master`s thesis - Rio Rural - Governo do Estado do Rio de Janeiro

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master`s thesis - Rio Rural - Governo do Estado do Rio de Janeiro
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MASTER’S!THESIS!
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Master!of!Science!in!Technology!and!Resources!Management!in!the!Tropics!and!
Subtropics!(TERMA)!
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COLOGNE!UNIVERSITY!OF!APPLIED!SCIENCE!
ITT!3!INSTITUTE!FOR!TECHNOLOGY!AND!RESOURCES!MANAGEMENT!IN!THE!TROPICS!AND!SUBTROPICS!
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VALUE!CHAIN!ANALYSIS!FOR!DECISION3MAKING!ON!THE!MOUNTAIN!AND!NORTHWEST!
RURAL!REGION!OF!THE!STATE!RIO!DE!JANEIRO,!BRAZIL!
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Juliana!Minetto!Gellert!Paris!
Cologne,!Germany!!
2015!
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Master!of!Science!in!Technology!and!Resources!Management!in!the!Tropics!and!
Subtropics!(TERMA)!
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Cologne!University!of!Applied!Science!
ITT!3!Institute!for!Technology!and!Resources!Management!in!the!Tropics!and!Subtropics!
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VALUE!CHAIN!ANALYSIS!FOR!DECISION3MAKING!ON!THE!MOUNTAIN!AND!NORTHWEST!
RURAL!REGION!OF!THE!STATE!RIO!DE!JANEIRO,!BRAZIL!
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Thesis!to!Obtain!the!Degree!of!
MASTER!OF!SCIENCE!
TECHNOLOGY!AND!RESOURCES!MANAGEMENT!IN!THE!TROPICS!AND!SUBTROPICS!IN!THE!
SPECIALIZATION:!!LAND!MANAGEMENT!
DEGREE!AWARDED!BY!COLOGNE!UNIVERSITY!OF!APPLIED!SCIENCES!
PRESENTS:!
JULIANA!MINETTO!GELLERT!PARIS!
!
SUPERVISOR!OF!THESIS!ITT:!
PROF.!DR.!SABINE!SCHLÜTER!
COXSUPERVISION:!
DR.!JUAN!CARLOS!TORRICO!ALBINO!
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DATE!OF!SUBMISSION!
12.09.2015!
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Presented!by!
Juliana!Minetto!Gellert!Paris!!!!Student!no.:!11092497!!!Email:[email protected]!
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PARIS,!Juliana!Minetto!Gellert!
Value!Chain!Analysis!for!decisionXmaking!on!the!Mountain!and!Northwest!Region!of!
the!State!Rio!de!Janeiro,!Brazil!XX!Cologne,!2015!
230p.!
Master’s!Thesis!–!ITT!X!Institute!for!Technology!and!Resources!Management!in!the!
Tropics!and!Subtropics!
1.!Family!farming.!2.!Value!chain!analysis.!3.!Rio!de!Janeiro.!4.!Rural!sustainable!
development!5.!Horticulture.!6.!Coffee.!7.decisionXmaking!
Cologne!University!of!Applied!Science!(CUAS)!
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Examination!Board!
!!!!!!!!!!!!!Prof.!Dr.!Sabine!Schlüter!!
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Helga!Hissa!
!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!Tech.!Coord.!SEAPECXPRR!
SPECIAL!CREDITS!TO:!
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PROJECT!INTECRAL!–!INTEGRATED!ECO!TECHNOLOGIES!AND!SERVICES!FOR!A!
SUSTAINABLE!RURAL!RIO!DE!JANEIRO!
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PERFORMED!BY:!
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INSTITUTE!FOR!TECHNOLOGY!AND!RESOURCES!MANAGEMENT!IN!THE!TROPICS!AND!
SUBTROPICS!!
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AND!
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“PROGAMA!RIO!RURAL”!3!SECRETARIAT!OF!AGRICULTURE!AND!LIVESTOCK!OF!RIO!DE!
JANEIRO!STATE!
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SUPPORTED!BY:!
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SCHOLARSHIP!3!CENTERS!FOR!NATURAL!RESOURCES!AND!DEVELOPMENT!(CNRD)!
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To!my!beloved!husband,!Alexandre!who!gave!me!unconditional!support!in!my!journey!
To!my!dear!parents,!Ana!Cristina!and!Cláudio,!my!brother!Thiago!and!my!grandparents!!
And!to!my!little!nephew!Dudu!
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ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS!
I!would!like!to!express!my!truthful!gratitude!to!all!SEAPECXPRR!team,!who!strongly!supported!my!
research!in!Brazil.!Specially!Jarbas!Saraiva,!Marcos!André!Jogaib,!Marcelo!Costa,!Ueber!Said,!and!
Nelson!Teixeira.!
Special! thanks! to! my! supervisor! Prof.! Dr.! Sabine! Schlüter,! who! gave! me! the! opportunity! to!
participate!in!the!INTECRAL!project,!and!has!always!been!patient!and!understanding.!Many!thanks!
to!Helga!Hissa!for!agreeing!and!availing!herself!of!time!to!be!part!of!the!examination!board.!!
I!express!my!sincere!gratitude!to!Margarete!Satsumi!Tiba!and!her!family!and!Nair!&!Antonio!José!
and! their! family,! Rosane! Bendia! Grazioli! (EMATER! VarreXSai),! and! Gerson! Yunes! (EMATER!
Serrana).!Who!mostly!supported!the!research!on!the!field,!and!to!whom!I!am!deeply!grateful!for!
the!contribution!to!the!concretization!of!this!study.!
I! would! like! to! acknowledge! the! help! and! support! given! by! Berenice! Quintana! and! Juan! Carlos!
Torrico!(INTECRAL);!Luiz!Antonio!Antunes!and!Jorge!Alves!(PESAGRO),!Ian!Luis!Galliez!(colleague!
researcher),! Antonio! Carlos! and! Adalberto! (CEASA! Seinp),! Marcelo! Silva! (Secretariat! of!
Agriculture,! Livestock! and! Supply! of! Nova! Friburgo),! Paulo! Ricardo! Crispin! (“Mercado! do!
Produtor”!in!Nova!Friburgo),!José!Ferreira!and!Márcio!Vargas!(COOPERCANOL).!!
I!am!extremely!grateful!to!Miriam!and!Ricardo!Paris,!for!supporting!my!stay!in!Rio!de!Janeiro,!and!
for!helping!me!with!the!research.!I!am!also!thankful!to!Eliane!Taddei,!for!all!the!encouragement!
given!and!the!help!with!the!English!in!my!assignments.!
I! would! like! to! acknowledge! all! my! INTECRAL! team! colleagues! for! the! companionship! and!
encouragement!during!the!research.!I!was!delighted!to!work!with!this!wonderful!team.!
Finally,!I!am!sincerely!thankful!to!all!producers!in!the!microXbasins!Barracão!dos!Mendes,!Santa!
Cruz,! VarreXSai! and! Ribeirão! da! Onça,! to! whom! I! devote! this! work.! Without! their! participation,!
this!research!wouldn’t!have!been!achieved.!
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“Hope!is!not!the!conviction!that!something!will!turn!out!well!!
but!the!certainty!that!something!makes!sense,!!
regardless!of!how!it!turns!out.”!
former!Czech!president!and!dramaturge!Václav!Havel!
TABLE&OF&CONTENTS&
1.# CHAPTER:#INTRODUCTION#
1#
1.1.! BACKGROUND#
1.2.! PROBLEM#STATEMENT#
1.3.! RESEARCH#GAPS#
1.4.! OBJECTIVES#
1.4.1.! GENERAL*OBJECTIVE!
1.4.2.! SPECIFIC*OBJECTIVES!
1.5.! RESEARCH#QUESTIONS#
1!
2!
4!
5!
5!
5!
6!
2.# CHAPTER:#STATE#OF#THE#ART#
7#
2.1.! THE#ROLE#OF#FAMILY#FARMING#ON#THE#SUSTAINABLE#RURAL#DEVELOPMENT#
2.1.1.! THE*ISSUE*OF*FAMILY*FARMING*IN*BRAZIL!
2.1.2.! BRAZILIAN*PRO;FAMILY*FARMING*POLICIES!
2.1.3.! HURDLES*OF*THE*BRAZILIAN*SUSTAINABLE*RURAL*DEVELOPMENT!
2.2.! CONCEPTUAL#FRAMEWORK#OF#VALUE#CHAIN#ANALYSIS#(VCA)#
2.2.1.! DEFINITION*OF*VALUE*CHAIN*(VC)!
2.2.2.! THE*CONCEPT*OF*VALUE*CHAIN*ANALYSIS*(VCA)!
2.2.3.! THE*APPROACH*OF*VALUE*CHAIN*ANALYSIS*(VCA)*FOR*DECISION;MAKING!
2.2.4.! OVERVIEW*OF*RECENT*STUDIES*ON*THE*FIELD!
7!
7!
10!
13!
15!
15!
16!
17!
18!
3.# CHAPTER:#RESEARCH#AREA#
21#
3.1.! VALUE#CHAIN#A:#COFFEE#
3.1.1.! SUMMARY*OF*THE*MUNICIPALITY*VARRE;SAI!
3.1.2.! CHARACTERISTICS*OF*MB1*AND*MB2!
3.1.3.! ORGANIZATION*OF*RURAL*COMMUNITIES*IN*MB1*AND*MB2!
3.2.! VALUE#CHAIN#B:#HORTICULTURE#
3.2.1.! SUMMARY*OF*THE*MUNICIPALITY*NOVA*FRIBURGO!
3.2.2.! CHARACTERISTICS*OF*MB3*AND*MB4!
3.2.3.! ORGANIZATION*OF*RURAL*COMMUNITIES*IN*MB3*AND*MB4!
21!
21!
22!
23!
23!
24!
24!
25!
4.# CHAPTER:#METHODOLOGY#
26#
4.1.! RESEARCH#DESIGN#
4.2.! METHODS#E#VALUE#CHAIN#ANALYSIS#(VCA)#
4.2.1.! STEP*1:*SOCIOECONOMIC*SITUATION*OF*THE*VALUE*CHAIN!
4.2.2.! STEP*2:*DEMAND*FOR*VALUE*CHAIN*OUTPUTS!
4.2.3.! STEP*3:*ANALYSIS*OF*THE*INSTITUTIONAL*SETUP!
4.2.4.! STEP*4:*ANALYSIS*OF*INPUT*AND*OUTPUT*MARKETS!
4.2.5.! STEP*5:*FUNCTIONAL*ANALYSIS!
4.2.6.! STEP*6:*ECONOMIC*ANALYSIS*OF*THE*VALUE*CHAIN!
4.2.7.! MARKET*MAP*FRAMEWORK!
4.3.! TOOLS#AND#INSTRUMENTS#
4.3.1.! DATA*REQUIREMENTS*FOR*VALUE*CHAIN*ANALYSIS!
4.3.2.! SAMPLING!
4.3.3.! DATA*SOURCE*AND*COLLECTION*METHODS!
4.4.! DATA#ANALYSIS#
26!
27!
28!
28!
28!
29!
30!
31!
35!
35!
35!
36!
38!
40!
5.# CHATER:#RESULTS#AND#DISCUSSION#–#VALUE#CHAIN#A#(COFFEE)#
41#
5.1.! STEP#1:#SOCIOECONOMIC#CONTEXT#OF#THE#VALUE#CHAIN#A:#COFFEE#
41!
!
i!
5.1.1.! PANORAMA*OF*THE*BRAZILIAN*COFFEE*ECONOMY!
5.1.2.! ECONOMIC*PERFORMANCE*OF*THE*COFFEE*SECTOR!
5.1.3.! COFFEE*PRODUCTION*IN*THE*STATE*OF*RIO*DE*JANEIRO!
5.1.4.! FLUMINENSE’S*NORTHWEST*REGION*COFFEE!
5.1.5.! PRODUCTION*IN*THE*STUDY*AREA!
5.1.6.! HOUSEHOLD*SOCIO;ECONOMIC*SURVEY*OF*VALUE*CHAIN*A!
5.2.! STEP#2:#DEMAND#FOR#COFFEE#VALUE#CHAIN#OUTPUTS#
5.2.1.! COFFEE*DEMAND*–*CONSUMPTION*AND*MARKET*TRENDS!
5.2.2.! COFFEE*CONSUMPTION*IN*THE*STATE*RIO*DE*JANEIRO!
5.2.3.! DEMAND*FOR*OUTPUTS*IN*THE*NORTHWEST*REGION!
5.2.4.! QUALITY*OF*RIO*DE*JANEIRO’S*COFFEE!
5.3.! STEP#3:#INSTITUTIONAL#SET#UP#OF#VALUE#CHAIN#A#
5.3.1.! BRAZILIAN*COFFEE*LEGISLATION*FRAMEWORK!
5.3.2.! FARMER’S*ORGANIZATIONAL*STRUCTURE!
5.3.3.! INSTITUTIONAL*SUPPORT!
5.4.! STEP#4:#INPUT#AND#OUTPUT#MARKETS#
5.4.1.! THE*COFFEE*MARKETPLACE!
5.4.2.! DEGREE*OF*COMPETITIVENESS!
5.5.! STEP#5:#FUNCTIONAL#ANALYSIS#VALUE#CHAIN#A#(COFFEE)#
5.5.1.! SETTING*THE*BOUNDARIES!
5.5.2.! IDENTIFICATION*OF*ACTIVITIES*AND*TECHNICAL*ANALYSIS!
5.5.3.! IDENTIFICATION*OF*AGENTS!
5.5.4.! QUANTIFICATION*OF*PHYSICAL*FLOWS!
5.5.5.! INPUT;OUTPUT*MATRICES!
5.5.6.! FINDINGS*OF*THE*FUNCTIONAL*ANALYSIS!
5.6.! STEP#6:#ECONOMIC#ANALYSIS#OF#VALUE#CHAIN#A#
5.6.1.! PRODUCTION*ACCOUNT!
5.6.2.! INCOME*ACCOUNT!
5.7.! MARKET#MAP#FRAMEWORK#VALUE#CHAIN#A#
41!
43!
45!
48!
49!
50!
58!
58!
60!
61!
63!
64!
64!
65!
68!
70!
70!
71!
73!
74!
75!
79!
81!
83!
85!
85!
85!
90!
95!
6.# CHAPTER:#RESULTS#AND#DISCUSSION#–#VALUE#CHAIN#B#HORTICULTURE#
98#
6.1.! STEP#1:#SOCIOECONOMIC#CONTEXT#OF#THE#VALUE#CHAIN#B:#HORTICULTURE#
6.1.1.! OVERVIEW*OF*HORTICULTURE*IN*THE*WORLD*AND*BRAZIL!
6.1.2.! HORTICULTURE*IN*THE*MOUNTAIN*REGION*OF*STATE*RJ!
6.1.2.! PRODUCTION*IN*THE*STUDY*AREA!
6.1.3.! HOUSEHOLD*SOCIO;ECONOMIC*SURVEY*OF*VALUE*CHAIN*B*(HORTICULTURE)!
6.2.! STEP#2:#DEMAND#FOR#HORTICULTURE#VALUE#CHAIN#OUTPUTS#
6.2.1.! DEMAND*AND*TRENDS*ON*VEGETABLE*CONSUMPTION!
6.2.2.! THE*SUPPLY*AND*DISTRIBUTION*SYSTEM*IN*RIO*DE*JANEIRO!
6.2.3.! THE*CEASA;RJ*WHOLESALE*MARKET*DISTRIBUTION*SYSTEM!
6.2.4.! RETAIL*SECTOR*IN*RIO*DE*JANEIRO!
6.2.5.! STREET*MARKET*IN*RIO*DE*JANEIRO!
6.3.! STEP#3:#INSTITUTIONAL#SETUP#OF#VALUE#CHAIN#B#
6.3.1.! INSTITUTIONAL*SUPPORT*AND*GOVERNANCE*IN*THE*MOUNTAIN*REGION!
6.3.2.! GOVERNANCE*SATISFACTION*OF*FARMERS!
6.3.3.! FARMER*ORGANIZATIONAL*STRUCTURE!
6.4.! STEP#4:#INPUT#AND#OUTPUT#MARKETS#IN#VALUE#CHAIN#B#
6.4.1.! SUPPLY*AND*PRICES*AT*THE*WHOLESALE*MARKET!
6.4.2.! DEGREE*OF*COMPETITIVENESS*IN*THE*VEGETABLE*MARKET!
6.4.3.! HORTICULTURE*MARKETPLACE!
6.5.! STEP#5:#FUNCTIONAL#ANALYSIS#OF#VALUE#CHAIN#B#E#HORTICULTURE#
6.5.1.! SETTING*THE*BOUNDARIES*OF*VALUE*CHAIN*B!
!
98!
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6.5.2.! IDENTIFICATION*OF*ACTIVITIES*AND*TECHNICAL*ANALSYS!
6.5.3.! IDENTIFICATION*OF*AGENTS!
6.5.4.! QUANTIFICATION*OF*PHYSICAL*FLOWS!
6.5.5.! INPUT*OUTPUT*MATRICES!
6.6.! STEP#6:#ECONOMIC#ANALYSIS#OF#THE#VALUE#CHAIN#B#
6.6.1.! PRODUCTION*ACCOUNT!
6.6.2.! INCOME*ACCOUNT!
6.7.! MARKET#MAP#FRAMEWORK#VALUE#CHAIN#B#
136!
141!
142!
144!
146!
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152!
156!
7.# CONCLUSIONS#AND#RECOMMENDATIONS#
158#
9.# REFERENCES#
160#
10.# APPENDICES#AND#ANNEXES#
178#
10.1.! ANNEX#1:#VCA#DATA#REQUIREMENTS#
10.2.! ANNEX#2:#ACCOUNTING#DEFINITIONS#
10.3.! APPENDIX#1:##QUESTIONNAIRE#HORTICULTURE#PRODUCER#
10.4.! APPENDIX#2:#QUESTIONNAIRE#COFFEE#GROWER#
10.5.! APPENDIX#3:#QUESTIONNAIRE#COFFEE#ROASTER#
10.6.! APPENDIX#4:#QUESTIONNAIRE#COFFEE#BROKER#
10.7.! APPENDIX#5:#QUESTIONNAIRE#CEASA#TRADER#
10.8.! APPENDIX#6:#QUESTIONNAIRE#MIDDLEMAN#AND#DISTRIBUTOR#(HORTICULTURE)#
10.9.! APPENDIX#7:#QUESTIONNAIRE#MINI#PROCESSING#PLANT#
10.10.! APPENDIX#8:#JOSÉ#FERREIRA#(COOPERCANOL)#INTERVIEW#TRANSCRIPT#
10.11.! APPENDIX#9:#PHOTOS#FIELDWORK#COFFEE#CHAIN#
10.12.! APPENDIX#10:#PHOTOS#FIELDWORK#HORTICULTURE#CHAIN#
10.13.! APPENDIX#11:#INTERMEDIATE#INPUT#COSTS#OF#FARMERS#IN#VALUE#CHAIN#B#
10.14.! APPENDIX#12:#WAGE#E#VALUE#CHAIN#B#
10.15.! APPENDIX#13:#PROFIT#OR#LOSS#IN#VALUE#CHAIN#B#
10.16.! APPENDIX#14:#SWOT#ANALYSIS#VALUE#CHAIN#B#
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208!
DECLARATION#IN#LIEU#OF#OATH#
209#
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LIST&OF&FIGURES&
FIGURE*1:*INTECRAL*STRUCTURE*AND*WORKING*PACKAGES!..............................................................................................................!1!
FIGURE*2:**FIELD*STUDY*AREAS*OF*INTECRAL*PROJECT!.......................................................................................................................!2!
FIGURE*3:!PERCENTAGE*OF*ESTABLISHMENTS*CHARACTERIZED*AS*FAMILY;BASED*AGRICULTURE!........................................................!9!
FIGURE*4:*EXTENSION*OF*THE*FOOD*PURCHASING*PROGRAM*(PAA)*IN*2014!................................................................................!12!
FIGURE*5:*SIMPLIFIED*VALUE*CHAIN!.....................................................................................................................................................!16!
FIGURE*6:*FIELD*STUDY*AREAS*OF*VALUE*CHAIN*A*(COFFEE)!.............................................................................................................!21!
FIGURE*7:*FIELD*STUDY*AREAS*OF*VALUE*CHAIN*B*(HORTICULTURE)!.................................................................................................!23!
FIGURE*8:*RESEARCH*DESIGN!...............................................................................................................................................................!26!
FIGURE*9:*SIX*ANALYTICAL*STEPS*OF*THE*VALUE*CHAIN*ANALYSIS*FRAMEWORK!.................................................................................!27!
FIGURE*10:*THE*PRODUCTION*PROCESS*USED*IN*ECONOMIC*ANALYSIS!.............................................................................................!31!
FIGURE*11:*BOX*OF*EQUATIONS*FOR*PRODUCTION*ACCOUNTS!.........................................................................................................!32!
FIGURE*12:*BOX*OF*DERIVED*NVA*INCOMES*AND*PROFITS*EQUATION!..............................................................................................!33!
FIGURE*13:*EXAMPLE*OF*VALUE*CHAIN*ACCOUNTS!..............................................................................................................................!34!
FIGURE*14:*THE*MARKET*MAP*EXAMPLE*PROPOSED!..........................................................................................................................!35!
FIGURE*15:*MAP*OF*THE*COFFEE*PRODUCING*REGIONS,*COFFEA*ARABICA*AND*COFFEA)CANEPHORA!.............................................!42!
FIGURE*16:*TOTAL*COFFEE*(OF*ALL*SORTS)*EXPORTS*EXPRESSED*IN*THOUSAND*BAGS*OF*60*KG*BY*MAJOR*EXPORTING*COUNTRIES*IN*
THE*PERIOD*OF*2010*TO*2013!.................................................................................................................................................!43!
FIGURE*17:*COFFEE*GROSS*REVENUE*SHARE*IN*PERCENTAGE*BY*PRODUCING*REGION*AND*THE*STATE*RIO*DE*JANEIRO*HIGHLIGHTED*
FOR*SPECIAL*COMPARISON!.........................................................................................................................................................!44!
FIGURE*18:*BIANNUAL*CYCLE*OF*THE*BRAZILIAN*COFFEE*IN*THE*CALENDAR*YEARS*FROM*1990*TO*2012!......................................!45!
FIGURE*19:*RIO*DE*JANEIRO’S*TOTAL*CROP*AREA*(HA)*AND*YIELD*(BAGS*60KG/HA)*FROM*2001*TO*2015!...................................!45!
FIGURE*20:*EVOLUTION*OF*THE*HARVESTED*AREA*AND*PRODUCTION*IN*THE*STATE*OF*RIO*DE*JANEIRO*(1990;2013)!................!46!
FIGURE*21:*LOCATION*OF*THE*COFFEE*PRODUCTION*ACTIVITY*IN*THE*MUNICIPALITIES*OF*THE*STATE*RIO*DE*JANEIRO!...................!47!
FIGURE*22:*POSITIVE*CORRELATION*BETWEEN*ANNUAL*AVERAGE*PRODUCTION*(TOTAL*COFFEE*BAGS*OF*60KG)*AND*PRODUCTION*
;1
YIELD*OF*BAGS/HA*YEAR !..........................................................................................................................................................!50!
FIGURE*23:*AGE*DISTRIBUTION*BY*MICRO;BASIN*AND*BY*COMMUNITY*WITH*T;TEST*ESTIMATED*MEANS!........................................!51!
FIGURE*24:*MARITAL*STATUS*BY*MICRO;BASIN!...................................................................................................................................!52!
FIGURE*25:*PROFESSION*TOTAL*DISTRIBUTION*AND*RESIDUAL*BY*MICRO;BASIN!................................................................................!53!
FIGURE*26:*HOUSEHOLD*SIZE*BY*COMMUNITY*SHOWING*T;TEST*ESTIMATED*MEANS*AND*PREDICTED*HOUSEHOLD*SIZE*VS.*AGE*FOR*
DEGREDO*AND*SANTA*CRUZ*I.!..................................................................................................................................................!54!
FIGURE*27:*HOUSEHOLD*INCOME*BY*COMMUNITY*(RIGHT)*AND*DOTS*BY*HOUSEHOLD*SIZE*(LEFT)!..................................................!55!
