmedeben daqvemdebarebul pirebze, magram maT mcire Sexeba aqvT sabazro
fasebTan.
saxelmwifos rolis gageba dakavSirebu;lia bazris fiaskosa da rentis Ziebis sakiTxTan.
bazris fiaskos Teoriis Tanaxmad, saxelmwifos
mTavari ekonomikuri roli imaSi mdgomareobs, rom igi
iq Caerios, sadac bazars SesaZlebloba ara aqvs efeqtianad da samarTlianad gaanawilos resursebi. bazris
650
fiaskos yoveli ti pi iTvaliswinebs saxelmwifos Carevis gansazRvrul ti ps.
CvenTvis cnobilia ekonomikuri renta, romelSic
igulisxmeba warmoebis romelime faqtoris gamoyenebidan
miRebuli safasuri da igi aRemateba mis alternatiul
Rirebulebas. mewarmeebi da warmoebis faqtorTa sxva
mflobelebi mudmivad imyofebian wminda ekonomikuri mogebis miRebis SesaZleblobis ZiebaSi, magram fizikuri da
iuridiuli pirebi yovelTvis ar kmayofildebian rentis Ziebis sabazro meTodebiT. xSirad isini xelisuflebis organoebsac mimarTaven. samTavrobo programaSi
monawileobidan miRebuli Semosavali, romlis wyalobiT sawarmo Tavis produqcias yidis ufro maRal fasSi an resursebs yidulobs ufro dabal fasSi, arafriT
Camouvardeba sabazro saqmianobidan miRebul mogebas.
zogierT SemTxvevaSi igi ufro ukeTesia, ramdenadac
mTavrobas SeuZlia ara mxolod rentis Seqmna, aramed
misi dacva konkurentuli Zalebisagan.
samTavrobo moqmedebis daxmarebiT ekonomikuri
rentis Seqmna da dacva cnobilia politikuri rentis Ziebis , anu ubralod, rentis Ziebis saxelwodebiT.
politikuri rentis Ziebis procesis erT-erTi
Sedegia subsidiebi. rentis generirebis sxva saSualebaa konkurenciis SezRudva. magaliTad, proteqcionistuli politika sagareo vaWrobaSi.
ekonomikaSi saxelmwifos funqciebis realizacia,
romelic, uwinares yovlisa, miznad isaxavs bazris fiaskos Tavidan acilebas, amave dros qmnis samTavrobo politikis fiaskos wanamZRvrebs. samTavrobo fiasko warmoiSoba iseT situaciaSi, romlis drosac samTavrobo
politika gamoiwvevs resursebis araefeqtian gamoyenebas.
651
leqcia 29. sabazro ekonomikis
saxelmwifoebrivi regulireba
` saxelm w if o Rm erTi ar
aris. mas ufleba ara aqvs wagarTvas is, risi dabrunebac ar
SeuZlia, Zalianac rom moindomos~.
a.Cexovi
`saxelmwifos SeuZlia gansazRvrul farglebSi daexmaros
ekonomikas, xolo misi SesaZlebloba _ ziani miayenos mas, ganusazRvrelia~.
j.m.keinzi
e k o no m i k a S i s a x e l m w i f o s C a r e v i s
aucilebloba. albaT, xSirad gsmeniaT ama da am
saxelmwifos mTavrobam esa da es dadgenileba miiRo, ama
da am saxelmwifos esa da es vali aqvs, esa da es
saxelmwifo ase moiqcao. erTi sityviT, saxelmwifoze
ise saubroben, rogorc adamianze. saxelmwifo adamiani
ar aris, Tumca xSirad is adamianiviT iqceva. adamianiviT
moiqceva aba ra, masSi xom adamianebi cxovroben _ adamianebi arian prezidentebi, ministrebi, direqtorebi, muSebi, policielebi, eqimebi da a.S.
saxelmwifo jadosnuri, uxilavi xomaldiviTaa,
romelsac bevri kargi saqmis gakeTeba SeuZlia, Tu mcodne
kapitani da eki paJi hyavs. kapitani saxelmwifos meTau652
ri, prezidentia, eki paJi ki _ parlamenti da is organizaciebi, romlebic parlamentis mier miRebul gadawyvetilebebsa da kanonebs asruleben. Tuki kapitani da
eki paJi SeTanxmebulad muSaoben, xomaldis mgzavrebi mSvidad cxovroben, maTi Sroma dafasebulia; maT meti
dro aqvT xelovnebis, silamazis, sikeTisaTvis, radgan
gaTbobis, sinaTlis, transportis, yoveldRiuri lukmapuris fulis Sovnis problemebs gemis xelmZRvaneloba
agvarebs _ vinc Sromobs, fulic aqvs. xomaldze mkacri
da samarTliani wesrigia. aseTi xomaldi sul win da
win miiwevs axali sikeTeebisaken. is cdilobs, rac SeiZleba ukeTesi pirobebi Seuqmnas mgzavrebs keTildReobisaTvis. man icis, rom mgzavrebi valSi ar darCebian, maT
meti dro eqnebaT iseT problemebze safiqralad da maT
gadasawyvetad, romlebic sxva xomaldebis mgzavrebsac
uxsovari droidan awuxebT. aseTi problemebi ki, marTlac, uamravia.
saxelmwifo da misi mmarTvelebi uxsovari droidan
ereodnen moqalaqeTa cxovrebaSi. Carevis formebi mravalferovani da xSirad kuriozuli iyo, Tumca maT safuZvlad ekonomikuri mosazrebebi edo. ase magaliTad, inglisis dedofalma elisabedma Tavis qveSevrdomebs kviraSi ori dRe xorcis Wama aukrZala, raTa am gziT
Tevzze moTxovna gazrdiliyo.
XX saukuneSi TavCenilma rTulma da didma problemebma bevri ekonomisti daarwmuna imaSi, rom aseTi
problemebis gamklaveba mxolod saxelmwifos SeuZlia,
romelic yvela moqalaqis Zalisxmevas da SesaZleblobas gaaerTianebs. magram ukve mTeli saukunea ekonomistebi
daoben imaze, Tu ra zomiT unda ereodes saxelmwifo
653
qveynis ekonomikaSi.
es problema XXI saukunis karibWesTan isev sazogadoebis yuradRebis, mecnierebasa da sameurneo praqtikaSi mwvave kamaTis sagani gaxda. gansakuTrebiT es
gamovlinda socialisturi ekonomikis transformaciis
periodSi. gardamavali periodis erT-erTi Taviseburebaa is, rom saxelmwifos rols ara mxolod ekonomikaSi,
aramed saerTod sazogadoebriv urTierTobebSi sxvadasxva poziciidan afaseben ara marto ekonomistebi, aramed
sazogadoebriv mecnierebaTa TiTqmis yvela dargis warmomadgenlebi. kamaTi grZeldeba ekonomikaSi saxelmwifos Carevis masStabebze, formebze, meTodebze da saerTod, mizanmimarTulebaze.
ekonomikaSi saxelmwifos rolis Sesaxeb gamoikveTa ori ZiriTadi konceptualuri midgoma: antisaxelmwifoebrivi (e.i. ekonomikaSi saxelmwifos Carevis
mowinaaRmdegeni) da prosaxelmwifoebrivi ( e.i. saxelmwifos Carevis damcvelebi).
pirveli midgomis mixedviT, saxelmwifo gamoscems
kanonebs, axorcielebs sameurneo interesebis koordianacias da faqtobrivad gamodis, rogorc gare Zala
ekonomikuri procesebis mimarT. am SemTxvevaSi saxelmwifo da ekonomika TiTqos cal-calkea; pirveli _ TamaSis wesebs` gansazRvravs, meore _ TviTregulirebiT
viTardeba.
meore midgomis Tanaxmad, saxelmwifo mesakuTrea,
uSualod axorcielebs sameurneo saqmianobas da gamodis bazris subieqtis rolSi. amasTan, igi sxva subieqtebis mimarT icavs sabazro urTierTobebis fuZemdeblur princi pebs. aseT SemTxvevaSic Carevis xarisxi
654
sxvadasxva zomiT ganisazRvreba.
90-iani wlebis socialurma da ekonomikurma kataklizmebma (maT Soris msoflio savaluto krizisma),
romlebic ZiriTadad sazogadoebrivi urTierTobebis (gansakuTrebiT ekonomikuri procesebis) regulirebidan
saxelmwifos Camocilebam ufro ganapiroba, sruliad
axali rakursiT daayena sakiTxi socialisturi meurneobis sistemidan sabazro urTierTobebze gadasvlis
periodSi saxelmwifos gansakuTrebuli ekonomikuri rolis Sesaxeb.
vidre am problemis mimarT Cvens pozicias gamovxatavdeT, mizanSewonilia ganvixiloT saxelmwifos rolis Teoriuli evolucia da msoflioSi arsebuli
zogierTi gamocdileba.
ekonomikaSi saxelmwifos rolis Sesaxeb S exedulebaTa ev olucia . sabazro
ekonomikaSi saxelmwifos Carevis aucileblobis Taobaze dRes TiTqmis aravin daobs. magram am sakiTxze erTiani azri imTaviTve da erTbaSad ki ar Camoyalibebula,
aramed igi TandaTanobiT, evoluciuri gziT yalibdeboda. modiT, mivyveT am gzas.
am problemisadmi Tavisi damokidebuleba merkantilistebma jer kidev sabazro urTierTobaTa formirebis
sawyis periodSi gamoxates. isini mizanSewonilad miiCnevdnen vaWrobisa da mrewvelobis, saerTod qveynis
ekonomikis ganviTarebaSi saxelmwifos Carevasa da xelis Sewyobas.
merkantilistebi Tvlidnen, rom saxelmwifo marTva
is saSualebaa, romelsac SeuZlia socialuri sa655
marTlianobis dacva. amasTan dakavSirebiT interesmoklebuli ar iqneba erT-erTi TvalsaCino merkantilistis viliam staffordis (XVI s.) Semdegi gamonaTqvami
movitanoT: me erTxel SevekiTxe wignis gamyidvels, ratom Cven Sin ar vakeTebT sawer qaRalds da Semogvaqvs?
miviRe aseTi pasuxi: Cven ar SegviZlia ise iafad gavakeToT, rogorc sazRvargareT, magram mjera, rom Tu ucxoeTis qaRaldis Semotana maRali baJiT daibegreba anda
aikrZaleba, maSin CvenTan ufro iafad daiwyeben mis warmoebas. amave skolis meore warmomadgenlis Tomas manis
(XVII s.) azriT, qveynis simdidris zrdis `Cveulebrivi
saSualeba` isaa, rom yovelwliurad ucxoelebze iyideba ufro meti sakuTari saqoneli, vidre maTgan vyidulobT.
sul sxva midgomebs daeyrdnen klasikuri skolis warmomadgenlebi. maT, xels ar aZlevda ra saxelmwifos mxriv Tavisuflebis SemzRudav RonisZiebaTa
ganxorcieleba, daiwyes ekonomikuri liberalizmis
ideebis qadageba. mimdevrebic blomad gamouCndnen.
am mimarTulebam srulyofili saxiT Camoyalibeba,
rogorc zemoT aRvniSneT, a.smiTis mecnierul SemoqmedebaSi hpova. misi kredo aseTi iyo: sabazro ekonomikas
bazris `uCinari xelis` meSveobiT savsebiT Seswevs TviTregulirebis unari, amitom kerZo iniciativisa da mogebisadmi usazRvro swrafvis gamosavlenad mas sWirdeba
sruli Tavisufleba. a.smiTi amtkicebda, rom `sabazro
Zalebis Tavisufali TamaSi` qmnis harmoniul wyobas.
sazogadoebam mxolod unda Seqmnas saxelmwifo institutebi, romlebic daicaven adamians, mis sakuTrebas
rogorc qveynis SigniT, ise gareTac. adam smiTis azriT,
656
Tavisi egoisturi miznebis misaRwevad individumis miswrafeba aris sameurneo ganviTarebis mTavari mamoZravebeli Zala, romelic uzrunvelyofs rogorc individis,
ise sazogadoebis keTildReobas. ra Tqma unda, adam smiTis warmodgeniT, aseTYekonomikur saistemaSi saxelmwifos dakisrebuli hqonda daqvemdebarebuli roli. mis
upirveles funqciad miCneuli iyo ekonomikuri
(konkurenciisa da vaWrobis) Tavisuflebis garantiebis
dacva. adam smiTis ekonomikuri Sexedulebis mixedviT,
umjobesia saxelmwifo ekonomikaSi ar CaerTos, radganac es sabazro meqanizmebis moqmedebis darRvevas gamoiwvevs. miwodebasa da moTxovnas Soris wonasworoba
TavisiT, TviTregulirebiT aRdgeba.
amrigad, yvelafers, rogorc adam smiTis argumentebidan gamomdinareobs, `uCinari xeli` gaakeTebs, aseTia
axalgazrda (liberaluri) kapitalizmis ganviTarebis
adam smiTiseuli koncefcia,* romelsac dResac bevri
mimdevari hyavs da gulisxmobs imas, rom saxelmwifom
kerZo sakuTreba da masze dafuZnebuli urTierTobebi
unda daicvas, maT Seuqmnas da uzrunvelyos Sesabamisi
samarTlebrivi garemo.
klasikuri skolis am, erTi SexedviT, Seuval da
* 1758 wels frangma ekonomistma J.gurnem fiziokratebis
skolis asambleaze ganacxada: `neba darTeT akeTon (rac undaT),
neba darTeT iaron (sadac undaT)`. es iyo ekonomikuri Tavisuflebis mopovebisaken mowodeba. mas safuZvlad daedo adam
smiTis `uCinari xelis` Zliereba.
657
TiTqos yovelmxriv dasabuTebul koncefcias mkacri
gamocda mouwyo cxovrebam, praqtikam da gansazRvra kidec
misi radikaluri gadasinjvis aucilebloba.
mxedvelobaSi gvaqvs ori ram: jer erTi, liberalur kapitalizmTan dapirispirebuli prosaxelmwifoebrivi koncefciebi da meore, sabazro ekonomikuri sistemis
yovlismomcveli (1929-1933 ww.) msoflio ekonomikuri
krizisi da didi depresia.
niSandoblivia, rom liberalur kapitalizms ori
sruliad axali koncefcia daupirispirda: intervencionizmi da socializmi. pirvelis warmomadgenlebi
(J.sismondi, a.sen-simoni da sxv.) asabuTebdnen, rom kapitalisturi warmoebis da ganawilebis wesi samarTliani
ar aris. amitom Tvlidnen, rom saxelmwifos uSualo
Carevas (intervencias) unda SeezRuda kerZo interesebi
maSin, roca isini sazogadoebis interesebTan winaaRmdegobaSi aRmoCndebodnen. aseTi midgoma ufro ganaviTares
pirvelma socialistebma r. ouenim, S. furiem da sxv.
rogorc cnobilia, r. ouenma Tavisi Sexedulebebi Camoayaliba samomxmareblo kooperaciis ganviTarebis, xolo
S. furiem _ sawarmoo-samomxmareblo kooperaciis ganviTarebis magaliTze. l.blanma ki konkurenciis uaryofiTi gavlenisagan dacvis formad miiCnia `sazogadoebrivi saxelosno`.
cnobilia, rom socialisturma ideebma axali impulsi miiRo marqsis, engelsis, leninis, stalinis da
sxva marqsistTa SromebSi. maT radikalurad daayenes
sakiTxebi mTeli ekonomikis gansazogadoebis, kerZo
sakuTrebis mospobis, ekonomikis centralizebuli dagegmvisa da marTvis Sesaxeb, rac realurad ganxorcielda
658
sabWoTa kavSirSi (centralizebul gegmian ekonomikur
sistemaSi warmoebisa da ganawilebis Sesaxeb gadawyvetilebas saxelmwifo iRebs. masve ekisreba socialuri sferos marTva).
ekonomikaSi saxelmwifos rolis gaZlierebis tendenciebi uSualod aris dakavSirebuli 1929-1933 wlebis
sayovelTao ekonomikur krizisTan. cnobilia, rom `didi
depresiis` periodSi j.m.keinzma uaryo kapitalisturi
meurneobis TviTregulirebis SesaZlebloba. misi ideebi
safuZvlad daedo ekonomikis saxelmwifoebrivi regulirebis gaZlierebas da aisaxa prezident f.ruzveltis
`axal kursSi`, romelic iTvaliswinebda saxelmwifos
farTod Carevas ekonomikis TiTqmis yvela sferoSi.
am movlenebma ganapiroba `kenzianuri revoluciis`
epoqis dawyeba, romlis arsi mdgomareobda bazris `uCianari xelis` saxelmwifos `xiluli xeliT` Sevsebis
aucileblobis aRiarebasa da realizaciaSi. keinzianelebi
TavianTi, am princi pulad gansxvavebuli, koncefciis samarTlianobas asabuTebdnen imiT, rom, maTi azriT, ganviTarebulma sabazro ekonomikam, romelic emyareba msxvil
mrewvelur warmoebas, dakarga TviTregulrebis unari.
es ganapiroba Tavisufali konkurenciis Secvlam monopoliebis batonobiT, romelic ewinaaRmdegeba sabazro
ekonomikis princi pebs, gamoricxavs Tavisufal mewarmeobasa da Tavisufal faswarmoqmnas.
sabazro ekonomikis saxelmwifoebrivi regulirebis keinzianurma koncefciam sayovelTao aRiareba da sakmaod xangrZlivi drois manZilze mniSvnelovani praqtikuli gamoyeneba pova, magram arc es aRmoCnda mudmivi.
kvlav Tavi iCina gadaulaxavma winaaRmdegobebma.
659
70-iani wlebis meore naxevrdan farTo msjelobis
sagnad iqca sabazro ekonomikis keinzianuri modelis
negatiuri mxareebi da maTgan Tavis daRwevis gzebis
Zieba. amjerad diskusiis epicentrad iqca ekonomikaSi
saxelmwifos zedmeti Careva da amis Sedegad bazris
funqcionirebis mkveTrad SezRudva. am winaaRmdegobis
gadasalaxavad obieqtur aucleblobad aRiares iseTi
ekonomikuri meqanizmis Seqmna, romelic optimalurad
Seaxamebda bazrisa da saxelmwifos funqcionirebas anu
sabazro ekonomikis TviTregulirebas saxelmwifos CarevasTan. gamoinaxa kidec aseTi meqanizmi, romelic dReisaTvis cnobilia monetaristuli koncefciis saxelwodebiT. misi arsi mdgomareobs makroekonomikur doneze, keinzianuri instrumentis _ fiskaluri politikis
nacvlad, fulad-sakredito sistemis regulirebis moqnili politikis gamoyenebaSi. xatovnad Tu vityviT, keinzianelTa ZiriTadi devizia `Careva`, Tanac `qirurgiuli`, xolo monetaristebisa _ regulireba, `Terapiuli
mkurnaloba`.
Tu Rrmad CavukvirdebiT monetarizmis arss, naTlad davinaxavT im utyuar faqts, rom monetaristuli
koncefcia warmoadgens, Tanamedrove istoriuli pirobebis TaviseburebaTa gaTvaliswinebiT, neoklasikuri
skolisa da keinzianelobis ideaTa mTeli rigis axlebur, originalur sinTezs. es bunebrivicaa, radganac samive
(neoklasikuri, keinzianuri da monetaristuli) Teoria,
Sinagani winaaRmdegobebisa da zogierTi urTierTgamomricxveli poziciis miuxedavad, isaxavs erTsa da imave
keTilSobilur mizans _ sabazro ekonomikis socialuri potencialis srulad realizacias. amitomaa, rom
660
arc erT momdevno koncefciaSi arsebiTad araa uaryofili is sasargeblo idea, rac mis wina koncefciaSi
iyo mocemuli. metic, TiToeuli maTgani warmoadgens
amgvari ideebis Semdgomi ganviTarebisa da srulyofis
cdas.
amiT imis Tqma ki ar gvinda, rom monetarizmia
ekonomikuri regulirebis yovelmxriv unaklo da unikaluri modeli. sinamdvileSi mas, momxreebTan erTad,
bevri mowinaaRmdegec hyavs, magram isic faqtia, rom dReisaTvis igi sxva modelebze ufro meti popularobiT
sargeblobs.
da mainc, rogorc sasiamovno faqti, unda aRiniSnos
is garemoeba, rom alternatiuli makroekonomikuri koncefciebis warmomadgenlebi dReisaTvis urTierTdapirispirebulni ki ar arian, aramed eZeben konsesuss, raTa
erToblivi ZalisxmeviT miaRwion qveynis ekonomikis
optimalur efeqtianobas.
ideis, koncefciis arseboba ar niSnavs mis avtomatur realizacias, gamoyenebas. es bevradaa damokidebuli
TviT saxelmwifo xelisuflebis organoebze, maT politikaze. amitomac zemoT ganxiluli TiToeuli koncefcia sxvadasxva qveyanaSi sxvadasxva zomiTa da masStabebiT gamoiyeneboda cxovrebaSi. saerTo kanonzomiereba ki
isaa, rom XX saukunis meore naxevridan sabazro ekonomikis
qveynebis umravlesobaSi mkveTrad gamoikveTa saxelmwifos saqmianobis masStabebis gafarToebisa da misi
ekonomikuri rolis gaZlierebis tendencia.
saxelmwifos ekonomikuri rolis gaZlierebaze,
uwinares yovlisa, miuTiTebs is faqti, rom ganviTarebul qveynebSi mniSvnelovnad gaizarda erovnuli produ661
qtis is nawili, romelic saxelmwifos xelSi (biujetSi) gadadis da romelsac igi iyenebs saerTo erovnuli
ekonomikis interesebis Sesabamisad. magaliTad, pirvel
msoflio omamde aSS-is saxelmwifo biujetSi Sedioda
erovnuli produqtis 10%-ze naklebi, amJamad ki es maCvenebeli 30%-ze metia. germaniaSi, inglisSi, safrangeTsa da
zogierT sxva qveyanaSi es cifri 50-60%-mdec ki aRwevs.
igiveze metyvelebs saqonlisa da momsaxurebis saxelmwifo Sesyidvisa da saxelmwifo transferuli gadasaxdelebis moculobis zrda. aviRoT igive aSS-is magaliTi. saqonlisa da momsaxurebis saxelmwifo Sesyidvis moculoba XX saukunis 20-iani wlebis bolos
Seadgenda erovnuli produqtis 7-8%-s, xolo meore
msoflio omis Semdgom igi meryeobs 20%-is garSemo.
Tu gaviTvaliswinebT, rom am xnis manZilze erovnuli
produqtis moculoba 103,1 mlrd dolaridan 4160,6
mlrd dolaramde gaizarda (1998 w.), gasagebi gaxdeba,
Tu ra kolosalur sidides miaRwia saxelmwifo Sesyidvis moculobam. imave periodSi transferuli xarjebi 37 mlrd dolaridan 586 mlrd dolaramde, e.i. erovnuli Semosavlis 4%-dan 12%-mde gaizarda.
saxelmwifos xelSi resursebis zrdas da ekonomikaSi misi Carevis gaZlierebas xeli Seuwyo mTelma rigma istoriulma garemoebebma: meore msoflio omi, mosaxleobis zrda, urbanizaciis procesis gaZliereba, garemos dacvis saWiroeba, socialuri dacvis gafarToeba da