FIGURE*28:*DISTRIBUTION*OF*FARM*SIZE.*NOT*UNIFORMLY*DISTRIBUTED*(KOLMOGOROV;SMIRNOV,*P*<*0.001)!........................!56!
FIGURE*29:*POSITIVE*CORRELATION*BETWEEN*FARM*SIZE*(HA)*AND*CULTIVATED*AREA*(HA)!............................................................!58!
FIGURE*30:*WORLD*COFFEE*CONSUMPTION*IN*PERCENTAGE*BY*COUNTRY*OR*GROUP*IN*2014!.......................................................!59!
FIGURE*31:*PRICES*IN*REAIS*(R$)*PAID*TO*INTERVIEWED*FARMERS*PER*KILOGRAM*(KG)*OF*GREEN*COFFEE*IN*2012!....................!62!
FIGURE*32:*PRICES*IN*REAIS*(R$)*PAID*TO*INTERVIEWED*FARMERS*PER*KILOGRAM*(KG)*OF*GREEN*COFFEE*IN*2013!....................!62!
FIGURE*33:*WORK*CATEGORY*PERCENTAGE*IN*RESPONDENT*PRODUCERS!.........................................................................................!65!
FIGURE*34:*FARMER’S*PERCEPTION*FREQUENCY*IN*RELATION*TO*THE*INSTITUTIONAL*SUPPORT!.......................................................!70!
FIGURE*35:*COMMERCIALIZATION*CHANNEL*BY*THE*COFFEE*GROWERS*RESPONDENTS!.....................................................................!71!
FIGURE*36:*MARKETPLACE*DISTORTIONS*AND*OPPORTUNITIES*IN*THE*VALUE*CHAIN*A!....................................................................!72!
FIGURE*37:*COFFEE*AGRO;INDUSTRY*VALUE*CHAIN!.............................................................................................................................!73!
FIGURE*38:*VALUE*CHAIN*A*(COFFEE)*FLOW;CHART!..........................................................................................................................!74!
FIGURE*39:*COFFEE*POST;HARVEST*PROCESSING*CHART!.....................................................................................................................!76!
FIGURE*40:*HARVEST*TECHNOLOGY*OF*THE*COFFEE*GROWERS!..........................................................................................................!77!
FIGURE*41:*POST;HARVEST*PROCESSING*PREDOMINANCE*AMONG*COFFEE*GROWERS!.....................................................................!78!
FIGURE*42:*DRYING*TECHNOLOGY*PREDOMINANCE*OF*THE*COFFEE*GROWERS!..................................................................................!79!
FIGURE*43:*MILLING*DISTRIBUTION*AMONG*THE*COFFEE*GROWERS!..................................................................................................!81!
!
iv!
FIGURE*44:*QUANTIFICATION*OF*PHYSICAL*FLOWS*IN*THE*VALUE*CHAIN*A*(COFFEE)!.......................................................................!82!
FIGURE*45:*INPUT;OUTPUT*MATRICES*OF*A*REPRESENTATIVE*PRODUCER*OF*STUDIED*COMMUNITY*AND*MICRO;BASIN!.................!84!
FIGURE*46:*NET*VALUE*ADDED*(NVA)*SHARE*AMONG*VALUE*CHAIN*A*AGENTS!..............................................................................!90!
FIGURE*47:*VALE*ADDED*DISTRIBUTION*SHARE*IN*VALUE*CHAIN*A!..................................................................................................!95!
FIGURE*48:*MARKET*MAP*FRAMEWORK*VALUE*CHAIN*COFFEE!........................................................................................................!96!
FIGURE*49:*TOTAL*VEGETABLE*PRODUCTION*(AVERAGE*TONNES)*WORLDWIDE*IN*2013!................................................................!98!
FIGURE*50:*TOTAL*BRAZILIAN*VEGETABLE*PRODUCTION*IN*MILLIONS*OF*TONNES*(PRIMARY*AXIS*IN*BLUE);*TOTAL*HARVEST*AREA*IN*
THOUSANDS*OF*HECTARES*(HA)*(SECONDARY*AXIS*IN*GREEN)*OVER*THE*PERIOD*FROM*2010*TO*2013!..............................!99!
FIGURE*51:*GREEN*BELT*OF*VEGETABLES*OF*THE*CAPITAL*OF*RIO*DE*JANEIRO!................................................................................!101!
FIGURE*52:*LANDSLIDE*ON*THE*RURAL*AREA*IN*NOVA*FRIBURGO*THREE*YEARS*AFTER*THE*DISASTER!...........................................!103!
FIGURE*53:*POSITIVE*CORRELATION*BETWEEN*TOTAL*VEGETABLE*PRODUCTION*AND*THE*YIELD*(TONNES*PER*HECTARE)*IN*THE*
HORTICULTURE*VALUE*CHAIN!..................................................................................................................................................!104!
FIGURE*54:**RELATION*OF*AGE*BY*COMMUNITY*WITH*CORRESPONDENT*MEDIANS*BOXES!.............................................................!106!
FIGURE*55:*DIFFERENT*CATEGORIES*OF*OCCUPATION*OF*THE*HOUSEHOLDS*INTERVIEWED!............................................................!107!
FIGURE*56:**TYPE*OF*PROPERTY*BY*COMMUNITY,*HIGHLIGHTING*THE*CONDITION*OF*“GRANTED”!...............................................!109!
FIGURE*57:*FARM*SIZE*(HA)*BY*MICRO;BASIN*REVEALING*UNEQUAL*MEDIANS*AND*SIGNIFICANT*DIFFERENCE!.............................!110!
FIGURE*58:*POSITIVE*CORRELATION*BETWEEN*FARM*SIZE*(HA)*AND*CULTIVATED*AREA*(HA)!.........................................................!111!
FIGURE*59:*MAIN*VEGETABLE*SUPPLIER*MUNICIPALITIES*OF*THE*CEASA;RJ!.................................................................................!116!
FIGURE*60:*CEASA*“GRANDE;RIO”*AND*“AVENIDA*BRASIL”*(BR101)*LOCATION*SURROUNDED*BY*THE*URBAN*CONCENTRATION
!.................................................................................................................................................................................................!118!
FIGURE*61:*INADEQUATE*WASTE*DISPOSAL*AT*THE*PARKING*PLACE*AND*LACK*OF*REFRIGERATION*FOR*VEGETABLES*
COMMERCIALIZED*IN*CEASA;RJ*GRANDE*RIO!......................................................................................................................!119!
FIGURE*62:*TUTTI;FRUTTI*RETAILER*CHAIN*CENTER*OF*CITY*NOVA*FRIBURGO!................................................................................!122!
FIGURE*63:*STREET*MARKET*IN*THE*“ZONA*SUL”*AREA!...................................................................................................................!122!
FIGURE*64:*GOVERNANCE*SATISFACTION*OF*RESPONDENT*FARMERS*VALUE*CHAIN*B!....................................................................!125!
FIGURE*65:*COMMERCIALIZATION*CHANNEL*OF*THE*INTERVIEWED*FARMERS*VALUE*CHAIN*B!.......................................................!129!
FIGURE*66:*SALE*PRICE*DISTRIBUTION*AMONG*VALUE*CHAIN*B*AGENTS*FOR*THE*STUDIED*VEGETABLES!......................................!132!
FIGURE*67:*MINI*PROCESSED*CAULIFLOWER*FROM*VALE*VERDE!.....................................................................................................!133!
FIGURE*68:*INVOLVED*AGENTS*IN*THE*DISTRIBUTION*OF*VEGETABLES*(EXCEPT*LEAF*VEGETABLES)*IN*THE*DIFFERENT*
COMMERCIALIZATION*CHANNELS*A*AND*B.!...........................................................................................................................!134!
FIGURE*69:*SET*BOUNDARY*OF*VALUE*CHAIN*B*–*HORTICULTURE!.................................................................................................!135!
FIGURE*70:*CATEGORIES*OF*FARMERS*ACCORDING*TO*THE*CROP*TYPE!...........................................................................................!139!
FIGURE*71:*INADEQUATE*WOODEN*BOXES*FOR*TOMATOES*AT*THE*WHOLESALE*IN*NOVA*FRIBURGO;*PLASTIC*BOXES*FOR*PARSLEY*
AT*THE*PRODUCER*SALE*IN*SANTA*CRUZ!................................................................................................................................!140!
FIGURE*72:*PHYSICAL*FLOWS*IN*THE*VALUE*CHAIN*B*;*HORTICULTURE!...........................................................................................!144!
FIGURE*73:*INPUT;OUTPUT*MATRICES*OF*ONE*REPRESENTATIVE*PRODUCER*FOR*VALUE*CHAIN*B!.................................................!146!
FIGURE*74:*NET*VALUE*ADDED*IN*THE*HORTICULTURE*VALUE*CHAIN!..............................................................................................!151!
FIGURE*75:*VALUE*ADDED*DISTRIBUTION*SHARE*IN*THE*VALUE*CHAIN*B!.........................................................................................!155!
FIGURE*76:*MARKET*MAP*FRAMEWORK*VALUE*CHAIN*B!...............................................................................................................!156!
FIGURE*77:**MILLED*COFFEE*BAGS*(LEFT);*MILLING*PROCESS*(RIGHT)!............................................................................................!203!
FIGURE*78:*COFFEE*BRANDS*OF*VARRE;SAI!......................................................................................................................................!203!
FIGURE*79:*COOPERCANOL’S*PROCESSING*INSTALLATION*(LEFT);*COGEM*MEETING*IN*ITAPERUNA*(RIGHT)!........................!203!
FIGURE*80:*CONCRETE*YARDS*FOR*DRYING*COFFEE*(LEFT);*COFFEE*BUSH*ABOUT*TO*RIPEN*(RIGHT)!.............................................!203!
FIGURE*81:*TOMATO*HARVESTING*(LEFT);*BOXED*TOMATOES*(RIGHT)!...........................................................................................!204!
FIGURE*82:*AGROECOLOGY*TRANSITION*IN*TOMATOES*(LEFT);*LETTUCE*READY*TO*DISTRIBUTION*(RIGHT)!..................................!204!
FIGURE*83:*BIOLOGICAL*BEETROOT*(LEFT);*HYDROPONIC*LETTUCE*(RIGHT)!...................................................................................!204!
FIGURE*84:*COGEM*MEETING*IN*RIO*GRANDE*COMMUNITY*(LEFT);*“EMPTY”*MERCADO*DO*PRODUTOR*(RIGHT)!..................!204!
!
v!
LIST&OF&TABLES&
TABLE*1:*FAMILY*FARMING*PREVALENCE*IN*RIO*DE*JANEIRO*STATE!.....................................................................................................!9!
TABLE*2:*SAMPLING*DESIGN*FOR*THE*FIELDWORK!...............................................................................................................................!37!
TABLE*3:*TOTAL*COFFEE*PRODUCTION*EXPRESSED*IN*THOUSAND*BAGS*OF*60KG*BY*MAJOR*EXPORTING*AND*PRODUCER*COUNTRIES*
(2011;2014)!............................................................................................................................................................................!41!
TABLE*4:*TOTAL*COFFEE*PRODUCTION*IN*THE*PERIOD*2011;2015*EXPRESSED*IN*THOUSAND*BAGS*OF*60KG!................................!42!
TABLE*5:*TOTAL*EXPORT*QUANTITY,*COFFEE*GROSS*REVENUE*AND*AVERAGE*PRICE*OF*THE*COFFEE*BAG!..........................................!43!
TABLE*6:*RIO*DE*JANEIRO’S*COFFEE*PRODUCTION*IN*2013!................................................................................................................!47!
TABLE*7:*PRODUCTION*IN*BAGS*OF*60KG*BY*COMMUNITY*AND*BY*MICRO;BASIN*(BIANNUAL*CYCLE*2012;2013)!.......................!49!
TABLE*8:*COMMUNITY*AND*MICRO;BASIN*RELATION*(VALUE*CHAIN*A)!...........................................................................................!50!
TABLE*9:*GROUP*OF*AGE*IN*THE*OBSERVED*POPULATION*(VALUE*CHAIN*A)!.....................................................................................!51!
TABLE*10:*LITERACY*LEVEL*OF*HOUSEHOLDS*BY*MICRO;BASIN!............................................................................................................!53!
TABLE*11:*HOUSEHOLD*SIZE*RANGE*AND*FREQUENCY*WITHIN*OBSERVED*POPULATION!....................................................................!54!
TABLE*12:*FARM*SIZE*RANGE*OF*THE*OBSERVED*POPULATION*IN*RAW*COUNT,*RELATIVE*AND*ACCUMULATIVE*FREQUENCY!..........!57!
TABLE*13:*DESTINATION*OF*THE*BRAZILIAN*COFFEE*EXPORTS*BY*TYPE*OF*COFFEE*EXPRESSED*IN*60KG*BAGS*IN*2014!...................!59!
TABLE*14:*DEMAND*FOR*VALUE*CHAIN*OUTPUTS*–*ROASTERS*PRODUCTS,*PRICES*AND*DEMAND*IN*2014!.....................................!61!
TABLE*15:*OFFICIAL*BRAZILIAN*COFFEE*GRADING*SYSTEM!..................................................................................................................!63!
TABLE*16:*BRAZILIAN*COFFEE*LEGISLATION!..........................................................................................................................................!64!
TABLE*17:*FARMER’S*PERCEPTION*REGARDING*THE*ASSOCIATIONS*AND*COOPERATIVES*IN*VARRE;SAI!...........................................!68!
TABLE*18:**FUNCTIONAL*ANALYSIS*TABLE:*COFFEE*CHAIN*(A)!.............................................................................................................!79!
TABLE*19:*SUPPLY*UTILIZATION*ACCOUNT*(SUA)*COFFEE!.................................................................................................................!81!
TABLE*20:*INPUT;OUTPUT*QUANTITIES*NEED*TO*PRODUCE*1*HA*OF*COFFEE*IN*THE*STUDIED*AREA!..................................................!83!
TABLE*21:*TOTAL*OUTPUT*VALUE*OF*VALUE*CHAIN*A*–*PRODUCERS!...............................................................................................!86!
TABLE*22:*TOTAL*OUTPUT*VALUE*OF*VALUE*CHAIN*A*–*UPSTREAM*AGENTS!...................................................................................!87!
TABLE*23:*INTERMEDIATE*INPUTS*OUTSIDE*THE*VALUE*CHAIN*(IIOC)*BY*FARMERS!.........................................................................!87!
TABLE*24:*GROSS*VALUE*ADDED*IN*VALUE*CHAIN*A*COFFEE!............................................................................................................!88!
TABLE*25:*NET*VALUE*ADDED*NVA*IN*VALUE*CHAIN*A!....................................................................................................................!89!
TABLE*26:*REMUNERATION*OF*WAGE*IN*VALUE*CHAIN*A,*EXPRESSED*IN*REAIS*(R$)!.......................................................................!91!
TABLE*27:*OPERATIONAL*SERVICES*COST*IN*VALE*CHAIN*A,*EXPRESSED*IN*REAIS*(R$)!....................................................................!91!
TABLE*28:*INTEREST*RATE*CALCULATION!..............................................................................................................................................!92!
TABLE*29:*ANNUAL*INTERESTED*COST*(INT)*PRODUCERS*VALUE*CHAIN*A!.......................................................................................!92!
TABLE*30:*TAXES*IN*VALUE*CHAIN*A!...................................................................................................................................................!93!
TABLE*31:*INCOME*ACCOUNT*OF*VALUE*CHAIN*A!..............................................................................................................................!94!
TABLE*32:*CAUSE*AND*EFFECT*OF*THE*BOTTLENECKS*IN*THE*COFFEE*SECTOR*IN*THE*NORTHWEST*REGION*OF*RJ!...........................!97!
TABLE*33:*PRODUCTION*OF*VEGETABLES*IN*BRAZIL!............................................................................................................................!99!
TABLE*34:*STUDIED*VEGETABLES*IN*RIO*DE*JANEIRO*STATE!............................................................................................................!100!
TABLE*35:*STUDIED*VEGETABLES*PRODUCTION*IN*NOVA*FRIBURGO*IN*2013!................................................................................!102!
TABLE*36:*ANNUAL*MEAN*PRODUCTION*AND*TOTAL*PRODUCTION*OF*STUDIED*VEGETABLES*IN*THE*VALUE*CHAIN*B!.................!104!
TABLE*37:*COMMUNITY*AND*MICRO;BASIN*RELATION*(VALUE*CHAIN*B)!.....................................................................................!105!
TABLE*38:*GROUP*OF*AGE*IN*THE*OBSERVED*POPULATION*(VALUE*CHAIN*B)!................................................................................!105!
TABLE*39:*DISTRIBUTION*OF*GENDER*BY*COMMUNITY!.....................................................................................................................!106!
TABLE*40:*LITERACY*LEVEL*BY*MICRO;BASIN!.....................................................................................................................................!108!
TABLE*41:*INCOME*RANGE*FREQUENCY*BY*COMMUNITY*AND*IN*THE*OBSERVED*POPULATION!......................................................!108!
TABLE*42:*PROPERTY*TYPE*AT*VALUE*CHAIN*B!................................................................................................................................!110!
TABLE*43:*FREQUENCY*OF*SUPPLY*BY*DIFFERENT*DISTRIBUTION*CENTERS*TO*THE*MAIN*COMMERCIALIZATION*CHANNELS!..........!114!
TABLE*44:*LOCATIONS*OF*VEGETABLES*AND*FRUITS*COMMERCIALIZATION*BY*CONSUMER*PREFERENCE!........................................!115!
TABLE*45:*COMMERCIALIZATION*OF*PRODUCE*IN*CEASA;RJ*UNITS*IN*THE*PERIOD*2013/2014!...............................................!116!
TABLE*46:*RANKING*OF*THE*THREE*LARGEST*SUPERMARKET*CHAINS*IN*RIO*DE*JANEIRO!...............................................................!121!
!
vi!
TABLE*47:*FARMER’S*ASSOCIATIONS*IN*THE*VALUE*CHAIN*B!..........................................................................................................!126!
TABLE*48:*SUPPLY*ALONG*THE*YEAR*OF*THE*STUDIED*VEGETABLES*AT*THE*CEASA*WHOLESALE!...................................................!127!
TABLE*49:*PRICES*TENDENCY*OF*THE*STUDIED*VEGETABLES*ALONG*THE*YEAR*AT*THE*CEASA*WHOLESALE!..................................!127!
TABLE*50:*SALE*PRICE*AT*THE*PRODUCER*LEVEL!................................................................................................................................!130!
TABLE*51:*SALE*PRICE*(R$/KG)*PER*PRODUCE*OF*UPSTREAM*AGENTS*VALUE*CHAIN*B!..................................................................!131!
TABLE*52:*CHARACTERISTICS*OF*THE*STUDIED*VEGETABLES!.............................................................................................................!138!
TABLE*53:*FUNCTIONAL*ANALYSIS*TABLE*VALUE*CHAIN*B*;*HORTICULTURE!.....................................................................................!141!
TABLE*54:*SUPPLY*UTILIZATION*ACCOUNT*(SUA)*HORTICULTURE!.................................................................................................!143!
TABLE*55:*INPUT;OUTPUT*QUANTITIES*NEED*TO*PRODUCE*1*HA*OF*VEGETABLES*IN*THE*STUDIED*AREA!.......................................!145!
TABLE*56:*INPUT;OUTPUT*MATRICES*TABLE*BY*COMMUNITY*IN*VALUE*CHAIN*B!..........................................................................!145!
TABLE*57:*TOTAL*OUTPUT*VALUE*AT*THE*PRODUCTION*LEVEL*;*VALUE*CHAIN*B!............................................................................!147!
TABLE*58:*TOTAL*OUTPUT*VALUE*UPSTREAM*AGENTS*VALUE*CHAIN*B!..........................................................................................!148!
TABLE*59:*GROSS*VALUE*ADDED*(GVA)*OF*THE*AGENTS*IN*THE*VALUE*CHAIN*B!.........................................................................!149!
TABLE*60:*NET*VALUE*ADDED*VALUE*CHAIN*B!................................................................................................................................!150!
TABLE*61:*INTERESTS*OF*FIXED*ASSETS*AND*EVENTUAL*MAINTENANCE*COST*IN*VALUE*CHAIN*B!...................................................!153!
TABLE*62:*ANNUAL*PRODUCTION*TAXES*IN*THE*VALUE*CHAIN*B!.....................................................................................................!154!
TABLE*63:*DATA*REQUIREMENTS*USED*FOR*VALUE*CHAIN*ANALYSIS*IN*THIS*STUDY,*WHEN*APPLICABLE!.......................................!178!
TABLE*64:*IIOC*–*INTERMEDIATE*INPUT*COSTS*IN*VALUE*CHAIN*B*IN*TOTAL*REAIS*(R$)*FOR*EACH*REPRESENTATIVE*PRODUCER*OF*
COMMUNITY*AND*OR*MICRO;BASIN!.......................................................................................................................................!205!
TABLE*65:*WAGE*ACCOUNT*IN*THE*VALUE*CHAIN*HORTICULTURE!..................................................................................................!206!
TABLE*66:*INCOME*ACCOUNT*EXPRESSED*IN*PROFIT*OR*LOSS*IN*THE*HORTICULTURE*VALUE*CHAIN!..............................................!207!
TABLE*67:*SWOT*ANALYSIS*–*NOVA*FRIBURGO*CONVENTIONAL*FARMERS!...................................................................................!208!
*
*
!
*
vii!
LIST&OF&ABBREVIATIONS&AND&ACRONYMS&
&
Original&Name&
English&translation&
ABCSEM&
Associação*Brasileira*do*Comércio*de*Sementes*e*Mudas*
ABIC&
Abio&
ANVISA&
ASPA&
Associação*Brasileira*da*Indústria*de*Café*
Associação*de*Agricultores*Biológicos*do*Estado*do*Rio*de*
Janeiro**
Agência*Nacional*de*Vigilância*Sanitária*
Acompanhamento*Sistemático*da*Produção*Agrícola*
BNDS&
Banco*Nacional*de*Desenvolvimento*Econômico*e*Social*
C"
CCCRJ&
CEAGESP&
Equivalent*annual*cost*of*the*asset*
Centro*de*Comércio*do*Café*do*Rio*de*Janeiro*
Companhia*de*Entrepostos*e*Armazéns*Gerais*de*São*Paulo*
CEASACRJ&
Centrais*de*Abastecimento*do*Estado*do*Rio*de*Janeiro*
CeCafé&
Conselho*dos*exportadores*de*café*do*Brasil*
CEPERJ&
Fundação*Centro*Estadual*de*Estatísticas,*Pesquisas*e*
Formação*de*Servidores*Públicos*do*Rio*de*Janeiro*
CETCAF&
Centro*de*Desenvolvimento*Tecnológico*do*Café*
Cf"
CNPJ&
CNRD&
COGEM&
Consumption*of*fixed*capital*
Cadastro*Nacional*da*Pessoa*Jurídica*
Centers*for*Natural*Resources*and*Development*
Comitês*Gestores*de*Micro*bacias*
COMPERJ&
Complexo*Petroquímico*do*Rio*de*Janeiro*
Conab&
CONDRAF&
Companhia*Nacional*do*Abastecimento*
Conselho*Nacional*de*Desenvolvimento*Rural*Sustentável*
CONSEA&
Conselho*Nacional*de*Segurança*Alimentar*e*Nutricional*
COOPERCANOL&
Cooperativa*de*Produtores*de*Café*do*Noroeste*Fluminense*
COPLA&
CREACRJ&
Cwb&
DAP&
DRS&
Comercio*y*Pobreza*en*Latinoamérica*
Conselho*Regional*de*Engenharia*e*Agronomia*do*Rio*de*
Janeiro*
High;altitude*tropical*climate*
Declaração*de*Aptidão*ao*Pronaf*
Desenvolvimento*Rural*Sustentável*
DTE&
EMATER&
Desenvolvimento*Territorial*Endógeno*
Empresa*de*Assistência*Técnica*e*Extensão*Rural*
EMBRAPA&
Empresa*Brasileira*de*Pesquisa*Agropecuária*
&
*
Brazilian*Commerce*Association*of*
Seeds*and*Seedlings*
Brazilian*Coffee*Industry*Association*
Biological*Farmers*Association*of*the*
State*of*Rio*de*Janeiro*
*National*Health*Surveillance*Agency*
Systematic*Farm*Production*
monitoring*
National*Bank*for*Economic*and*
Social*Development*
*
Coffee*Trade*Center*in*Rio*de*Janeiro*
Company*warehouses*and*General*
Warehouses*of*São*Paulo*
State's*Supply*Centers*of*Rio*de*
Janeiro*
Council*of*the*Brazilian*Coffee*
Exporters*
State*Center*Foundation*for*
Statistics,*Research*and*Training*of*
Civil*Servants*of*Rio*de*Janeiro*
*Coffee*Technology*Development*
Center**
*
National*Register*of*Legal*Entities*
*
Management*Committees*of*Micro;*
basins*
Petrochemical*Complex*of*Rio*de*
Janeiro*
National*Supply*Company*
National*Council*for*Sustainable*Rural*
Development*
National*Council*for*Food*and*
Nutritional*Security*
Coffee*Growers'*Cooperative*of*the*
Fluminense’s*Northwest*
Trade*and*Poverty*in*Latin*America*
Regional*Council*of*Engineering*and*
Agronomy*of*Rio*de*Janeiro*
*
Statement*of*Aptitude*to*the*Pronaf**
Sustainable*Rural*Development*
Strategy*
Endogenous*Territorial*Development*
Technical*Assistance*and*Rural*
Extension*Company*
Brazilian*Agricultural*Research*
Corporation**
*
!
viii!