sxv.
aseTia kanonzomiereba. demokratizaciis gafarToeba saxelmwifos ekonomikuri rolis Sesustebas ki ar
662
niSnavs, aramed sameurneo saqmianobaSi saxelmwifos Carevis
formebisa da meTodebis daxvewas, Zalismieri Carevidan
ufro civilizebul formebze gadasvlas. amitom unda
vebrZoloT ara saxelmwifos Carevas sabazro ekonomikaSi, aramed dausabuTebel, aramecnierul, uxeS Carevas.
maSasadame, yvelasaTvis samoqmedo princi pi unda iyos:
konkurencia yvelgan, sadac SesaZlebelia da saxelmwifos maregulirebeli zemoqmedeba yvelgan, sadac aucilebelia.
ekonomikis saxelmwifoebriv regulirebas gardamaval periodSi akisria aramarto ekonomikuri procesebis regulirebis (tradiciuli gagebiT) funqcia,
rogorc es ganviTarebuli qveynebis ekonomikaSia, aramed
sistemaSemqmneli faqtoris rolic. sakiTxi exeba iseTi
ekonomikuri sistemis Camoyalibebas, romelic ganviTarebuli qveynebis aTeuli wlebis gamocdilebiT SeZenili
uaryofiTi mxareebisagan iqneba garkveulwilad gaTavisuflebuli. am funqcias Tanamedrove pirobebSi, cxadia, sabazro meqanizmebi ver Seasruleben. saWiroa ekonomikaSi saxelmwifos rolis sruliad axleburad gaazreba. swored amis gamo ekonomikis saxelmwifoebrivi regulireba upriania vaRiaroT, rogorc sazogadoebis socialur-ekonomikuri ganviTarebis (stabilizaciis) gadamwyveti piroba (faqtori).
amrigad, ekonomikis saxelmwifoebrivi regulireba
Tanamedrove pirobebSi (miT umetes, gardamavali periodis sawyis etapze) kvlavwarmoebiT procesis organuli
nawilia da, bunebrivia, politikuri, socialur-ekonomikuri amocanebis Sesabamisad unda Camoyalibdes sa663
zogadoebis ganviTarebis procesebze zemoqmedebis misi
sistema.
e k o no m i k a S i s a x e l m w i f o s C a r e v i s
farglebi. ekonomikaSi saxelmwifos Careva obieq-
turi aucileblobaa da ara vinmes neba-survili, magram
ismis kiTxva: ra zomiT, ra farglebSi unda Caerios
saxelmwifo sabazro ekonomikaSi?
am mxriv Tanabrad sazianoa ori ukiduresoba: (1)
ekonomikaSi Carevis zomis gadameteba, `cxviris Cayofa`
iseT sferoebSi, romlebsac warmatebiT aregulirebs
TviTon sabazro meqanizmi; (2) mxolod sabazro meqanizmis imedze yofna im sferoebSi, sadac saxelmwifos Careva aucilebelia.
rogor movnaxoT zRvari `saWirosa` da `arasaWiros`
Soris, rogor davadginoT sad da ramdenad aris saWiro
saxelmwifos Careva _ ai, mTavrobis funqcionirebis, meurneobis marTvis mTeli xelovnebis gasaRebi!
sabazro ekonomikis pirobebSi sameurneo saqmianobaSi
mTavrobis Carevis masStabebi SeiZleba ganisazRvros
rogorc `minimalurad aucilebeli` . am SemTxvevaSi
amosavali princi pia: `nebadarTulia yvelaferi, rac kanoniT araa akrZaluli`.
administraciul-mbrZanebluri sistemis pirobebSi
ekonomikaSi saxelmwifos Careva SeuzRudavia, usazRvroa:
mTavroba ereva yvelaferSi. aq moqmedebs principi: `akrZalulia yvelaferi, rac kanoniT nebadarTuli araa`.
saxelmwifos ekonomikuri rolis sakiTxis udidesi
avtoriteti jon meinard keinzi iZleoda gafrTxilebas: `saxelmwifos SeuZlia gansazRvrul fargleb664
Si daexmaros ekonomikas, xolo misi SesaZlebloba _ ziani miayenos mas, ganusazRvrelia` .
germanuli sabazro ekonomikis sulisCamdgmeli,
Teoretikosi da saxelmwifo moRvawe ludvig erhardi erTmaneTs udarebda saxelmwifos rols da fexburTis msajis rols: iseve rogorc msajs evaleba TamaSis
wesebis dacva da ufleba ara aqvs TviTon Caerios TamaSSi,
aseve saxelmwifo unda icavdes sameurneo `TamaSis wesebs`,
e.i. dadgenil kanonebs da TviTon ar unda ereodes sawarmoTa saqmianobaSi.
aSS-is yofili prezidenti r.reigani SeniSnavda:
`mTavroba msajia da igi ar unda ecadods gaxdes moTamaSe`.
saxelmwifos ekonomikuri funqciebi. ekonomikaSi saxelmwifos rolis Sesaxeb msjelo-
bisas, cxadia, igulisxmeba demokratiuli, samarTlebrivi
saxelmwifo, romelic kanonebiT imarTeba da ara pirovnebaTa neba-surviliT.
msoflioSi arc Tu cotaa qveyana, romelTac
yovelTvis marTavdnen pirovnebebi, diqtatorebi, tiranebi da ara kanonebi. aseTi saxelmwifoebis roli ekonomikaSi mxolod uaryofiTia da, bunebrivia, zedmetia msjeloba
misi meSveobiT an xelSewyobiT ekonomikis saxelmwifoebrivi regulirebis Sesaxeb.
jer kidev platoni werda: `me vxedav im saxelmwifos moaxloebul daRupvas, sadac kanons Zala ara aqvs
da imyofeba viRacis Zalauflebis qveS. iq ki, sadac
kanonebi mbrZanebloben xelmZRvanelebze, xolo es ukanasknelni kanonebs moneben, saxelmwifos xelewifeba keTeba
665
yovelgvari sikeTisa, rac mas SeiZleba uboZos RmerTma`.
aristotele ki brZanebda: `iq, sadac kanons Zala ara
aqvs, arc saxelmwifoebrivi wyobilebis raime forma
arsebobs. kanonma unda ibatonos yvelaze`. `kanoni sxva
araferia, Tu ara saerTo marTlwesrigi` _ werda ciceroni .
didi da mravalferovani funqciebi akisria YTanamedrove civilizebuli msoflios demokratiul saxelmwifoebs. es funqciebi Zalze kompaqturad Camoyalibebulia p.samuelsonisa da v.nordhausis naSromSi
`ekonomiksi`. aq gamoyofilia saxelmwifos sami globaluri ekonomikuri funqcia, romlebic exeba qveynis
masStabiT efeqtianobis, samarTlianobisa da ekonomikuri
stabilurobis uzrunvelyofas.
efeqtianoba: sabazro koniunqturis gansazRvrisas daSvebul SecdomaTa gamo xSirad uWirs Tanamedrove ekonomikas da adgili aqvs warmoebis dabalefeqtianobas. mdgomareobis gajansaRebisaTvis unda imoqmedos saxelmwifom, romelic sabazro ekonomikis pirobebSi
mowodebulia Seqmnas optimaluri pirobebi warmoebis
maRalefeqtiani ganviTarebisaTvis. mxedvelobaSi gvaqvs
antimonopoliur RonisZiebaTa ganxorcieleba, konkurenciis
aqtivizacia, resursebis ganawilebis koreqtireba, infrastruqturis racionaluri funqcionireba, sabazro meqanizmis srulyofa da a.S.
samarTlianoba: Tu davuSvebT, rom ekonomika
funqcionirebs asprocentiani efeqtianobiT, es yovelTvis
ar niSnavs, rom ama Tu im qveyanaSi saqonelTa moxmarebaSi gansxvaveba araa. magaliTad, Tu mocemul qveyanaSi
cxovelebis Senaxvaze met produqcias xarjaven, vidre
666
xelmokleTa ganaTlebaze, gasagebia, rom defeqti Semosavlebis ganawilebaSia da ara sabazro urTierTobaSi.
saxelmwifos amis gamosworeba SeuZlia gadanawilebiTi
politikis gamoyenebiT, rac SeiZleba gamoixatos progresuli gadasaxadebiT, erTi mxriv, da xelmokleTaTvis
daxmarebiT, meore mxriv.
realuradac, bazari cnobs Semosavlis ganawilebis
mxolod erT kriteriums: esaa saqonlisa da momsaxurebis bazarze konkurenciaSi monawileobis Sedegi. aqedan
gamomdinare, samarTlianad iTvleba rogorc maRali Semosavali imaTTvis, vinc Tavi isaxela `TamaSis wesebis`
dacviT ekonomikur metoqeobaSi, ise dabali Semosavali
imaTTvis, vinc marcxi ganicada am metoqeobaSi. saxelmwifos uSualo movaleobaa reagireba im faqtze, rom bazris kanonebis mixedviT Semosavlis samarTliani ganawileba zogadsakacobrio TvalsazrisiT arcTu iSviaTad
usamarTlo ganawilebad warmogvidgeba. man es `uTanasworoba` bazris ZiriTadi tendenciebis SezRudviT ki
ar unda aRmofxvras, aramed unda gamoaTanabros, kargad
dasabuTebuli sagadasaxado sistemis safuZvelze, Semosavlebis gadanawilebis gziT.
stabiluroba: efeqtianobasa da samarTlianobasTan erTad, saxelmwifos sxva ekonomikuri funqciac akisria _ man unda daicvas ekonomikuri stabiluroba. igulisxmeba saxelmwifos mxriv sistematuri zrunva
qveyanaSi myari ekonomikuri zrdis uzrunvelyofisa da
valutis mtkice kursis SesanarCuneblad, risTvisac aucilebelia antiinflaciuri politikis ganxorcieleba.
Junior Achievement-is erTsemestrian saswavlo kursSi
_ `gamoyenebiTi ekonomika` (JA Economics) saxelmwifo
667
warmodgenilia arbitris (mosamarTlis), menejerisa da
monawilis rolSi. amasTan, am kursis mixedviT, saxelmwifo arbitris rols asrulebs oTx ZiriTad sferoSi
(kerZo sakuTrebis uflebis gansazRvra da Sesruleba,
gare danaxarjebisa da sargeblianobis sakiTxebis mogvareba, sabazro konkurenciis uzrunvelyofa, momxmarebelTa dacva), menejeris rols asrulebs or sferoSi
(ekonomikis stabilizeba da ekonomikuri usafrTxoebis
xelSewyoba), monawilis rols ki mxolod erT sferoSi
(sazogadoebrivi sargeblobis saqonlisa da momsaxurebis miwodeba mosaxleobisaTvis).
amerikeli ekonomistis r.miusgravis mier Camoyalibebuli ti pologiiT, saxelmwifo axorcielebs sam
funqcias:
 afeqtaciis* funqcia. igi vlindeba arasasaqonlo dovlaTisa da momsaxurebis warmoebaSi. am SemTxvevaSi ekonomikuri agentebi (saojaxo meurneobebi anu
hausholdebi, firmebi, samTavrobo administracia da sxv.)
maragdebian ufasod an TiTqmis ufasod.
es dovlaTi da momsaxureba ekonomikur literaturaSi `sazogadoebrivi saqonlis` saxelwodebiTaa
cnobili. igi ganuyofelia moxmarebisagan (gzebi, sazogadoebrivi ganaTeba, policia, Tavdacva da sxv.). sazogadoebrivi saqoneli koleqtiuri an sameurveoa, mas erTdroulad iyenebs mravali ekonomikuri agenti da yid-
* afeqtacia (laT. affectation) _ gansakuTrebuli movlena,
araCveulebrivi; xelovnuri aRgzneba.
668
viT ar SeiZleba misi individualizacia. saxelmwifo
Tavis Tavze iRebs aRniSnuli dovlaTisa da momsaxurebis warmoebas, romlis dafinanseba umTavresad saxelmwifo biujetis xarjze xdeba. sazogadoebrivi saqoneli SeiZleba awarmoon kerZo sawarmoebmac, magram ZiriTadad saxelmwifo uzrunvelyofs am warmoebas, raTa
misi efeqti dadebiTi iyos mTeli sazogadoebisaTvis.
 gadanawilebis funqcia. saxelmwifo sazogadoebaSi arsebuli uTanasworobis Semcirebas uzrunvelyofs ekonomikuri agentebis SemosavalTa gadanawilebiT.
Semosavlebis vertikaluri gadanawileba (yvelaze
SeZlebuli fenidan yvelaze naklebuzrunvelyofili
fenisaken) aisaxeba savaldebulo gadasaxdelebsa da
transferebSi (socialuri daxmareba da Semweoba).
 regulirebis funqcia. saxelmwifo Tavis mier
SemuSavebuli ekonomikuri politikiT cdilobs areguliros ekonomikuri saqmianoba, anu gamoasworos ekonomikuri wonasworobis darRveva (daqveiTeba, umuSevroba,
inflacia, sagadasaxdelo balansis deficiti da sxv.).
axla SevudgeT saxelmwifos ekonomikuri rolis,
misi ekonomikuri funqciebis ufro konkretul daxasiaTebas. amasTan, unda gaviTvaliswinoT, rom saxelmwifos
sameurneo moRvaweoba yovlismomcvelia, misi ekonomikuri
funqciebi imdenad mravalferovania, rom maTi amomwuravi
CamoTvlac ki erTob Znelia. amitom unda SemovifargloT mxolod ZiriTadiT.
kempbel r. makkonelisa da stenli l. brius
`ekonomiksi`-s mixedviT, saxelmwifos ZiriTadi ekonomikuri funqciebia:
(1) ekonomikis funqcionirebis samarTlebrivi ba669
zisa da sazogadoebrivi atmosferos uzrunvelyofa;
(2) konkurenciis dacva;
(3) Semosavlebis gadanawileba;
(4) resursebis gadanawileba;
(5) ekonomikis stabilurobis uzrunvelyofa da
ekonomikuri zrdis stimulireba;
(6) saxelmwifo seqtoris funqcionireba.
ganvixiloT CamoTvlili funqciebi cal-calke.
 samarTlebrivi bazisa da sazogadoebrivi
atmosferos uzrunvelyofa. saxelmwifo uzrunvelyofs samarTlebriv bazas da specifikur momsaxurebebs
sabazro ekonomikis efeqtiani funqcionirebisaTvis. mas
ekisreba sameurneo saqmianobis samarTlebrivi safuZvlebis (kanonebisa da normatiuli aqtebis) SemuSaveba,
ekonomikis subieqtTa `TamaSis wesebis` dadgena. saxelmwifos prerogativaa: sakuTrebis uflebis gansazRvra
da Sesruleba; urTierTobaTa regulireba sawarmoTa
Soris, myidvelebsa da gamyidvelebs Soris; standartebisa da zoma-wonis erTeulTa gansazRvra da kontroli;
fulad-sakredito sistemis dakanoneba; brZola yovelgvari falsifikaciisa da motyuebis, `upatiosno TamaSis` winaaRmdeg; biznesisaTvis xelsayreli garemos
uzrunvelyofa da a.S.
aSS-Si gamocemuli erT-erTi soliduri wigni (`Tanamedrove biznesi`) gvamcnobs, rom am qveynis federaluri
mTavrobis wiaRSi yovelwliurad Rebuloben daaxloebiT 4600 axal wesebsa da debulebebs. garda amisa,
Statebis mTavrobebi da xelisuflebis adgilobrivi
organoebi (munici palitetebi), Tavis mxriv, Rebuloben
wesebs imis Sesaxeb, Tu ra SeuZliaT da ra ar SeuZliaT
670
sameurneo subieqtebs, mwarmoeblebsa da momxmareblebs.
sabazro ekonomika ar gulisxmobs moqmedebis (saqmianobis) SeuzRudav Tavisuflebas. saerTo wesia: aravis
ara aqvs ufleba saqmes xeli mohkidos oficialuri
nebarTvis (registraciis) gareSe. Tu Tqven restornis
gaxsna gsurT, unda miiRoT serTifikati janmrTelobis
dacvis organoebidan. nebismieri saqmianoba SeiZleba mxolod maSin, roca miRebulia licenzia saTanado organoebidan. dadgenilia, romeli medikamentebis yidva ar
SeiZleba receptis gareSe, zogierTi saqonlis yidvagayidva saerTod akrZalulia. saxelmwifo saTanado kanonebis safuZvelze fizikur da iuridiul pirebs aiZulebs gadaixadon gadasaxadi. saxelmwifo gansazRvravs
damqiraveblisa da daqiravebulis ufleba-movaleobebs.
dausrulebliv SeiZleba gavagrZeloT CamoTvla
situaciebisa, saqmianobis saxeebisa da urTierTobebisa,
romelTa daregulireba mxolod saxelmwifo doneze unda
moxdes, magram grZeli CamonaTvalis gareSec naTelia, Tu
ra roli ekisreba Tanamedrove saxelmwifos samarTlebrivi bazis Seqmnasa da sazogadoebrivi atmosferos
mowesrigebaSi.
 konkurenciis dacva. Cven ukve vnaxeT, rom
konkurencia aris is `uxilavi xeli`, romelic aregulirebs sabazro ekonomikas, xels uwyobs ekonomikur
progress, rom mxolod Tavisufali konkurenciis drosaa SesaZlebeli momxmarebeli iyos mbrZanebeli, bazari
_ misi agenti, xolo sawarmo _ msaxuri.
magram konkurencias hyavs dauZinebeli mteri _
monopolia. cxovrebis drama imaSia, rom konkurencia
TviTon warmoSobs Tavis antipods _ monopolias, romel671
sac SeuZlia kidevac moklas `mSobeli`, Tu saxelmwifo
ar daexmara.
ganvlili masalebidan CvenTvis isic cnobilia, rom
monopolia, farTo azriT, iseTi situaciaa, roca gamyidvelTa (mwarmoebelTa) ricxvi imdenad mcirdeba, rom TiToeul maTgans (an yvelas erTad _ SeTanxmebis safuZvelze) SesaZlebloba aqvs gavlena moaxdinos gasayidi
produqtis fasze. cxadia, am SemTxvevaSi fasis mani pulireba xdeba ara momxmareblis, aramed gamyidvelis sasargeblod. monopolisti gansazRvrul farglebSi TviTon
karnaxobs fass. aseTi situacia monopolists saSualebas aZlevs maRali mogeba miiRos ara teqnikisa da teqnologiis srulyofiT, aramed ufro ioli gziT _ fasis momatebiT.
saxelmwifo ebrZvis monopolias, e.i. icavs konkurencias Semdegi ori meTodiT:
im dargebSi, romlebisTvisac damaxasiaTebelia
`bunebrivi monopolia` , e.i. dargebSi, romlebSic teqnologiuri da ekonomikuri pirobebis gamo `masStabis
efeqti` imdenad maRalia, rom erT formas SeuZlia mTeli bazris momarageba da Tanac produqciis erTeulze
danaxarjebi naklebia (transporti, kavSirgabmuloba,
eleqtro-, wyal-, airmomarageba da sxv.), saxelmwifo an
Tavis xelSi iRebs aseT dargebs an aregulirebs maT
saqmianobas (qmnis komisiebs fasebis dasaregulireblad
da adgens momsaxurebis standartebs);
konkurenciis dacvis meore meTodia antimonopoliuri, antitrestuli RonisZiebebi da kanonmdebloba.
aq igulisxmeba iseTi kanonebi, romlebic an saerTod
krZalaven monopoliebis arsebobas (zogierT dargSi) an
672
zRudaven monopoliebis iseT saqmianobas, romelic zians
ayenebs konkurencias da progress. antimonopoliuri
kanonebis miReba da gatareba, amave dros, ekonomikis saxelmwifoebrivi regulirebis elementia.
 Semosavlebis gadanawileba. sabazro sistema upirovno, miukerZoebeli da ulmobeli meqanizmia,
romelsac Tan sdevs Semosavlebis gaumarTleblad
uTanabro ganawileba. sazogadoebis wevrebi, romlebic
bunebam daajildova meti fizikuri Tu SemoqmedebiTi
unariT, vinc moi pova an visac memkvidreobiT ergo msxvili kapitali, miwa da sxva simdidre, did Semosavals
Rebuloben da fufunebaSi cxovroben, xolo isini, visac
aseTi upiratesoba ar gaaCnia, ganwirulni arian Raribuli cxovrebisaTvis. garda amisa, sazogadoebaSi arian
invalidebi, moxucebi, bavSvebi, mravalSvilianebi, umuSevrebi
da sxv., visac ar SeuZlia gamoimuSaos saarsebo minimumi.
sabazro meqanizmi maT mimarT gulqvaa, igi ar arCevs maT
da siRaribe ara mxolod ekonomikur, aramed garkveul
politikur problemad rCeba.
amitom civilizebuli qveynebis mTavrobebi Tavis
Tavze iReben sazogadoebaSi Semosavlebis uTanabro ganawilebis problemis daZlevas. magaliTad, aSS-Si es
xorcieldeba, jer erTi, transferuli misacemlebis meSveobiT, romliTac uzrunvelyofen daxmarebas xelmokleTaTvis, invalidebisaTvis, aseve umuSevrebisaTvis. Tavis
mxriv, socuzrunvelyofis programebiT finansurad exmarebian pensionerebs da Rrmad moxucebs. yvela am programiT mTavrobis Semosavlebi gadaecemaT im saojaxo
meurneobebs, romelTac mcire Semosavlebi aqvT, an saerTod ara aqvT is. meore, mTavrobas cvlilebebi Seaqvs
673
Semosavlebis ganawilebaSi sabazro Carevis gziT, e.i.
sabazro Zalebis mier dadgenili fasebis modifikaciiT.
amave mimarTulebiT gamoiyeneba sagadasaxado sistemac,
romlis meSveobiTac mniSvnelovanwilad wonaswordeba
Semosavlebis ganawileba, rac miiRweva mdidarTa Semosavlebis didi xvedriTi wilis amoRebiT, vidre Raribebisa. aSS-s da zogierTi sxva qveynis dRevandeli sagadasaxado sistema Semosavlebis optimaluri gadanawilebis mniSvnelovani instrumentia. magaliTad, progresuli
gadasaxadi amcirebs uTanasworobas Semosavlebis ganawilebaSi. es xdeba imiT, rom mosaxleobis jgufebi ufro
maRali SemosavlebiT, gadasaxadiT dabegvrisas TavianTi
Semosavlebis ufro maRal procents ixdian. miCneulia,
rom es gadasaxadebis tvirTis gadanawilebis yvelaze
samarTliani xerxia.
 resursebis gadanawileba. sabazro ekonomikis
qveynebSi ekonomikuri resursebi sabazro meqanizmis meSveobiT nawildeba. marTalia, sabazro sistema qmnis
ekonomikuri resursebis ufro racionaluri gamoyenebis (ganawilebis) SesaZleblobebs, vidre sxva sistemebi,
magram iqmneba iseTi situaciebic, roca aucilebeli xdeba resursebis ganawilebis koreqtireba, e.i. gadanawileba.
resursebis gadanawilebis aucilebloba iqidan
gamomdinareobs, rom sabazro ekonomika, jer erTi, warmoSobs iseT Tanmxleb movlenebs, roca ziandeba momxmarebeli (sazogadoeba) da meore, uars ambobs (resursebs ver imetebs) zogierTi saqonlisa da momsaxurebis
(sazogadoebrivi anu socialuri sikeTis) warmoebaze.
pirveli movlenis yvelaze TvalsaCino magaliTia
674
garemos gabinZureba, roca navTobgadamamuSavebeli qarxana atmosferoSi uSvebs Sxamian gazebs, zians ayenebs mosaxleobas, TviTon ki saxsrebis ekonomias eweva.
am SemTxvevaSi saxelmwifom unda SeZlos is xarjebi (ziani), romelic mosaxleobas miayenes, aqcios navTobgadamamuSavebeli qarxnis Sinagan xarjebad . xarjebis aseTi transformacia gulisxmobs resursebis ganawilebaSi koreqtivis Setanas. amisaTvis saxelmwifo
iyenebs kanonmdeblobas da gansakuTrebul gadasaxadebs.
pirvel SemTxvevaSi saxelmwifo krZalavs garemos gabinZurebas, rac aiZulebs sawarmoebs gaiRon saxsrebi (meti
resursebi gamoyon) damcavi RonisZiebebisaTvis. meore
SemTxvevaSi saxelmwifo awesebs gansakuTrebul gadasaxadebs, romliTac damrRvev sawarmos ekisreba miRebuli
zianis kompensacia.
rac Seexeba meore movlenas, sazogadoebrivi (socialuri) sikeTis saxiT, is warmodgenilia gansazRvruli saqonlebiTa da momsaxurebiT, rasac sabazro sistema ar awarmoebs, an kidev ar SeuZlia sakmao raodenobiT
awarmoos. Tumca bazari, rogorc wesi, maTi warmoebisaTvis resursebs ar gamoyofs, magram misi warmoeba
(arseboba) sazogadoebrivad aucilebelia, ris gamoc
saxelmwifo Tavis Tavze iRebs maT warmoebas an dafinansebas, raTa ar dauSvas am sferoSi resursebis deficituri gamoyofa.
resursebis ganawilebaSi koreqtivis Setanis mizniT
saxelmwifos SeuZlia gamoiyenos ekonomikuri xasiaTis sami meTodi: (1) moTxovnis gadideba; (2) miwodebis stimulireba da (3) saxelmwifo mewarmeoba.
imisaTvis, rom stimuli mieces sazogadoebisaTvis
675
saWiro ama Tu im saqonlisa da momsaxurebis warmoebas,
saWiroa amaRldes gadaxdisunariani moTxovna mocemul
saqonelsa Tu momsaxurebaze. saxelmwifos SeuZlia talonebis sistemis gamoyenebiT aamaRlos mosaxleobis moTxovna konkretul saqonelsa da momsaxurebaze. magaliTad,
Tu Rarib ojaxs miecema taloni, romlis gamoyeneba SeiZleba mxolod codnis miRebisaTvis, maSin prestiJuli
fasiani saswavleblebi Seuferxeblad miiReben Raribi
ojaxis Svilebsac, radgan talonis fulad kompensacias
kisrulos saxelmwifo. resursebis aseTi gadanawilebis azri imaSia, rom sazogadoebisaTvis ukeTesia, rac
ufro meti ganaTlebuli wevri eyoleba.
imave amocanis (ama Tu im saqonlis an momsaxurebis
warmoebis waxaliseba) gadawyveta saxelmwifos SeuZlia
sxva midgomiTac: subsiadias aZlevs ara momxmarebels,
aramed mwarmoebels, raTa gafarTovdes mocemuli saqonlisa da momsaxurebis miwodeba. xSir SemTxvevaSi aseTi
midgoma ufro martivi da moxerxebulia, vidre mravalricxovan momxmareblebTan muSaoba.
amocanis gadawyvetis mesame gza isaa, rom saxelmwifo Tavis Tavze iRebs ama Tu im saqonlisa da momsaxurebis warmoebis dafinansebas an, ubralod, saxelmwifo
sawarmoebSi awyobs maT damzadebas.
sazogadoebaSi, romlis ekonomika sruli datvirTviT
muSaobs, romelime produqtis warmoebis gadideba SeiZleba sxva produqtTa warmoebis Sekvecis xarjze. swored
es moiTxovs resursebis gadanawilebas. saxelmwifo amas
aRwevs sawarmoebisa da saojaxo meurneobaTa dabegvriT:
gadasaxadi amcirebs moTxovnas individualuri moxmarebis saqonelsa da momsaxurebaze, rac, Tavis mxriv, amcir676
ebs kerZo seqtoris moTxovnas resursebze. samagierod,
meti resursebi rCeba sazogadoebrivi dovlaTis warmoebisaTvis.
 ekonomikis stabilurobis uzrunvelyofa
da ekonomikuri zrdis stimulireba saxelmwifos
yvelaze axali da, garkveuli azriT, yvelaze mniSvnelovani funqciaa. amiT is exmareba sabazro ekonomikas resursebis sruli dasaqmebisa da fasebis stabiluri donis
uzrunvelyofaSi.
imisaTvis, rom Searbilos ekonomikuri ciklis
ryevebi, SeinarCunos sameurneo saqmianobis maRali aqtiuroba, erTi, sityviT, uzrunvelyos ekonomikuri stabiluroba, saxelmwifo iyenebs gadasaxadebs, kreditis sargeblis ganakveTebs da mimoqcevaSi arsebuli fulis masas.
ekonomikaze zemoqmedebis instrumentebia: sagadasaxadosabiujeto (fiskaluri) da fulad-sakredito (monetaruli) politika.
fiskaluri politikis mizania saxelmwifos Semosavlebi da xarjebi Secvalos iseTnairad, rom SeinarCunos ekonomikuri zrdis saTanado tempebi
monetaruli politikis amocanaa kontroli
gauwios fulis masis moZraobas da sargeblis ganakveTis regulirebiT xeli Seuwyos Sesabamisobas warmoebasa da moxmarebas Soris.
ekonomikuri mecnierebisaTvis davas ar iwvevs is,
rom warmoebis done uSualo kavSirSia xarjebis
saerTo moculobasTan. xarjebis maRali done ganapirobebs warmoebis gafarToebas da, amrigad, materialuri da SromiTi resursebis ufro srul gamoyenebas.
ekonomikaSi SeiZleba warmoiqmnas ori arasasurve677
li situacia:
* pirveli, kerZo seqtoris xarjebis done
SeiZleba sakmarisi ar aRmoCndes imisaTvis, rom
uzrunvelyos resursebis sruli gamoyeneba. am
SemTxvevaSi saxelmwifo gaiRebs xarjebs, rac daemateba
kerZo seqtoris xarjebs, raTa kerZo da saxelmwifo
xarjebis saerTo jami sakmarisi aRmoCndes resursebis
sruli gamoyenebisaTvis. amas saxelmwifo akeTebs ori
gziT: jer erTi, adidebs biujetis asignebebs sazogadoebrivi dovlaTis warmoebaze da meore, amcirebs gadasaxadebs kerZo seqtorze, raTa am ukanasknelma gaadidos
sainvesticio xarjebi. rogorc vxedavT, es RonisZiebebi
upiratesad mimarTulia umuSevrobis Semcirebisaken.
* meore situacias adgili aqvs maSin, roca
sazogadoeba xarjavs mets, vidre amis saSualebas
iZleva ekonomika. es iwvevs fasebis zrdas da inflacias. saxelmwifo unda Seecados bolo mouRos gadametebul xarjebs. am mizniT man, jer erTi, unda Seamciros
biujetis xarjebi da, meore, gaadidos gadasaxadebi, raTa
kerZo seqtormac Sekvecos Tavisi sainvesticio xarjebi.
amrigad, ekonomikis stabilizeba gulisxmobs mTavrobis mier ekonomikis ukriziso ganviTarebis xelSewyobas. gansakuTrebuli yuradReba eqceva sruli dasaqmebisa da inflaciis dabali tempis SenarCunebas. ekonomikis
stabilizaciis erT-erTi xelSemwyobi faqtoria saxelmwifo seqtori.
 saxelmwifo seqtoris funqcionireba. ekonomikis saxelmwifo seqtori ama Tu im zomiT sabazro
ekonomikis yvela qveyanaSi arsebobs da is mTeli sa678
zogadoebrivi warmoebis normaluri funqcionirebis
umniSvnelovanesi faqtoria.
saxelmwifo sakuTrebis obieqtebs ganekuTvneba,
uwinares yovlisa, iseTi sawarmoebi, romlebic kerZo
biznesisaTvis, ekonomikuri efeqtianobis TvalsazrisiT,
naklebad mimzidvelia, magram qveynis saerTo interesebs
Seesabameba (aseTi iyo, magaliTad, atomuri bombisa da
raketuli teqnikis an kidev kosmosis aTvisebasTan dakavSirebuli kvleva-ZiebiTi samuSaoebis dafinanseba, romelTa
dadebiTi SedegebiT winaswar aravin iyo garantirebuli). aseve ZiriTadad saxelmwifos xelSia ekonomikisaTvis strategiuli mniSvnelobis dargTa (energetika,
kavSirgabmuloba, sahaero, rkinigzisa da saqalaqo eleqtrotranspoti, samxedro mrewveloba da sxv.) sawarmoebi. da bolos, maTi specifikurobis gamo, rogorc wesi,
saxelmwifos ekuTvnis sawarmoebi, romelTa saqmianobis
Sedegi gankuTvnilia erToblivi moxmarebisaTvis. mxedvelobaSi gvaqvs qalaqdasufTaveba, quCis ganaTeba, gzebis
mSenebloba, ekologiuri samsaxuri (toqsikuri narCenebiT gabinZurebuli haeris, mdinareebis, tbebis, zRvebis,
niadagis gasufTaveba) da sxv., romelTa `nawarmi` sazogadoebrivi moxmarebis poduqts warmoadgens.
saxelmwifo sawarmoTa garkveuli nawili mxolod
saxelmwifo biujetidan finansdeba, magram sabazro
ekonomikis qveynebSi sakmaod naTlad ikveTeba saxelmwifo sawarmoebis mniSvnelovani nawilis sabazro urTierTobaTa sistemaSi moqcevis tendencia. mxedvelobaSi
gvaqvs saxelmwifo sawarmoTa aqcionireba, `Sereul`
sawarmoebad gardaqmna, romlebsac, saxelmwifosTan erTad, kerZo investorebic afinanseben. isini saxelmwifo
679
sawarmoTa elfers inarCuneben imiT, rom maTi aqciebis
sakontrolo paketis mflobelad saxelmwifo gvevlineba. amgvari sawarmoebis gverdiT sabazro ekonomikis
qveynebSi funqcionireben e.w. `mesame seqtoris` sawarmoebi, romlebic arc kerZoa da arc saxelmwifo, magram
mkacrad kontroldeba saxelmwifo organoebis mxriv.
saxelmwifoebrivi mewarmeobis nairsaxeobaa sakoncesio sistemac. vgulisxmobT saxelwifos xelSi arsebuli bunebrivi resursebis komerciuli arendis saxiT
gadacemas kerZo mewarmeebisaTvis, romlebic maT eqspluatacias axorcieleben.
ganviTarebul qveynebSi mimdinare procesebi cxadyofs, rom maT ekonomikaSi TandaTanobiT matulobs saxelmwifo seqtoris xvedriTi wona. magaliTad, dasaqmebis mixedviT igi 1951-2001 wlebSi gaizarda: SvedeTSi
18-dan 39%-mde, did britaneTSi _ 20-dan 35%-mde, safrangeTSi _ 25-dan 35%-mde, aSS-Si _ 17-dan 20%-mde. es
dakavSirebulia saomar daZabulobasa da saxalxo meurneobis militarizaciasTan, makrodinamikuri ganviTarebis infrastruqturul uzrunvelyofasTan, intensiur
urbanizaciasTan, ekologiur krizisTan, socialuri Tanasworobis uzrunvelyofasTan da a.S. am tendencias
garkveulwilad aZlierebs mosaxleobis `demografiuli
daberebac` (xandazmulTa xvedriTi wonis mkveTrad amaRleba mosaxleobis saerTo ricxovnobaSi), ramdenadac
amiT izrdeba saxelmwifos kmayofaze myof pirTa kontingenti.
aranakleb mniSvnelovania is faqti, rom es procesi
yovelTvis erTi mimarTulebiT ar viTardeba. calkeul
periodebSi SeimCneva ukuprocesic: saxelmwifo sawarmo680
Ta gamosyidva kerZo mewarmeTa mier, romelmac droebiT
saxelmwifo seqtoris garkveuli zomiT Sekvecac SeiZleba ganapirobos.
ekonomikis kerZo da saxelmwifo seqtorTa Soris
Zireuli gansxvavebaa, rac vlindeba imiT, rom kerZo mewarmeoba nebayoflobiTi, xolo saxelmwifo mewarmeoba
_ savaldebulo xasiaTisaa. saxelmwifo mewarmeoba arsebiTad moicavs sazogadoebrivi saqonlis warmoebas,
romelic, Tavisi bunebiT, `arakonkurentulia`, ganuyofelia da emsaxureba rogorc TiToeuli moqalaqis, ise
mTeli sazogadoebis moTxovnilebaTa dakmayofilebas.
saxelmwifos ekonomikuri funqciebis ganxilvidan
is daskvna gamomdinareobs, rom saxelmwifo mTlianad
integrirebulia, CarTulia resursebis, produqtebisa da
Semosavlebis wrebrunvaSi; igi cvlis resursebisa da
Semosavlebis ganawilebas, aregulirebs ekonomikur aqtivobas.
ekonomikis saxelmwifoebrivi regulirebis arsi da meqanizmi. ekonomikis sax-
elmwifoebrivi regulireba xdeba rogorc administraciul-mbrZanebluri sistemis, ise sabazro ekonomikis
pirobebSi. magram saxelmwifos roli arsebiTad gansxvavebulia. administraciul-mbrZanebluri sistemis dros
saxelmwifos maregulirebeli roli Tavisi masStabiT
yovlismomcvelia da umTavresad emyareba administraciul meTodebs, xolo sabazro ekonomikis pirobebSi saxelmwifos Careva ekonomikaSi minimaluria da efuZneba
upiratesad ekonomikuri berketebis gamoyenebas.
aRiarebulia, rom ekonomikis saxelmwifoebrivi
681
regulireba sabazro ekonomikis pirobebSi esaa
erToblioba sakanonmdeblo, aRmasrulebeli da
sakontrolo xasiaTis RonisZiebebisa, romlebic
xorcieldeba uflebamosili saxelmwifo dawesebulebebisa da sazogadoebivi organizaciebis mier
arsebuli socialur-ekonomikuri sistemis stabilurobis uzrunvelyofisa da cvalebad pirobebTan misi adaptirebis mizniT.
Tanamedrove sabazro ekonomika xasiaTdeba sazogadoebrivi warmoebis regulirebis meqanizmSi Rrma cvlilebebiT. sabazro meqanizmebTan ekonomikis saxelmwifoebrivi regulirebis berketebis organulma Serwymam
Seqmna ekonomikis regulirebis erTiani, garkveuli azriT,
mTliani miznobrivi sistema. masSi Tanaarseboben, urTierTqmedeben da erTimeoreze zemoqmedeben kvlvawarmoebis kerZomesakuTreobiTi da saxelmwifoebrivi berketebi.
amasTan, sabazro da saxelmwifoebriv regulirebas Soris
urTierToba gulisxmobs sxvadasxva variants da variantTa sxvadasxva Tanafardobas: saxelmwifoebriv regulirebas SeuZlia mniSvnelovnad Seaviwrovos sabazro
regulireba; saxelmwifoebrivi regulireba SeiZleba eyrdnobodes sabazros, misTvis damaxasiaTebeli stimulebiTa da orientirebiT zemoqmedebis meSveobiT; saxelmwifos SeuZlia waaxalisos bazari da konkurencia monopolisturi tendenciebis SezRudviT, mTeli erovnuli
ekonomikis prioritetuli ganviTarebisaTvis. mniSvnelovania xazi gaesvas imasac, rom kerZo firmebisa da saxelmwifo organoebis erToblivi moqmedebiT izRudeba
sabazro stiqia, xolo ekonomikuri urTierTobebi iZenen
garkveul farglebSi reglamentirebul, Segnebulad or682
ganizebul xasiaTs.
princi pulad aseTi swori msjelobis fonze aucilebelia sazogadoebis ganviTarebis yovel etapze realurad ganisazRvros ekonomikis saxelmwifoebrivi regulirebis princi pebi.
sabazro ekonomikis saxelmwifoebrivi regulirebis saerTo strategiis ZiriTadi princi pebia:
* saxelmwifos mier, sxva Tanabar pirobebSi, garkveuli upiratesobis miniWeba da subsidiebis gamoyofa, pirvel
rigSi, im dargebis ganviTarebisaTvis, romlebsac ar etaneba kerZo biznesi maTi `produqciis` moxmarebis specifikurobisa da, rogorc wesi, dabalmomgebianobis gamo;
* kerZo biznesis mimarT iseTi politikis gatareba, romelic ki ar Seaviwrovebs da gamodevnis, aramed
xels Seuwyobs mis funqcionirebas;
* saxelmwifos mier iseTi finansuri, sakredito
da sagadasaxado politikis gatareba, romelic yovelmxriv
xels Seuwyobs qveynis ekonomikur zrdasa da socialur stabilurobas;
* qmediTunarianobis amaRlebis mizniT, saxelmwifos mier maregulirebeli funqciebis SesrulebisaTvis,
SesaZleblobis farglebSi, sabazro urTierTobaTa formisa da Sinaarsis micema;
* araordinarul pirobebSi (omebi, epidemiebi, stiqiuri ubedurebebi, ekologiuri katastrofebi da a.S.)
qveynis ekonomikuri ganviTarebis regulirebis sagangebo RonisZiebaTa SemuSaveba da realizacia.
am princi pebis ubralo CamoTvlac ki migvaniSnebs
imaze, rom Tanamedrove sabazro ekonomika es aris sax683
elmwifoebriv-regulirebadi ekonomika, anu iseTi ekonomika,
romelSic swored saxelmwifo warmogvidgeba stabilurobis, optimalurobisa da civilizebulobis garantad.
literaturaSi ekonomikis saxelmwifoebrivi
regulirebis erTmaneTTan dakavSirebul sxvadasxva
mizans gamoyofen: stabiluri ekonomikuri zrda; dasaqmebis maRali done; myari fasebi; sagareo-ekonomikuri
wonasworoba. garda amisa, xSirad saxelmwifoebrivi
regulirebis miznebad asaxeleben ganaTlebas, Semosavlebisa da resursebis samarTlian gadanawilebas, garemos dacvas da mis gajansaRebas. aRniSnaven, rom TiToeuli dasaxelebuli mizani arsebobs ara calke TavisTvis,
aramed erTmaneTTan uSualo kavSirSi. es Tavisebureba
ekonomikur politikaSi srulad unda aisaxos.
erTmaneTisagan ganasxvaveben ekonomikis saxelmwifoebrivi regulirebis obieqtebs. aRiarebulia,
rom aseTi obieqtebia: pirobebi, procesebi, urTierTobebi, ekonomikis seqtorebi, romlebic sabazro meqanizmebis
meSveobiT aradamakmayofileblad funqcionireben; miaCniaT,
rom es obieqtebi sabazro ekonomikis susti adgilebia.
amitom maT gajansaRebas unda Seuwyos xeli saxelmwifoebrivma regulirebam. tradiciulad, ekonomikis saxelmwifoebrivi regulirebis mravalricxovan obieqtebs
Soris gamoyofen Semdeg mTavar obieqtebs: ekonomikuri
cikli, sameurneo koniunqtura, kapitalis dagroveba, fulis
mimoqceva, dasaqmeba, konkurenciis pirobebi, fasebi, samecniero-teqnikuri progresi, kadrebis momzadeba, sagadasaxdelo balansi da erovnuli konkurentunarianoba,
socialuri urTierTobebi, garemos dacva da a.S.
684
ekonomikis saxelmwifoebrivi regulirebis obieqtebis mniSvneloba (maTi prioritetuli mdgomareoba) ganisazRvreba ganviTarebis strategiuli miznis Sesabamisad qveynis sawarmoo Zalebis ganviTarebis doniT, ekonomikis
struqturiT, gadasawyveti amocanebis xasiaTiT, sazogadoebis mentalitetiT da a.S.
bunebrivia, ekonomikis saxelmwifoebrivi regulirebis mizanTa miRweva gulisxmobs gansazRvruli meqanizmis funqcionirebas. saxelmwifos, uwinares yovlisa, unda
gaaCndes regulirebis Sesabamisi materialuri da aramaterialuri resursebi, e.i. saSualebebi, romelTa meSveobiTac dasaxul miznebs praqtikulad ganaxorcielebs.
regulirebis saSualebaTa mizanswrafuli gamoyeneba moiTxovs gansazRvrul meTodebsa da instrumentebs. regulirebis meTodebi SeiZleba kvalificirebuli iqnas Semdegnairad: saxelmwifoebrivi sakuTrebis
marTva; ekonomikaze zemoqmedeba saxelmwifoebrivi moxmarebis, socialur saWiroebebze danaxarjebis, sabiujeto politikis, dabegvris, fuladi mimoqcevis regulirebis, dakreditebis Tu dafinansebis meSveobiT; administraciul-ekonomikuri zemoqmedeba sakredito sistemaze,
Semosavlebze, faswarmoqmnaze kontroliT; wminda administraciuli zemoqmedeba kanonmdeblobiT an sxvadasxva
administraciuli SezRudviT; informaciuli zemoqmedeba da sxv.
ekonomikis saxelmwifoebrivi regulirebis instrumentebi iyofa or jgufad: (1) administraciul
da (2) ekonomikur instrumentebad.
ekonomikis regulirebis administraciuli
instrumentebi emyareba saxelmwifo xelisuflebis Zalas
685
da moicavs nebarTvis, akrZalvisa da iZulebis zomebs.
saxelmwifoebrivi regulirebis ekonomikuri
instrumentebia: sargeblis ganakveTis Secvla, fulisa
da fasiani qaRaldebis emisia, saxelmwifo biujeti, gadasaxadebi, fasebi.
ekonomikis saxelmwifoebrivi regulirebis
ekonomikuri berketebis sistemaSi gansakuTrebuli
adgili ukavia ekonomikis saxelmwifo seqtors
da ekonomikur programirebas.
ekonomikis saxelmwifo seqtori esaa kompleqsi
sameurneo erTeulebisa, romlebic mTlianad an nawilobriv ekuTvnis saxelmwifos centralur da adgilobriv
organoebs. rogorc viciT, esenia, uwinares yovlisa, is
sameurneo obieqtebi, romlebic sazogadoebisaTvis aucilebelia, magram kerZo biznesi uxalisod abandebs iq
saxsrebs an uars ambobs maTze.
biujetis saxsrebis miznobrivi warmarTvis gziT
saxelmwifo gavlenas axdens ekonomikis dargobriv struqturaze; xels uwyobs axali, perspeqtiuli, magram jer
kidev naklebmomgebiani da, amdenad, kerZo kapitalisaTvis
arasaintereso dargebis ganviTarebas.