EMBRAPAC
NPTA&
f"
FAERJ&
Núcleo*de*Pesquisa*e*Treinamento*de*Agricultores*
FAO&
FAOSTAT&
FNDE&
Food*and*Agriculture*Organization*of*the*United*Nations*
Statistics*Division*of*FAO*
Fundo*Nacional*de*Desenvolvimento*da*Educação*
GDP&
GEF&
GTZ&
Gross*domestic*product*
Global*Environmental*Facility**
Deutsche*Gesellschaft*für*Technische*Zusammenarbeit*
GVA&
Ha&
HDI&
IBELGA&
IBGE&
Gross*value*added*
Hectare*
Human*Development*Index**
Instituto*Bélgica*em*Nova*Friburgo*
Instituto*Brasileiro*de*Geografia*e*Estatística**
ICMS&
Imposto)sobre)Circulação)de)Mercadorias)e)Serviços)
ICO&
IFAD&
IIIC&
IIIOC&
IN&
INCRA&
International*Coffee*Organization*
International*Fund*for*Agricultural*Development**
Intermediate*Inputs*Produced*Inside*the*Value*chain*
Intermediate*Inputs*Outside*the*Value*Chain**
Instrução*Normativa*
Instituto*Nacional*de*Colonização*e*Reforma*Agrária*
INEA&
INMETRO&
Instituto*Estadual*do*Ambiente*
Instituto*Nacional*de*Metrologia,*Qualidade*e*Tecnologia*
INT&
INTECRAL&
Interest*component*
Integrated*Eco*Technologies*and*Services*for*a*Sustainable*
Rural*Rio*de*Janeiro*
Thousand*
Kilogram*
Kilometers*
Ministério*da*Agricultura,*Pecuária*e*do*Abastecimento**
K&
Kg&
Km&
MAPA&
MB&
MDA&
MDS&
MTE&
MTECSIT&
n"
NCA&
NDC&
NGO&
NVA&
ODI&
OECD&
OPAC&
!
Inflation*rate*
Federação*da*Agricultura*do*Estado*do*Rio*de*Janeiro*
micro*bacia*
Ministério*do*Desenvolvimento*Agrário*
Ministério*do*Desenvolvimento*Social*de*do*Combate*à*
Fome*
Ministério*do*Trabalho*e*Emprego*
Secretaria*de*Inspeção*do*Trabalho*
Period*of*the*economic*life*of*the*asset*
National*Coffee*Association*USA*
Non;communicable*diseases**
Non;governmental*organization*
Net*value*added*
Overseas*Development*Institute*
Organization*for*Economic*Co;operation*and*Development*
Organismo*Participativo*de*Avaliação*da*Conformidade**
Center*for*Research*and*Farmers*
Training*
*
Agriculture*Federation*of*the*State*
Rio*de*Janeiro*
*
*
National*Fund*for*the*Development*
of*Education**
*
*
German*Agency*for*Technical*
Cooperation*
*
*
*
Institute*Belgium*in*Nova*Friburgo*
Brazilian*Institute*of*Geography*and*
Statistics*
Merchandise*and*Services*Circulation*
Tax*–*VAT**
*
*
*
*
Normative*Ruling*
National*Institute*of*Colonization*and*
Agrarian*Reform*
State*Environmental*Institute*
National*Institute*of*Metrology,*
Quality*and*Technology*
*
*
*
*
*
Ministry*of*Agriculture,*Livestock*and*
Supply*
Micro*basin*
Ministry*of*Agrarian*Development*
Ministry*of*Social*Development*and*
Hunger*Eradication**
Ministry*of*Labor*and*Employment*
Department*of*Labor*Inspection*
*
*
*
*
*
*
*
Participatory*Body*for*Conformity*
Assessment**
ix!
PAA&
PAM&
PEM&
Programa*de*Aquisição*de*Alimentos*
Produção*Agrícola*Municipal*
Plano*Executivo*da*Micro*bacia*
PESAGRO&
Empresa*de*Pesquisa*Agropecuária*do*Estado*do*Rio*de*
Janeiro*
Prefeitura*Municipal*de*Nova*Friburgo*
Programa*Nacional*de*Alimentação*Escolar*
Política*Nacional*de*Assistência*Técnica*e*Extensão*Rural*
PMNF&
PNAE&
PNATER&
PNDRSS&
Plano*Nacional*de*Desenvolvimento*Rural*Sustentável*e*
Solidário*
PNUD&
Programa)das)Nações)Unidas)para)o)Desenvolvimento)
Po"
PROAGRO&
Pronaf&
Purchasing*price*of*the*asset*
Programa*de*Garantia*da*Atividade*Agropecuária**
Programa)Nacional)de)Fortalecimento)da)Agricultura)
Familiar)
Programa*Nacional*de*Assistência*Técnica*e*Extensão*Rural*
na*Agricultura*Familiar*e*na*Reforma*Agrária*
Pronater&
PRR&
r"
R$&
RJ&
s"
SDS&
SEABRAECRJ&
SEAPEC&
SeinpCCEASA&
SIMAC
PESAGRO&
SisOrg&
SNA&
SPG&
SUA&
SWOT&
UN&
UNSTATS&
US$&
VA&
VC&
VCA&
WHO&
**
!
Programa*Rio*Rural*
Interest*rate*
Reais*
Estado*do*Rio*de*Janeiro*
Risk*factor*premium*
Superintendência*do*Desenvolvimento*Sustentável*
Serviço*Brasileiro*de*Apoio*às*Micro*e*Pequenas*Empresas*
no*Rio*de*janeiro*
Secretaria*de*Estado*de*Agricultura*e*Pecuária*do*Rio*de*
Janeiro*
Setor*de*Informação*de*Preços*da*CEASA*
Sistema*de*Informação*do*Mercado*Agrícola*
Sistema*Brasileiro*de*Avaliação*da*Conformidade*Orgânica**
System*of*National*Accounts**
Sistema*Participativo*de*Garantia**
Supply*Utilization*Account*
Strengths,*weaknesses,*opportunities*and*threats*
United*Nations*
United*Nations,*Statistical*Division**
US*Dollar*
Value*added*
Value*chain*
Value*chain*analysis*
World*health*organization*
Food*Purchasing*Program*
Municipal*Agricultural*Production*
Executive*Plan*of*the*Micro;
watershed*
Agricultural*Research*Company*of*the*
State*of*Rio*de*Janeiro*
Nova*Friburgo*City*Hall*
National)School)Feeding)Programme))
National*Technical*Assistance*and*
Rural*Extension*Policy*
National*Plan*for*the*Rural*
Sustainable*Development*and*
Solidarity*
UNDP*;*United*Nations*Development*
Programme*
*
Farm*Activity*Guarantee*Program*
National*Program*for*the*
Strengthening*of*Family*Farming**
National*Programme*of*Technical*
Assistance*and*Rural*Extension*in*
Family*Farming*and*Agrarian*Reform*
Program*Rio*Rural**
*
Brazilian*Real*
Rio*de*Janeiro*State*
*
Sustainable*Development*Office**
Service*Micro*and*Small*Companies*
of*the*State*of*Rio*de*Janeiro**
Secretariat*of*Agriculture*and*
Livestock*of*Rio*de*Janeiro*
Price*Information*Sector*of*CEASA*
Agricultural*Market*Information*
System*
Brazilian*System*for*Organic*
Conformity*Assessment*
*
Participatory*Guarantee*System*
*
*
*
*
*
*
*
*
*
*
x!
ABSTRACT&
The* Fluminense’s* agricultural* production* isn’t* enough* to* meet* the* current* demand,* whether* in*
terms*of*quantity*or*quality.*It*is*of*most*importance*to*organize*the*commercialization*efficiently*
and* to* enable* better* access* to* the* markets* to* the* smallholder,* which* undergoes* a* myriad* of*
issues* in* this* regard.* Additionally,* there* is* a* need* to* understand* the* value* chain* as* a* system*
engaged* in* the* local* sustainable* development.* The* value* chain* analysis* can* detect* such*
misalignments* and* underperformance* issues.* This* research* studied* two* value* chains* in* Rio* de*
Janeiro:* horticulture* in* Mountain* Region* and* coffee* in* the* Northwest* Region.* The* aim* was* to*
identify*the*main*bottlenecks*and*provide*insights*into*the*decision;making*process.*The*analysis*
identified*that*the*technological*pattern*and*the*coffee*quality*is*low.*For*the*upgrading*process,*
a* minimum* threshold* of* technology* is* required.* Otherwise,* the* cost* of* production* increases.*
Trading* options* are* few* since* the* roast* industry* has* shrunk* within* the* State* Rio* de* Janeiro.*
Institutional* support* has* alleviated* some* of* the* critical* points.* Nevertheless,* community*
disorganization*makes*difficult*the*government*action*and*diminishes*the*capacity*of*adaptation*
to* the* changes* of* the* coffee* market.* Moreover,* the* analysis* detected* an* unfair* distribution* of*
value* added* in* the* horticulture* chain.* At* one* side,* the* CEASA* enhances* the* competition* and*
squeezes*other*agents*operating*at*this*pricing*system.*On*the*other*hand,*the*retail*sector*grabs*
nearly*90%*of*the*value*added,*by*selling*to*higher*purchasing*power*demand.*There*is*a*lack*of*
coordination* among* agents,* where* the* producer* is* the* most* jeopardized.* The* disaster* of* 2011*
was* a* milestone* for* government* action* and* community* organization.* Changing* perspectives* of*
production,* providing* means* to* add* value,* and* facilitating* the* direct* sale* to* detach* from* the*
CEASA*system*are*still*required*for*an*upgrading*process.*
*
Keywords:* family* farming,* value* chain* analysis,* Rio* de* Janeiro,* rural* sustainable* development,*
horticulture,*coffee,*decision;making*
*
!
*
xi!
RESUMO&
A*produção*agrícola*Fluminense*não*é*suficiente*para*atender*à*demanda*atual,*quer*em*termos*
de* quantidade* ou* qualidade.* É* de* maior* importância* organizar* a* comercialização* de* forma*
eficiente*e*permitir*um*melhor*acesso*aos*mercados*para*o*pequeno*produtor*rural,*que*enfrenta*
uma*miríade*de*questões*a*este*respeito.*Além*disso,*há*uma*necessidade*de*entender*a*cadeia*
de*valor*como*um*sistema*empenhado*no*desenvolvimento*sustentável*local.*A*análise*da*cadeia*
de*valor*pode*detectar*tais*distorções*e*problemas*de*mau*desempenho.*Esta*pesquisa*estudou*
duas* cadeias* de* valor* no* Rio* de* Janeiro:* a* horticultura* na* Região* Serrana* e* o* café* na* Região*
Noroeste.*O*objetivo*foi*identificar*os*principais*gargalos*e*fornecer*compreensão*para*o*processo*
de*tomada*de*decisão.*A*análise*identificou*que*o*padrão*tecnológico*e*a*qualidade*do*café*são*
baixos.* Para* o* processo* de* aprimoramento,* é* necessário* um* limiar* mínimo* de* tecnologia.* Caso*
contrário,* aumenta;se* custo* de* produção.* Opções* de* mercado* são* poucos,* já* que* a* indústria*
cafeeira*tem*encolhido*no*Estado*Rio*de*Janeiro.*O*apoio*institucional*aliviou*alguns*dos*pontos*
críticos.* No* entanto,* a* desorganização* comunitária* dificulta* a* ação* do* governo* e* diminui* a*
capacidade*de*adaptação*às*mudanças*do*mercado*de*café.*Além*disso,*a*análise*detectou*uma*
distribuição*iníqua*de*do*valor*agregado*na*cadeia*de*horticultura.*De*um*lado,*a*CEASA*aumenta*
a*concorrência*e*restringe*outros*agentes*que*operam*neste*sistema*de*preços.*Por*outro*lado,*o*
sector*varejista*retém*cerca*de*90%*do*valor*agregado,*através*da*venda*à*demanda*com*maior*
poder* de* compra.* Há* uma* falta* de* coordenação* entre* os* agentes,* em* que* o* produtor* é* o* mais*
prejudicado.*O*desastre*de*2011*foi*um*marco*para*a*ação*do*governo*e*organização*comunitária.*
Mudar*perspectivas*de*produção,*proporcionar*meios*para*agregar*valor*e*facilitar*a*venda*direta*
desvinculando;se*do*sistema*CEASA*são*ainda*necessários*para*um*processo*de*aprimoramento.*
PalavrasCchave:*agricultura*familiar,*análise*de*cadeia*de*valor,*Rio*de*Janeiro,*desenvolvimento*
rural*sustentável,*horticultura,*café,*tomada*de*decisão*
!
xii!
ZUSAMMENFASSUNG&
Die* Fluminense* landwirtschaftliche* Produktion* ist* nicht* genug,* um* die* derzeitige* Nachfrage* zu*
decken,* weder* in* Bezug* auf* die* Quantität,* noch* auf* die* Qualität.* Es* ist* von* außerordentlicher*
Wichtigkeit,* die* Kommerzialisierung* effizient* zu* organisieren* und* für* die* Kleinbauern* einen*
besseren* Zugang* zu* den* Märkten* zu* ermöglichen.* Dies* unterliegt* jedoch* unzähligen*
Schwierigkeiten.*Darüber*hinaus*ist*es*notwendig,*die*Wertschöpfungskette*als*ein*System*in*der*
lokalen*nachhaltigen*Entwicklung*zu*verstehen.*Die*Wertkettenanalyse*kann*solche*Verzerrungen*
und* Probleme* unzureichender* Leistungen* erkennen.* Diese* Forschungsarbeit* untersucht* zwei*
Produktionsketten*in*Rio*de*Janeiro:*Hortikultur*in*der*Gebirgsregion*und*Kaffee*in*der*Nordwest;
Region.* Ziel* war* es,* die* wichtigsten* Engpässe* zu* identifizieren* und* Einblicke* in* den*
Entscheidungsprozess* zu* gewährleisten.* Die* Analyse* identifizierte,* dass* die* technologischen*
Muster* und* die* Kaffeequalität* gering* sind.* Für* den* Aufwertungsprozess* ist* ein* Mindestmaß* an*
Technologie*erforderlich,*andernfalls*steigen*die*Produktionskosten.*Handelsmöglichkeiten*gibt*es*
nur* wenige,* da* die* Kaffeeröst;Industrie* innerhalb* des* Staates* RJ* geschrumpft* ist.* Institutionelle*
Unterstützung* hat* einige* der* kritischen* Punkte* verringert.* Dennoch* erschwert* die*
Desorganisation*der*Gemeinden,*dass*die*Maßnahmen*der*Regierung*greifen*und*vermindert*die*
Fähigkeit* der* Anpassung* an* die* Veränderungen* des* Kaffeemarktes.* Darüber* hinaus* erfasste* die*
Analyse* eine* unfaire* Verteilung* des* Mehrwerts* in* der* Hortikultur;Kette.* Auf* der* einen* Seite*
verstärkt* CEASA* den* Wettbewerb* und* drückt* andere* Agenten,* in* diesem* Preissystem* zu*
operieren.* Auf* der* anderen* Seite,* schnappt* sich* der* Einzelhandelssektor* fast* 90%* der*
Wertschöpfung* durch* den* Verkauf* an* die* höhere* Kaufkraft.* Es* existiert* eine* unzureichende*
Koordination* zwischen* den* Agenten,* bei* dem* der* Produzent* das* höchste* Risiko* trägt.* Die*
Katastrophe* von* 2011* war* ein* Meilenstein* für* die* Maßnahmen* der* Regierung* und* anderen*
Institutionen.* Veränderte* Perspektiven* der* Produktion* und* die* Bereitstellung* von* Mitteln,* um*
einen* Mehrwert* zu* erzielen* und* die* Erleichterung* des* direkten* Verkaufs* an* das* CEASA* System,*
sind*immer*noch*für*einen*Modernisierungsprozess*erforderlich.*
*
Stichwörter:* Familienbetriebe,* Wertkettenanalyse,* Rio* de* Janeiro,* nachhaltige* ländliche*
Entwicklung,*Hortikultur,*Kaffee,*Entscheidungsfindung*
!
xiii!
1.
1.1.
CHAPTER:&INTRODUCTION&
Background&
This*study*is*embodied*in*the*“Integrated*Eco*Technologies*and*Services*for*a*Sustainable*Rural*
Rio*de*Janeiro”*(INTECRAL)*project.*The*cooperation*involves*the*State*Secretariat*of*Agriculture*
and*Livestock*Program*Rio*Rural*(SEAPEC;PRR)*and*the*German*Federal*Ministry*of*Education*and*
Research*(BMBF).*The*project*embraces*a*partnership*with*three*German*Universities*–*Cologne*
University* of* Applied* Sciences,* Friedrich* Schiller* University* of* Jena,* and* Leipzig* University*–* and*
with*the*private*sector,*mainly*German*enterprises1.***
The*overall*objective*of*the*INTECRAL’s*scientific*research*and*development*is*to*work*in*synergy*
with*the*PRR.*Identifying*the*“bottlenecks”*that*hinder*the*development*and*providing*integrated*
eco;technologies* and* services* for* small* farmers* would* contribute* and* support* the* sustainable*
development*in*the*rural*area*of*State*Rio*de*Janeiro*(INTECRAL,*2015).*The*INTECRAL*project*is*
structured*in*working*packages*as*outlined*in*Figure&1.*Figure&2*illustrates*the*field*study*areas*of*
the*INTECRAL*project.**
*
*
Figure&1:&INTECRAL&structure&and&working&packages&
Source:*INTECRAL,*2015*
!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!
1
*German* Partner* Enterprises:* BDZ* (Training* and* Demonstration* Centre* for* Decentralized* Sewage* Treatment* e.V.)*
Codematix,* Geo* Data* Solutions* GmbH,* Ribeka,* SEBA* Hydrometrie* GmbH* &* Co.* KG,* Tilia* Umwelt* GmbH,* TM* Technik,*
TÜV*Rheinland,*Vita*34*AG.TÜV*Rheinland,*Vita*34*AG.*
!
1!
Figure&2:&&Field&study&areas&of&INTECRAL&Project&
Source:*INTECRAL*2015*
This*present*study*focused*on*value*chains*is*part*of*the*working*package*2*(WP2)*called*“Good*
agricultural* practices* and* Participate* Planning”.* The* WP2,* addresses* adequate* agricultural*
technologies,* participatory* planning* and* development* of* instruments* for* the* decision;making.*
The*Value*Chain*Analysis*(VCA)*is*a*suitable*tool*for*a*holistic*approach,*comprising*the*economic,*
social,* and* environmental* dimensions* inherent* in* agricultural* value* chains.* Thus,* it* provides*
means* for* the* decision;making* process* in* production* chains* and* outlines* scenarios* of*
intervention* targeting* specific* groups* (Bellù,* 2013).* In* this* study,* the* focus* is* on* family* farm*
communities*in*the*rural*area*of*the*State*Rio*de*Janeiro.*
1.2.
Problem&Statement&
It* is* of* utmost* importance* to* conciliate* conservation* and* development* simultaneously* and* to*
incorporate*the*dynamic*interactions*between*societies*and*the*natural*systems*(Berkes,*2004).*
This*study*is*in*line*with*the*goals*of*the*INTECRAL*and*PRR*projects.*The*aim*is*the*sustainable*
rural* development* with* the* preservation* of* natural* resources* and* maintenance* of*
agroecosystems,* where* family* farmers* play* priority* role* in* the* natural* resources* management*
(INTECRAL,* 2015).* As* the* last* agricultural* census* (IBGE,* 2006a)* revealed,* the* Brazilian* agrarian*
structure* is* very* concentrated,* being* represented* most* by* family* farming.* Given* that,* the*
empowerment*of*small*farmer’s*households*is*the*keystone*for*the*sustainable*development*in*
!
2!
the*rural*area*of*State*of*Rio*de*Janeiro*(Programa*Rio*Rural,*2013).*One*way*to*improve*farmer’s*
welfare* is* to* organize* the* commercialization* effectively,* which* enables* better* access* to* the*
markets*(MDA,*2014).*
Under*this*context,*the*value*chain*analysis*is*a*suitable*tool*to*detect*the*misalignments*in*value*
chains* and* identify* opportunities* for* improvement* (Fearne* et* al.,* 2012;* Taylor,* 2005).*
Additionally,*the*sustainable*development*of*food*value*chains*can*be*used*as*a*strategy*by*the*
developing* countries* to* overcome* the* underperformance* of* food* chains.* In* this* sense,* tackling*
rural* development* issues* and* at* the* same* time* assuring* that* the* value* chain* will* not* cause* the*
depletion* of* natural* resources* and* will* bring* overall* benefit* for* the* society* (FAO,* 2014b).*
Especially* in* developing* countries,* there* are* gaps* in* the* value* chains.* For* instance,* an* enabling*
environment* capable* of* supporting* institutions* and* infrastructure* required,* availability* of*
resources,* and* a* well* effective* and* efficient* coordination* among* actors* within* the* value* chain*
(Trienekens,* 2011).* It* is* important* to* see* the* role* the* value* chain* can* play* on* development,*
remarkably* for* target* groups* (Bellù,* 2013).* The* current* research* addresses* two* case* studies* of*
food* value* chains* in* the* State* of* Rio* de* Janeiro,* following* the* Brazilian* partnership* strategy* of*
development.**
One* is* the* coffee* production* chain* in* the* Northwest* Region.* The* problematic* is* due* to* the*
difficult*mechanization*of*the*mountain*coffee,*and*the*little*technological*pattern*in*production,*
which*results*in*low*productivity*and*low*quality*of*the*final*product.*Consequently,*the*difficulty*
to*adapt*to*prices*fluctuations*of*the*biannual*cycle*of*the*coffee*market*is*higher*(Andrade*et*al.,*
2002;* Andrade* &* Silva,* 2013;* Silva* &* Reis,* 2013;* FAERJ,* 1999).* Given* that,* Brazil* is* well* known*
worldwide*as*the*largest*global*coffee*producer*and*exporting*country*(MAPA,*2015a),*this*reality*
does*not*reflect*Rio*de*Janeiro’s*coffee*sector,*which*holds*only*0.64%*of*the*Brazilian*production*
(Conab,* 2015b).* The* demand* for* coffee* in* Rio* de* Janeiro* is* much* higher* than* the* capacity*
supplied* by* local* production* (Andrade* et* al.,* 2002).* There* is* an* increasing* demand* for* more*
quality* and* differentiation* (Abreu* et* al.,* 2013).* Thus,* there* is* the* need* to* contribute* to* the*
available*Rio*de*Janeiro’s*development*programs*for*the*coffee*sector.*Investigating*the*gaps*in*
the*coffee*chain*and*also*identifying*potential*improvement*for*the*sector*are*of*great*benefit.*
The*other*case*is*the*horticulture*chain*in*the*Mountain*Region.*The*challenge*is*to*overcome*the*
increasing*competitiveness*of*the*sector*(Melo*&*Vilela,*2007).*There*is*an*unfair*distribution*of*
value*added*(ABCSEM,*2011).*And*the*region*is*vulnerable*to*landslides*and*floods*(Coelho;Netto*
et*al.,*2007;*Freitas*et*al.,*2012).*Additionally,*the*farmer*needs*to*meet*the*higher*exigencies*of*
the* demand* for* healthier* products* (Carvalho* et* al.,* 2013;* Junqueira* &* Luengo,* 2000;* Alves* &*
Silochi,*2010).*However,*the*supply*and*distribution*system*falls*short*of*being*efficient.*Problems*
!