ekonomikis saxelmwifoebrivi regulirebis umaRlesi formaa ekonomikuri programireba . ekonomikur
programirebaSi igulisxmeba mTavrobis mier ekonomikis
ganviTarebis prioritetuli mimarTulebebis SerCeva;
mokle-, saSualo- da grZelvadiani amocanebis gansazRvra;
maTi gadawyvetis wesisa da pasuxismgebelTa dadgena;
aucilebeli saSualebebis (resursebis) gamonaxva.
miznobrivi programebis obieqtebi SeiZleba iyos:
erovnuli meurneobis dargebi, regionebi, socialuri sfero,
686
mecnieruli kvlevis esa Tu is mimarTuleba, garemos
dacva da sxv.
gamoyofen Cveulebrivsa da sagangebo programebs. Cveulebrivi programebi, rogorc wesi, saSualovadiania da miznad isaxavs ekonomikaSi warmoSobili
siZneleebisa da disproporciebis rac SeiZleba umtkivneulod gadalaxvas. sagangebo programebis SemuSaveba
xdeba kritikul situaciebSi (krizisi, masobrivi
umuSevroba, inflacia da sxv.).
msoflios mraval qveyanaSi dagrovili gamocdileba mowmobs, rom ekonomikuri programireba metwilad
indikaturi xasiaTisaa. magram igi, eyrdnoba ra mTavrobis Sesabamis institutebs, kerZo da saxelmwifo korporaciebis sabiujeto subsidirebas, fiskalur da sxva
SeRavaTian RonisZiebebs, arsebiT zemoqmedebas axdens
sameurneo procesebis regulirebaze. Tanamedrove programireba aris mTeli perspeqtiuli regulirebis erTerTi konkretuli forma.
programirebis sistemaSi Sedis ara mxolod saerTo sameurneo gegmebi, aramed SezRuduli xasiaTis programebi: calkeuli dargisa da regionis ganviTareba;
calkeuli erovnuli problemis, magaliTad, dasaqmebis,
sagareo gacvlis, saxelmwifo seqtoris ganviTarebis
problemebi. saSualovadiani gegmebi ivseba erT welze
gaangariSebuli saerTo sameurneo programebiT.
programirebas erTvis regulirebis Sereuli forma stabilizaciis gegmis saxiT, romlis meSveobiTac
wydeba rogorc sazogadoebrivi warmoebis dabalansirebulobis perspeqtiuli, ise mimdinare amocanebi. Tavisi
safuZvliT stabilizaciis gegmebi ganekuTvnebian koni687
unqturul regulirebas, Tumca isini SeiZleba ganxilul
iqnes rogorc struqturuli regulirebis da, Sesabamisad, programirebis sistemis elementebi.
aqve unda aRiniSnos, rom gegmebis rekomendaciuloba ar niSnavs, rom isini ar sruldebian, Tu aucilebeli
iqneba maTi Sesruleba. gegma saxelmZRvaneloa moqmedebisaTvis, magram ara dogma. gegmis monaxazebi _ orientiria da ara mkacri SezRudva.
regulireba rTuli, bevr rameSi ganusazRvreli
procesia. misi Sedegianoba damokidebulia bevr obieqtur da subieqtur garemoebaze. regulirebis SesaZleblobaTa Sefasebisas unda gvaxsovdes, rom is mxolod
konkurentunariani meqanizmis damatebaa da amitom misi
regulirebis efeqti damokidebulia am meqanizmis muSaobis
Sedegebze.
saxelmwifos ekonomikur politikaSi didi adgili uWiravs sagareo ekonomikuri kavSirebis regulirebas.
amitom mTavrobis ekonomikur funqciebSi sul ufro
mniSvnelovan rols asrulebs transnacionalur kapitalTan urTierTobis regulireba, rac gansakuTrebulad mniSvnelovania ekonomikis internacionalizaciis
pirobebSi.
saboloo angariSiT, ganviTarebis Tanamedrove etapze
ekonomikis saxelmwifoebrivi regulireba gadaiqca Tanamedrove sameurneo meqanizmis umniSvnelovanes elementad, romlis sferoSic CarTulia sazogadoebrivi kvlavwarmoebis yvela mxare _ warmoeba, ganawileba, gacvla
da moxmareba. arc is unda iyos sadavo, rom momavalSi
ekonomikis saxelmwifoebrivi regulirebis mniSvneloba
kidev ufro gaizrdeba. garda `tradiciuli sferoebi688
sa`, misi rolis zrdas xels Seuwyobs iseTi movlenebi,
rogoricaa: msoflioSi energetikuli, savaluto da ekologiuri krizisebi; warmoebis avtomatizaciis farTod
ganviTareba; warmoebisa da kapitalis koncentraciis
gaZliereba; socialur-ekonomikuri problemebis (umuSevroba, inflacia) gamwvaveba; mzardi winaaRmdegobebi ganviTarebul da ganuviTarebel, did da patara qveynebs
Soris.
689
?
testebi SeZenili codnis
SemowmebisaTvis
1. istoriulad, amosaval makroekonomikur regulatorad mogvevlina:
a. regulirebadi bazari;
b. veluri bazari;
g. civilizebuli bazari;
d. Tavisufali bazari.
2. sazogadoebrivi dovlaTi moicavs iseT
saqonelsa da momsaxurebas, romelic:
a. gamoiyeneba mxolod sabiujeto organizaciebis muSakTa mier;
b. iwarmoeba arasamTavrobo organizaciebis mier;
g. gamoiyeneba mxolod socialuri sferos muSakTa
mier;
d. ar flobs gamoricxvisa da metoqeobis Tvisebebs.
3. sityvebi: `mTavroba msajia da igi ar unda
ecados gaxdes moTamaSe` ekuTvnis:
a. ludvig erhards;
b. jorj buSs;
g. jon meinard keinzs;
d. ronald reigans.
4. bazris fiaskoze moqmed Siga efeqtebSi
igulisxmeba:
a. warmoebis is efeqtebi, romelTa zemoqmedeba
mesame pirze ar aisaxeba fasis meSveobiT;
690
b. moxmarebis is efeqtebi, romelTa zemoqmedeba
mesame pirze ar arisaxeba fasis meSveobiT;
g. sazogadoebrivi dovlaTi da arasakmarisi
konkurencia;
d. nebismieri saqoneli da momsaxureba.
5. transferuli gadasaxdeli aris:
a. Sromis anazRaurebis gansakuTrebuli forma;
b. saxelmwifo biujetidan mosaxleobaze fuladi daxmareba, romelic dakavSirebulia saxelmwifo
samsaxuris SesrulebasTan;
g. usasyidlo naturaluri daxmareba sazogadoebis calkeul pirebze;
d. saxelmwifo biujetidan mosaxleobaze fuladi daxmareba, romelic araa dakavSirebulia saxelmwifo samsaxuris SesrulebasTan.
6. saxelmwifos sami globaluri ekonomikuri
funqcia, romlebic exeba qveynis masStabiT efeqtiano bis , samarTliano bis a da stabiluro bis
uzrunvelyofas, Camoayaliba:
a. irving fiSerma;
b. pol samuelsonma da viliam nordhausma;
g. viliam staffordma;
d. kempbel r. makkonelma da stenli l. brium.
7. sabazro ekonomikis pirobebSi saxelmwifos ekonomikur funqciebs ar miekuTvneba:
a. konkurenciis dacva;
b. fasebis daweseba kerZo mewarmeTa mier gamoS691
vebul produqciaze;
g. Semosavlebis gadanawileba;
d. ekonomikis stabilurobis uzrunvelyofa da
ekonomikuri zrdis stimulireba.
8. gardamavali ekonomikis qveynebSi demokratizaciis gaf arToeba niSnavs saxelmw ifos
ekonomikuri rolis:
a. Sesustebas;
b. ucvlelobas;
g. gaZlierebas;
d. daxvewas.
9. Semosavlebisa da resursebis samarTliani
gadanawileba miekuTvneba ekonomikis saxelmwifoebrivi regulirebis:
a. princi ps;
b. mizans;
g. obieqts;
d. instruments.
10. ekonomikis saxelmwifo seqtoris arsebobis aucilebloba ganpirobebulia:
a. kapitaltevadi da ararentabeluri dargebis
arsebobiT;
b. saxelmwifo Semosavlebis gazrdis miswrafebiT;
g. sazogadoebrivi saqonlisa da momsaxurebis
warmoebis aucileblobiT;
d. qveynis ekonomikuri da socialuri usafrTxoebis uzrunvelyofis amocanebiT.
692
11
Tema
ekonomikis saxelmwifoebrivi
regulirebis safinanso-sabiujeto
da sabanko-sakredito berketebi
`arsebuli
sazogadoebrivi
wyobilebis damxobis yvelaze
utyuari da qmediTi s aS ualebaa
fuladi sistemis moSla~.
j. m. keinzi
`kargi mwyemsi Tavis cxvars parsavs,
magram tyavs ar aZrobs~.
tiberiusi
` adam ianebi s axelm w if os Tavis i
qonebis nawils aZleven imisaTvis,
rom m Svidad mo ixm aron qo nebis
danarCeni nawili~.
S. monteskie
`bankis procesebma arc dasveneba
ician da arc RvTis msaxureba. isini
muSaoben RamiTac, kviraobiTac da
avdarSic~.
b. Sou
saxelmZRvanelos wina ganyofilebebidan gasagebi
gaxda, rom Tanamedrove civilizebul sazogadoebaSi
saxelmwifom SeiZina Taviseburi niSnebi: jer-erTi, is
693
iqca ekonomikis erT-erT qmediT regulatorad; da meore,
man aqtiuri zegavlenis moxdena daiwyo sazogadoebaSi
arsebul socialur urTierTobaTa ganviTarebaze. Tumca,
mTlad naTeli araa sakiTxi imis Taobaze, Tu saxelmwifo
romeli ekonomikuri meqanizmis meSveobiT axorcielebs
Tavis farTomasStabian ekonomikur da socialur amocanebs. saWiroa pasuxis moZebna am sakiTxTan dakavSirebul
kiTxvazec: rogori safinanso-sabiujeto da sabankosakredito berketebi gamoiyeneba Tanamedrove ekonomikis
saxelmwifoebriv regulirebaSi? swored am kiTxvaze
pasuxis gacemiTa da axsniT viqnebiT dakavebuli winamdebare Temis Seswavlisas.
leqcia 30. safinanso-sabiujeto
sistema da fiskaluri politika
`aucilebelia, rom fuli, romelsac
saxelmwifo arTmevs Tavis qveSevrdomebs, Seesabamebodes maT SesaZleblobebs da, ara Tu ar apartaxebdes,
aramed mniSvnelovan ziansac ar unda
ayenebdes qonebas. magram, Tu saWiro
ar aris zedmetad damZimeba, maSin
arc imaze naklebi unda mosTxovos,
rac aucilebelia saxelmwifosaTvis~.
a. riSelie
` Tu Tqven wes s arRvevT, maS in
gajarimeben; Tu wess icavT, maSin
gadasaxadiT gbegraven~.
lorens piteri
`gadasaxadebis akrefa – es aris
xelovneba, ise gabdRvna bati, rom
miiRo bumbulis maqsimumi minimaluri wri piniT~
J. kolberi
finansebis arsi da funqciebi. finansebi
saxelmwifo politikis ganxorcielebis umniSvnelovanesi
instrumenti da sabazro urTierTobebis ganuyofeli
nawilia.
termini `finansebi~ warmoSobilia laTinuri
sityvidan, rac niSnavs Semosavals, gadasaxads. pirvelad
Tavisi namdvili mniSvnelobiT _ `fuladma gadasaxadma`
gamoyeneba hpova XII-XV saukuneebis italiaSi, rodesac
694
695
qalaqebi _ genua, florencia da venecia evropis umsxviles
savaWro da sabanko centrebs warmoadgendnen. XVI-XVIII
saukuneebis germaniaSi terminma _ `finansebi`, ZiriTadi
mniSvnelobis _ fuladi gadasaxadebis _ paralelurad,
SeiZina gamomZalvelobis, TaRliTobis mniSvnelobac. XVI
saukunis safrangeTSi termins _ `finansebi~ saxelmwifo
qonebis erTobliobis aRmniSvnel sinonimad iyenebdnen.
saqarTveloSi, gviandel Sua saukuneebSi, finansebis
sinonimad gamoiyeneboda farTod cnobili cneba _ `xazina~,
romelic arabuli warmoSobisaa. XII saukunidan saqarTveloSi `xazinis` SemoRebamde, xmarebaSi iyo `saWurWle~,
xolo dRevandeli gagebiT finansTa ministrs `meWurWleTuxucesi~ ewodeboda.
finansebi Tavisi materialuri SinaarsiT miznobriv
fulad fondebs warmoadgens, anu qveyanaSi Seqmnili mSpis nawils da mTlianobaSi moicavs qveynis finansur
resursebs. finansuri resursebi saxelmwifosa da
sawarmoebis, korporaciebis da sxva organizaciebis
(sakuTrebis miuxedavad) gankargulebaSi arsebuli fuladi saxsrebis fondebis erTobliobaa. finansuri
resursebis ZiriTadi wyaro swored mTliani Sida
produqti da erovnuli Semosavalia. nebismier qveyanaSi
finansuri resursebi sawarmoo ZalTa ganviTarebisa da
xalxis keTildReobis amaRlebis erT-erTi umniSvnelovanesi faqtoria.
xSirad termins _ `finansebi~ aigiveben fulTan da
mis sinonimad miaCniaT, magram es ase ar aris. sinamdvileSi
saqme gvaqvs or sxvadasxva kategoriasTan, or ekonomikur
berketTan, romlebic gamoxataven or sxvadasxva
sazogadoebriv movlenas. amis gamo arasworia `finansebis~
gaigiveba `fulad resursebTan~, Tumca finansebis arseboba696
funqcionireba fulis gareSe SeuZlebelia. igi finansebis
arsebobis aucilebeli pirobaa. saxelmwifo, finansuri
meqanizmis daxmarebiT, qmnis fulad fondebs, romelTac
Tavisi mravalricxovani (politikuri, ekonomikuri da
socialuri) funqciebis Sesasruleblad iyenebs.
finansebi fulisagan gansxvavdeba rogorc SinaarsiT, ise Sesasrulebeli funqciebiT. fuli sayovelTao
eqvivalentia, romliTac izomeba asocirebuli mwarmoeblis Sromis danaxarjebi, finansebi ki mTliani erovnuli produqtis da erovnuli simdidris nawilis ganawileba-gadanawilebis ekonomikuri instrumentia. finansur urTierTobebTan mxolod maSin gvaqvs saqme, rodesac adgili aqvs fuladi saxsrebis realur moZraobas,
upiratesad kvlavwarmoebis procesis ganawilebisa da
gacvlis stadiebze. amitom, fuli mxolod maSinaa finansebi, rodesac Rirebulebis ganawilebasa da gadanawilebas axorcielebs.
finansuri urTierTobebi formirdeba: sawarmoebs
Soris sasaqonlo-materialur faseulobaTa SeZenisa da
mza produqciisa da momsaxurebis realizaciis procesSi;
sawarmoebsa da maT zemdgom organizaciebs Soris
centralizebuli fondebis Seqmna-ganawilebis procesSi,
kerZod, saxelmwifosa da sawarmoebs Soris, erTi mxriv,
saxelmwifos winaSe aRebuli valdebulebebis Sesrulebis
(gadasaxadebis Setana) da, meore mxriv, sawarmoos winaSe
saxelmwifos mier aRebuli valdebulebebis (xarjebis
dafinansebis) procesSi; sawarmoebs, moqalaqeebsa da
arasabiujeto organizaciebs Soris resursebis miRebisa
da gadasaxdelebis Setanis procesSi; calkeul sabiujeto
dawesebulebebs Soris; sadazRvevo organizaciebsa da
sawarmoebsa da moqalaqeebs Soris; dabolos,
697
saxelmwifoTa Soris ekonomikur urTierTobaTa
angariSsworebisa da finansuri resursebis gadanawilebis
procesSi. Sesabamisad, finansebis mTavari daniSnulebaa
ara marto saxelmwifoebrivi fuladi fondebis Seqmnagamoyeneba, aramed sawarmoTa da saojaxo meurneobebis
finansuri uzrunvelyofa.
ganasxvaveben finansebis sam dones: saxelmwifo
finansebs, arasaxelmwifo, anu kerZo sawarmoTa da
korporaciaTa finansebsa da saojaxo meurneobebis
finansebs.
saxelmwifo finansebi _ es aris ekonomikur
urTierTobaTa sistema, romelic yalibdeba saxelmwifos
mier Tavisi funqciebis ganxorcielebisas gaweuli
xarjebis dasafinanseblad saWiro fuladi fondebis
Seqmnis mizniT mTliani erovnuli produqtis ganawilebis,
gadanawilebisa da moxmarebis procesSi. am urTierTobis
materializacia xdeba centralur da adgilobriv
biujetebSi, specialur biujetgareSe saxelmwifo
fondebsa da saxelmwifo sawarmoTa gankargulebaSi
Tavmoyril fulad fondebSi. amave fondebSia ganivTebuli,
agreTve, saxelmwifoTaSoriso finansuri urTierTobebisas
gadanawilebuli fuladi resursebic. maSasadame,
saxelmwifo finansebi, esaa ekonomikur (fulad)
urTierTobaTa sistema, romelic yalibdeba saxelmwifos
centralizebuli fuladi fondebis formirebisa da
gamoyenebis procesSi. es saxsrebi akumulirdeba
saxelmwifos sabiujeto sistemis, samTavrobo
biujetgareSe da saxelmwifo sawarmoTa fondebSi.
kerZo sawarmoTa da korporaciaTa finansebi
gamoixateba fulad urTierTobebSi, romlebic
warmoiSobian maTi ekonomikuri saqmianobis procesSi,
698
uzrunvelyofen warmoebis process da mogebis miRebas.
isini materializebulia fuladi kapitalisa da sawarmoTa
sxvadasxva fuladi fondebis saxiT. kerZo sawarmoTa
da korporaciaTa finansebi ekonomikuri (fuladi)
urTierTobebia, romlebic xels uwyoben sawarmoTa
decentralizebuli fuladi fondebis wrebrunvas.
saojaxo meurneobebis finansebi gamoixateba
fulad urTierTobebSi, romlebic warmoiSobian calkeuli
ojaxebis (moqalaqeebis) Semosavlebisa da xarjebis
formirebis procesSi da romlebic uzrunvelyofen maTi
kvlavwarmoebis process.
finansuri urTierTobebis nebismier doneze,
finansuri resursebis materialuri wyaroebia erovnuli
simdidre, mTliani erovnuli produqti da erovnuli
Semosavali. maT SeqmnaSi monawileobs warmoebis xuTive
faqtori _ miwa, kapitali, Sroma, mewarmeobiTi unari da
mTavrobis ekonomikuri da samarTlebrivi saqmianoba. sxva
sityvebiT rom vTqvaT, sabazro urTierTobebis pirobebSi
warmoebis am xuTive faqtors axasiaTebs Semosavlebis
formirebis unari. amasTan, sabazro ekonomikis pirobebSi
TiToeul faqtors Tavisi bazari gaaCnia. aq Camoyalibebuli faswarmoqmna gansazRvravs warmoebis faqtorebis
anu resursebis sabazro fasebs, romlebic aisaxeba
warmoebuli produqciis RirebulebaSi da saSualebas
iZleva ganisazRvros, Tu ra ujdeba qveyanas, resursebis
gamoyenebis TvalsazrisiT, mocemuli wminda produqtis
warmoeba. TiToeuli faqtoris Rirebulebis wili qveynis
mTliani erovnuli produqtis SeqmnaSi, warmoadgens am
ukanasknelis ganawilebis proporciebis safuZvels. amitom,
erTi mxriv, warmoebis faqtorebis Rirebulebebis moZraoba,
meore mxriv, maTi monawileobiT Seqmnili Rirebulebis
ganawileba da gadanawileba gvixasiaTebs, Tu saxelmwifo
699
visi monawileobiT uzrunvelyofs qveyanaSi finansur
urTierTobebs anu vis xarjze qmnis finansur resursebs
da risTvis xarjavs maT.
finansebis socialur-ekonomikuri arsi mis funqciebSi vlindeba. finansebi or ZiriTad funqcias asrulebs:
ganawilebisa da kontrolis funqciebs , romlebsac
isini erTdroulad axorcieleben. TiToeuli finansuri
operacia niSnavs mTliani erovnuli produqtisa da
erovnuli Semosavlis ganawilebasa da am ganawilebaze
kontrols.
ganawilebis funqciis meSveobiT, upirveles
yovlisa, vlindeba finansebis saxelmwifo-sameurneo
daniSnuleba: erTi mxriv, meurneobis TiToeuli subieqti,
meore mxriv, xelisufleba saxelmwifos uzrunvelyofs
misTvis aucilebeli finansuri resursebiT. finansebis
ganawilebis funqciis moqmedebis obieqtad gamodis
mTliani erovnuli produqtis Rirebuleba, erovnuli
Semosavali, agreTve, fulad formaSi gamoxatuli erovnuli
simdidre.
finansebis ganawilebis funqciis arseboba uSualo
kavSirSia kontrolis funqciasTan, romelic vlindeba
mTliani erovnuli produqtis Sesabamis fondebSi
moqcevisa da SemdgomSi misi miznobrivi ganawilebis
kontrolSi.
finansuri sistem is rgolebi da
sferoebi. `finansuri sistemis~ cneba `finansebis~
cnebis ganviTare-bul formas warmoadgens. finansur
sistemas ayalibebs saxelmwifo Tavisi funqciebisa da
amocanebis efeqtiani realizaciis mizniT, romlis sferoebi
da ZiriTadi rgolebi sxvadasxva qveyanaSi araerTgvarovania.
700
finansebis, rogorc sazogadoebriv-ekonomikuri
urTierTobebis, klasifikacia SesaZlebelia am urTierTobebis Sedegad Camoyalibebuli fuladi fondebis
formirebisa da gamoyenebis Taviseburebebis gaTvaliswinebiT. swored aseTi fondebis erToblioba qmnis
finansur sistemas. maSasadame, finansuri sistema _
es aris saxelmwifosa da sawarmoebis fuladi
fondebis warmoSobis, ganawilebisa da gamoyenebis
formebisa da meTodebis sistema. misi mTavari
funqciaa finansuri resursebis efeqtiani ganawileba .
finansuri sistema finansuri urTierTobebis sxvadasxva sferoebis erTobliobaa, romelTa farglebSi
xorcieldeba fuladi saxsrebis fondebis Seqmna da
gamoyeneba. am sferoebis gamoyofis safuZveli finansebis
doneebia. amitom nebismieri qveynis finansuri sistema
iyofa sam ZiriTadsferod: saxelmwifo finansebis,
sakuTrebis sxvadasxva formis mqone sawarmoTa finansebisa
da saojaxo meurneobebis finansebis sferoebad. ganvixiloT TiToeuli maTgani cal-calke.

s ax elm w if o f ina ns ebis (s f er o s ) anu
finansuri urTierTobebis mkveTri ganviTareba SeimCneva
XX saukuneSi, gansakuTrebiT meore msoflio omis Semdgom.
msoflios TiTqmis yvela qveyanaSi adgili hqonda
erovnuli Semosavlebis gansaxelmwifoebriobas, rodesac
saxelmwi-fos biujetSi Tavs iyrida am Semosavlebis
30-50%. Sedegad, gaizarda saxelmwifos roli ekonomikis
kvlavwarmoebis procesSi, gafarTovda finansuri
urTierTobebi. maT Semdgom gaRrmavebas xeli Seuwyo
saxelmwifos gankargulebaSi, sabiujeto saxsrebis
701
paralelurad, mravalricxovani arasabiujeto fondebis
saxiT fuladi saxsrebis Tavmoyram. saxelmwifo finansebis
sfero moicavs centraluri da teritoriuli erTeulebis
(adgilobriv) biujetebs, saxelmwifo sawarmoTa,
arasabiujeto da sxva specialur fondebs. saxelmwifo
finansebis ZiriTadi mizania centraluri finansuri
resursebis formireba da misi ganawileba sazogadoebrivi
moTxovnilebebis dasafinanseblad.
 mniSvnelovani ganviTarebiT xasiaTdeboda agreTve
sakuTrebis sxvadasxva formis mqone sawarmoTa finansebi , romelic didi moculobis fuladi fondebis
wrebrunvas emsaxureba. amitom, maTi marTva (anu finansuri
menejmenti) gansakuTrebul mniSvnelobas iZens.
sakuTrebis sxvadasxva formis mqone sawarmoTa
finansebis sfero moicavs iuridiuli pirebis finansebs.
sameurneo subieqtebis finansebis mizania finansuri
resursebis formireba im moculobiT, romelic aucilebelia sameurneo saqmianobis mimdinare da sainvesticio
saqmianobisTvis.
 saxelmwifo da sawarmoTa finansebis ganviTareba
xels uwyobs saojaxo meurneobebis finansebis
ganviTarebas. saojaxo meurneobebis finansebis sferos
mTavari mizania calkeuli ojaxebis (moqalaqeebis)
finansebis anu biujetebis saSemosavlo nawilis formireba
da misi gamoyeneba ojaxis mimdinare moTxovnilebebis
dasakmayofileblad da dagrovebis uzrunvelsayofad.
safinanso sistemis samive sfero mWidro urTierTkavSirSia, kerZod:
 saxelmwifo finansebis sfero uzrunvelyofs
saojaxo meurneobaTa biujetebis saSemosavlo nawilis
formirebas (sabiujeto dawesebulebebSi dasaqmebuli
702
muSakebis xelfasebi, pensiebi, sti pendiebi da a.S.);
sabiujeto uwyebebis, dawesebulebebis dafinansebas;
saerTo-saxelmwifoebrivi RonisZiebebis dafinansebas;
 sameurneo subieqtebis finansebis sfero
uzrunvelyofs saojaxo meurneobaTa biujetebis
saSemosavlo nawilis formirebas. esenia: sawarmoebSi
dasaqmebuli muSakebis xelfasi, dividendebi da mogebis
angariSze gacemuli socialuri gacemebi; centraluri
da adgilobrivi biujetebis, arasabiujeto da specialuri
fondebis Semosavlebi;
 saojaxo meurneobebis biujetebis sfero
monawileobs centraluri da adgilobrivi biujetebis
saSemosavlo nawilis formirebaSi gadasaxadebis,
mosakreblebisa da sxva savaldebulo gadasaxdelebis
saxiT, agreTve, fasian qaRaldebSi investiciebis gziT.
saxelmwifos finansuri sistema Sedgeba Semdegi
rgolebisagan: sxvadasxva donis mmarTvelobiTi organoebis
biujetebi; saxelmwifo krediti; saxelmwifo savaluto
rezervebi; dazRveva; sawarmoebis, organizaciebis, firmebis,
korporaciebis, komerciuli da arakomerciuli
struqturebis finansebi; danarCeni specialuri fuladi
fondebi.
finansuri sistemis TiToeuli rgoli warmoadgens
finansuri urTierTobebis gansazRvrul sferos da gaaCnia
Tavisi, mxolod misTvis damaxasiaTebeli specifikuri
Taviseburebebi da funqciebi, romlebic vlindeba maTi
zemoqmedebisas kvlavwarmoebis procesebze. maTi
Semosavlebis wyaroebi da xarjvis mimarTulebebi
ganisazRvreba Sesabamisi kanonmdeblobiT. ase magaliTad,
sawarmoTa (korporaciaTa) finansebi emsaxureba
materialur warmoebas da maTi monawileobiT iqmneba
703
mSp, romelic nawildeba sawarmoebisa da dargebis SigniT;
saxelmwifo biujetis saSualebiT, saxelmwifos mTavar
centralizebul fondSi Tavs iyris resursebi, romelic
gadanawildeba meurneobis dargebs, ekonomikur regionebs,
mosaxleobis calkeul socialur jgufebs Soris;
biujetgareSe specialur fondebs aqvT mkacrad miznobrivi
daniSnuleba da a.S.
dasavleTis ekonomikurad ganviTarebul qveynebSi
finansuri sistema ZiriTadad oTx rgols moicavs:
saxelmwifo biujeti, adgilobrivi (teritoriuli
erTeulebis) finansebi, specialuri biujetgareSe fondebi,
saxelmwifo korporaciaTa finansebi.
saqarTvelos
finansuri
sistema .
saqarTvelos Tanamedrove finansuri sistema Sedgeba
finansur urTierTobaTa Semdegi rgolebisagan:
 saxelmwifos sxvadasxva donis biujetebi;
 saxelmwifo krediti;
 qonebrivi da piradi dazRvevis fondebi;
 sakuTrebis sxvadasxva formis mqone sawarmoTa
finansebi.
finansuri sistemis ZiriTadi rgolia saxelmwifo
sabiujeto sistema, romlis marTvis (dagegmva, Sesruleba
da a.S.) safuZvels fiskaluri politika warmoadgens.
saqarTvelos sxvadasxva donis biujetebi qmnian
mis sabiujeto sistemas anu qveynis biujetebis erTianobas,
romelic efuZneba saxelmwifos administraciulteritoriul mowyobas, ekonomikur urTierTobebsa da
iuridiul normebs. amJamad igi, faqtobrivad, moicavs
sami donis biujets:
704
 saqarTvelos centralur biujets, romelic 2005
wlis 1 ianvridan konsolidirebulia biujetgareSe
fondebTan da iwodeba saxelmwifo biujetad;
 afxazeTisa da aWaris avtonomiuri respublikebis biujetebs;
 saqarTvelos sxva teritoriuli erTeulebis anu
adgilobriv biujetebs.
aRniSnul biujetebTan erTad, saqarTveloSi an mis
calkeul regionebSi sagangebo mdgomareobis SemoRebis
SemTxvevaSi saqarTvelos parlaments prezidentis
wardgeniT SeuZlia daamtkicos sagangebo biujeti
sagangebo mdgomareobasTan dakavSirebul RonisZiebaTa
miznobrivi dafinansebisTvis. biujetis xarjebis
dasafinanseblad gadasaxadebs, mosakreblebsa da sxva
savaldebulo gadasaxdelebs awesebs parlamenti
prezidentis wardgeniT.
yvela zemoT aRniSnuli biujeti erTmaneTisgan
damoukidebelia da muSavdeba `saqarTvelos sabiujeto
sistemis Sesaxeb~ kanoniT gansazRvruli princi pebis
safuZvelze. saqarTvelos sabiujeto sistema faqtobrivad dasavleTis ekonomikurad ganviTarebuli qveynebis
sabiujeto sistemis identuria.
saqarTvelos finansuri sistemis erT-erT rgols
2005 wlis 1 ianvramde waroadgenda specialuri
biujetgareSe fondebi. qveyanaSi funqcionirebda ori
fondi: socialuri dazRvevis erTiani saxelmwifo fondi
da saxelmwifo sagzao fondi.
saxelmwifo krediti warmoadgens saxelmwifosa
da sxva iuridiul da fizikur pirebs Soris sakredito
urTierTobaTa formas, romlis drosac ZiriTadad
saxelmwifo gamodis msesxeblis rolSi. saxelmwifo
705
kreditis mizani biujetis deficitis dafinansebaa.
saxelmwifo krediti da mis safuZvelze warmoSobili
saxelmwifo valebi imarTeba saqarTvelos Sesabamisi
kanonmdeblobiT.
sabazro ekonomikis ganviTarebis kvalobaze, sul
ufro Zlierdeba dazRvevis (qonebis, piradi, pasuxismgeblobis, ekonomikuri riskebis) roli, rac ganpirobebulia
ara mxolod bunebriv-stiqiuri movlenebiT, aramed
ekonomikuri ganviTarebis arastabilurobiT, konkurenciiT
da a.S. gansakuTrebiT Zlierdeba sadazRvevo riskebis
done ekonomikuri, kerZod warmoebis dacemis periodebSi.
sakuTrebis sxvadasxva formis mqone sawarmoTa
finansebi moicavs saxelmwifo, munici paluri, saaqcio,
kerZo, saijaro da sxva saxis sawarmoTa finansebs, romelic
sawarmoo ZalTa ganviTarebis mamoZravebel Zalas
warmoadgens. sawarmoTa finansebis ganviTarebis donesa
da siZlierezea damokidebuli mTlianad qveynis finansuri
siZliere.
finansebis
roli
ekonomikaSi .
kvlavwarmoebiT procesebze gavlenas saxelmwifo iseTi
finansuri meTodebis gamoyenebiT axdens, rogoricaa
sabiujeto da sagadasaxado meTodebi, am meTodebiT marTva
erTnairad exeba rogorc socialur sferos, ise meurneobis
yvela sxva dargs.
dafinansebis sabiujeto meTodi gulisxmobs,
upirveles yovlisa, saxelmwifos sainvesticio politikas
anu saxelmwifo kapitalur dabandebaTa moculobis zrdas,
ris Sedegadac izrdeba moTxovnileba nedleulsa da
masalaze, axal teqnologiebze, samuSao Zalaze; iqmneba
axali samuSao adgilebi; stimuli eZleva kerZo
706
investiciebis gafarToebas. garda amisa, saxelmwifo
asignebebis xarjze, stimuli eZleva da, amave dros, izrdeba
moTxovna rogorc infrastruqturis, ise materialuri
warmoebis dargebis ganviTarebaze. xdeba mTlianad
sameurneo koniunqturis gamococxleba.
centralizebuli fondebis xarjze saxelmwifo
investiciebiT warmoebis gafarToeba da stimulireba
xorcieldeba makrodoneze. xolo qveynis calkeuli
regionebis socialur-ekonomikuri gamoTanabreba uzrunvelyofilia im finansuri resursebis dargTaSorisi da
teritoriuli gadanawilebis saSualebiT, romlebic
meurneobrivi subieqtebis xelSia Tavmoyrili.
dasavleTis mowinave qveynebSi saxelmwifos
sainvesticio politikas gansakuTrebuli yuradReba eqceva.
am mizniT yovelwliurad mxolod saxelmwifo biujetidan
misi saxsrebis 20%-ze mets xarjaven. saxelmwifo, Tavisi
politikiT, amcirebs umuSevrobas da zrdis mSromelTa
realur Semosavlebs, infrastruqturis ganviTarebiT ki
xels uwyobs warmoebis xarjebis Semcirebas, kerZo
kapitalis dagrovebas, Cqardeba kapitalis brunvadoba.
Sedegad izrdeba mogebis norma.
niSandoblivia, rom nebismier ganviTarebul qveyanaSi
samuSao Zalis kvlavwarmoebis mniSvnelovan elementad
gvevlineba finansebi, kerZod, finansuri resursebi, romelic,
Sromis anazRaurebis garda, moicavs agreTve danaxarjebs
ganaTlebaze, jandacvaze, socialur uzrunvelyofaze.
kvlavwarmoebiT procesebSi mniSvnelovania sakuTrebis sxvadasxva formis mqone sawarmoebis finansebis
roli, ramdenadac uSualod maTi monawileobiT
xorcieldeba mSp-is warmoeba da misi ganawileba
sawarmoebisa da dargebis SigniT. pasiuri saxelmwifo
707
sainvesticio politikis pirobebSi, misi kompensacia xdeba
sawarmoTa finansebis rolis amaRlebiT. am ukanasnels
xels uwyobs sameurneo subieqtis gankargulebaSi
darCenili mogebis moculobis zrda da finansur bazarze
maT mier aRebuli sxvadasxva formis sesxebi. sawarmoTa
sakuTari saxsrebiT dafinansebaze did gavlenas axdens
sagadasaxado politika.
qveynis ekonomikuri ganviTarebis procesebSi Carevis
mizniT saxelmwifo iyenebs iseT finansur meTodsac,
rogoricaa sagadasaxado meTodi . igi gulisxmobs
sagadasaxado politikis elementebis (gadasaxadebis
saxeebis, maTi ganakveTebis, SeRavaTebis, gadasaxadebis
reJimis cvlilebebis) mani pulirebis gziT sawarmoTa
finansuri uzrunvelyofis marTvas. ase magaliTad,
gadasaxadebis raodenobisa da ganakveTis SemcirebiT,
SeRavaTebis gafarToebiT izrdeba mewarmeTa Semosavlebi
da mogeba, daCqarebuli amortizaciiT xdeba investiciebis
stimulireba da a.S., saxelmwifo xels uwyobs
ekonomikuri zrdis tempebis amaRlebasa da warmoebis
gafarToeba-ganaxlebas. amasTan, gadasaxadebis gadidebam
SeiZleba gamoiwvios sawinaaRmdego movlenebi: finansuri
resursebis nakleboba da, Sesabamisad, ekonomikuri zrdis
tempebis Seneleba-SeCereba.
finansebi mniSvnelovan rols asrulebs mecnierulteqnikuri progresis daCqarebaSi, sawarmoo-teqnikuri
potencialis srulad da efeqtianad gamoyenebaSi,
fundamenturi mecnieruli kvlevebis ganviTarebaSi,
romlebmac xeli unda Seuwyos ekonomikuri zrdis
daCqarebas, warmoebis efeqtianobis amaRlebas da,
Sesabamisad, erovnuli Semosavlebis zrdas. finansebi did
708
gavlenas axdens ekonomikis marTvis gamartivebaze, mis
srulyofasa da gaiafebaze.
Tanamedrove pirobebSi saxelmwifoTa funqciebis
gafarToebam da integraciuli procesebis swrafi
tempebiT ganviTarebam moiTxova saxelmwifo xarjebis
gadideba. saWiro gaxda am xarjebis dafinansebis ZiriTadi
wyaroebis, kerZod, saxelmwifo da adgilobrivi biujetebis
Semosavlebis zrda, rac upirvelesad sagadasaxado
Semosavlebis zrdiT miiRweva. sagadasaxado Semosavlebi
biujetebSi fuladi resursebis mobilizaciis mTavar
finansur wyaros warmoadgens. amitom, sabiujeto sistemis
ganxilvamde, mizanSewonilia vnaxoT, Tu ras warmoadgens
gadasaxadebi da sagadasaxado sistema.
gadasaxadebi
da
sagadasaxado
s i s t e m a . Tanam edro ve sagad as axad o s is tem a
civilizaciis xanrgZlivi ganviTarebis Sedegia. igi
mWidrod aris dakavSirebuli rogorc ekonomikis, ise
mTlianad saxelmwifos ganviTarebasTan. kacobriobis
istorias ar axsovs arc erTi saxelmwifo, romelsac
gadasaxadebis gareSe earseba. gadasaxadebi – es Cveni
gadasaxdelia sazogadoebis civilizebisaTvis. aseTia
dasavleTis mowinave qveynebis midgoma am sakiTxisadmi.