3!
relate*to*logistics,*quality*issues,*and*lack*of*investment.*Particularly*in*Rio*de*Janeiro,*there*is*an*
insufficient* integration* of* activities,* a* deficiency* of* attendance* and* higher* operational* costs,*
which*is*even*worst*in*the*case*of*farmers*(Lourenzani*&*Silva,*2004;*Mourão*&*Colombini,*2008;*
Esher* Filho* &* Reis,* 2004;* Seabra* &* Marafon,* n.d.).* The* purpose,* in* this* case,* is* to* identify* the*
hitches*and*set*up*strategies*to*strengthen*the*coordination*among*the*chain*actors*targeting*the*
empowerment*of*the*family*farmer*producer.**
For* this* reason,* it* is* important* to* contribute* to* knowledge* and* research* to* meet* farmer’s*
community*needs*and*willingness*and*also*contribute*to*the*local*institutions*strategies*already*in*
place.* Hence,* This* study* will* be* able* to* provide* tools* for* the* identification* of* main* gaps* in* the*
chains.*Then*suggest*adequate*technologies*to*improve*the*performance*of*the*chains.*And*also,*
recommend* necessary* efforts* at* the* decision;making* level* towards* the* development* of*
appropriate*actions*within*the*scope*of*the*sustainable*development*in*the*rural*area*of*the*State*
Rio*de*Janeiro.*
1.3.
Research&gaps&
There*is*an*agreement*on*the*need*for*better*understanding*the*role*of*value*chains*within*the*
family*farming*context.*While*considerable*efforts*devoted*to*pondering*family*farming*issues*on*
the* core* of* international* development* goals,* few* studies* attempt* to* the* contribution* of* family*
farming* to* the* regional* development.* Although* Brazil* has* driven* policies* towards* the* domestic*
market*for*the*benefit*of*the*smallholder,*there*are*certainly*hurdles*to*overcome.*It*is*required*
research*and*development*of*new*strategies*for*improvement,*since*family;based*farmers*are*yet*
at*a*disadvantage*position*on*the*participation*in*value*chains,*considering*the*access*to*policies*
and*resources*available.**
One* central* point* of* attention* is* that* Rio* de* Janeiro* has* the* potential* for* improvement* of* its*
production,* supply* and* distribution* of* agricultural* products.* Nevertheless,* reflecting* on* both*
studied*value*chains,*it*is*possible*to*infer*that*much*research*and*development*need*to*be*done*
on*the*field*to*achieve*an*effective*rural*sustainable*development.*It*is*clear*that*the*production*
isn’t* enough* to* meet* the* current* demand,* whether* in* terms* of* quantity* or* quality.* The* small*
holder* until* this* moment* endures* countless* issues* to* produce* and* also* to* commercialize* his*
products,* due* to* the* inefficient* distribution* system* available.* Moreover,* there* is* a* lack* of*
coordination*among*main*actors*of*the*value*chains,*and*the*value*added*is*unfairly*distributed.*
!
4!
A*better*commercialization*access*for*the*small*farmer*and*a*well*active*integration*of*principal*
stakeholders*of*the*value*chain*are*issues*of*significance.*Additionally,*this*research*is*tended*to*
study* value* chain* using* more* a* holistic* approach.* The* value* chain* is* a* very* complex* system*
engaged* in* the* local* sustainable* development,* specifically* in* respect* to* the* family* farming.* It* is*
fundamental* to* consider* the* farmer* as* the* central* player* in* the* sustainable* rural* development,*
rather*than*use*VCA*as*a*tool*to*set*policies*merely*towards*pure*economic*growth.*Furthermore,*
this* study* is* part* of* a* development* scope,* which* is* an* interest* of* local* communities,* local*
governments*and*the*society*as*a*whole.*
1.4.
Objectives&
1.4.1. General&objective&
The*aim*of*this*research*project*was*to*employ*the*Value*Chain*Analysis*(VCA)*for*a*quantitative*
and*qualitative*approach*in*two*production*value*chains*in*the*rural*area*of*Rio*de*Janeiro*State.*
The* aim* was* to* identify* the* main* “bottlenecks”* that* hinder* the* development* of* the* chains* and*
provide*insights*into*the*decision;making*process.*The*value*chains*analyzed*with*their*respective*
location*were:*
1. Horticulture*chain:*micro;watersheds*of*“Barracão*dos*Mendes”*and*“Santa*Cruz”*in*the*
city*Nova*Friburgo*in*the*Mountain*Region*
2. Coffee*chain:*micro;watersheds*of*“Varre;Sai”*and*“*Ribeirão*da*Onça”*in*the*city*Varre;
Sai*in*the*Northwest*Region*
1.4.2. Specific&objectives&
a) Study*both*value*chains*into*the*economic,*social*and*environmental*dimensions*
b) Map*the*value*chain*
c) Identify*the*problems*in*the*chain*
d) Identify*potential*areas*of*improvement*of*the*value*chain*
e) Foresee*scenarios*of*intervention*for*the*target*groups*and*policy*effects*on*the*chain*
!
5!
1.5.
Research&questions&
The*present*study*aims*to*answer*the*following*research*questions:*
Q1:*How*the*socioeconomic*elements*are*affecting*the*value*chains?*
Q2:*What*are*the*threats*and*opportunities*related*to*the*value*chains?*
Q3:*Which*are*the*main*actors*of*the*chains*within*the*established*boundaries*of*study?*
Q4:*What*activities*the*actors*are*engaging?*
Q5:*How*is*the*flow*of*products*in*the*chain?*
Q6:*What*is*the*interaction*among*the*identified*actors?*
Q7:*Is*the*chain*creating*value*added?*
Q8:* Is* there* any* abnormality* of* allocation* within* the* chains,* such* as* disparity* of* added* value,*
assets,*information*or*any*market*distortions?*
Q9:*Which*points*of*the*chain*are*weakened*or*strengthened?*
Q10:*How*is*the*current*enabling*environment*regulating*the*functionality*of*the*chain?*
Q11:*What*technologies*or*strategies*can*be*used*to*improve*the*performance*of*the*chain?*
Q12:*What*interventions*could*be*set*at*the*decision;making*level*for*the*studied*target*groups?*
!
6!
2. CHAPTER:&STATE&OF&THE&ART&
2.1.
The&role&of&family&farming&on&the&sustainable&rural&development&
“Family)farming)has)an)important)socioIeconomic,)environmental)and)cultural)role”)
FAO)I)2014)International)Year)of)Family)Farming)
*
For* the* Food* and* Agriculture* Organization* (FAO,* 2014a),* "family* farming* "* or* "family;based*
agriculture"*includes*all*family;based*agricultural*activities*related*to*the*rural*development.*The*
activities*involve*agriculture,*forestry,*pastoral,*fishery,*etc.,*originated*mainly*from*family*labor*
including*men*and*women.*More*than*500*family;based*farmers*constitute*the*predominant*form*
of* production* worldwide.* They* handle* 80%* of* the* world’s* food* value* and* the* largest* source* of*
employment* globally* (FAO,* 2014c).* Yet,* the* contribution* of* the* family* farming* to* the* regional*
development*has*been*poorly*documented*(Graeub*et*al.,*2015).*
The*UN*has*acknowledged*2014*the*“International*Year*of*Family*Farming”*(IYFF)* (FAO,*2014a).*
This*fact*suggests*more*attention*to*family*farming*issues*worldwide,*to*gather*commitment*and*
policy* actions* towards* an* active* rural* sustainable* development,* and* ensuring* the* role* of* the*
family* farming* at* the* core* of* decision;making* process* (FAO,* 2014a).* Development* of* specific*
target*and*efficient*policies*on*family*farming*are*required*worldwide*(Graeub*et*al.,*2015).*
As* stated* by* Graeub* et* al.* (2015),* Brazil* is* particularly* interesting,* as* it* plays* the* role* of* a* large*
agricultural*exporter,*while*keeping*a*high*percentage*of*family*farming*oriented*to*the*domestic*
market.*The*Brazilian*agrarian*policy*has*drawn*benefits*to*the*smallholder*farmer*in*the*form*of*
programmes*to*support*family*farming*towards*value;added*agriculture*and*the*sustainable*rural*
development* (MDA,* 2014).* However,* some* hindrances* still* prevail,* and* require* continuing*
adjustment*and*improvement,*as*detailed*shortly.*
2.1.1. The&issue&of&family&farming&in&Brazil&
The*term*family*farming*has*been*used*only*recently*in*the*framework*of*the*Brazilian*agriculture.*
When* the* last;but;one* agrarian* Census* was* published* in* 1995;96* (IBGE,* 1998),* there* was* no*
differentiation*of*smallholder*farmers*in*the*statistical*studies*and*analysis*of*the*broad*Brazilian*
production.* The* concept* of* family* farming* was* then* portrayed* by* INCRA* &* FAO* (2000),* which*
criticized*the*Census*of*1995;96*and*revealed*the*need*to*deepen*the*knowledge*of*the*Brazilian*
agrarian*reality.**
!
7!
Over*the*period,*1996*to*2006,*a*transformation*of*the*Brazilian*agrarian*structure*occurred,*and*
the*concept*of*family;based*farming*enhanced*its*importance*(Brunier*&*Mariano,*2008).*In*2000,*
the* Ministry* of* Agrarian* Development* was* created* by* the* Decree* N°* 3338/2000,* with* the*
competencies* to* implement* the* agrarian* reform* and* promote* the* sustainable* development* in*
rural* areas* where* family* farming* is* predominant.* In* 2003,* the* agenda* of* family* farming* had*
become*institutionalized,*and*there*was*a*transformation*in*the*political*instruments*targeted*to*
sustainable*rural*development*(MDA,*2014).**
The*Brazilian*Law*N°*11,326*from*July*24,*2006*(Brasil*;*Casa*Civil,*2006)*formulates*the*guidelines*
for*the*national*policy*intended*to*family;based*agriculture*and*rural*family*ventures.*According*
to*the*current*law,*is*it*considered*“family;based*farmer”:*
⋅
The*one*who*practices*activities*in*the*rural*environment*
⋅
Does*not*hold*an*area*greater*than*four*fiscal*modules2**
⋅
Uses*family*labor*in*his*economic*activities*of*his*establishment*or*undertaking*in*majority**
⋅
Manages*his*establishment*or*undertaking*with*his*family*
⋅
Has*a*minimum*percentage*of*household*income*originated*from*his*economic*activities**
The* most* updated* Census* (IBGE,* 2006a)* studied* this* issue* and* the* reality* in* Brazil.* The* Census*
identified*4,367,902*establishments*of*family;based*agriculture,*which*correspond*to*84.4%*of*all*
Brazilian*agriculture.*Figure&3*illustrates*the*extent*of*the*Brazilian*family*farming.*Despite*family;
farming* represents* the* largest* piece,* the* agrarian* structure* of* the* country* remains* highly*
concentrated.*To*have*an*idea,*the*non;family*establishments*(15.6%)*occupy*75.7%*of*the*total*
producing*area*of*the*country.*Family*farming*owns*only*24.3%*of*the*area*and*just*one;third*of*
the*total*Brazilian*agricultural*gross*revenue.*Nevertheless,*the*smallholder*farmers*are*the*ones,*
in* fact,* responsible* for* the* role* of* food* security* in* the* country* and* the* food* supply* for* the*
domestic*market*(IBGE,*2006a).*
!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!
2!Each*state*and*municipality*have*a*specific*fiscal*module*for*family*property.*For*this*study,*the*fiscal*module*is*10*ha*
in*Nova*Friburgo,*and*30*ha*in*Varre;Sai,*being*four*modules*the*equivalent*to*40*ha*and*130*ha*respectively.*Source:*
(INEA,*2015)!
!
8!
Figure&3:#Percentage&of&establishments&characterized&as&familyCbased&agriculture&&
Source*of*the*map:*(IBGE,*2006a).*Description:*the*nuance*of*pink,*from*light*pink*(till*25%*of*the*establishments*with*
family*farming)*gradually*to*dark*pink*(95.01*to*100%*of*the*establishments*with*family*farming).*Note:*the*majority*is*
ranging*from*75.01*to*95%*of*the*establishments*predominantly*family*farming.*
The*southeast*region*of*Brazil*presents*inequality*in*land*concentration,*and*it*is*associated*with*
the*history*of*the*European*colonization,*especially*in*the*State*Rio*de*Janeiro*and*Espírito*Santo*
(IBGE,* 2009).* In* * Rio* de* Janeiro,* there* is* inequality* in* the* concentration* of* lands,* and* it* is* very*
characteristic* the* presence* family;based* farming,* representing* 75.49%* of* the* total* number* of*
establishments*as*described*in*Table&1.*
Table&1:&Family&Farming&prevalence&in&Rio&de&Janeiro&state&&
Family;based*Agriculture*(Law*N°11,326)*
Total*N°*of*establishments*
(%)*
Area*(ha)*
(%)*
Family;based*agriculture*
4,4145*
75.49*
470,221*
22.98*
Non;*family*agriculture*
(Employment;based)*
14,335*
24.51*
1,575,646*
77.02*
Total*RJ*
58,480*
100*
2,045,868*
100*
Source:*IBGE(2006a)*
!
9!
2.1.2. Brazilian&ProCFamily&Farming&Policies&
The* fact* described* above* highlights* the* importance* of* endeavouring* efforts* on* family* farming*
issues*to*achieve*the*sustainable*rural*development.*The*Brazilian*government*have*been*on*the*
track* to* pursuit* progress* in* this* direction* and* has* drawn* initiatives* for* the* smallholder* in* the*
condition* of* a* family* owned* property.* The* current* policies* and* programmes,* which* are* more*
relevant*to*this*present*study,*are*detailed*in*this*section.*
2.1.2.1.
National&Plan&for&the&Rural&Sustainable&Development&and&Solidarity&
The* PNDRSS* “Plano* Nacional* de* Desenvolvimento* Rural* Sustentável* e* Solidário”* is* a* result* of* a*
debate* between* the* Ministry* of* Agrarian* Development* (MDA)* and* the* National* Council* for*
Sustainable* Rural* Development* (Condraf) 3 *in* 2013.* The* plan* brings* goals* and* strategic*
instruments* for* an* inclusive* rural* sustainable* development* (MDA,* 2014).* The* summarized*
objectives*of*the*program*are*(MDA,*2014):**
I.
To* promote* the* socio;economic* and* environmental* development* of* rural* areas;* to*
promote*the*land*reform*and*land*democratization**
II.
To*adopt*a*territorial*approach*to*rural*development*
III.
To*manage*with*the*social*participation*in*public*policies;**
IV.
To*strengthen*the*agenda*of*rural*development*with*emphasis*on*family*farming*within*
international,*regional*and*multilateral*spaces**
V.
To*promote*the*autonomy*of*women*and*the*rural*youth**
VI.
To*value*the*agricultural*biodiversity*and*socio;biodiversity*
2.1.2.2.
National&Programme&for&the&Strengthening&of&Family&Farming&C&(Pronaf)&
The*National)Programme)for)the)Strengthening)of)Family)Farming)(Pronaf)*–*“Programa*Nacional*
de*Fortalecimento*da*Agricultura*Familiar“*–*is*an*intended*credit*to*stimulate*income*generation*
and* improve* the* use* of* family* farming* labor,* through* the* financing* of* agricultural* and* non;
agricultural* activities* developed* in* a* rural* establishment* or* community* areas* nearby* (Brasil,*
2014b).* Beneficiaries* of* the* Programme* are* agricultural* producing* area* units,* which* can* prove*
their* consistency* in* the* framework* through* the* Statement* of* Aptitude* to* the* Pronaf* (DAP)* ;*
“Declaração* de* Aptidão* ao* Pronaf”.* The* DAP* is* accredited* by* the* Ministry* of* Agrarian*
Development* (MDA)* (Brasil,* 2014b).* In* 2014,* there* have* been* registered* around* 5* million*
!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!
3!“Conselho*Nacional*de*Desenvolvimento*Rural*Sustentável“!
!
10!
Statement*of*Aptitude*to*the*Pronaf*(DAP)*(MDA,*2014).*Commonly*acquired*by*farmers*already*
allocated*in*other*programs,*or*farmers*in*disadvantageous*conditions*such*as*low*income,*land*
tenure*rights,*and*indigenous*or*traditional*populations*(Brasil,*2014b).**
The* Pronaf* has* lines* of* credit* intended* for* many* purposes,* for* instance,* agro;ecology,* the*
environment,*and*forestry.*Additionally,*it*has*the*support*of*many*other*programs*and*actions*
for*the*protection*of*the*production,*such*as*a*guarantee*of*prices,*crop*assurance*and*insurance*
for*farmers,*which*enable*the*access*to*the*credit*from*Pronaf*(MDA,*2015).*Similarly,*inside*the*
Pronaf,* there* are* incentives* for* value* chain* development,* such* as* the* Agribusiness* Program*
(“Programa* Agroindústria”),* which* supports* the* inclusion* of* family* farmers* in* agro;
industrialization* process* and* marketing* of* their* products* to* add* value.* The* More* Food* action*
(“Mais*Alimentos”)*is*another*example,*allowing*the*smallholder*to*invest*in*the*modernization*of*
his* production,* via* the* acquisition* of* machinery,* implements* and* new* equipment* to* all*
agricultural*activities*(SAF,*2015).**
2.1.2.3.
National&School&Feeding&Programme&(PNAE)&
The* National* School* Feeding* Programme* –* “Programa* Nacional* de* Alimentação* Escolar”* –*
contributes* to* growth,* development,* learning* and* school* performance* of* scholars,* through* the*
provision* of* school* meals,* and* food* and* nutrition* educational* activities.* The* program* attends*
students* in* all* primary* formation* (kindergarten,* elementary* school,* high* school,* and* adult*
education)* enrolled* in* public* institutions* and* other* community* entities* (FNDE,* 2012).* As* states*
the*Law*N°*11.947/2009,*at*least*30%*of*the*amount*transferred*to*the*states*and*municipalities,*
participants*of*the*National*Fund*for*the*Development*of*Education*(FNDE),*meant*to*be*for*the*
PNAE.*And*it*should*obligatory*be*precedent*from*the*purchase*of*produce*from*family*farming.*
Also*as*a*requirement*for*this*program*farmers*need*the*DAP*statement*recognized*by*the*MDA*
(FNDE,*2014).*
2.1.2.4.
Food&Purchasing&Programme&(PAA)&
The*Food*Purchasing*Programme*–*“Programa*de*Aquisição*de*Alimentos”*–*was*established*by*
the*Article*19*in*Law*n°*10.696/2003.*The*aim*is*to*give*incentives*for*the*family*farming*and*also*
promote* food* purchasing* through* the* distribution* targeting* food* insecurity* groups* and* the*
creation* of* strategic* stocks* (MDS,* 2015).* The* overall* goals* of* the* program* are:* the* income*
generation* for* the* family* farmers;* the* strengthening* of* cooperatives* and* associations;* the* crop*
diversification,* the* direct* purchase* from* the* farmer;* and* the* incentive* to* sustainable* farming*
!
11!
practices* (Conab,* 2010).* The* resources* are* provided* by* the* Ministry* of* Social* Development* and*
Hunger*Eradication*(MDS)*–*“Ministério*do*Desenvolvimento*Social*de*do*Combate*à*Fome”*–*and*
the* Ministry* of* Agrarian* Development* (MDA)* –* “Ministério* do* Desenvolvimento* Agrário”* –* The*
execution* is* done* by* the* MDS* and* Conab* along* with* the* Brazilian* states* and* municipalities*
(Conab,*2010;*MDS,*2015).*Figure&4*shows*the*actuation*of*the*PAA.*
*
Figure&4:&Extension&of&the&Food&Purchasing&Program&(PAA)&in&2014&
Description:*PAA*actuation*showed*in*striped*marks*on*the*map.*Source:*(Conab,*2014)*
2.1.2.5.
Other&Initiatives&
Many*other*initiatives*have*been*undertaken.*In*short*for*example,*they*include*the*resumption*
of* the* National* Council* for* Food* and* Nutritional* Security4*(CONSEA);* the* strengthening* of* the*
National* Council* for* Sustainable* Rural* Development* (CONDRAF);* the* materialization* of* the* Zero*
Hunger* Programme* (“Programa* Fome* Zero”);* the* approval* of* the* II* National* Plan* for* Agrarian*
Reform*(II*PNRA);*the*Plan*of*Crop*for*family*farming*(“Plano*Safra*da*Agricultura*Familiar”);*and*
the*institutionalization*of*the*national*policies*of*technical*assistance*and*rural*extension*(Pnater*
and*Pronater*)*by*law*Nº*12.188/2010*(MDA,*2014).*
!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!
4
*“Conselho*Nacional*de*Seguranca*Alimentar*e*Nutricional“*
!
12!
2.1.2.6.
Programmes&in&the&State&of&Rio&de&Janeiro&
For* the* State* of* Rio* de* Janeiro,* the* Secretariat* of* Agriculture* and* Livestock5*(SEAPEC,* 2015a)*
provides* structuring* and* sectoral* projects* and* programmes.* These* actions* are* indented* to*
provide* incentives* for* the* agricultural* and* livestock* production,* and* also* improve* the*
infrastructure* within* rural* areas.* For* example,* the* “Cultivar* Orgânico”* supports* local* farmers* in*
the*organic*production.*The*“Frutificar”*makes*available*credit*lines*in*favor*of*the*modernization*
of* horticulture* and* orchards.* The* “Rio* Horti”* propels* for* Rio* de* Janeiro’s* population* an*
increasingly*supply*of*vegetables*produced*in*the*state.*The*“Rio*café”*prepares*the*coffee*sector*
to* meet* an* increasingly* demanding* market,* focused* on* the* quality* and* specialty* coffees;* and*
other*programmes*meant*to*the*livestock*and*energy*production*(SEAPEC,*2015a).*
2.1.2.7.
Programme&Rio&Rural&(PRR)&
The*Sustainable*Rural*Development*Programme**(Rio*Rural),*performed*in*the*micro;basins*of*the*
State* of* Rio* de* Janeiro,* endeavors* to* improve* livelihoods* in* the* rural* area* associating* the*
conservation*of*natural*resources.*The*Secretariat*of*Agriculture*and*Livestock*of*the*State*of*Rio*
de*Janeiro*(SEAPEC)*executes*the*programme*trough*the*Sustainable*Development*Office*(SDS).*
With*the*fund*from*the*World*Bank,*it*attends*to*300*thousand*beneficiaries*over*the*470*worked*
micro;basins.*The*programme*uses*the*micro;basin*methodology,*which*embraces*the*geographic*
space* of* the* river* basins* for* sustainable* development* aims.* Through* the* engagement* of* local*
communities*into*Management*Committees*of*Micro*Basins6*(COGEM),*they*lead*the*activities*of*
development*in*the*micro;basins*(Programa*Rio*Rural,*2013).*
The* programme* is* composed* of* two* projects.* One* is* the* “Rio* Rural* GEF”,* which* acts* in* the*
integrated* management* of* agroecosystems* of* watersheds* in* the* Fluminense's* North* and*
Northwest*Regions.*It*has*the*fund*from*the*Global*Environmental*Facility*(GEF).*And,*the*second*
is* the* “Rio* Rural* BIRD”,* which* amplifies* the* actions* of* the* programme* on* the* sustainable* rural*
development,* embracing* all* micro;basins* in* the* State* Rio* de* Janeiro,* with* fund* from* the* World*
Bank*(Programa*Rio*Rural,*2013).*
2.1.3. Hurdles&of&the&Brazilian&sustainable&rural&development&
Commodity* markets* have* drawn* more* resources* from* governments,* leaving* the* family* farming*
!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!
5
6
!
“Secretaria de Estado de Agricultura e Pecuária”
“Comitês Gestores de Microbacias” (COGEM)!
13!
sector* with* few* investments.* This* fact* has* triggered* a* rural* exodus,* degradation* of* natural*
resources* and* rural* poverty* and* hunger* in* many* regions* of* the* globe.* It* is* fundamental* to*
consider*the*significant*role*of*family*farming*in*food*security,*community*well;being,*biodiversity*
conservation,* the* economy,* sustainable* natural* resource* use,* and* also* climate* resilience* (FAO,*
2014b).**
Achieving* sustainable* rural* development* at* the* national* level* has* to* consider* all* aspects* that*
embrace*the*agrarian*reality.*For*instance:*territorial*conditions;*agro;ecological*conditions;*policy*
framework;* market* accessibility;* land* and* natural* resources* availability;* ease* access* to* finance;*
technology;* education* and* services;* and* the* socio;cultural,* economic* and* demographic* context*
(FAO,*2014a).**
Decision;making*in*Brazil*has*addressed*acknowledged*issues*since*the*start*of*rural*development*
policies.*However,*there*is*still*the*presence*of*bottlenecks,*which*need*to*be*challenged*(MDA,*
2014).**Brazil*has*driven*policies*towards*the*domestic*market*niche*to*include*family*farming*in*
an*agro;exporter*country.*Nonetheless,*it*has*left*lacunas*that*have*affected*Brazil’s*performance*
(Graeub*et*al.,*2015).*Moreover,*there*is*still*a*portion*of*the*rural*population*which*has*not*been*
yet* met,* and* adjustments* in* terms* of* decision;making,* mainly* regarding* the* accessibility* of*
policies*and*programmes*are*required*(MDA,*2014).*
The* “National* Plan* for* Sustainable* Rural* Development* and* Solidarity”* (MDA,* 2014)* points* out*
some*of*bottlenecks*in*need*to*be*tackled,*such*as:**
a) Put*more*efforts*on*the*agrarian*reform*issues,*as*it*constitutes*great*political*dispute*in*
society**
b) Support*the*transition*to*an*agroecological*model*of*production**
c) Strengthen*the*territorial*democratization*process*
d) Give* attention* to* the* productive* organization* in* terms* of* commercialization* in* order* to*
increase*family*farmer's*income*and*at*the*same*time,*provide*access*to*the*markets7*
For*Graeub*et*al.*(2015),*there*is*an*imbalance*in*access*to*policies*regarding*markets,*financial*
services,*research*and*development.*Similarly,*the*access*to*better*education*mainly*in*rural*areas*
is*not*sufficient.*The*same*authors*point*out*the*need*to*create*efficient*communication*among*
stakeholders* within* the* family* farming* sphere,* in* a* manner* that* enhances* the* voices* of* family*
farming* to* be* set* as* priority* of* the* decision;making* process* in* the* country.* Souza* et* al.* (2008)*
equally* observed* that* smallholders* have* difficult* in* adapt* to* new* technological* patterns.* These*
!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!
7!Underline*given*by*the*author!
!
14!
farmers* are* struggled* by* limitations* of* the* access* to* capital,* labor* and* land,* thus* making* the*
family* farmer* even* more* dependent* on* governmental* actions* and* credits* for* the* self;
development.*
In* the* view* of* that,* in* alignment* with* the* global* goals* of* development,* with* the* Brazilian* pro;
family*farming*policies,*and*with*Rio*de*Janeiro’s*programmes*of*sustainable*rural*development,*it*
is* important* to* understand* the* challenges* the* family* farming* faces,* in* order* to* identify* and*
contribute*to*consistent*ways*for*an*effective*rural*development.*
2.2.
Conceptual&framework&of&value&chain&analysis&(VCA)&&
2.2.1. Definition&of&value&chain&(VC)&
The*term*value*chain,*as*defined*by*Bellù*(2013)*in*FAO*guidelines,*alludes*to*all*interdependent*
economic*activities*and*all*linked*economic*agents,*since*primary*production,*till*consumption*of*
the* final* product.* It* comprises* all* economic* activities* related* e.g.* processing,* delivery,*
wholesaling,* retailing,* etc.* Product* or* a* group* of* products* is* what* define* the* value* chain;* it* is* a*
physical* category* made* of* goods* or* services* traded,* e.g.* tomato* value* chain* (Springer;Heinze,*
2008b).*
Using* Hellin* &* Meijer* (2006)* words,* value* chain* is* “a* range* of* activities,* which* are* required* to*
bring*a*product*or*service*from*conception,*through*the*different*phases*of*production*(involving*
a*combination*of*physical*transformation*and*the*input*of*various*producer*services),*delivery*to*
final*customers,*and*final*disposal*after*use”.*Figure& 5*represents*a*simplified*version*of*a*value*
chain*as*proposed*by*Hellin*&*Meijer*(2006).*According*to*Trienekens*(2011),*the*objective*of*VC*
is*to*create*value*added*products*or*services*for*a*market.*The*infrastructure*is*used*to*transform*
resources* within* a* context* of* opportunities* and* constraints* guided* by* the* institutional*
environment.* As* defined* by* Springer;Heinze* (2008b),* value* added* is* a* measure* of* the* value*
created*within*the*chain,*generated*by*the*operators/agents*of*the*chain.*In*simple*terms,*it*is*the*
difference* between* the* prices* the* upstream* agent* gained* and* the* prices* he* paid* from* the*
previous*stage*of*the*value*chain.*
!
15!
Seed
suppliers
Farmers
Traders
Processors
Exporters/
Importers
Retailers
Consumers
*
Figure&5:&Simplified&value&chain&
Figure*adapted*from*Hellin*&*Meijer,*2006*
The*term*“value*chain”*and*“supply*chain”*are*normally*interchangeable*(ILO*et*al.,*2012).*They*
have*the*same*structure*based*on*an*agricultural*product,*starting*with*the*production*up*to*the*
final* consumption.* And* it* involves* activities* such* as* processing,* packing,* storage,* transport* and*
distribution*(FAO,*2005).*
The* value* chain* is* very* complex,* according* to* Springer;Heinze* (2008a).* As* he* explains,* three*
different* components* define* it.* (A)* First,* a* sequence* of* business* related* activities* or* functions,*
including* supply* of* inputs,* primary* production,* transformation* and* final* sale* to* consumers.* (B)*
Second,* a* set* of* enterprises* or* operators* that* handles* the* performance* of* activities,* i.e.*
producers,*processors,*traders,*and*other*agents.*(C)*And*third,*a*business*model*characteristic*of*
the*particular*product.*
2.2.2. The&concept&of&value&chain&analysis&(VCA)&
The* value* chain* analysis* (VCA),* in* the* view* of* Bellù* (2013),* is* the* assessment* of* a* sector* of* an*
economic* system.* The* agents* of* the* value* chain,* responsible* for* the* production* and* the*
distribution* processes,* are* connected* by* technical,* territorial,* economic,* social* and* institutional*
relationships*(Bellù,*2013).*VCA*is*a*qualitative*and*quantitative*conceptual*tool*(Hellin*&*Meijer,*
2006).* It* identifies* misalignments* in* food* chains* and* misallocations* of* resources,* and* pinpoints*
the*opportunities*for*improvement*(Fearne*et*al.,*2012;*Taylor,*2005).*
According*to*the*methodological*guidelines*for*VCA*written*by*Bellù*(2013),*used*for*the*purpose*
of*this*study,*the*value*chain*analysis*is*composed*of*six*analytical*domains.*These*domains*are*
necessary* to* identify* the* constraints,* opportunities,* strengths,* and* weaknesses* to* be* addressed*
by*the*decision;making.*As*he*states,*they*comprise:*
I.
Socio;economic*context*of*the*VC:*outlines*the*socio;economic*context*in*which*the*value*
chain* develops,* identifying* issues* such* as* the* geostrategic,* macro;economy* and* social*
situation*of*the*country*
II.
!
Demand*for*VC*products:*studies*the*consumer*side,*looking*at*the*current*and*potential*
16!
demand,*and*market*trends*
III.
Analysis* of* the* institutional* set;up* of* the* VC:* identifies,* quantifies* and* describes* the*
operations*and*agents*carrying*on*these*activities*in*the*VC*
IV.
Analysis*of*input*and*output*markets:*analyzes*the*behavior*of*the*market,*the*degree*of*
competitiveness,*which*contributes*to*the*VC*performance*
V.
Functional* analysis* of* the* VC:* identifies,* quantifies* and* describes* the* operations* and*
agents*carrying*on*these*activities*in*the*VC*
VI.
Economic*analysis*of*the*VC:*accesses*the*value*chain*creation*in*quantitative*terms*and*
the*distribution*of*value;added*and*margins*through*the*value*chain*
2.2.3. The&approach&of&value&chain&analysis&(VCA)&for&decisionCmaking&
Governments,* donors* and* NGOs* have* used* the* value* chain* development* approach* for* rural*
poverty*alleviation*programs,*over*the*past*decades*(Stoian*et*al.,*2012).*Value*chain*analysis*is*a*
term*commonly*used*in*the*business*management*domain.*But*it*has*shown*good*results*with*the*
assistance*of*small*farmers*to*obtain*better*access*to*the*markets*(European*Commission,*2011).**
As* stated* by* Bellù* (2013),* the* approach* of* VCA* in* the* decision;making* needs* to* analyze* the*
situation* of* the* value* chain* holistically.* The* different* economic,* environmental* and* social*
dimensions* need* to* be* considered,* to* identify* opportunities* for* improvement* into* the* already*
existing* and* impacting* policy* frame.* It* is* important* to* determine* the* policies* hindering* the*
development* and* detect* the* institutions* and* organizations* engaged* in* the* decision;making*
process*(Hellin*&*Meijer,*2006).**
Stoian*et*al.*(2012)*assume*that*it*is*important*to*be*aware*and*focus*the*efforts*of*value*chain*
analysis* on* the* unfavorable* groups.* To* make* sure* that* these* groups* have* the* minimum* asset*
thresholds* to* take* participation* in* the* value* chain* initiatives.* As* he* affirms,* normally* the*
interventions*in*value*chains*by*governments*do*not*take*into*consideration*the*difficulties*of*the*
rural* poor,* who* face* trade;offs* or* higher* risks* on* investments* with* the* given* resources.* As*
revealed* by* Donovan* &* Poole* (2014),* policy* makers* and* development* practitioners* are* lacking*
adequate* guidance* to* develop* the* right* interventions* for* upgrading* the* condition* of* the*
smallholder*towards*higher*value*markets,*consequently*helping*them*to*climb*out*of*poverty.*
As*highlighted*by*Bellù*(2013),*value*chain*analysis*has*been*a*suitable*tool*to*investigate*the*role*
of* VC* in* policies* targeting* poverty* alleviation,* food* security,* sustained* growth* and* reduction* of*
inequality.*The*VCA*identifies*the*most*vulnerable*groups*within*the*chain,*and*further*looks*at*
!
17!
the*options*for*resources*reallocation*to*provide*answers*for*policy*makers*concerning*scenarios*
of*intervention.*
Although,*VCA*demonstrated*considerable*impact*in*recent*development*studies*(Mitchell*et*al.,*
2009),*it*cannot*be*considered*a*“panacea*to*rural*development”*(Stoian*et*al.,*2012).*VCA*can*be*
rather* regarded* as* a* simple* strategy* (European* Commission,* 2011)* for* the* complexity* of*
agricultural* systems* (Stoian* et* al.,* 2012).* It* means* a* tool* to* diagnose* critical* issues* and*
bottlenecks* for* target* particular* groups* and* further* suggest* interventions* able* of* changing*
(Mitchell*et*al.,*2009).*The*success*of*actual*development*is*a*consequence*of*the*implementation*
of*the*strategy,*a*result*of*practical*measures*applied*by*local*stakeholders*and*public*institutions*
(European*Commission,*2011).**
2.2.4. Overview&of&recent&studies&on&the&field&
The*Academia*has*rarely*portrayed*the*field*of*VCA*on*sustainable*rural*development*studies.*In*
fact,*it*is*a*term*more*frequently*used*in*the*business*management*in*the*economic*domain,*and*
just* recently* it* has* been* approached* in* terms* of* development* goals.* The* examples* here*
presented* are* focused* on* the* underperformance* of* developing* countries’* value* chains* and* also*
on*opportunities*for*improvement*and*adjustment*needs.*
For* example,* Giuliani* (2007)* identified* that* the* agro;biodiversity* can* be* an* asset* to* the*
development*of*markets*and*enhance*opportunities*for*strengthening*dry*land*economies.*Khoi*
(2013)* observed* misalignments* in* the* dairy* value* chain* in* Vietnam,* identifying* that* the* value*
added*creation*was*unequally*distributed,*affecting*more*farmers*than*big*processing*companies.*
Shahiida*bt*Musa*et*al.*(2014)*studied*the*horticulture*industry*of*Malaysia,*with*the*focus*on*the*
intermediaries’* roles* within* a* value* chain* in* transformation.* Stevens* (2001)* focused* on* trade*
policy*for*value*chain*analysis,*being*important*to*consider*demand*protection*and*preferences,*
especially*when*the*trade*relation*is*between*developed*and*developing*countries.*In*the*same*
line,*Gereffi*et*al.*(2005)*also*point*out*the*difficulties*of*developing*countries*to*gain*access*to*
markets,*mainly*due*to*risks*of*exclusion.*
Trienekens*(2011)*studied*the*components*of*value*chain*analysis*in*developing*countries.*In*his*
opinion,* the* components* are* the* network* structure* (market* channel* relationships),* the* value*
added* (key* competitive* aim)* and* the* governance* structure* (organizational* arrangements).* His*
study* contributed* to* better* understanding* the* value* chain* upgrading* process,* which* might* be*
hindered* by* constraints* such* as* market* restrictions,* weak* infrastructures,* lack* of* resources* and*
institutional*voids.*
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18!
In* the* institutional* sphere,* the* field* of* VCA* has* gained* more* visibility* and* has* been* frequently*
used* as* a* decision;making* tool* for* development* means* in* rural* poverty* eradication* and* food*
security.* The* portal* EASYPol* (FAO,* 2011a),* provides* resources* for* policy* making.* Resources*
contain* issue* papers,* analytical* tools,* case* studies,* methodological* guidelines* and* other*
conceptual*and*technical*materials,*specially*designed*for*policy*makers*who*wish*the*value*chain*
analysis*approach.*Likewise,*the*GTZ*(“Deutsche*Gesellschaft*für*Technische*Zusammenarbeit”)*8,*
in* co;operation* with* the* German* Federal* Ministry* for* Economic* Cooperation* and* Development,*
developed* a* manual* called* “ValueLinks”* in* 2008* for* value* chain* analysis* focused* on* the*
methodology*of*value*chain*promotion*(Springer;Heinze,*2008b).**
The* EuropeAid* Programme* (European* Commission,* 2011)* highlights* the* importance* of* inclusive*
value* chains,* in* order* to* support* the* small;scale* producer* access* to* the* markets,* thus,*
contributing* to* the* rural* well;being* and* food* security.* Also,* Mitchell* et* al.* (2009)* performed* a*
study* for* COPLA* “Comercio* y* Pobreza* en* Latinoamérica”* and* the* ODI* “Overseas* Development*
Institute”* using* the* VCA* approach* to* benefit* the* rural* poor.* These* institutional* development*
studies* have* shown* that* upgrading* the* small* holder* (as* a* target* group)* position* in* the* value*
chains* is* a* matter* of* improving* the* sustainable* access* to* the* markets* of* value* chains,* thus*
increasing* the* profits* of* the* target* group,* and* then* enabling* the* environment* for* the* rural*
development.*The*value*chain*analysis*helps*to*explain*“why”*the*less*fortunate*may*face*barriers*
to*trading*and*then*“how”*they*can*overcome*these*issues*(European*Commission,*2011;*Mitchell*
et*al.,*2009).*
Nevertheless,* it* is* fundamental* to* consider* that* improved* market* access* alone* is* not* certain* to*
have* a* bold* impact* on* rural* poverty* reduction,* if* underlying* constraints* on* households’*
investments* and* assets* are* not* addressed* adequately* (Donovan* &* Poole,* 2014).* Stoian* et* al.*
(2012)*point*out*that*little*is*known*about*the*impacts*of*the*value*chain*development*approach*
on* rural* poverty* issues.* He* affirms* that* a* lot* of* rural* people* continue* to* be* in* vulnerable*
conditions.*He*also*suggests*the*need*to*improve*the*understanding*of*pro;poor*interventions*in*
value*chains,*thus*yet,*the*current*knowledge*is*insufficient*regarding*many*crucial*issues.**
The*International*Fund*for*Agricultural*Development*(IFAD)*has*developed*value*chain*finance*for*
agriculture,* since* the* small* holders* prevail* over* the* large* portion* of* the* poor* rural* people* in*
developing*countries.*These*people*are*important*target*group,*considering*the*increase*in*socio;
economic*welfare*and*the*improvement*of*food*security*status*(IFAD,*2012).**
!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!
8
!
Today the GTZ is part of the GIZ (Deutsche Gesellschaft für Internationale Zusammenarbeit)!
19!
Moreover,*Fearne*et*al.*(2012)*suggest*a*more*holistic*approach*in*VCA,*incorporating*the*three*
pillars* of* sustainability* * (social,* environmental* and* economic),* and* not* being* used* merely* as* an*
economic* tool.* This* fact* is* aligned* with* Soosay* et* al.* (2012),* which* used* the* sustainable* VCA* to*
identify* resources* allocation* and* consumer* preferences.* They* highlight* the* importance* to*
approach*holistically*in*a*product*or*a*chain,*even*in*a*business*perspective.*Stoian*et*al.*(2012)*
also*affirm*that*pro;poor*value*chain*development*tends*to*lack*a*more*holistic*perspective.*
Therefore,*the*sustainable*value*chain*concept*is*now*under*the*FAO*guiding*principles*because*it*
constitutes*a*paradigm*of*development.*The*(FAO,*2014b)*defines*the*sustainable*value*chain*as*a*
sum* of* added* value* activities* of* farms* and* firms.* These* activities* include* the* production* of*
agricultural* raw* material,* the* transformation* into* food* products,* and* the* trade* to* final*
consumers.* However,* as* FAO* states,* these* activities* besides* being* profitable,* need* to* bring*
benefits*to*the*society*and*do*not*deplete*the*natural*resources.**
These* aspects* only* remark* the* importance* in* pursuing* studies* and* improving* approaches* and*
methodologies*comprising*the*many*interfaces*of*the*sustainable*development*of*a*very*complex*
system,*in*which*agriculture*constitutes.**
*
!
*
20!
3.
CHAPTER:&RESEARCH&AREA&
This*study*was*held*in*the*rural*area*of*Rio*de*Janeiro*State,*Brazil.*Two*research*areas*were*used*
to*analyze*two*distinct*value*chains*denominated*as*“Value*Chain*A”*–*Coffee*in*the*Northwest*
Region;*and*“Value*Chain*B”*–*Horticulture*in*the*Mountain*Region.*They*are*detailed*as*follow.*
3.1.
Value&Chain&A:&Coffee&&
The* value* chain* A* (coffee)* is* located* in* the* municipality* of* Varre;Sai,* part* of* the* river* basin*
“Itabapoana”.* The* field* research* was* held* in* the* micro;basins* “Ribeirão* da* Onça”* (MB1)* and*
“Varre;Sai”*(MB2),*represented*by*numbers*“1”*and*“2”,*respectively*in*Figure&6.*
Value&Chain&A:&
Coffee&
*
Figure&6:&Field&study&areas&of&Value&Chain&A&(Coffee)&
Municipalities*in*green,*micro;basins*in*yellow,*field*study*areas*represented*by*numbers*on*the*left.*Source:*GIS*Map*
from*INTECRAL*Project*(unpublished),*2015*
3.1.1. Summary&of&the&municipality&VarreCSai&
Varre;Sai*is*a*municipality*of*Rio*de*Janeiro*State,*a*micro;region*of*Itaperuna*and*meso;region*of*
the* Fluminense’s* Northwest* Region.* The* municipality* has* a* territory* of* 190,061* Km2* (IBGE,*
2015b).* The* city* has* 9,475* inhabitants,* according* to* the* last* Census* (IBGE,* 2010a).* The* Human*
Development* Index* (HDI)* is* 0.659* (PNUD* et* al.,* 2013).* Varre;Sai* has* a* “high;altitude* tropical*
!
21!
climate”*(Cwb),*consistent*with*the*Köppen;Geiger*classification*(Kottek*et*al.,*2006).*This*climate*
has*cooler*temperatures*due*to*the*altitude*of*the*mountainous*regions*of*the*State*RJ*(CEPERJ,*
2015).**
The*municipal*GDP*is*R$*134.378*thousand.*Considering*that*coffee*is*one*of*the*main*economic*
activities* (SEAPEC;SDS,* 2015b).* Varre;Sai* is* the* larger* producer* of* coffee* Arabica,* representing*
34.49%*of*the*production*of*Rio*de*Janeiro,*and*20.8%*of*the*GDP*of*the*Municipality*(EMATER;
Rio,*2013b;*IBGE,*2013).*The*tourism*is*also*a*significant*economic*activity,*organizing*few*cultural*
and*regional*festival*and*events*of*the*year*and*holding*some*tourist*spots*(Prefeitura*Municipal*
Varre;Sai,*2015).*
3.1.2. Characteristics&of&MB1&and&MB2&
The* micro;basin* “Ribeirão* da* Onça”* (MB1)* creates* the* municipal* limit* of* Varre;Sai* and*
Porciúncula.*MB1*has*an*area*of*3,198*ha*and*a*length*of*12km.**The*micro;basin*of*the*stream*
“Varre;Sai”* (MB2)* is* in* the* southwestern* part* of* the* municipality* of* Varre;Sai,* and* it* is* the*
primary*source*of*water*for*the*urban*area*of*the*city.*MB2*has*an*area*of*6,281*ha*and*length*of*
8*km.*(Rio*Rural*;*GEF,*2015b,*2015a;*SEAPEC;SDS,*2015a).**
Both* micro;basins* have* similar* climate* characteristics.* The* average* temperature* in* the* MB2*
“Varre;Sai”* is* 20°C.* The* average* annual* precipitation* is* of* 1,400* mm* well* distributed* over* the*
year,* with* sporadic* hail,* without* periods* of* pronounced* drought,* and* the* presence* of* warm*
summer* (Rio* Rural* ;* GEF,* 2015a).* In* the* MB1* “Ribeirão* Onça”,* the* summer* also* is* warm* and*
humid,* and* the* winter* is* usually* cold.* The* average* precipitation* is* 1,200* mm* per* year,* usually*
concentrated* during* the* spring;summer* period* (SEAPEC;SDS,* 2015a).* The* vegetation* of* both*
watersheds*consists*of*rainforest*in*mountainous*terrain*with*remaining*areas*of*Atlantic*forest*
(Rio*Rural*;*GEF,*2015b,*2015a).*
In*general,*the*proximity*of*the*MB2*to*the*urban*center*of*Varre;Sai*facilitates*the*access*to*basic*
services.*There*are*four*health*centers*in*the*city,*as*reported*by*IBGE*(2015a),*and*good*quality*
primary*schools*mainly*for*the*MB2*(SEAPEC;SDS,*2015b).*On*the*other*hand,*the*MB1,*which*is*
more* distant,* has* insufficient* basic* services,* such* as* transportation,* better* education,* health,*
waste*collection,*sanitation*and*so*forth*(SEAPEC;SDS,*2015a).**
!
22!
3.1.3. Organization&of&rural&communities&in&MB1&and&MB2&
The*MB1*“Ribeirão*da*Onça”*has*four*farmer’s*associations.*The*fieldwork*embraced*two*of*these*
farmer’s* association* communities,* called* “Boa* Ventura”* and* “Degredo”.* The* main* problem* of*
these* associations* is,* as* reported* by* SEAPEC;SDS* (2015a),* that* they* are* not* well* organized* and*
have* irregular* documentation,* which* complicate* their* participation* in* the* governmental*
programs.* In* the* MB2* “Varre;Sai”,* many* of* the* known* renowned* family;based* farmers* were*
interviewed.*There*was*the*opportunity*to*contact*the*cooperative*COOPERCANOL,*which*counts*
with*120*associated*farmers*in*Varre;Sai*and*other*regions*of*Rio*de*Janeiro,*as*Ferreira*stated*in*
the* interview* (Appendix& 8).* However,* the* cooperative* was* about* to* be* launched* only* a* few*
months*after*the*fieldwork,*and*the*construction*was*not*finished*yet*during*the*research*period.*
3.2.