kerZo sakuTrebisa da sabazro urTierTobebis
pirobebSi gadasaxadebi saxelmwifos arsebobis ekonomikuri safuZveli da misi saqmianobisTvis aucilebeli
finansuri resursebis ZiriTadi wyaroa. mxedvelobaSia
misaRebi, rom saxelmwifos bevri, arsebiTad udidesi
mniSvnelobis funqcia gaaCnia, romelTa gansaxorcieleblad
aucilebeli finansuri resursebis formirebis wyaro
ZiriTadad gadasaxadia.
709
im ekonomikur berketebs Soris, romelTa meSveobiTac
saxelmwifo zemoqmedebas axdens sabazro urTierTobebze,
gansakuTrebuli adgili gadasaxadebs uWiravs. saxelmwifos xelSi gadasaxadebi ekonomikuri ganviTarebis
procesebis regulirebis saSualebaa.
gadasaxadi warmoadgens fizikuri da iuridiuli
pirebis savaldebulo gadasaxdels, romelsac saxelmwifo
amoiRebs. saqarTvelos sagadasaxado kodqsis mixedviT
`gadasaxadi aris... saqarTvelos saxelmwifo, afxazeTisa
da aWaris avtonomiuri respublikebisa da adgilobriv
biujetebSi savaldebulo upirobo Senatani, romelsac
ixdis gadasaxadis gadamxdeli, gadaxdis aucilebeli,
araeqvivalenturi da usasyidlo xasiaTidan gamomdinare~ .
gadasaxadis gadamxdelia mesakuTre. moqalaqis mier
sxvadasxva momsaxurebisTvis gadaxdili safasurebi ki
warmoadgens gadasaxdelebs, romlebic pirdapir da
mTlianad biujetSi ar Sedis. gadasaxadis gadaxda –
socialuri valdebulebaa, romelic gamomdinareobs kerZo
sakuTrebis uflebidan. gadasaxadis gadaxdis gziT kerZo
sakuTreba emsaxureba sazogadoebriv interesebs. gadasaxadis daweseba mxolod sakanonmdeblo xelisuflebis
prerogativaa. amitom misi rogorc daweseba, aseve akreba
xorcieldeba sakanonmdeblo aqtebiT gansazRvruli
wesiTa da pirobebiT.
gadasaxadi kompleqsuri kategoriaa da gaaCnia
rogorc ekonomikuri, ise samarTlebrivi da iuridiuli
mniSvneloba.
ekonomikuri TvalsazrisiT, gadasaxadi sazogadoebis
safinanso-sabiujeto sistemis kuTvnileba da misi
*saqarTvelos sagadasaxado kodeqsi. _ Tb., 2007, muxli 6.
710
Semosavlis wyaroa. gadasaxadebi aris iuridiuli da
fizikuri pirebis savaldebulo Senatani da maTi
samewarmeo saqmianobidan an sxva wyaroebidan miRebuli
Semosavlebis (mogeba, xelfasi, qoneba da a.S.) nawilis
amoRebis forma.
saqarTvelos konstituciis 94-e muxlis pirveli
nawilis Tanaxmad, gadasaxadebis gadaxda savaldebuloa
kanoniT dadgenili odenobiTa da wesiT. arasavaldebulo
gadasaxadebi ar arsebobs. saqarTvelos sagadasaxado
kodeqsSi sagadasaxado valdebuleba asea ganmartebuli:
`sagadasaxado valdebulebad iTvleba gadasaxadis
gadamxdelis valdebuleba, gadaixados kanoniT dawesebuli
gadasaxadi. sagadasaxado valdebulebis warmoSobis,
Secvlisa da Sewyvetis, agreTve misi Sesrulebis wesi
da pirobebi regulirdeba mxolod am kodeqsiT an/da
sagadasaxado kanonmdeblobis sxva aqtebiT. sagadasaxado
valdebuleba ekisreba gadasaxadis gadamxdels sagadasaxado kanonmdeblobiT dadgenil im garemoebaTa warmoqmnis
momentidan, romlebic iTvaliswineben gadasaxadis
gadaxdas~*.
kacobrioba didxan eZebda gadasaxadis amoRebis
efeqtian meqanizms, romelic erTdroulad uzrunvelyofda
gadamxdelTa interesebis dacvasa da saxelmwifos
Zlierebis ganmtkicebas.
hamurabis (1792-1750ww. Cv.w./aR-mde) kanonebi
gansakuTrebul yuradRebas uTmobda sagadasaxado
disciplinis dacvas. dadgenili iyo gadasaxadis ganakveTi
da gadasaxadis vadebi. sainteresoa darios I-is (522486ww. Cv. w./aR-mde) mier sparseTis imperiaSi Seqmnili
sagadasaxado sistema. man qveSevrdomebisagan miRebuli
* saqarTvelos sagadasaxado kodeqsi. _ Tb., 2007, muxli 57.
711
saCuqrebis nacvlad SemoiRo fuladi da naturaluri
gadasaxadi, romelic dawesebuli normebis mixedviT
dadgenil vadebSi unda gadaxdiliyo, da Seqmna am
gadasaxadebis amoRebis specifikuri samsaxuri. aRsaniSnavia,
rom iberiis pirvelma mefem farnavazma, rogorc es
`qarTlis cxovrebaSia~ Cawerili, axali saxelmwifos
teritoriuli dayofa da gadasaxadebis saxelmwifos
xelSi Tavmoyra dariosis sqemis mixedviT ganaxorciela:
gadasaxadebis erTi nawili (`xarki sameufo~) mefis
gankargulebaSi rCeboda, xolo meore nawili (`xarki
saerosaTvis~) adgilobriv xelisuflebas ekuTvnoda.
romis imperiaSi moqalaqeebidan amoiReboda 46
dasaxelebis gadasaxadi da gamosaRebi, maT Soris iarliyi
virebisaTvis, gamosaRebi meZaveobaze, saponze, qandakebis
aRmarTvaze, gadasaxadi xorbalze, kitrze, monebis flobaze
da a.S. amboben, rom roca imperatorma vespasaniem
tualetebze gadasaxadi daawesa, imperatoris Svilma
iuxerxula aRniSnuli gadasaxadis SemoReba. ganawyenebulma
vespasaniem mas cxvirTan miutana tualetis gadasaxadidan
miRebuli oqros moneta da mrisxaned dauyvira: `ecunia
nov volet!~ (`fuli usunoa!~).
radganac gadasaxadi amcirebda gadamxdelTa Semosavals,
farTod iyo gavrcelebuli misgan Tavis arideba. amitom
Cveuli gaxda urC gadamxdelTa sajaro dasja (gamaTraxeba,
monad gayidva, sikvdiliT dasja...). gadasaxadebis gadaxdis
aucileblobaze miuTiTebda qristianuli ideologiac.
roca farisevlebi iesos SeekiTxnen: `rogor fiqrob,
unda vaZlioT xarki keisars Tu ara?~, man farisevlebs
Txova, misTvis eCvenebinaT xarkis moneta. mas miutanes
keisris gamosaxulebiani dinari. `visia es saxe da
warwera?~ _ ikiTxa iesom. maT upasuxes: `keisrisa~.
712
maSin iesom farisevlebs ganucxada: `mieciT keisrisa
keisarsa da RvTisa – RmerTsa~
sasaqonlo-fuladi urTierTobebis ganviTarebis
kvalobaze, sabazro ekonomikaze gadasvlam ganapiroba
axali sagadasaxado sistemis Seqmna, romlis mixedviT
gadasaxadebi diferencirdeboda ara socialuri
warmoSobis, aramed Semosavlis mixedviT.
a. smiTma sagadasaxado sistemas safuZvlad daudo
oTxi princi pi:
 gadasaxadebi gadaixdeba adamianTa SesaZleblobisa
da Zalis gaTvaliswinebiT;
 gadasaxadis ganakveTebi da gadaxdis vadebi zustad
unda ganisazRvros;
 gadasaxadis amoRebis vadebi gadamxdelisaTvis
moxerxebuli unda iyos;
 gadasaxadebis akrefis xarjebi rac SeiZleba
minimaluri unda iyos.
amrigad, a. smiTis mixedviT, ekonomikaSi gadasaxadebi
unda iyos sayovelTao da zomieri. Semdgom es Sexeduleba
ganaviTara meore didma klasikosma d. rikardom Tavis
cnobil SromaSi `politikuri ekonomiisa da dabegvris
safuZvlebi~ (1817). rikardos mtkicebiT: `xarki Seadgens
qveynis miwisa da Sromis produqtis nawils, romelic
gadadis mTavrobis gankargulebaSi, igi gadaixdeba
yovelTvis, bolos da bolos, qveynis an kapitalidan, an
Semosavlidan~.
gadasaxadebis TeoriaSi didi wvlili Seitana XX
saukunis udidesma ekonomistma j. m. keinzma, romelmac
uaryo kapitalizmis TviTregulirebis SesaZlebloba da
*
maTes saxareba. Tavi 22. 21.
713
ekonomikuri krizisebis Tavidan asacileblad saxelmwifos daakisra e.w. `efeqtiani moTxovnis~ Seqmna, romelsac
safuZvlad daedeboda gadasaxadebis gadideba da
saxelmwifo sesxebis farTod gavrceleba.
gadasaxadebis, rogorc finansuri kategoriis, arsi
mis funqciebSi vlindeba.
gamoyofen gadasaxadebis mWidrod dakavSirebul or
ZiriTad funqcias: fiskalurs da maregulirebels.
TiToeul maTganSi vlindeba gadasaxadebis Sinagani,
imanenturi buneba, Taviseburebani da niSnebi.
fiskaluri funqcia gadasaxadebis ZiriTadi
funqciaa da axasiaTebs maT ZiriTad daniSnulebas:
gadaanawilos erovnuli Semosavali da saxelmwifos
fuladi fondebis formirebis gziT uzrunvelyos
xelisuflebis funqcionirebis materialuri safuZveli.
saxelmwifoTa umravlesobaSi xelisuflebis xelSi
gadasaxadebis saxiT Tavs iyris erovnuli Semosavlis
daaxloebiT 50%. ase magaliTad, SveciaSi, irlandiasa da
daniaSi aRniSnuli maCvenebeli 50%-s aRemateba, inglisSi,
italiaSi, germaniaSi, safrangeTSi, avstriasa da evropis
sxva mowinave qveynebSi 50%-s aRwevs, xolo iaponiaSi _
35%-s aRemateba.
gadasaxadebis fiskaluri funqcia, romlis meSveobiTac formirdeba saxelmwifos Semosavlebi, amave dros
qmnis ekonomikaSi saxelmwifos CarevisaTvis obieqtur
winapirobebs. Sesabamisad, igi arsebiTad ganapirobebs
gadasaxadebis maregulirebeli funqciis ganviTarebasa
da realizacias.
gadasaxadebis maregulirebeli funqciis arsi
mdgomareobs imaSi, rom gadasaxadebi axorcieleben ra
erovnuli Semosavlis gadanawilebas, astimulireben an
714
aneleben am gadanawilebis tempebs, aZliereben an asusteben
kapitalis dagrovebas anu ekonomikur zrdas, afarToeben
an amcireben mosaxleobis msyidvelobiTunarianobas.
gadasaxadebis meSveobiT saxelmwifos eZleva
SesaZlebloba sistematuri urTierTobebi hqondes
iuridiul Tu fizikur pirebTan, kerZod, maT SemosavlebTan.
gadasaxadebis gazrdis SemTxvevaSi xelisufleba
mewarmeebs umcirebs Semosavlebs anu asustebs kapitalis
dagrovebis tempebs, xolo mosaxleobas umcirebs
msyidvelobiTunarianobas. gadasaxadebis Semcirebis
pirobebSi aRniSnuli procesebi viTareba piriqiT:
daCqardeba kapiatlis dagrovebis tempebi da gaizrdeba
mosaxeleobis msyidvelobiTunarianoba. am procesebis
marTviT saxelmwifo aregulirebs ra saqonelsa da
momsaxurebaze moTxovna-miwodebis balanss bazarze,
uSualod zemoqmedebs kvlavwarmoebis procesis yvela
stadiaze. kerZod, aregulirebs (rogorc mewarmeTa, ise
mosaxleobis mxridan miwodebul) fulis masas mimoqcevis
sferoSi, finansur bazars (fulze moTxovna-miwodebaze
zemoqmedebis gziT), inflaciur procesebs, dasaqmebasa
da umuSevrobas (samuSao adgilebis gazrda-Semcirebaze
zemoqmedebis gziT).
gadasaxadebis funqciebis efeqtiani realizacia
didadaa damokidebuli maTi gansazRvrisas iseTi
princi pebis dacvaze, rogoricaa sam arTliano ba
(Tanasworoba), efeqtianoba, gadaxdisunarianob a.
samarTlianobis (anu Tanasworobis) princi pis
dacvis mizania gadasaxadebis gadaxdis simZimis (tvirTis)
Tanabari gadanawileba gadasaxadis nebismieri kategoriis
gadamxdelze. sxva sityvebiT, nebismieri gadamxdeli qveynis
sagadasaxado kanonebisadmi Tanabar mdgomareobaSi unda
iqnes Cayenebuli.
715
efeqtianobis princi pma unda uzrunvelyos
gadasaxadebis efeqtianoba, kerZod, gadasaxadebis gadaxdis
gziT finansuri resursebis gadanawilebisas, rogorc
saxelmwifosTvis, ise gadamxdelisaTvis, gadasaxadebis
gadaxdis arasasurveli Sedegebi minimumamde unda iqnes
dayvanili.
gadaxdisunarianobis princi pi gulisxmobs iseTi
gadasaxadebis gansazRvras, romlis drosac amosaRebi
Tanxis moculoba damokidebulia Semosavlis moculobaze
an simdidreze. igulisxmeba, rom saxelmwifo momsaxurebis
anazRaureba mdidrebisaTvis unda iyos maRali, xolo
Raribebisa da socialurad naklebad daculi fenebisaTvis
_ dabali.
gadasaxadebis gansazRvris princi pebis dacvis
saukeTeso berkets progresuli sagadasaxado sistema
uzrunvelyofs.
sagadasaxado sistema warmoadgens qveynis
sakanonmdeblo organoebis mier dawesebuli gadasaxadebis, maTi dawesebis, Secvlisa da gauqmebis,
gadaxdevinebis princi pebis, formebisa da meTodebis,
sagadasaxado organoebisa da sagadasaxado kontrolis, agreTve, kanonmdeblobis darRvevisaTvis
pasuxismgeblobis saxeebis erTobliobas .
nebismier ekonomikur urTierTobebSi sagadasaxado
sistema mowodebulia uzrunvelyos saxelmwifo finansuri
resursebiT. misi fiskaluri efeqtianoba didad aris
damokidebuli xelisuflebis mmarTvelobiTi aparatis
qmediTunarianobaze, ramdenadac gadasaxadebis amoReba
mniSvnelovanwilad iZulebazea agebuli.
nebismieri qveynis sagadasaxado sistema moicavs
sagadasaxado samsaxurebis organoebs, sagadasaxado
urTierTobaTa maregulirebel samarTlebriv normebs,
gadasaxadebis, mosakreblebisa da sxva arasagadasaxado
sabiujeto Semosavlebis erTobliobas. kerZod,
sagadasaxado sistemis elementebia:
gadasaxadis gadamxdeli (gadasaxadis subieqti).
igi warmoadgens iuridiul an fizikur pirs, romelic
kanoniTaa valdebuli gadasaxadis gadaxdaze, xolo
gadauxdelobis SemTxvevaSi, iuridiuladaa pasuxismgebeli
gadasaxadis gadauxdelobisaTvis. arapirdapiri gadasaxadis SemTxvevaSi, gadasaxadis gadamxdeli mxolod
formalurad gvevlineba gadasaxadis subieqtad. faqtiurad arapirdapiri gadasaxadis gadaxda gadakisrebuli
aqvs mosaxleobis farTo fenebs;
 dabegvris obieqti. masSi igulisxmeba yvela
is sagani, romelic dabegvras eqvemdebareba. es SeiZleba
iyos: Semosavali, saqoneli, momsaxureba, agreTve dagrovili
simdidre, qoneba da a.S. xSirad gadasaxadis saxelwodeba
ganisazRvreba dasabegri obieqtis saxelwodebidan. ase
magaliTad, saSemosavlo gadasaxadi, mogebis gadasaxadi,
miwis gadasaxadi da a.S.;