Value&Chain&B:&Horticulture&
The*value*chain*B*(Horticulture)*is*in*the*Mountain*Region*(“Serrana”*Region),*in*the*municipality*
of*Nova*Friburgo,*part*of*the*river*basin*“Bacia*Dois*Rios”.*The*research*took*place*in*the*micro;
basins*“Santa*Cruz”*(MB3)*and*“Barracão*dos*Mendes”*(MB4),*numbers*“3”*and*“4”,*respectively*
in*Figure&7.*
Value&Chain&B:&
Hor2culture&
*
Figure&7:&Field&study&areas&of&Value&Chain&B&(Horticulture)&
Municipalities*in*green,*micro;basins*in*yellow,*field*study*areas*represented*by*numbers*on*the*left.*Source:*GIS*Map*
from*INTECRAL*Project*(unpublished),*2015*
!
23!
3.2.1. Summary&of&the&municipality&Nova&Friburgo&
Nova*Friburgo*locates*in*the*Mountain*Region*of*Rio*de*Janeiro*State,*in*the*regional*Fluminense’s*
center.*The*Latitude*is*22º*16*'55*"*and*longitude*is*42*31*'52"*(PMNF,*2015),*just*136*km*away*
from*the*capital*of*Rio*de*Janeiro* (Iniciativa*Agenda*21*Comperj,*2015b).*The*area*of*the*city*is*
about*933,414*km2.*The*total*number*of*inhabitants*was*182,082*in*2010*(last*Census),*and*the*
Human*Development*Index*is*0.745*(IBGE,*2010a,*2015a;*PNUD*et*al.,*2013).*
The* region* presents* a* mountain* undulated* relief* initially* covered* by* the* “Mata* Atlântica”*
rainforest*(Schwenck,*2008).*The*landscape*is*characterized*by*hills,*coastal*plains*in*a*mountain*
range*and*precipitation*levels*on*average*of*1000;1750*mm,*achieving*in*sometimes*the*level*of*
4000*mm*annually*(Brasil*et*al.,*1996).*The*forest*is*more*concentrated*in*higher*altitude*areas,*
but*in*rural*areas*it*is*more*deforested,*due*to*the*agricultural*and*livestock*production*(Iniciativa*
Agenda* 21* Comperj,* 2015b).* The* climate* is* the* “high;altitude* tropical* climate”* (Cwb),* using* the*
classification* of* the* Köppen;Geiger* (Kottek* et* al.,* 2006).* Characterized* by* mild* temperatures* in*
summer*and*cold*in*winter,*with*four*distinct*seasons*(PMNF,*2015).**
It*has*been*registered*the*occurrence*of*erosive*processes,*notably*characterized*by*intense*sheet*
and* gully* erosion,* eventually* siltation* and* material* detachment.* The* severe* deforestation*
intensifies* the* surface* runoff,* which* has* recently* developed* intense* floods,* and* landslides* that*
had*devastated*several*cities*nearby*the*mountain*region*(Schwenck,*2008).*In*2011,*the*city*was*
one*of*the*most*affected*victims*of*the*greatest*natural*disaster*occurred*in*Brazil.*The*disaster*
was* provoked* by* heavy* rains,* which* caused* a* toll* death* in* the* city* of* 423,* and* left* the* town*
completely*isolated*and*devastated*(Iniciativa*Agenda*21*Comperj,*2015b).*
Nova* Friburgo* has* a* well;developed* network* of* family* farms,* despite* the* precariousness* of*
education* and* health* services* in* the* rural* areas* (Iniciativa* Agenda* 21* Comperj,* 2011).* The*
municipal*GDP*totalizes*R$*3,164,288.00*thousand,*in*which*agriculture*contributes*to*2.2%.*The*
main* economic* activities* are* the* tourism,* intimate* apparel* industry,* cut* flowers,* horticulture,*
goat* production* and* other* industries,* e.g.* textiles,* clothing,* metal,* etc.* (PMNF,* 2015).* Nova*
Friburgo* is* the* largest* center* of* intimate* fashion* apparel* manufacturers* in* Brazil,* and* also* an*
important*regional*center*of*the*metalworking*industry*(Iniciativa*Agenda*21*Comperj,*2015b).*
3.2.2. Characteristics&of&MB3&and&MB4&
The* MB3* “Santa* Cruz”* comprises* the* river* “Rio* Grande”* and* the* branch* stream* Salinas.* The*
micro;basin* has* an* area* of* 4.041.8* ha,* in* which* 411.4* ha* is* the* area* of* the* State* Park* “Parque*
!
24!
Estadual* dos* Três* Picos”,* and* a* total* length* of* 43km.* The* area* of* MB4* “Barracão* dos* Mendes”*
comprises*the*hydrology*of*the*river*“Grande”,*stream*“Grande”,*stream*“Barracão*dos*Mendes”*
and* stream* “Florândia* da* Serra”.* The* MB4* has* an* area* of* 2,849.53* ha* and* a* length* of* 24* km*
(SEAPEC;SDS,* 2015b).* Regarding* the* climate,* MB3* has* average* temperatures* around* 16°C,* in*
which*during*the*summer*is*around*22°C*and*in*the*winter*is*around*11°C.*There*is*the*occurrence*
of* frost* in* the* winter* and* sporadic* hail* rain* in* the* summer.* MB4* has* the* same* climate*
characteristics*with*a*slight*difference*of*temperatures.*The*average*annual*temperature*is*18°C,*
in*which*24°C*during*the*summer*and*13°C*during*the*winter*(SEAPEC;SDS,*2015b).*
The* majority* of* properties* are* smaller* than* 20* ha* (93%)* in* MB3.* The* main* production* is* of*
vegetables* for* the* capital,* especially* cauliflower,* tomato,* parsley,* broccoli,* beetroot,* etc.* (Rio*
Rural*;*BIRD,*2014b).*The*MB4*also*dedicates*to*the*horticulture,*cauliflower,*tomato*and*lettuce*
and*also*fruits,*in*properties*ranging*less*than*10*ha*(SEAPEC;SDS,*2015b).*The*products*selected*
for* the* analysis* of* Vale* Chain* B* are* those* with* economic* relevance* for* the* MBs.* The* research*
studied*two*groups*of*vegetables*in*the*field*area:*
Group&1&–&Greeneries&(leafy):&
Cauliflower,*lettuce,*parsley,*and*Chinese*cabbage*
Group&2&–&Vegetables&(boxed):* Tomato,*green*beans,*and*beetroot*
Regarding* the* access* to* the* essential* services* and* infrastructure,* the* MB3* holds* relatively* good*
primary*schools,*and*despite*the*majority*of*roads*are*unpaved,*there*is*access*to*a*main*paved*
road.* Sanitation* isn’t* enough,* likewise* the* wastewater* treatment,* and* the* community* lacks* a*
health*center*(Rio*Rural*;*BIRD,*2014b).*In*the*MB4,*roads*have*poor*maintenance,*schools*are*in*
bad* conditions,* and* structure* and* sanitation* are* irregular,* and* there* is* no* health* center* in* the*
community*as*well*(Rio*Rural*;*BIRD,*2014a).**
3.2.3. Organization&of&rural&communities&in&MB3&and&MB4&
The* fieldwork* embraced* communities* of* farmers* of* both* MBs.* In* MB3,* two* communities* were*
studied,* the* farmer* association* * “Salinas”* and* * “Santa* Cruz”.* In* MB4,* the* communities* “Rio*
Grande”,* “Florândia* da* Serra”,* “Barracão* dos* Mendes”* and* “Serra* Nova* e* Serra* Velha”* were*
studied.*The*group*of*organics*Abio*was*useful*for*comparison.*COGEM*meetings*with*both*MBs*
were* very* helpful* to* establish* contact* with* the* farmers.* The* milestone* of* these* communities*
started*right*after*the*disaster*of*2011,*which*helped*the*insertion*in*the*governmental*programs,*
although*many*structural*problems*remain*on*the*MBs.*
!
*
25!
4.
4.1.
CHAPTER:&METHODOLOGY&
Research&design&
The*research*was*performed*in*three*phases*in*different*time*frames,*as*seen*in*Figure&8:*
*
Figure&8:&Research&Design&
Diagram*elaborated*by*the*author*
The* first* phase* happened* at* the* end* of* 2013,* starting* with* the* INTCERAL* kick;off* workshop* in*
September.*Meetings*with*the*local*stakeholders*SEAPEC,*EMATER,*and*PESAGRO,*and*the*field*
campaign*with*the*COGEMs*helped*the*identification*of*the*main*problems,*and*thereafter,*the*
selection* of* the* study* areas.* Further,* it* was* developed* the* conceptual* design* for* the* project*
proposal,*and*the*preparation*for*the*fieldwork.*
The* second* phase* was* carried* out* from* January* to* March* 2014.* A* scholarship* from* CNRD*
provided*the*travel*funding*for*the*fieldwork*in*Brazil.*The*sampling*and*data*collection*in*the*two*
!
26!
selected* research* areas* was* executed.* The* research* was* accomplished* through* participation* in*
the*life*of*the*community*of*study,*where*a*natural*network*of*connections*was*created*to*gather*
information*for*the*value*chain*study.*The*organization*of*the*data*acquired*from*questionnaires*
and*interviews*for*further*analysis*was*completed*during*the*year*2014*after*the*fieldwork.*
The*final*third*phase*related*to*the*research*analysis*and*elaboration*of*the*written*report*started*
in*May*2015*up*to*September*2015.*In*this*stage,*the*literature*review*was*deepened*to*analyze*
the*chains*of*study.*The*study*was*fully*completed,*including*all*six*analytical*steps*of*value*chain*
analysis:* the* socioeconomic* analysis,* demand* profile,* institutional* analysis,* functional* analysis,*
value*chain*mapping,*and*economic*analysis.*And*finally,*the*study*ended*with*the*presentation*
of*results,*discussion,*and*conclusion.**
4.2.
Methods&C&Value&Chain&Analysis&(VCA)&
The* conceptual* methodology* for* the* VCA* was* accomplished* using* the* Food* and* Agriculture*
Organization* (FAO)* guidelines.* The* research* based* on* the* documents* “Value* Chain* Analysis* for*
Policy* Making”* (Bellù,* 2013),* and* “Guidelines* for* value* chain* analysis”* (Hellin* &* Meijer,* 2006).*
Additional* case* studies* from* Bockel* &* Tallec* (2005)* and* Gilbert* (2006)* helped* to* design*
questionnaires*and*interviews*of*the*research.*All*publications*were*retrieved*from*FAO*tools*for*
decision;making,*published*by*the*EasyPol*(FAO,*2011a).**
A*complementary**“Value*Chain*Analysis*Software*FAO*VCA*Tool*3.2”*developed*by*Bellù*&*Cappi*
(2011)* was* originally* proposed* for* data* analysis.* However,* it* was* impossible* to* install* the*
software,* tried* on* different* computers* by* various* persons.* The* software* developers* were*
contacted,* and* no* answer* has* ever* been* given* back.* Therefore,* all* analytical* tools,* here*
described,*had*to*be*done*manually,*and*carefully*analyzed,*which*required*more*time*than*the*
expected.*
With* the* purpose* of* analyzing* the* value* chain,* the* six* analytical* steps* of* the* domains* of* VCA*
(Figure&9)*were*conducted*in*this*research,*as*follow.*
VC
Socioeconnomic
analysis
Demand
profile
analysis
Institutional
set-up
analysis
input/
output
analysis
Functional
analysis
Economic
analysis
VCA
*
Figure&9:&Six&analytical&steps&of&the&value&chain&analysis&framework&&
Figure*elaborated*by*the*author*using*the*concepts*described*by*Bellù*(2013)*
!
27!
4.2.1. Step&1:&Socioeconomic&situation&of&the&value&chain&
This*analytical*domain*identifies*the*main*features*of*the*context*in*which*the*chain*inserts,*for*
instance,* the* geostrategic,* macroeconomic* and* social* situation* of* the* region* or* country.* And* it*
also* finds* how* all* these* elements* affect* the* chain* itself* (Bellù,* 2013).* Statistical* database* in*
agriculture*was*used*as*a*research*source*for*macroeconomic*analysis.*For*the*coffee*value*chain,*
it* was* investigated* the* performance* of* the* Brazilian* coffee* to* situate* Rio* de* Janeiro* within* the*
large*Brazilian*coffee*economy.*The*study*comprised*data*from*MAPA,*IBGE,*ICO,*Conab,*FAERJ,*
Emater;Rio* and* many* studies* from* Andrade* and* other* colleagues* exclusively* for* the* Northwest*
Region.*For*the*horticulture*chain,*it*was*evaluated*the*situation*of*the*country*and*the*Mountain*
Region* importance* in* Rio* de* Janeiro,* considering* the* horticulture* production* significance* in* the*
domestic* market.* For* this* matter,* data* from* IBGE,* FAOSTAT,* Embrapa;Hortaliças,* ABCSEM,*
Secretariat*of*Agriculture*and*Rural*Development*of*Nova*Friburgo*municipality,*and*Emater;Rio*
were*widely*explored.*
A* household* socioeconomic* survey* gave* a* wide* context* of* the* study* areas.* The* farmers* were*
requested* to* inform* their* age,* gender,* marital* status,* birth* origin,* profession,* household* size,*
education* level,* average* income* (in* minimum* wages),* and* the* condition* of* the* property.* This*
information*was*valuable*to*characterize*better*the*most*vulnerable*groups.**
4.2.2. Step&2:&Demand&for&value&chain&outputs&
This*analysis*meant*to*investigate*the*consumer*side,*such*as,*the*current*or*potential*demand*for*
outputs,* their* destination,* price* trends* and* forecasts* associated,* consumer* profile,* existing* and*
potential* competitors,* and* other* issues* (Bellù,* 2013).* VCA* analyzed* the* studied* value* chains*
regarding* the* demand* profile,* including* the* quantity* consumed,* trends* and* behaviors* of* the*
consumption* reported* in* the* literature* consulted.* The* output* regarding* quantity* produced* and*
quantity*traded*and*commercialization*channel*among*the*actors*were*also*interviewed.**
4.2.3. Step&3:&Analysis&of&the&institutional&setup&
It* was* performed* an* appraisal* of* the* institutional* set;up,* as* the* methodology* by* Bellú* (2013)*
proposes,* to* see* the* organization* and* interaction* among* different* agents,* such* as* upstream;
downstream*linkages,*synergies*or*conflicts.*Also,*it*was*assessed*all*formal*or*informal*rules*of*
governance*imposed*on*the*value*chain,*whether*naturally*by*itself*or*by*an*authority.**
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28!
There* was* contact* with* the* centrally* engaged* institutions,* such* as* community;based*
organizations* (COGEMs,* farmer’s* cooperatives,* and* associations);* governments* (Agriculture*
Secretariats),*research*and*extension*centers*(EMATER*and*PESAGRO).*Likewise,*the*hub*of*rules*
and*public*policies*were*collected*during*the*field*research,*talking*with*the*agents*of*the*chain,*
and*also*through*the*review*of*literature,*mainly*on*the*national*policies*for*family*farming*and*
specific*sectors.*
4.2.4. Step&4:&Analysis&of&input&and&output&markets&
This* analysis* concentrated* exclusively* on* the* assessed* value* chains* within* Rio* de* Janeiro*
boundaries*exclusively.*There*was*no*further*expansion*embracing*outside*markets,*such*as*the*
national* and* international* market,* due* to* limitations* of* the* study* and* due* to* the* overall*
objectives*of*the*INTECRAL*project.*This*analytical*step*grabbed*the*overall*behavior*of*the*value*
chain,* identifying* the* input* and* output* markets,* the* role* of* each* agent* of* the* value* chain.* The*
study* looked* beyond* the* institutions* governing* the* chain,* to* see* choices,* competitiveness,* and*
the* existence* of* monopoly,* monopsony,* oligopoly,* or* market* segmentation.* Moreover,* it*
evaluated*how*the*value*chain*structure*works,*how*is*the*value*added*creation*and*how*are*its*
allocation*and*implications.*In*this*sense,*the*market*was*assessed*on*specific*features*according*
to*Bellú*(2013):*
•
Number*of*agents*
•
Level*of*information*available*to*sellers*and*buyers*
•
Entry/exit*barriers*for*sellers*and*buyers*
•
Control*binding*the*supply*
•
Control*over*prices*
•
Nature*of*product*
•
Market* structure* efficiency* level* and* pricing* mechanisms,* e.g.* perfect* competition,*
monopoly* (only* one* seller),* oligopoly* (few* sellers),* monopsony* (only* one* buyer),*
oligopsony*(few*buyers),*or*other,*depending*on*the*competition***
This* analysis* was* a* result* of* interpretation* of* the* value* chains* studied.* Conducted* through* the*
field* observation,* field* notes,* notably* keywords* and* sentences* in* the* field,* and* hidden*
information* perceived* from* the* interviewees* during* the* questionnaires* and* interviews.* The*
observed* behavior* suggested* that* there* wasn't* an* equitable* distribution* of* information* among*
the*agents.*
!
29!
4.2.5. Step&5:&Functional&analysis&
This* domain,* as* states* Bellú* (2013),* provides* a* detailed* profile* of* the* industry* structure* and*
production*through*identification,*description,*and*quantification*in*physical*terms*in*all*sequence*
of*operations*to*reach*the*final*consumption.*More*specifically:*
A. Technical*operations*performed*on*entire*chain*
B. Inputs*used*and*intermediate*outputs*generated*
C. Economic*agents*involved*
D. Physical*flows*of*the*commodity*
E. Bottlenecks**
The* functionality* of* the* VC* used* the* following* mechanisms,* according* to* the* guidelines* (Bellù,*
2013;*Hellin*&*Meijer,*2006):*
A)* Setting* the* boundaries* of* the* value* chain:* all* processing* stages* up* to* the* final* product,*
including* market* intermediates,* various* by;products* or* joint* products.* The* limits* of* the* value*
chain*comprised*the*State*of*Rio*de*Janeiro,*concentrating*more*on*the*areas*of*investigation* –*
Nova*Friburgo*and*Varre;Sai.*
B)* Identifying* activities:* Identification* of* activities* undertaken* at* each* stage* of* the* chain.* Like*
primary* commodity* production* and* different* technologies;* processing* level* and* processing*
methods;* transport,* handling,* storage;* wholesale,* retail* distribution;* and* intermediation.* The*
activities* were* identified* first* through* literature* review,* and* expert’s* consultation,* then* more*
practical*on*the*fieldwork.*
C)* Identifying* agents:* It* was* determined* the* agents* that* are* performing* the* chain* to* design* a*
basic*chain*flow*chart.*A*functional*analysis*table*of*the*value*chain*was*created,*describing*each*
agent,* activity* undertaken* and* outputs.* Each* interviewed* agent* was* scaled* up* for* a*
representation*integrating*the*VC.*
D)*Quantifying*physical*flows:*quantification*of*flows*for*a*value*chain*through*yields*per*unit*of*
activity* (e.g.* ha)* times* the* number* of* hectares* cultivated* for* a* representative* agent,* using* the*
information* given* in* the* questionnaires.* The* analysis* designed* Input;output* matrices* of* flows*
among*agents,*and*a*graphical*representation*of*physical*flows*charts.*Also,*it*was*built*a*Supply*
Utilization*Account*(SUA),*considering*quantities*used*and*quantities*supplied.*
!
30!
4.2.6. Step&6:&Economic&analysis&of&the&value&chain&
The*economic*analysis,*as*described*by*Bellú*(2013),*assesses*in*quantitative*terms*the*creation*of*
value*added*and*its*distribution*within*the*process.*Here*value*added*is*the*wealth*created*by*the*
process,* a* result* of* net* resources* consumed.* More* specifically,* the* economic* analysis* helps* to*
determine:*
•
The*value*added*creation*throughout*the*chain**
•
The*margins*and*value*added*for*each*agent*of*the*chain**
•
Value*added*allocation*among*the*factors*(capital,*labor,*and*assets)*
The* value* added* is* useful* to* investigate* the* extent* to* which* the* value* chain* contributes* to* the*
economy.*The*shares*of*these*values*among*the*agents*also*helps*to*assess*the*social*importance*
of* the* value* chain,* therefore,* induce* some* policies* measurements* to* affect* the* chain.* In* this*
study,*as*the*boundary*set*restricted*to*Rio*de*Janeiro,*this*analytical*step*was*applied*exclusively*
to*the*study*area,*not*extending*to*the*whole*national*economy.*
All* required* data* for* the* economic* analysis* was* acquired* during* the* fieldwork* using*
questionnaires* and* interviews.* The* results* of* the* economic* analysis* reflect* the* values* over* that*
period* (2012,* 2013* and* 2014),* depending* on* the* value* chain,* in* a* particular* boundary* (Rio* de*
Janeiro*State).*For*better*detail*over*the*data*required,*please*check*the*“data*requirements*for*
value*chain*analysis”*in*Annex&1.*The*purpose*was*to*appraise*revenues,*costs*and*margins*(value*
added*and*net*benefit)*of*each*activity*and*agent,*to*evaluate*the*production*process*(Figure&10).*
*
Figure&10:&The&production&process&used&in&Economic&Analysis&
Source*(Bellù,*2013)*
The* method* used* was* similar* to* “Cost;Benefit* Analysis”* (CBAs),* as* termed* by* Bellù* (2013).* The*
tools*used*for*the*economic*analysis*were*the*“Production*Account”*and*the*“Income*Account”,*
following*accounting*standards,*to*ensure*consistency*and*comparability*of*results.*
!
31!
A)* Production* Account:* It* determines* the* Value* Added* (VA).* The* production* account* is* the*
revenues* minus* the* value* of* inputs* required* for* the* outputs.* The* value* added* was* calculated*
through*the*Gross*Value*Added*(GVA)*and*the*Net*Value*Added*(NVA)*according*to*the*following*
equations*on*the*box*(Figure& 11).*The*results*were*expressed*in*a*table*format,*highlighting*the*
Value*Added*as*a*balance*of*the*production*accounts.*
Total"output"value)=)Sales)Revenue)+)Own)final)consumption)+)Change)in)inventories)
(1))
Change"in"inventories)=)Stock)at)the)end)of)period)–)Stock)at)the)beginning)of)period)
(2))
Gross"Value"Added"(GVA))=)Total)Output)Value)–)Intermediate)Inputs)(II))
(3))
)Net"Value"Added"(NVA))=)Gross)Value)Added)(GVA))–)Consumption)of)fixed)capital)
(4))
)Consumption"of"fixed"capital"(Cf))=)Value)of)asset)(V))/)time)of)constant)efficiency)(n))
(5))
Wherein:*
Total*output*value:*Goods*and*services*sold*on*the*market,*used*for*own*consumption*or*stocked*for*future*use*
(change*in*inventories)*
Intermediate*input*costs:*goods*entering*the*production*process,*being*completely*consumed*during*the*period*of*
production*
GVA:*the*value*of*output*in*intermediate*inputs*
NVA:*the*value*of*output*after*consumption*of*fixed*capital*
Consumption*of*fixed*capital:*Goods*not*entirely*consumed*during*one*period*of*a*process,*such*as*machinery*and*
vehicles,*equipment.*They*are*considered*fixed*assets,*requiring*the*calculation*of*the*value*decline*in*one*accounting*
period*n.*
Note:*See*Annex&2*for*detailed*accounting*definitions**
Figure&11:&Box&of&Equations&for&Production&Accounts&
Source*of*data:*Bellù*(2013)*
!
B)*Income*Account:*determine*how*value*added*(in*Net*Value*Added*terms)*is*shared*among*the*
production*factors.*The*box*(Figure& 12)*lists*the*types*of*income*deriving*from*NVA*distribution.*
The*results*were*expressed*in*profits*or*losses.*
*
*
!
32!
Wages:&Payments*for*labor,*remuneration*of*family*labor*estimated*as*its*opportunity*costs&
Interests:&Financial*resources,*e.g.*purchase*of*fixed*assets,*finance*of*working*capital,*i.e.*funds*of*inputs*costs&
Rents:&Payment*for*natural*resources,*e.g.*land,*water.*Building*is*accounted*as*intermediate*inputs&
Taxes:&payment*for*public*services.*Do*not*include*social*contributions*of*employees*or*household*taxes.&
Profits:&Is*the*balance*of*the*Income*Accounts*the*calculation*is*done*by*the*equation:*
&
Profits"="NVA"–"(Wages"+"Interests"+"Rents"+"Taxes)"
(6)"
*
Note:*See*Annex&2*for*detailed*accounting*definitions*
Figure&12:&Box&of&derived&NVA&incomes&and&profits&equation&
Source*of*data:*(Bellù,*2013)*
C)*Calculation*of*the*interest*cost*on*fixed*capital*
The*cost*of*an*asset*imputed*in*a*particular*period*needs*to*cover*the*interest*cost.*The*interests*
depend*directly*on*the*value*of*the*asset*and*relates*to*the*consumption*of*fixed*costs*(Cf).*The*
interest*cost*was*calculated*through*the*“Equivalent*Annual*Cost”,*as*specified*by*the*guidelines*
(Bellù,* 2013).* Knowing* the* purchasing* price* Po* of* the* fixed* asset,* it* is* estimated* the* cost* C*
imputed*to*each*of*the*n*periods*of*the*economic*life*of*the*asset*at*a*given*interest*rate*r.*
! = !"!
! !!! !!!
!!! ! !!
"
"
(7)"
However,* the* Interest* component* (INT)* is* the* one* considered* in* the* “Income* account”* of* this*
methodology,* which* disentangle* the* consumption* of* fixed* costs* from* the* interest* used* in* the*
Income*account.*Therefore,*the*following*equation*was*used,*according*to*Bellù*(2013):**
(8)"
!"! = ! − !"#""
!"#! = !"!
!(!!!)!!!
(!!!)! !!
!
−! &
!
&
(9)&
&
D)*The*choice*of*the*appropriate*discount*rate*(r)*
The* benchmark* annual* average* interest* rate* (r)* in* Brazil* in* 2014* was* around* 10.90%.* The*
expected*inflation*rate*(f)*was*6.41%;*according*to*official*data*from*the*Banco*Central*do*Brasil*
!
33!
(2015).* The* risk* factor* premium* (s)* for* Brazil,* according* to* the* OECD* (2015)* risk* country*
classification*is*3%.*In*this*sense,*the*Interest*rate*used*for*the*income*account*can*be*calculated*
using*the*equation*(Bellù,*2013):*
!=
(!!!.!"#)(!!!.!")
(!!!.!"#$)
, !"#$!!! = !!". !"%*
*
(10)*
E)*Consolidation*of*the*Accounts*at*the*Value*Chain*Level*
According*to*Bellú*(2013),*building*production*and*income*accounts*for*the*different*activities*and*
agents* of* the* value* chain* occurs* in* various* steps.* * Firstly,* the* account* for* each* single* activity* is*
calculated,* e.g.* production,* processing,* wholesaler,* retailers,* and* so* on,* using* the* same* unit* of*
reference* (e.g.* output/ha).* Then,* each* value* chain* agent* is* aggregated.* For* the* effect* of*
comparison*and*selection*of*target*groups,*the*results*were*clustered,*displaying*representatives*
of* each* micro;basin* and* community.* * The* “technical* coefficient”* or* inputs,* and* the* “yield*
coefficient”* or* outputs* are* separately* accounted.* Secondly,* the* analysis* “scales* the* factors".*
Meaning* that,* the* accounts* of* a* single* agent* were* scaled* up* by* each* activity,* aggregating*
different* activities* undertaken* by* the* same* agent.* Thirdly,* the* accounts* of* “group* of* agents”*
scales* up* the* single* agents’* accounts* by* the* number* of* agents* in* that* group.* The* groups* were*
assumed*to*be*homogeneous*and*representative*in*the*value*chain.*
The* analysis* aggregated* all* accounts* of* all* agents* involved.* With* the* intention* of* consolidating*
accounts*at*value*chain*level*it*is*required*to*sum*up*the*items*of*all*agents,*for*example*the*input*
for*trader*is*the*same*as*the*output*of*producer*plus*the*trader*input,*and*so*on,*and*to*cancel*
out* the* within;chain* flows,* which* are* suppressed* by* other* agents* of* the* value* chain;* the* final*
balances*represents*the*Value*Added*(VA),*as*represented*in*Figure&13.*
*
Figure&13:&Example&of&value&chain&accounts&
Extracted*from*(Bellù,*2013)*
!
34!
4.2.7. Market&Map&Framework&
A* market* map* framework* is* an* analytical* tool* proposed* by* Hellin* &* Meijer* (2006).* The* map*
contains*the*value*chain*actors;*the*enabling*environment*(infrastructure*and*policies,*institutions*
and*processes*of*the*environments*that*shapes*the*market);*and*the*service*providers*(business*
and*extension*services*for*the*chain)*that*could*potentially*provide*value*added*to*the*chain.*The*
services* can* be* input* supplies,* market* information,* financial* services,* quality* assurance* and*
support*for*product*development*and*diversification.*The*map*provides*an*assessment*of*policy*
and* other* issues* that* might* be* hindering* or* enhancing* the* chain* functioning* and* also* identifies*
the*services*offered*by*institutions.*Figure&14*illustrates*the*proposed*market*map*framework.*
*
Figure&14:&The&Market&Map&example&proposed&&
Source:*(Hellin*&*Meijer,*2006)*
4.3.
Tools&and&Instruments&
4.3.1. Data&Requirements&for&Value&chain&analysis&
The* data* requirements* and* data* sources* to* implement* a* value* chain* analysis* were* established*
according* to* the* guidelines* and* methodology* of* FAO* by* Bellù* (2013).* Data* requirements* were*
related*to*the*production,*inputs*and*outputs,*trading,*processing,*and*distributors,*e.g.*wholesale*
!
35!
market,*exporters,*and*so*on.*The*list*of*requirements*used*for*the*data*collection*in*this*study*
can*be*visualized*in*Annex&1.*
4.3.2. Sampling&
4.3.2.1.
Selection&of&the&study&area&
The* selection* of* the* study* areas* is* in* accordance* the* INTECRAL* project* object* of* study.* The*
decision* of* the* study* areas* occurred* during* the* kick;off* workshop* in* 2013* along* the* Brazilian*
partnership,*with*the*institutions’,*government’*and*farmers*association’s*agreements.*From*the*
seven* municipalities* comprising* the* general* study* of* the* INTECRAL,* two* areas* were* selected*
primarily* for* this* research* –* Nova* Friburgo* and* Varre;Sai* –* respecting* the* pre;established*
stakeholder*relationship.*
4.3.2.2.
Selection&of&products&
In* the* Northwest* Region,* coffee* was* chosen* due* to* its* socioeconomic* importance* in* Varre;Sai.*
The*cultivation*is*mainly*the*conventional*(not*organic),*and*the*coffee*variety*is*Coffea*arabica,*
characteristic*of*the*mountain*coffee.**
In* the* Mountain* Region,* the* products* of* research* were* selected* and* refined* according* to* some*
criteria.*First,*most*produced*vegetables*were*chosen.*From*them,*cauliflower*and*parsley*were*
previously* selected* as* leaf* vegetables,* and* tomato* and* green* beans* were* selected* as* fruit*
vegetables.*Second,*farm*models*designed*in*an*economic*study*performed*by*Rio*Rural*Program*
and*FAO*in*the*State*Rio*de*Janeiro*helped*to*refine*the*selection*(SEAPEC;SDS*&*FAO,*2013).*The*
farm* models* groups* (Lettuce,* watercress,* parsley* and* scallion,* cauliflower* and* sweet* corn)* and*
(Tomato,*cucumber,*and*green*bean)*were*chosen.*However,*these*farm*models*were*projected*
to* the* Mountain* Region* as* a* whole,* not* considering* differences* among* areas* within* the* same*
region*(e.g.*Nova*Friburgo*and*Teresópolis).**
Therefore,*during*the*fieldwork,*the*president*of*a*farmer*association*of*the*study*area*suggested*
changing*some*products.*Watercress,*scallion,*sweet*corn*and*cucumber*were*removed*from*the*
research;*Chinese*cabbage*and*beetroot*were*added,*to*better*suit*the*area*of*study.**
!
36!
4.3.2.3.
Value&chain&sampling&
The*sampling*used*in*this*study,*with*the*purpose*of*analyzing*the*value*chains*of*horticulture*in*
the*Mountain*Region*and*coffee*in*the*Northwest*Region,*was*designed*as*represented*in*Table&
2.* The* research* plan* elaborated* followed* the* data* requirements* from* Bellù* (2013)* and* Hellin* &*
Meijer*(2006).*
Table&2:&Sampling&design&for&the&fieldwork&
Sample&
Sector&
Type&of&data&
Methodology&
Time&
Production*
Socioeconomic*&*
economic*
Questionnaire,*observation*
8*days*
Processing*
Economic*
Questionnaire*or*interview*
and*observation*
1;2*days*
Intermediaries*
Economic*
Interview*and*observation*
1;2*days*
Wholesalers*
Economic*
Questionnaire*or*interview*
and*observation*
4*days*in*total*
Retailers*
Economic*
Institutional*
Socioeconomic*&*
Political*
Inputs*
vendors*
Insufficient*
Production*
Socioeconomic*&*
economic*
Processing*
Economic*
Intermediaries*
Economic*
Interview*and*observation*
1*day*
Cooperative*
Economic*
Interview*and*observation*
4*days*in*total*
Institutional*
Socioeconomic*&*
Political*
Exchange*of*information;*
interview*
Continuously*during*
research*
VALUE&CHAIN&B:&HORTICULTURE&
N&=&30&
Family&farmers&
N&=&2&
Mini&–&Processing&Plants&
N&=&2&
Middleman&
N&=&2&
CEASACRJ&and&Farmer’s&Market&in&
Nova&Friburgo&
N&=&2&
Greengroceries,&local&market&
Municipality,&EMATER,&SEAPEC,&
PESAGRO,&farmer’s&associations&
Agents&out&of&chain&
Questionnaire*or*interview*
and*observation*
Exchange*of*information;*
interview*
Informal*talking*at*the*
stores*
2*days*
Continuously*during*
research*
1*day*
VALUE&CHAIN&A:&COFFEE&
N&=&30&
Family&farmers&
N&=&3&
Local&Roasters&
N&=&2&
Middleman&
N&=&1&
COOPERCANOL&
Municipality,&EMATER,&SEAPEC,&
PESAGRO,&farmer’s&associations&
Questionnaire*and*
observation*
Questionnaire*and*
observation*
8*days*
3*days*
**
The*schedule*before*the*fieldwork*was*pretty*much*similar*to*the*acquired*sample.*The*sample*
was* accomplished* according* to* the* available* resources* to* enable* the* research,* e.g.*
accommodation,* mobility,* and* availability* of* people* interested* in* participating* and* helping* with*
the*concretization*of*the*study.*Modifications*were*made*to*adapt*to*the*circumstances,*such*as*
unavailability* of* interviewees* or* lack* of* interest* in* taking* participation* in* the* study.* Restrictions*
occurred* mainly* in* private* enterprises,* intermediates* and* at* the* wholesale* market* (CEASA).* In*
general,*the*contributions*of*the*farmers*to*this*research*were*very*generous*and*approachable,*
likewise*public*institutions*involved*in*the*chain.*
!
37!
4.3.3. Data&source&and&collection&methods&
4.3.3.1.
Literature&review&
The*literature*review*was*necessary*for*this*study*to*gather*enough*information*and*knowledge*
to* proceed* with* all* phases* of* research.* The* literature* was* consulted* in* the* conceptual* and*
proposal* design,* during* the* preparation* for* the* fieldwork,* sampling* method,* means* of* data*
collection,*and*in*the*final*written*report.*The*scientific*knowledge*and*secondary*data*used*the*
following* sources:* web* search,* scientific* papers,* conference* proceedings,* institutional* database,*
working* papers,* international* organizations* and* national* reports,* methodological* guidelines,*
legislations,* censuses,* surveys,* institutional* statistics* databases,* including* domestic* and*
international* sources.* Most* of* the* statistical* data* is* suggested* for* VCA* (Bellù,* 2013;* Bockel* &*
Tallec,*2005).*For*organization*of*the*reviewed*literature*the*software*Mendeley*Desktop*version*
1.14*(Mendeley*Ltd.,*2015)*was*helpful*for*proper*and*standard*citation*and*referencing.*
4.3.3.2.
Stakeholders&expert’s&consultation&
This*part*of*research*consisted*of*establishing*a*solid*stakeholder*relationship*and*research*bases*
of* knowledge* to* integrate* a* participatory* approach* and* acquisition* of* data.* In* this* sense,* the*
consultation*included*the*Secretariat*of*Agriculture*and*Livestock*of*Rio*de*Janeiro*(SEAPEC),*the*
technical* assistance* and* rural* advisory* service* (EMATER;Rio),* the* Corporation* in* Agricultural*
Research* from* State* Rio* de* Janeiro* (PESAGRO),* the* Micro;watershed* Committees* (COGEM)* in*
Nova* Friburgo* and* Varre;Sai* for* contact* with* the* farmers,* the* SIMA;RJ* from* PESAGRO* in* the*
CEASA,* the* Seinp* Centre* the* in* CEASA* and* the* Farmer’s* Market* in* Nova* Friburgo,* the*
COOPERCANOL* in* Varre;Sai,* the* Municipal* Secretariat* of* Agriculture* of* both* studied* cities,* and*
other*local*agents*of*activities*of*the*value*chain*essential*for*the*study.*
4.3.3.3.
Fieldwork&
The*primary*data*sampling*happened*through*a*participatory*approach*and*Rapid*Rural*Appraisal*
(RRA)* of* the* value* chains,* according* to* Bellù,* 2013* and* Bockel* &* Tallec,* 2005.* It* consists* of*
informal* meetings* with* agents* or* group* of* agents,* e.g.* farmers,* retailers,* where* an* interview* is*
carried*out*with*an*open*questionnaire*for*a*limited*sample.**
The* sample* represented* a* range* from* 10%* up* to* 60%* of* the* total* number* of* the* farmers,*
depending*on*the*product*and*region.*The*PEM*“Plano*Executivo*da*Microbacia”*(Executive*Plan*
!
38!
of*the*Micro;watershed),*developed*by*the*PRR*(Rio*Rural*;*GEF,*2015a;*Rio*Rural*;*BIRD,*2014a,*
2014b;*Rio*Rural*;*GEF,*2015b),*gives*a*clue*of*the*sampling.*It*is*possible*to*infer*that*the*sample*
of*this*study*represented*25%*of*coffee*growers*in*MB2,*and*15%*of*total*farmers*(all*activities,*
including*coffee)*in*MB1.*In*horticulture,*it*embraced,*in*terms*of*producers,*10%*cauliflower,*20;
25%*tomato,*60%*lettuce,*60%*parsley,*40%*beetroot*and*15%*other*products*in*MB3*and*MB4.*
The*means*of*research*used*in*the*fieldwork,*according*to*Hellin*&*Meijer*(2006)*were:*
A)*Participant*observation:**
A*collection*of*qualitative*data,*which*helped*with*a*greater*understanding*of*the*characteristics*
of*the*situation*being*researched.*Jot*notes*were*made*to*gather*keywords*and*sentences*in*the*
field;*photographs*were*also*an*excellent*source*of*documenting*the*observation.*
B)*Semi;structured*interviews*and*focused*group*meetings:**
Guided*conversations*with*predetermined*topics*and*during*the*conversation*new*insights*arose*
as* a* result* of* the* discussion* and* analysis;* applied* to* one;to;one* conversations* and* groups’*
interviews.* The* interview* was* used* for* some* agents* of* the* chain;* mainly* institutions* and* the*
private* sector;* also* when* the* questionnaires* were* not* possible* to* be* applied* due* to* lack* of*
transparency*of*the*shared*data.*The*focused*group*meetings*were*available*during*the*COGEM*
meetings,*or*farmer*associations’*meetings,*where*the*discussions*provided*interesting*material*
for*the*research.*
C)*Questionnaires:*
Quantitative* data* collected* for* a* more* objective* assessment* of* the* value* chain* actors.* The*
questionnaire*was*designed*to*obtain*the*information:**“what)the)value)chains)actors)are)doing?”*
and*“why)the)actors)are)doing)that?”*and*“how)they)formulate)their)decisions?”*(Hellin*&*Meijer,*
2006).* The* questionnaires* had* open* questions* or* closed* questions,* based* on* the* applied* works*
(Bockel* &* Tallec,* 2005;* Gilbert,* 2006).* The* elements* of* the* survey* consisted* of* general*
characteristics*(socioeconomic)*and*features*of*the*production*(farm*size,*labor,*large*and*small*
equipment,* marketing),* and* also* information* regarding* farmer* organization* and* main* perceived*
problems.*Appendices&1*and*2*display*the*used*farmer*questionnaires*in*horticulture*and*coffee*
chain,* respectively.* Another* type* of* questionnaire* was* designed* for* upstream* agents.* All*
questionnaires* were* based* on* the* * “data* requirements”* in*Annex& 1.* See* Appendices& 3,& 4,& 5,& 6,&
and&7*for*consulting*upstream*agents*questionnaires.!*
!
39!
4.4.
Data&Analysis&
The* value* chain* analysis* was* accomplished* using* the* six* analytical* steps* as* reported* in* the*
methodology*(Bellù,*2013).*The*results*show*a*diagnosis*of*the*value*chains.*Due*to*difficulties*of*
the*“Value*Chain*Analysis*Software*FAO*VCA*Tool*3.2”,*all*functional*and*economic*analyzes*were*
performed* manually.* The* Economic* analysis* credibility* can* be* checked* at* the* United* Nations*
Statistical* Division* (UNSTATS),* in* the* document* “System* of* National* Accounts* (SNA)”* written* by*
European*Commission*et*al.,*(2008).*It*was*used*the*“Wizard:*Statistics*&*data*Analysis*Software*
for* Mac”,* version* 1.7.10* (Miller,* 2015)* for* the* statistical* analysis* of* the* data.* The* results* were*
clustered* and* analyzed* to* generate* significant* outcomes.* Software* Lucid* Chart* (Lucid* Software*
Inc.,*2015)*was*used*to*design*the*diagrams*and*charts*of*the*value*chains.*
The* expected* result* of* this* study* is* the* characterization* of* the* two* studied* areas'* value* chains.*
Additionally,* the* value* chain* map* was* a* good* representation* of* the* enabling* environment,*
showing*the*constraints*and*synergies*among*agent*interactions*and*can*be*used*as*a*benchmark*
for*institutional*interventions*at*the*decision;making*level.*
*
!
*
40!
5.
CHATER:&RESULTS&AND&DISCUSSION&–&VALUE&CHAIN&A&(COFFEE)&
5.1.
Step&1:&Socioeconomic&context&of&the&Value&Chain&A:&Coffee&
5.1.1. Panorama&of&the&Brazilian&coffee&economy&
Coffee* in* Brazil* has* a* social* and* economic* importance* since* the* 18th* century* (MAPA,* 2015a).*
Today,* Brazil* is* the* largest* producer* and* exporting* country* in* the* world* and* also* the* second*
largest*consumer*of*the*product*(MAPA,*2015a).*The*world’s*total*coffee*production*(of*all*sorts)*
in* 2014* was* 141,850* thousand* bags* of* 60kg.* Of* that,* Brazil’s* production* represented* 32%,*
totalizing*45,342*thousand*bags*of*60kg*(International*Coffee*Organization,*2015d)*in*Table&3.**
Table&3:&Total&coffee&production&expressed&in&thousand&bags&of&60kg&by&major&exporting&and&producer&countries&
(2011C2014)&
Country&
Producer&
2011&
Total&
Production&
2012&
Total&
%&
Production&
2013&
Total&
%&
Production&
2014&
Total&
%&
Production&
%&
Brazil&
43484&
32&
50826&
35&
49152&
34&
45342&
32&
Vietnam*
26500*
19*
25000*
17*
27500*
19*
27500*
19*
Colombia*
7652*
6*
9927*
7*
12124*
8*
12500*
9*
Indonesia*
7288*
5*
13048*
9*
11667*
8*
9000*
6*
Ethiopia*
6798*
5*
6233*
4*
6527*
4*
6625*
5*
136583&
100&
147562&
100&
146745&
100&
141850&
100&
World&
Table*updated*by*the*author*using*template*from*Vilela*&*Rufino*(2010).*Source*of*data:*(International*Coffee*
Organization,*2015d)*
Brazil* produces* the* two* most* important* species* of* coffee,* the* Coffea) arabica,* and* the* Coffea)
canephora,*formerly*known*as*Arabica*and*Robusta,*respectively.*The*variety*Arabica*corresponds*
to*73.7%*of*the*total*production*(Conab,*2015a).*As*reported*by*Conab*(2015a),*the*total*Brazilian*
crop* area* for* both* coffee* varieties* is* estimated* to* be* 2,256,500* hectares.* Of* them* 1,933,120*
hectares*(85.7%)*are*currently*in*production*and*323,381,4*hectares*(14,3%)*are*arising.*There*are*
about* 287,000* producers,* which* are* predominantly* characterized* as* mini* and* small* holders*
distributed*over*1,900*municipalities*within*15*Brazilian*states*(MAPA,*2015a).*Table& 4*presents*
the*most*relevant*regions*and*states*of*coffee*production*in*Brazil.*Figure&15*shows*the*location*
of*coffee*crop*areas*for*both*varieties*(Arabica*and*Robusta).**
*
!
41!
Table&4:&Total&coffee&production&in&the&period&2011C2015&expressed&in&thousand&bags&of&60kg&&
Federation&Unit/Region&
North&
Rondônia*
2011&
2012&
2013&
2014&
2015&
&1,612.3&&
&1,534.0&&
&1,478.7&&
&1,546.0&&
&1,673.1&&
*1,428.3**
*1,367.0**
*1,357.0**
*1,477.3**
*1,604.5**
Pará*
*184.0**
*167.0**
*121.7**
*68.7**
*68.6**
Northeast&
&2,290.0&&
&2,149.6&&
&1,803.3&&
&2,371.3&&
&2,489.1&&
Bahia*
*2,290.0**
*2,149.6**
*1,803.3**
*2,371.3**
*2,489.1**
&137.8&&
&371.5&&
&437.0&&
&402.4&&
&461.5&&
*137.8**
*124.1**
*171.5**
*165.8**
*165.9**
Goiás*
*;**
*247.4**
*265.5**
*236.6**
*295.6**
Southeast&
&37,125.5&&
&45,064.8&&
&43,648.1&&
&40,330.9&&
&40,754.9&&
Minas*Gerais*
*22,181.0**
*26,944.0**
*27,660.0**
*22,644.1**
*23,973.0**
Espírito*Santo*
*11,573.0**
*12,502.0**
*11,697.0**
*12,805.7**
*12,088.5**
Rio&de&Janeiro&
&260.0&&
&262.2&&
&281.0&&
&292.3&&
&292.4&&
Midwest&
Mato*Grosso*
São*Paulo*
South&
Paraná*
*3,111.5**
*5,356.6**
*4,010.1**
*4,588.8**
*4,401.0**
&1,842.0&&
&1,580.0&&
&1,650.0&&
&558.6&&
&1,100.0&&
*1,842.0**
*1,580.0**
*1,650.0**
*558.6**
*1,100.0**
Others&
&476.6&&
&126.5&&
&134.5&&
&132.5&&
&132.6&&
Brasil&
&43,484.2&&
&50,826.4&&
&49,151.6&&
&45,341.6&&
&46,611.2&&
Source:*adapted*from*(Conab,*2015b)*
*
Figure&15:&Map&of&the&coffee&producing&regions,&Coffea&arabica&and&Coffea"canephora&
Source:*CETCAF*(2015).*Description:*Areas*of*coffee*production,*red*displays*Coffea)arabica*and*yellow*display*Coffea)
canephora*or*robusta.*Note:*concentration*of*production*over*the*southeastern*Brazil.*
!
42!