gadas axadis w yaro . esaa subieqtis
Semosava-li, saidanac gadasaxadi amoiReba. magaliTad,
xelfasi, mogeba, sargebeli da a.S.;

dabegvris erTeuli anu dasabegri
obieqtis gazomvis erTeuli. magaliTad, saSemosavlo
gadasaxadSi dasabegri obieqtis gazomvis erTeulia
qveynis fuladi erTeuli, miwis gadasaxadSi – heqtari
da a.S.;
* saqarTvelos sagadasaxado kodeqsi. _ Tb., 2007, muxli 2.
716
717

sagadasaxado ganakveTi anu gadasaxadis
odenoba dasabegri obieqtis erTeulze (procentebSi an
fulad erTeulSi). ganviTarebul qveynebSi sagadasaxado
ganakveTis dawesebas safuZvlad udevs Tanasworobisa
da samarTlianobis princi pi;

sagadasaxado sargo . esaa gadasaxadis
Tanxa, romelsac subieqti erTi obieqtidan ixdis;

s a g a d a s a x a d o S e R a v a T i , ro m el ic
gulisxmobs kanonis safuZvelze gadasaxadidan mTlianad
an nawilobriv gaTavisuflebas. magaliTad, daubegravi
minimumi, anu obieqtis is nawili, romelic mTlianad
Tavisufldeba gadasaxadisagan. sagadasaxado SeRavaTebi
sxvadasxva qveyanaSi sxvadasxvaa;

sagadasaxado bazis aRricxvis meTodi .
gadasaxadiT dasabegri baza SeiZleba yovelTvis ar
daemTxves gadasaxadiT dabegvris obieqts. dasabegri bazis
dasadgenad aucilebelia Sesabamisi aRricxvis warmoeba,
romlis safuZvelia sabuRaltro aRricxva. amasTan, mTel
rig SemTxvevebSi, gadasaxadebiT dabegvris miznebisaTvis
gamoyenebuli unda iqnes sagadasaxado aRricxva, romlis
meqanizmi arsebiTad gansxvavdeba sabuRaltro meTodisagan;

gadasaxadiT dabegvris meTodi
(magaliTad, pirdapiri da arapirdapiri gadasaxadebiT
dabegvra);

gadas axadis gam oangariSebis wes i ,
gadaxdis xerxebi da saSualebebi. gadasaxadis Tanxis
gaangariSeba warmoebs kanonmdeblobiT dadgenili meTodis
safuZvelze. gaangariSebis formula asaxulia
sagadasaxado deklara-ciis Sesabamis striqonebsa da
graf ebS i. gadasaxad is Tanxis gaangariSebis as
gaiTvaliswineba sagadasaxado SeRavaTebi;
718

sagadasaxado da saangariSo periodebi.
sagadasaxado periodi, es is droa, romlis ganmavlobaSic
mTavrdeba gadasaxadiT dasabegri bazis formirebis
procesi da ganisazRvreba sagadasaxado valdebulebebis
odenoba. saangariSo periodi moicavs im dros, romlis
ganmavlobaSi sagadasaxado valdebulebebi unda dafiqsirdes sagadasaxado-saangariSsworebo dokumentebSi, anu
sagadasaxado deklaraciaSi da wardgenili iqnes sagadasaxado organoebSi dadgenil vadebSi;

ga das ax adi s g ad axd is va deb i . igi
dadgenilia kanonmdeblobiT da moicavs im periods,
romlis ganmavlobaSic gadasaxadis gadamxdeli valdebulia faqtiurad Seitanos gadasaxadi biujetSi. aseve,
kanoniTaa gansazRvruli gadasaxadis gadaxdis wesi anu
gadasaxadis Setanis normatiulad dadgenili saSualebebi
da procedurebi.
sagadasaxado sistemis aRniSnuli elementebis garda,
arsebobs fakultaturi elementebic, romlebic gavlenas
ver axdenen sagadasaxado valdebulebebis gansazRvris
xarisxze, Tumca arsebiTad amcireben am valdebulebebis
saTanado Sesrulebas. maT miekuTvneba: gadasaxadis
dakavebisa da arasworad dakavebuli gadasaxadis dabrunebis wesi, pasuxismgebloba sagadasaxado kanonmdeblobis
darRvevisaTvis.
Tanamedrove ganviTarebuli qveynebis sagadasaxado
sistemebi Camoyalibebulia sxvadasxva politikuri,
ekonomikuri da socialuri pirobebis zemoqmedebiT.
amitom isini erTmaneTisagan gansxvavdebian gadasaxadis
saxeebis, maTi struqturis, ganakveTebis, sagadasaxado bazis,
moqmedebis sferos, amoRebis wesebis, xelisuflebis
uflebamosilebebisa da a.S. mixedviT. miuxedavad amisa,
maT gaaCniaT saerTo Tvisebebic. kerZod, maTi ageba xdeba
719
iseTi cnobili saerTo principebis safuZvelze, rogoricaa
sagadasaxado dabegvris Tanasworoba, samarTlianoba da
efeqtianoba.
sagadasaxado sistema SeiZleba iyos rogorc
progresuli, ise regresuli. progresulia sagadasaxado
sistema, Tu gadasaxadebis gadaxdis Semdeg gadamxdelTa
ekonomikur mdgomareobaSi uTanasworoba umniSvneloa.
sagadasaxado sistema iTvleba regresulad, rodesac
gadasaxadebis gadaxdis Semdeg gadamxdelTa Soris
uTanasworoba izrdeba.
sagadasaxado sistemis da masSi ganxorcielebuli
cvlilebebis efeqtianobis Sesaxeb SeiZleba vimsjeloT
iseTi ekonomikuri maCveneblis mixedviT, rogoricaa
sagadasaxado tvirTi.
sagadasaxado tvirTi (sagadasaxado simZime)
aris ganzogadebuli maCvenebeli, romelic axasiaTebs
gadasaxadis rols sazogadoebis cxovrebaSi da
ganisazRvreba sagadasaxado Semosavlebis saerTo jamis
mTlian Sida produqtTan SefardebiT. sxva sityvebiT
rom vTqvaT, sagadasaxado tvirTi asaxavs sazogadoebis
mier warmoebuli produqtis im nawils, romelic
nawildeba sabiujeto meqanizmis meSveobiT. sagadasaxado
tvirTis saSualo done ucxoeTis qveynebSi meryeobs
40-45%-is farglebSi da SeimCneva misi zrdis tendencia.
arsebuli gadasaxadebis mravalferovneba iwvevs
gansazRvrul safuZvelze maTi klasifikaciis (saxeebad
dayofis) aucileblobas. garda amisa, ama Tu im gadasaxadis
gansazRvrul saxeze mikuTvneba gvaZlevs saSualebas, ufro
mkafiod gavigoT mocemuli gadasaxadis arsi da Sinaarsi.
gadasaxadebiT dabegvris TeoriaSi gadasaxadebis
klasifikaciisaTvis gamoiyeneba sxvadasxva kriteriumi.
720
 gadasaxadebi SeiZleba davyoT, upirveles yovlisa,
saSemosavlo-qonebriv anu pirdapir gadasaxadebad
da moxmarebis anu arapirdapir gadasaxadebad .
pirdapiri gadasaxadebis akrefa xorcieldeba
uSualod gadasaxadis gadamxdelTan, mis mier materialur
faseulobaTa warmoebisa da dagrovebis Sedegad miRebuli
Semosavlebidan an qonebidan. amitom, gadasaxadis
gadamxdelisaTvis gadasaxadis odenoba zustadaa cnobili.
ase magaliTad, gadasaxadis gadamxdelebi saSemosavlo
gadasaxads ixdian Semosavlebis miRebis SemTxvevaSi,
qonebis gadasaxads ixdian gansazRvruli saxis qonebis
mesakuTreebi da a.S.
pirdapiri gadasaxadebi, Tavis mxriv, SeiZleba
davyoT realur gadasaxadebad da pirad gadasaxadebad .
realuri gadasaxadebiT ibegreba gadasaxadis
gadamxdelis savaraudo saSualo Semosavakli, romelic
SeiZleba miRebuli iqnes mocemul ekonomikur pirobebSi
ama Tu im gadasaxadiT dasabegri obieqtidan (uZravi
qonebidan, fuladi kapitalidan da a.S.). realuri
gadasaxadebiT, upirveles yovlisa, ibegreba qoneba,
saidanac gamomdinareobs misi dasaxelebac (real (ing.)
_ qoneba). xSir SemTxvevaSi SeuZlebelia ganisazRvros
miRebuli Semosavlis odenoba an Semowmdes gadasaxadis
gadamxdelis mier deklarirebuli Semosavlebis siswore.
magaliTad, Zalian rTulia taqsis mZRolis Semosavlis
Semowmeba. amitom, aseT SemTxvevebSi, savaraudo Semosavlis
mixedviT gamoangariSebuli fiqsirebuli gadasaxadis
daweseba aiolebs gadasaxadiT dabegvris teqnikur mxares.
realuri gadasaxadebis akrefiT xorcieldeba im
pirTa gaTanabreba, romlebic qonebas iyeneben rogorc
721
sawarmoo, ise arasawarmoo miznebisaTvis. mxolod
Semosavlebis dabegvra gaaTavisuflebda gadasaxadisagan
im pirebs, romlebic iyeneben qonebas arasawarmoo
miznebisaTvis (magaliTad, miwis nakveTs mxolod dasvenebis
mizniT). realur gadasaxadebs miekuTvneba miwis gadasaxadi,
avtosatransporto saSualebebis mflobelTa gadasaxadi
da sxva.
piradi gadasaxadebis gadaxda warmoebs faqtiurad
miRebuli Semosavlebidan. maT miekuTvnebaT saSemosavlo
gadasaxadi, mogebis gadasaxadi, gadasaxadi memkvidreobisa
da CuqebisaTvis da sxva.
arapirdapiri gadasaxadebi dgindeba miwodebuli
saqonlis (samuSaos, momsaxurebis) fasze danamatis saxiT
(aqcizi, damatebuli Rirebulebis gadasaxadi, gayidvidan
gadasaxadi da sxva).
arapirdapiri gadasaxadi saqarTvelos sagadasaxado
kodeqsSi asea ganmartebuli: `arapirdapiri gadasaxadi
– gadasaxadi (dRg, aqcizi da sxva), romelic dgindeba
miwodebuli saqonlis an/da gaweuli momsaxurebis fasze
danamatis saxiT da romelsac ixdis momxmarebeli am
gadasaxadiT gazrdili fasiT saqonlis an/da momsaxurebis SeZenisas. arapirdapiri gadasaxadis biujetSi
gadaxdis valdebuleba ekisreba saqonlis mimwodebels
an/da momsaxurebis gamwevs, romelic am kodeqsis
miznebisTvis iwodeba gadasaxadis gadamxdelad~.
pirdapir da arapirdapir gadasaxadebs Soris
ZiriTadi gansxvaveba mdgomareobs gadasaxadis gadaxdis
wyaros formirebis adgilSi. Tu pirdapiri gadasaxadebiT
dabegvrisas wyaro formirdeba uSualod gadasaxadis
* saqarTvelos sagadasaxado kodeqsi. _ Tb., 2007, muxli 12.
722
gadamxdelTan, arapirdapiri gadasaxadebisas – gadasaxadis
wyaro Sedis gadasaxadis gadamxdelTan sxva Senatanebis
SemadgenlobaSi (ZiriTadad fasis SemadgenlobaSi).
pirdapiri gadasaxadebis saboloo gadamxdelad
gvevlineba is, vinc iRebs Semosavals, maSin, rodesac
arapirdapiri gadasaxadebis saboloo gadamxdels
warmoadgens saqonlis momxmarebeli, romelzec gadasaxadi
gadadis fasze danamatis saxiT. arapirdapiri gadasaxadebis simZime mTlianad gadadis saqonlis saboloo
momxmareblebze da gansakuTrebiT mosaxleobis materialurad naklebad uzrunvelyofil fenebze.
sagadasaxado praqtikidan gamomdinare, arapirdapiri
gadasaxadebi SeiZleba davyoT arapirdapir individualur
da arapirdapir universalur gadasaxadebad. arapirdapiri individualuri gadasaxadebiT ibegreba mkacrad
gansazRvruli saqonlis jgufi (saaqcizo gadasaxadiT
ibegreba saqonlis calkeuli jgufebi da saxeebi).
arapirdapiri universaluri gadasaxadebiT ibegreba
yvela saxis
(gaTavisuflebulis
garda)
saqoneli,SeiZleba
samuSao
gadasaxadis
gadamxdelebidan
gamomdinare,
da momsaxureba
gamo
vyo T: g ad (magaliTad,
as ax a de bi damatebuli
f i z i ku r i Rirebulebis
pi r eb id an ;
gadasaxadi). sawarmoebidan da organizaciebidan;
gadasaxadebi
Sereuli gadasaxadebi .
fizikuri pirebidan amosaReb gadasaxadebs
miekuTvneba saSemosavlo gadasaxadi, fizikur pirTa
qonebis gadasaxadi, sakurorto gadasaxadi da sxva.
gadasaxadebs sawarmoebidan da organizaciebidan miekuTvneba mogebis gadasaxadi, sawarmoTa qonebis
gadasaxadi da sxva.
Sereul gadasaxads warmoadgens is gadasaxadebi,
romlebsac ixdian rogorc fizikuri pirebi, aseve
sawarmoebi da organizaciebi. magaliTad, damatebuli
723
Rirebulebis gadasaxadi, aqcizi, socialuri gadasaxadi
da sxva.
 gadasaxadebis dawesebasTan dakavSirebiT sxvadasxva donis saxelisuflebo organoebis kompetenciis
Sesabamisad, gadasaxadebi SeiZleba davyoT federalur
da adgilobriv gadasaxadebad . saqarTveloSi moqmedi
gadasaxadebi iyofa saerTo-saxelmwifoebriv da
adgilobriv gadasaxadebad.
s a er T o - s ax e l m w if o e b r iv i g a da s a x a de b i s
daweseba da SemoReba xorcieldeba saqarTvelos umaRlesi
warmomadgenlobiTi organos gadawyvetilebiT, Tumca es
ar niSnavs imas, rom es gadasaxadebi aucileblad unda
Cairicxos centraluri xelisuflebis biujetSi. maTi
gadaxda savaldebuloa saqarTvelos mTel teritoriaze.
adgilobrivi gadasaxadebis daweseba aseve xorcieldeba saqarTvelos umaRlesi sakanonmdeblo organos mier,
Tumca maTi SemoReba warmoebs adgilobrivi TviTmmarTvelobis warmomadgenlobiTi organoebis gadawyvetilebiT.
isini iricxeba teritoriuli erTeulebis biujetebSi.
maTi gadaxda savaldebuloa Sesabamisi subieqtebis
teritoriaze.
 gadasaxadebi, SemoRebisa da gadaxdis wesis mixedviT,
SeiZleba davy oT s ae r To - s av a ld e bu l o d a
fakultatur gadasaxadebad.
saqarTveloSi saerTo-savaldebulo gadasaxadebi dadgenilia saqarTvelos kanonmdeblobis aqtebiT
da ikribeba mTel mis teritoriaze imisda miuxedavad,
romel biujetSi iricxeba isini. maT miekuTvneba
saqarTvelos sagadasaxado kodeqsiT gaTvaliswinebuli
yvela saerTo-saxelmwifoebrivi gadasaxadi.
724
fakultaturi gadasaxadebi gaTvaliswinebulia
saqarTvelos sagadasaxado kodeqsiT, Tumca isini uSualod
SeiZleba SemoRebul iqnes aWarisa da afxazeTis avtonomiuri respublikebis umaRlesi warmomadgenlobiTi
organoebisa da adgilobrivi TviTmmarTvelobis organoebis normatiuli aqtebiT. maTi SemoReba da akreba ama
Tu im teritoriaze adgilobrivi TviTmmarTvelobis
organoebis kompetenciaa. fakultatur gadasaxadebs
miekuTvneba saqarTvelos sagadasaxado kodeqsiT
gansazRvruli yvela adgilobrivi gadasaxadi.
 sagadasaxado Senatanebis mimarTulebebis mixedviT
gadasaxadebi SeiZleba davyoT myar (anu mimagrebul)
da maregulirebel gadasaxadebad .
myari gadasaxadebi uSualod da mTlianad
iricxeba konkretul biujetSi an saxelmwifo fondSi.
maregulirebeli gadasaxadebi sabiujeto kanonmdeblobiT dadgenili proporciebis Sesabamisad nawildeba da
erTdroulad iricxeba sxvadasxva donis biujetebSi.
 SemoRebis miznobrivi mimarTulebidan gamomdi-nare,
gadasaxadebi SeiZleba davyoT abstraqtul (saerTo)
da miznobriv (specialur) gadasaxadebad .
a b s t r a q t u l i g a d a s a x a d e b i d aw esebulia
mTlianobaSi biujetis formirebis mizniT, maSin, rodesac
miznobrivi gadasaxadebis daweseba xorcieldeba
saxelmwifo xarjebis konkretuli mimarTulebebis
dasafinanseblad. rogorc wesi, miznobrivi sagadasaxado
SenatanebisTvis iqmneba specialuri saxelmwifo fondi
an amgvari saxis gadasaxadisTvis uSualod biuetSi
SemoRebulia specialuri muxli.
725
 specialur literaturaSi SeiZleba SevxvdeT
gadasaxadebis klasifikaciis sxva safuZvlebsac. magaliTad,
gamoyofen erTjerad da sistematur gadasaxadebsac.
erTjeradi gadasaxadis gadaxda dakavSirebulia
raime movlenebTan, romlebic ar qmnian sistemas. erTjerad
gadasaxads miekuTvneba gadasaxadi memkvidreobisa an
CuqebisaTvis.
sistematuri gadasaxadebis gadaxda xorcieldeba
gadamxdelis mier ekonomikuri saqmianobis ganxorcielebis an gansazRvruli qonebis mflobelobis mTeli
periodis ganmavlobaSi gansazRvruli periodulobiT.
magaliTad, korporaciis Semosavalze gadasaxadisa da
mogebis gadaxda warmoebs yovelwliurad, damatebuli
Rirebulebis gadasaxadis – yovelTviurad da a.S.
saqarTvelo s sagadasaxado s is tema da
sagadasaxado politika agebulia sazRvargareTis ganviTarebuli sabazro ekonomikis mqone qveynebis gamocdilebis
gaTvaliswinebiT da orientirebulia Cveni qveynis
ekonomikuri da socialuri ganviTarebis xelSewyobaze.
s a q a r Tv e l o s T a n a m ed r o v e s a g a d as a x a d o
sistema ZiriTadad Camoyalibda 1991-1994 wlebSi
qveyanaSi mimdinare Zireuli ekonomikuri gardaqmnebisa
da sabazro urTierTobebze gadasvlis periodSi. mas
safuZvlad daedo sazRvargareTis qveynebis gamocdileba,
ris gamoc saerTo struqturiTa da agebulebis principebiT ZiriTadad Seesabameba msoflio ekonomikaSi
gavrcelebuli gadasaxadebiT dabegvris sistemas. amasTan,
saqarTveloSi sagadasaxado sistemis ZiriTadi elementebi
yalibdeboda erovnuli specifikis gaTvaliswinebiT.
saqarTvelos sagadasaxado sistema moicavs saqarTvelos sagadasaxado kodeqsiT gaTvaliswinebuli gadasaxa726
debis dawesebis, Secvlis, gauqmebisa da gadaxdevinebis
princi pebis, formebisa da meTodebis, sagadasaxado
organoebisa da sagadasaxado kontrolis, agreTve,
sagadasaxado kanonmdeblobis darRvevisaTvis pasuxismgeblobis saxeebis erTobliobas.
saqarTvelos sagadasaxado sistemis agebis
safuZvelia organizaciuli princi pebi , romlebic
ganapirobeben misi marTvisa da ganviTarebis ZiriTad
mimarTulebebs. es princi pebia:
sagadasaxado sistemis erTianobis princi pi .
igi uzrunvelyofs saqarTvelos sagadasaxado organoebis
erTian centralizebul sistemas. afxazeTisa da aWaris
avtonomiuri respublikebis, agreTve, qalaqebisa da
raionebis sagadasaxado inspeqciebi warmoadgenen
saqarTvelos finansTa saministros sagadasaxado
departamentis teritoriul organoebs da ara am
subieqtebis organoebs. amitom, dauSvebelia iseTi
gadasaxadebis SemoReba, romlebsac SeuZliaT saqonlis,
samuSaoebis, momsaxurebisa da finansuri saxsrebis
Tavisufali gadaadgileba erTiani ekonomikuri sivrcis
farglebSi.
elastiurobis princi pi. igi gulisxmobs saxelmwifos obieqturi saWiroebebisa da SesaZleblobebis
Sesabamisad, gadasaxadebisa da zogierTi sagadasaxado
meqanizmis operatiul Secvlas sagadasaxado tvirTis
Semcirebis an gazrdis mimarTulebiT. es princi pi
damaxasiaTebelia ara mxolod saqarTvelos sagadasaxado
sistemisaTvis, aramed ganviTarebuli qveynebis sagadasaxado
sistemebisTvisac. kerZod, 1992 wels germaniaSi
* saqarTvelos sagadasaxado kodeqsi. _ Tb., 2007, muxli 7.
727
saSemosavlo gadasaxadebis kanonmdeblobaSi Setanili
iqna 125 cvlileba.
stabilurobis princi pi. sagadasaxado sistema
unda moqmedebdes wlebis ganmavlobaSi sagadasaxado
reformamde, xolo reforma unda tardebodes
gansakuTrebul SemTxvevebSi da mkacrad gansazRvruli
wesiT. es princi pi mxolod gadasaxadis gadamxdelTa
interesebis dacvas ar emsaxureba. sagadasaxado sistemis
Secvlam Sesabamisad SeiZleba gamoiwvios biujetis
sagadasaxado Semosavlebis mkveTri Semcireba, xolo
wonasworobis aRdgenas ramdenime weli dasWirdes.
gadasaxadebis simravlis princi pi. saxelmwifos
sagadasaxado sistema diferencirebuli gadasaxadebisa
da dabegvris obieqtebis iseT erTobliobaze unda iyos
dafuZnebuli, romelic gadasaxadis gadamxdelebs
gadaunawilebs sagadasaxado tvirTs. amasTan, gamoricxavs
araefeqturi gadasaxadebisa da obieqtebis arsebobas.
gadasaxadebis amomwuravi nusxis princi pi .
igi zRudavs iseTi damatebiTi gadasaxadebis SemoRebas,
romlebic saqarTvelos sagadasaxado kodeqsiT ar aris
gaTvaliswinebuli. magaliTad, maRali an diferencirebuli
sagadasaxado ganakveTebis da sagadasaxado SeTRavaTebis
daweseba, sakuTrebis formis, sawarmos organizaciulsamarTlebrivi formis, fizikuri piris moqalaqeobis,
agreTve gadasaxadis gadamxdelis kapitalis an qonebis
warmoSobis adgilis mixedviT.
mocemuli princi pebi ganmtkicebulia saqarTvelos
konstituciiTa da saqarTvelos sagadasaxado kodeqsiT.
saqarTvelos sagadasaxado politik a Tavs
gamoxatulebas poulobs saqarTvelos parlamentis mier
728
miRebuli saqarTvelos sagadasaxado kodeqssa da mTel
rig sxva sakanonmdeblo aqtebSi.
saqarTvelos parlamentma 1994 wlis dekemberSi
miiRo qveyanaSi sagadasaxado politikisa da sagadasaxado
sistemis Sesaxeb kanonTa mTeli kompleqsi, romelTagan
aRsaniSnavia Semdegi kanonebi: `sagadasaxado sistemis
safuZvlebis Sesaxeb~, `sawarmoebis mogebis (Semosavlebis)
gadasaxadis Sesaxeb~, `saqarTvelos respublikis saxelmwifo sagadasaxado samsaxuris Sesaxeb~, `damatebuli
Rirebulebis gadasaxadis Sesaxeb~, `aqcizebis Sesaxeb~,
`sawarmoTa qonebis gadasaxadis Sesaxeb~, `fizikur pirTa
qonebis gadasaxadis Sesaxeb~, `fizikur pirTa saSemosavlo
gadasaxadis Sesaxeb~. 1996 wels saqarTvelos
parlamentma miiRo kanonebi `sabaJo gadasaxadis Sesaxeb~
da `saqarTvelos sagadasaxado sistemis maregulirebel
sakanonmdeblo aqtebSi cvlilebebisa da damatebebis
Setanis Taobaze~. yvela aRniSnuli kanoni, maTSi Setanili
cvlilebebisa da damatebebis gaTvaliswinebiT, moqmedebda
1997 wlis seqtembramde anu saqarTvelos parlamentis
mier imave wlis 13 ivniss miRebuli `saqarTvelos
sagadasaxado kodeqsis~ amoqmedebamde. aRniSnuli kodeqsi
Secvala 2004 wlis 22 dekembers miRebulma axalma
sagadasaxado kodeqsma, romelic ZalaSi Sevida da amoqmedda
2005 wlis 1 ianvridan.
saqarTvelos sagadasaxado kodeqsi gansazRvravs
gadasaxadebis dawesebis, SemoRebisa da gauqmebis wesebs.
am wesebis Secvla anu sagadasaxado kodeqsSi cvlilebebis
Setana da maTi damtkiceba SeuZlia mxolod saqarTvelos
parlaments.
saqarTvelos sagadasaxado kodeqsi erTdroulad
awesebs saqarTveloSi moqmed saerTo-saxelmwifoebriv
729
da adgilobriv gadasaxadebs, gansazRvravs saerTosaxelmwifoebrivi gadasaxadebis arsebiT elementebs
(gamoangariSebisa da gadaxdis wess) anu erTdroulad
axorcielebs saerTo-saxelmwifoebivi gadasaxadebis
dawesebasa da maT SemoRebas saqarTvelos mTel teritoriaze. rac Seexeba adgilobriv gadasaxadebs, avtonomiuri
respublikis umaRles warmomadgenlobiT organoebsa da
adgilobrivi TviTmmarTvelobis organoebs ufleba aqvT
damoukideblad gadawyviton – SemoiRon Tu ara TavianT
samoqmedo teritoriaze saqarTvelos sagadasaxado
kodeqsiT dawesebuli Sesabamisi gadasaxadebi.
saqarTvelos sagadasaxado kodeqsiT gansazRvruli
da moqmedi gadasaxadebis sistema moicavs saerTosaxelmwifoebriv da adgilobriv gadasaxadebs. saerTosaxelmwifoebrivi gadasaxadebis gadaxda savaldebuloa
saqarTvelos mTel teritoriaze. adgilobriv gadasaxadebs ganekuTvneba saqarTvelos sagadasaxado kodeqsiT
gaTvaliswinebuli da afxazeTisa da aWaris avtonomiuri
respublikebis umaRlesi warmomadgenlobiTi organoebis
an adgilobrivi TviTmmarTvelobis organoebis normatiuli
aqtebiT SemoRebuli gadasaxadebi, romelTa gadaxda
savaldebuloa Sesabamisi subieqtebis teritoriaze.
saqarTvelos axalma sagadasaxado kodeqsma
Zireulad Secvala gadasaxadebis sistema gadasaxadebis
rogorc raodenobrivi, ise xarisxobrivi Semadgenlobis
TvalsazrisiT. misi mizania biujetebis Semosavlebis
formirebis realuri gaumjobeseba, sagadasaxado tvirTis
Semcireba, sagadasaxado sistemis gamartiveba naklebefeqtiani gadasaxadebis gauqmebis gziT, sagadasaxado bazis
gafarToeba SeRavaTebis gauqmebisa da gadamxdelTa
raodenobis gafarToebis xarjze, gadasaxadebis
730
gaangariSebis meTodikis gamartiveba da gamWvirvalobis
uzrunvelyofa, gadasaxadebis gadauxdelobis minimizacia
finansuri kontrolis gaZlierebis gziT.
saqarTvelos axali sagadasaxado kodeqsiT
gaTvaliswinebuli sagadasaxado sistema mniSvnelovnadaa
gamartivebuli. igi moicavs mxolod 5 saerTosaxelmwifoebriv da 2 adgilobriv gadasaxads. Secvlilia
maTi sagadasaxado ganakveTebi da gadaxdis reJimebi.
saerTo-saxelmwifoebriv gadasaxadebs miekuTvneba :

saSemosavlo
g a d as a x ad i . m is i
gadamxdelebi arian rezidenti piri da ararezidenti
fizikuri piri, romelic Semosavals iRebs saqarTveloSi
arsebuli wyarodan. rezidenti fizikuri pirisaTvis
dabegvris obieqtia dasabegri Semosavali, romelic
gamoiTvleba rogorc sxvaoba kalendaruli wlis
ganmavlobaSi miRebul erTobliv Semosavalsa da am
periodisaTvis sagadasaxado kodeqsiT gaTvaliswinebuli
gamoqviTvebis Tanxebs Soris. ararezidenti fizikuri
piris saSemosavlo gadasaxadiT dabegvris obieqtia
dasabegri Semosavali, romelic ganisazRvreba, rogorc
sxvaoba kalendaruli wlis ganmavlobaSi mudmiv
dawesebulebasTan dakavSirebul saqarTveloSi arsebuli
wyarodan miRebul erTobliv Semosavalsa da am
periodisaTvis sagadasaxado kodeqsiT gaTvaliswinebuli
gamo qviTvebis Tanxebs So ris. am ave kodeqs iT
gansazRvrulia ararezidenti pirebis mier saqarTveloSi
miRebuli im Semosavlebis (dividendi, procenti da a.S.)
dabegvris pirobebi, romlebic mis mudmiv dawesebulebasTan
ar aris dakavSirebuli.
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fizikuri piris saSemosavlo gadasaxadiT dasabegri
Semosavali ibegreba 12%-iT.

mogebis gadasaxadi . misi gadamxdelebi
arian saqarTvelos sawarmo da ucxouri sawarmo, romelic
saqarTveloSi saqmianobas axorcielebs mudmivi dawesebulebebis meSveobiT an/da Semosavals iRebs saqarTveloSi
arsebuli wyarodan. dabegvris obieqtia mogeba, romelic
ganisazRvreba, rogorc sxvaoba gadasaxadis gadamxdelis
erTobliv Semosavalsa da sagadasaxado kodeqsiT
gaTvaliswinebul gamoqviTvis Tanxebs Soris. amasTan,
sagadasaxado kodeqsiT gansazRvrulia rogorc Semosavlebi, ise xarjebi.
rezidentis erToblivi Semosavali Sedgeba mis mier
saqarTveloSi an/da mis farglebs gareT miRebuli
Semosavlebisagan. ararezidentis erToblivi Semosavali
Sedgeba saqarTveloSi arsebuli wyaroebidan miRebuli
Semosavlebisagan. erTobliv Semosavlebs ganekuTvneba
nebismieri formiT an/da saqmianobiT xelfasis, ekonomikuri
sargeblis an sxva fulad Tu naturalur formaSi
miRebuli Semosavlebi.
xarjebad iTvleba gadasaxadis gadamxdelis mier
ganxorcielebuli (gaweuli) dasabuTebuli da dokumenturad dadasturebuli danaxarjebi.
sawarmos dasabegri mogeba ibegreba 20%-iT, garda
`navTobisa da gazis Sesaxeb~ saqarTvelos kanoniT
gansazRvruli `arsebuli xelSekrulebebis~ ganxorcielebis Sedegad navTobisa da gazis operaciebiT miRebuli
mogebisa, romelic ibegreba 10%-iani ganakveTiT, Tu es
xelSekruleba dadebulia 1998 wlis 1 ianvramde.
* 2008 wlis 1 ianvridan sawarmos dasabegri mogeba 20%-is nacvlad
ibegreba 15%-iT.
732

damatebuli Rirebulebis gadasaxadi
(dRg). am gadasaxadiT ibegreba dasabegri brunva, romelic
saangariSo periodSi ganxorcielebuli dasabegri
operaciebisa da dasabegri importis Tanxebis jamia.
dasabegri operaciis Tanxa ganisazRvreba saqonlis/
momsaxurebis sabazro fasiT (gadasaxadebis, mosakreblebisa da sxva gadasaxdelebis CaTvliT) dRg-is gareSe.
dasabegri importis Tanxa tolia saqarTvelos sabaJo
kanonmdeblobiT gansazRvruli saqonlis (da momsaxurebis,
romelic ganixileba rogorc saqoneli) sabaJo
Rirebulebisa da saqarTveloSi saqonlis importisas
gadasaxdeli gadasaxadebisa da mosakreblebis Tanxebis
jamisa, saqarTveloSi gadasaxdeli dRg-is CauTvlelad.
biujetSi Sesatani dRg-is Tanxa ganisazRvreba
rogorc sxvaoba dasabegr brunvaze daricxul dRg-is
Tanxasa da CasaTvlel dRg-is Tanxebs Soris. dRg-is
ganakveTi Seadgens dasabegri brunvis an dasabegri
importis Tanxis 18%-s.

aqcizi. aqcizis gadamxdelebi arian pirebi,
romlebic awarmoeben aqcizur saqonels saqarTveloSi;
axorcieleben aqcizuri saqonlis imports saqarTveloSi;
axorcieleben Savi an/da feradi liTonebis eqsports.
aqcizuri saqoneli ibegreba misi calkeuli saxeebis
mixedviT saqonlis fizikur an woniT erTeulze
fiqsirebuli (fuladi) gadasaxadiT an fasis mimarT
procentuli ganakveTiT . aqcizuri saqonlis eqsporti
ibegreba nulovani ganakveTiT, garda Savi an/da feradi
liTonebis eqsportisa.
socialuri gadasaxadi . mis gadamxdelebad
iTvlebian damqiraveblebi, romlebic Sromas unazRaurebs
daqiravebul muSakebs; mewarme fizikuri pirebi, amxanagobis
733
wevri fizikuri pirebi, romlebic saqarTveloSi ewevian
ekonomikur saqmianobas; sawarmo/organizacia an mewarme
fizikuri piri, romelic saqarTveloSi gaweul
momsaxurebas unazRaurebs sagadasaxadoSi gadamxdelad
araregistrirebul fizikur pirebs. socialuri gadasaxadiT dasabegri obieqtia xelfasi, momsaxurebis
gawevisaTvis gadaxdili safasuri an sargebeli da
ekonomikuri saqmianobiT miRebuli Semosavali. socialuri
gadasaxadis ganakveTi gansazRvrulia dasabegri obieqtis
20%-is odenobiT;
adgilobriv gadasaxadebs miekuTvneba:

qonebis gadasaxadi;

saTamaSo biznesis gadasaxadi.
qonebis gadasaxadis gadamxdelia piri (agreTve,
lizingiT sagnis mflobeli piri), romelsac saqarTvelos
teritoriaze: a) sakuTrebaSi aqvs am gadasaxadiT dabegvris
obieqti; b) kanoniT gaTvaliswinebul sargeblobaSi an
faqtobriv mflobelobasa da sargeblobaSi aqvs
saxelmwifo sakuTrebaSi arsebuli miwa, garda saqarTvelos kanonmdeblobiT gaTvaliswinebuli miwis flobisa
da miwiT kanonieri sargeblobisa. saqarTvelos an
ucxouri sawarmosaTvis, organizaciisaTvis an/da fizikuri
pirisaTvis am gadasaxadiT dabegvris obieqtia maT
balansze arsebuli qoneba, romelic gamoiyeneba
ekonomikuri saqmianobisaTvis, maT balansze ricxuli
ZiriTadi saSualebebi, daumontaJebeli mowyobilobebi,
daumTavrebeli kapitaluri dabandebani, aramaterialuri
*
2008 wlis 1 ianvridan gauqmda socialuri gadasaxadi, rogorc
saerTo-saxelmwifoebrivi gadasaxadis saxe da is aisaxa saSemosavlo
gadasaxadSi; fizikuri piris dasabegri Semosavali ibegreba 25%iT, nacvlad manam arsebuli 12%-isa, xolo 2009 wlis 1 ianvridan
- 20%-iT.
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aqtivebi, sakuTrebaSi arsebuli miwa da am kodeqsiT
gaTvaliswinebul sargeblobaSi an faqtobriv mflobelobaSi saxelmwifo sakuTrebaSi arsebuli miwa. gadasaxadis
ganakveTebi diferencirebulia qonebis saxeebis, maTi
sabazro Rirebulebisa da Semosavlebis mixedviT.
saTamaSo biznesis gadasaxadis gadamxdelebad
iT