Brazil*exports*in*average*only*67%*of*its*total*production,*less*export*percentage*in*comparison*to*
Colombia* and* Indonesia,* which* export* 77%* and* 81%* of* their* production* respectively*
(International* Coffee* Organization,* 2015a).* Figure& 16* shows* the* total* coffee* export* in* thousand*
bags*of*60kg*by*the*largest*producer*and*exporting*countries.*
in&thousand&bags&of&60&kg&
40000*
35000*
30000*
Brazil*
25000*
20000*
Vietnam*
15000*
Colombia*
10000*
Indonesia*
5000*
0*
2010*
2011*
2012*
2013*
&
Figure&16:&Total&coffee&(of&all&sorts)&exports&expressed&in&thousand&bags&of&60&kg&by&major&exporting&countries&in&the&
period&of&2010&to&2013&
Chart*updated*from*Vilela*&*Rufino*(2010).*Source*of*data:*(International*Coffee*Organization,*2015a)*
5.1.2. Economic&performance&of&the&coffee&sector&
Coffee* is* one* of* the* main* exported* commodities,* being* the* fifth* agricultural* product* more*
exported*in*the*country*(Conab,*2015b).*As*stated*in*a*statistical*report*of*(MAPA,*2015c),*Brazil*
had*in*2014*total*coffee*gross*revenue*export*of*6.7*billion*US$*at*181.35*US$*a*bag*of*60kg,*as*
seen*in*Table&5.**
Table&5:&Total&export&quantity,&coffee&gross&revenue&and&average&price&of&the&coffee&bag&
2008&
2009&
2010&
2011&
2012&
2013&
2014&
Quantity&(millions&of&bags)*
29.7*
30.5*
33.5*
33.6*
28.7*
32.0*
36.7*
Value&(billion&US$)*
4.8*
4.3*
5.8*
8.7*
6.5*
5.3*
6.7*
Average&price&&(US$/bag)*
160.20*
140.38*
172.11*
259.83*
224.90*
164.81*
181.35*
&
Source:*adapted*from*MAPA*(2015b)*
According* to* Conab* (2015a),* coffee* is* economically* relevant* for* 15* producing* states.* Minas*
Gerais,*Espírito*Santo,*and*São*Paulo*handled*together*89.88%*of*the*total*coffee*national*gross*
!
43!
revenue*in*2014,*equivalent*to*R$*14,587,363.38.*However,*the*State*Rio*de*Janeiro*represented*
only*0.71%*(Figure&17)*of*the*national*coffee*gross*revenue*share,*which*is*equal*to*R$*113,970.25*
(Conab,* 2015a).* Additionally,* the* coffee* production* chain* generates* about* 8* million* jobs* in* the*
country,*providing*income*and*access*to*the*basic*services*for*many*households*(MAPA,*2015a).*
Rio&de&Janeiro&
0.71%&
South&Region&
1.30%&
Southeast&Region&
89.88%&
North&Region&
2.00%&
Northeast&Region&
5.31%&
Midwest&
0.79%&
*
Figure&17:&Coffee&gross&revenue&share&in&percentage&by&producing&region&and&the&state&Rio&de&Janeiro&highlighted&for&
special&comparison&
Source*of*chart:*elaborated*by*the*author,*data*taken*from*Conab*(2015a)*
However,*the*coffee*production*activity*undergoes*a*strong*seasonality*called*biannual*cycle,*an*
intrinsic* characteristic* of* the* coffee* crop,* which* causes* high* and* low* variances* of* annual*
fruitfulness*(Silva*&*Reis,*2013).*In*agreement*with*the*same*authors,*the*matter*of*biannual*cycle*
affects*the*commodity*supply*and*consequently*causes*prices*instability*in*the*market.*This*fact*
poses* a* challenge* for* coffee* policies* and*for* the* producers,* which* are* required* to* have* storage*
management*to*overcome*the*differences*of*annual*crops.**
Figure&18*illustrates*clearly*the*effect*of*the*biannual*cycle*and*the*prices*fluctuation.*Years*with*a*
high*peak*of*production,*such*as*1991,*1999*and*2002*had*a*profound*decrease*of*prices*of*the*
coffee* bag* paid* to* coffee* growers* (International* Coffee* Organization,* 2015c).* Due* to* the* high*
volatility* of* the* coffee* sector* income,* one* observes* problems* of* finance* for* the* coffee* activity*
upon*financing*institutions,*and*a*weak*policy*frame,*which*doesn’t*give*enough*support*for*such*
an*important*Brazilian*economic*sector*as*it*is*the*coffee*sector*(FAERJ,*1999).**
!
44!
50,000*
$300.00*
$250.00*
40,000*
$200.00*
30,000*
$150.00*
20,000*
$100.00*
10,000*
Total*producàon*in*bags*(60kg)*
2012*
2011*
2010*
2009*
2008*
2007*
2006*
2005*
2004*
2003*
2002*
2001*
2000*
1999*
1998*
1997*
1996*
1995*
1994*
1993*
1992*
1991*
0*
$50.00*
$0.00*
Price&in&US$&per&bag&(60kg)&paid&to&growers&in&
Brazil&
$350.00*
1990*
Brazilian&tota&cofffee&producnon&in&bags&of&
60kg&
60,000*
Prices*in*US$*per*bag*(60kg)*paid*to*growers*
*
Figure&18:&Biannual&cycle&of&the&Brazilian&Coffee&in&the&calendar&years&from&1990&to&2012&
Chart*elaborated*by*the*author.*Source*of*data:*(International*Coffee*Organization,*2015d,*2015c)*
5.1.3. Coffee&production&in&the&state&of&Rio&de&Janeiro&
The*State*of*Rio*de*Janeiro*has*once*been*one*of*the*greatest*coffee*producers*in*Brazil.*The*State*
reached* 3.5* million* bags* of* coffee* in* the* past* (FAERJ,* 1999),* supplying* 60%* of* the* national*
production.* Due* to* phytosanitary* problems,* Rio* de* Janeiro* had* almost* eradicated* the* planted*
crops*in*the*70's*(Andrade*et*al.,*2009;*Andrade*&*Silva,*2013).*The*State*Rio*de*Janeiro*has*a*total*
coffee*crop*area*of*12,783*ha*currently,*producing*a*total*of*292.3*thousand*bags*of*60kg*in*2014*
or* 0.64%* of* the* national* production* (Conab,* 2015a).* The* average* productivity* is* of* 22.87*
processed*bags*ha;1*(Conab,*2015b).*The*evolution*of*the*crop*area*and*the*productivity*over*the*
period*from*2001*to*2015*is*represented*in*Figure&19,*conforming*to*Conab*(2015b).**
22*
20*
18*
16*
14*
2015*
2014*
2013*
2012*
2011*
2010*
2009*
2008*
2007*
2006*
2005*
2004*
2003*
2001*
12*
Rio&de&Janeiro&average&yield&
(bags&60kg/ha)&
24*
2002*
15,000*
14,500*
14,000*
13,500*
13,000*
12,500*
12,000*
11,500*
11,000*
10,500*
10,000*
10*
Crop*in*formaàon*area*
(ha)*
Crop*in*producàon*Area*
(ha)*
Average*yield*(bags*
60kg/ha)*
*
Figure&19:&Rio&de&Janeiro’s&total&crop&area&(ha)&and&yield&(bags&60kg/ha)&from&2001&to&2015&
Chart*elaborated*by*the*author.*Source*of*statistic*data:*(Conab,*2015b)*
!
45!
The* literature* revealed* that* the* Fluminense’s*production* showed* a* decreasing* trend* in* the* 90’s*
(FAERJ,* 1999).* More* updated* data* from* the* IBGE* (2015e)* shows* that* the* production* recovered*
slightly*from*the*drop.*However,*it*has*never*recovered*the*previous*historical*records*entirely.*As*
Andrade* &* Silva* (2013)* affirm,* the* state* of* Rio* de* Janeiro* lost* 26.4%* of* harvested* area,* an*
equivalent*to*4,634*ha*of*the*productive*area*in*the*period*from*1990*to*2010.*The*same*authors*
explain*that*the*reduction*is*due*to*the*eradication*of*coffee*crops*happened*in*the*70’s*added*
the* insufficient* new* expansion* of* rehabilitated* crops.* Andrade* et* al.* (2002)* say* that* the*
production* area* stagnated* over* the* past* years* regardless* the* demand* within* the* state* RJ.* The*
Figure&20*illustrates*the*problematic*stated*above*by*representing*the*evolution*of*the*harvested*
450*
17,000*
400*
16,000*
350*
15,000*
14,000*
300*
13,000*
250*
12,000*
200*
11,000*
150*
10,000*
9,000*
100*
8,000*
50*
Harvested*Area*(ha)*
Total&producnon&in&thousand&bags&of&60&kg&
18,000*
1990*
1991*
1992*
1993*
1994*
1995*
1996*
1997*
1998*
1999*
2000*
2001*
2002*
2003*
2004*
2005*
2006*
2007*
2008*
2009*
2010*
2011*
2012*
2013*
Total&Harvested&area&(ha)&&
area*and*the*production*of*coffee*bags*in*the*State*RJ*in*23*years.*
Producàon*(thousand*bags*of*60kg)*
*
Figure&20:&Evolution&of&the&harvested&area&and&production&in&the&State&of&Rio&de&Janeiro&(1990C2013)&
Chart*generated*by*the*author.*Source*of*data:(IBGE,*2015e;*FAERJ,*1999)*
The*current*production*of*Rio*de*Janeiro*concentrates*in*the*Northwest*Region*and*the*Mountain*
Region*(Andrade*et*al.,*2009).*Figure&21*displays*the*producing*municipalities*of*the*State*Rio*de*
Janeiro.* The* frequency* of* production* ranges* from* “high”* to* “some”* to* “no”* coffee* activity*
production*within*cities,*according*to*the*last*coffee*diagnosis*of*the*State*Rio*de*Janeiro*(FAERJ,*
1999).**
!
46!
*
Figure&21:&Location&of&the&coffee&production&activity&in&the&municipalities&of&the&State&Rio&de&Janeiro&
Map*generated*by*the*author*using*IBGE*cartographic*base*(IBGE,*2015c).*Source*data*of*coffee*production*locations*
and*frequency*of*production*extracted*from*FAERJ*(1999)*
The* largest* coffee* producers* in* Rio* de* Janeiro* are* the* municipalities* Bom* Jesus* do* Itabapoana,*
Porciúncula,* and* Varre;Sai* in* the* Northwest* Region;* Bom* Jardim,* Duas* Barras* and* São* José* do*
Vale*do*Rio*Preto*in*the*Mountain*Region*(Andrade*et*al.,*2009).*Rio*de*Janeiro*has*in*total*2,269*
coffee* growers,* whose* majority* (75.4%)* has* property* size* ranging* between* 10* and* 50* hectares*
(FAERJ,*1999).*Table&6*displays*the*detailed*information*of*Rio*de*Janeiro’s*coffee*production.*
Table&6:&Rio&de&Janeiro’s&coffee&production&in&2013&
!
Metropolitan*
N°&of&
producers&
1*
Production&
(tons)&
14.40*
Percentage&
(%)&
0.07%*
Mid;south*
4*
6.00*
Três&Rios&
Mid;south*
3*
Trajano&de&
Morais&
Duas&Barras&
Mountain*
30*
Mountain*
São&José&do&
Vale&do&Rio&
Preto&
Bom&Jardim&
Mountain*
Cardoso&
Moreira&
Campos&dos&
Goytacazes&
Municipality&
RJ&Region&
Area&(ha)&
Value&(R$)&
Duque&de&
Caixias&
Vassouras&
6.00*
42,048.00*
0.03%*
2.50*
48,000.00*
65.20*
0.31%*
59.00*
311,004.00*
135.00*
0.65%*
45.00*
274,050.00*
49*
963.50*
4.65%*
403.00*
4,316,480.00*
12*
1,404.00*
6.78%*
624.00*
6,542,640.00*
Mountain*
92*
1,663.80*
8.04%*
1,124.00*
4,874,934.00*
North*
3*
6.00*
0.03%*
6.00*
12,000.00*
North*
18*
23.50*
0.11%*
22.00*
94,000.00*
47!
São&Fidélis&
North*
12*
30.00*
0.14%*
30.00*
90,000.00*
Natividade&
Northwest*
12*
25.20*
0.12%*
28.00*
109,368.00*
Itaperuna&
Northwest*
17*
31.50*
0.15%*
18.00*
126,000.00*
Bom&Jesus&do&
Itabapoana&
Porciúncula&
Northwest*
240*
3,240.00*
15.65%*
1,400.00*
13,510,800.00*
Northwest*
836*
5,953.00*
28.76%*
4,235.00*
24,466,830.00*
VarreCSai&
Northwest*
940*
7,140.00*
34.49%*
4,759.00*
27,988,800.00*
Total&
RJ*
2,269*
20,701.10*
100.00%*
12,761.50*
82,806,954.00*
Adapted*from:*(EMATER;Rio,*2013a)*
5.1.4. Fluminense’s&Northwest&Region&coffee&
The* Northwest* Region* is* the* largest* coffee* producer* of* the* state,* counting* with* 79.17%* of* the*
total* Rio* de* Janeiro’s* coffee* production* (EMATER;Rio,* 2013a).* Despite* the* hilly* topography,* the*
climate,* and* the* soil* are* adequate* for* the* production* and* additionally* there* is* a* tradition* of*
cultivating*coffee*(Andrade*et*al.,*2014).*Andrade*et*al.*(2002)*and*Andrade*&*Silva*(2013)*affirm*
that* the* coffee* in* Rio* de* Janeiro* is* characterized* by* technicians* as* “Mountain* coffee”.* Because*
coffee*is*produced*mainly*in*mountainous*areas*predominantly*strong;wavy*to*hilly*areas,*mostly*
without* the* possibility* of* mechanization.* Additionally,* it* can* be* said* that* in* the* State* Rio* de*
Janeiro,* the* technological* pattern* of* the* coffee* sector* is* seen* as* very* low,* resulting* in* low*
productivity*(Andrade*&*Silva,*2013).*
Due*to*the*deficient*industrialization*of*the*region*and*energy*supply*limitations,*the*agricultural*
coffee* production* has* been* and* is* the* most* important* source* of* livelihood* for* the* local*
population* (Andrade* et* al.,* 2009).* Therefore,* in* the* Northwest* Region,* coffee* crops* have* to* be*
incentivized* to* develop* and* to* generate* jobs,* since* it* is* the* main* crop* produced* in* many*
municipalities*(Andrade*et*al.,*2014).**
Besides* that,* the* coffee* sector* is* characterized* by* the* biannual* cycle,* which* affects* the* coffee*
supply*causing*fluctuations*of*prices*and*instability*for*the*coffee*growers*(Silva*&*Reis,*2013).*The*
farmers*are*then*squeezed*between*the*inputs*provider*and*the*middlemen,*which*set*the*prices*
and*concentrate*the*value*(Gilbert,*2006).*
The*coffee*production*activity*in*the*Northwest*needs*improvement,*to*keep*farmers*motivated*
to*work*in*the*region,*and*also*to*avoid*the*rural*exodus,*which*has*occurred*recently*in*the*area*
(Andrade*et*al.,*2009).*According*to*Andrade*&*Silva*(2013),*the*Northwest*Region*would*play*a*
central*role*in*the*potential*increase*of*production*areas*within*Rio*de*Janeiro.*They*say*it*can*be*
achieved*by*adjusting*adequate*technologies*and*by*incorporating*efforts*at*the*state*RJ*decision;
!
48!
making*level*towards*the*development*of*programs*aiming*the*reclamation*of*the*Fluminense’s*
coffee*activity.*
5.1.5. Production&in&the&Study&Area&
Table&7*displays*the*production*in*bags*of*60kg*of*coffee*in*the*1st*and*2nd*cropping*years*of*the*
studied*areas.*The*results*show*the*biannual*cycle*and*annual*productions,*and*the*average*yield*
of*bags*per*hectare*year;1.**
Table&7:&Production&in&bags&of&60kg&by&community&and&by&MicroCbasin&(biannual&cycle&2012C2013)&
Community&
Production&
(Bags&of&60kg)&
MicroCBasin&
Total&
Boa&Ventura&
Degredo&
Santa&Cruz&I&
MB1&
MB2&
65*±*28.425*
136.142*±*
121.377*
357.409*±*
384.024*
91.211*±*
43.672*
357.409*±*
384.024*
188.817&±&
137.093&
780*
953*
3,931.5*
1,733*
3,931.5*
5,664.5&
119.375*±*
30.446*
260*±*
245.854*
433.045*
±347.366*
171.184*±*
83.226*
433.045*±*
374.366*
267.2&±&
140.739&
Total&2 &cropping&
year&
1,432.5*
1,820*
4,763.5*
3,252.5*
4,763.5*
8,016&
Mean&biannual&
cycle&
184.375*±*
56.456*
396.143*±*
365.059*
790.455*±*
756.671*
262.395*±*
125.428*
790.455*±*
756.671*
456.017&±&
276.043&
Total&biannual&
cycle&
2,212.5*
2,773*
8,695*
4,985.5*
8,695*
13,680.5&
Mean&annual&
production&
92.188*±*
28.227*
198.071*±*
182.53*
395.227*±*
378.335*
131.197*±*
62.739*
395.227*±*
378.335*
228.008&±&
138.021&
Total&annual&
production&
1,106.25*
1,386.5*
4,347.5*
2,492.75*
4,347.5*
6,840.25&
Yield&bags/&ha&
C1
year &
22.3*
28.1*
29.8*
24.5*
29.8*
26.4&
st
Mean&1 &cropping&
year&
st
Total&1 &cropping&
year&
nd
Mean&2 &
cropping&year&
nd
All* communities* and* micro;basins* presented* equal* statistical* means,* due* to* the* high* variation,*
following*a*pattern*of*low*production*in*the*1st*cropping*year*and*an*increase*of*production*in*the*
2nd* cropping* year.* Although* the* means* are* equal,* MB2,* despite* representing* fewer* farmers* in*
number,*produces*much*more*in*comparison*to*the*MB1,*which*accounts*for*the*majority*of*the*
interviewees.*One*can*note*that*fact*in*the*1st*cropping*year*(MB1*median*80;*MB2*median*185)*
!
49!
and* also* in* the* 2nd* cropping* year* (MB1* median* 129;* MB2* median* 250).* However,* this* does* not*
reflect*on*the*average*yield,*which*is*similar*in*the*communities*and*micro;basins.**
Moreover,* it* was* observed* a* positive* correlation* (Correlation* test,* p* =* 0.026)* between* the*
average* yield* and* the* annual* average* production.* Meaning* that* the* increased* production* in* its*
totality* is* linked* to* an* increase* in* production* yield.* Figure& 22* illustrates* the* results* of* the*
described*facts,*where*all*points*represent*the*interviewed*farmers.*
*
Figure&22:&Positive&correlation&between&annual&average&production&(total&coffee&bags&of&60kg)&and&production&yield&of&
C1
bags/ha&year &
5.1.6. Household&socioCeconomic&survey&of&Value&Chain&A&
The* samples* presented* similar* proportions.* MB1* “Ribeirão* da* Onça”* had* a* frequency* of* 63.3%,*
and* MB2* “Varre;Sai”* 36.7%* of* the* total* interviewees,* at* 5%* of* significance.* All* communities*
presented* equal* proportions;* “Boa* Ventura”* represented* 40%,* “Santa* Cruz”* I,* 36.7%,* and*
“Degredo”*23.3%*of*the*interviewees.*One*can*markedly*observe*that*two*communities*belong*to*
MB1,* due* the* nature* of* the* data* collection* conducted* through* the* extension* of* stakeholder*
network*(one*interviewee*lead*to*the*next*one).*Table&8*shows*the*detailed*information.*
Table&8:&Community&and&MicroCbasin&Relation&(Value&Chain&A)&
MicroCbasin&
MB1&
MB2&
!
Community&
Relative&frequency&to&the&total&
Relative&frequency&to&the&microCbasin&
Boa*Ventura*
40.0%*
63.2%*
Degredo*
23.3%*
36.8%*
Santa*Cruz*I*
36.7%*
100%*
50!
5.1.6.1.
Age&Group&
The*group*age*of*the*households*presented*a*normal*and*uniform*distribution,*with*an*estimated*
mean*of*49.333*±*5.426*years.*The*population*tends*to*be*within*the*groups*of*mature*adult,*and*
aged.*It*is*noted*a*characteristic*aging*population,*wherein*50%*of*the*households*are*≥*50*years*
old,*and*20%*are*≥*60*years*old*(Table&9).*Considering*≥*60*years*as*an*elderly*group,*according*to*
the*Brazilian*by;law*for*senior*citizens9.*The*aging*population*has*a*bold*impact*in*the*labor*force,*
since*the*young*population*of*coffee*growers*(20;30*years*old)*is*very*reduced*(only*7%).**
Table&9:&Group&of&age&in&the&observed&population&(Value&Chain&A)&
Age&Group&
Relative&Frequency&
Accumulated&Frequency&
70*≤*Age*≤*80*
13%*
13%*
60*≤*Age*<*70*
7%*
20%*
50*≤*Age*<*60*
30%*
50%*
40*≤*Age*<*50*
20%*
70%*
30*≤*Age*<*40*
23%*
93%*
20*≤*Age*<*30*
7%*
100%*
The*same*aging*population*pattern*is*observed*in*the*micro;basins*(MB*mean*=*47.263*±*6.36;*MB*
mean* =* 52.909* ±* 11.175),* and* in* the* communities,* presenting* equal* statistical* means.* The*
distribution*of*age*by*community*is*represented*in*Figure&23.*This*result*is*in*agreement*with*the*
coffee*diagnostic*in*State*Rio*de*Janeiro*(FAERJ,*1999).*The*rural*exodus*is*another*contribution,*
strengthening* underemployment* and* migration* of* young* people* to* other* economic* centers*
(Ferreira,*2013).*
(ANOVA,)p)=)0.428)!
&
Figure&23:&Age&distribution&by&microCbasin&and&by&community&with&tCtest&estimated&means&&
!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!
9
Brazilian*classification*of*group*age*is:*children*up*to*12*years,*teenagers*from*12*to*18*years,*adult*from*18*to*59,*
elderly*equal*or*more*than*60*years*old*(Brasil,*2003,*1990)
!
51!
5.1.6.2.
Gender&
The*household’s*gender*profile*resulted*in*a*predominance*of*male,*with*an*unequal*proportion*
of*6.7%*±*9.7%*female,*against*93.3%*±*9.7%*of*male.*Representing*1*woman*to*14*men,*in*this*
observed*population*(2*counting*records*in*population*N=30,*5%*significance).*However,*it*does*
not* reflect* that* women* are* not* participant* of* family* farming,* but* rather* that* in* coffee* growing*
there*is*a*patriarchy*tradition,*in*which*men*are*considered*the*head*of*the*family,*and*were*then*
the*ones*interviewed.*
5.1.6.3.
Marital&status&
The* majority* of* the* households* are* married* (90%)* and* few* are* single* (10%).* There* was* no*
incidence* of* divorce* or* separation* or* widowed.* Figure& 24* illustrates* the* distribution* by* micro;
basin.* It* is* observed* that* there* is* homogeneity* within* the* sample* regarding* the* marital* status,*
which*reinforces*the*participation*of*both*gender*male*and*female*as*a*core*of*family*farming,*as*
previously*stated.*
(z-score, p = 0.900)
*
Figure&24:&Marital&status&by&microCbasin&
5.1.6.4.
Occupation&
Five*categories*of*profession*besides*“farmer”*were*identified,*as*seen*in*Figure&25.*The*majority*
is*considered*just*“farmer”*with*73%*of*frequency*in*the*observed*sample.*It*is*remarkable*that*
some*property*holders*found*themselves*as*“farmer”*and,*also,*one*profession*more,*e.g.*driver,*
entrepreneur,* chemist,* etc.* There* is* one* farmer* in* the* condition* of* retired.* The* “entrepreneur”*
category* refers* to* activities* related* to* coffee* milling* or* coffee* roasting.* When* comparing* both*
micro;basins,*it*was*encountered*significant*difference*(z;score,*p*=*0.009)*in*the*relation*of*the*
category*“farmer”*by*micro;basin.*The*majority*of*just*“farmers”*are*in*the*MB1*(89.5%),*verified*
!
52!
by*the*very*dark*spot*on*the*Model*residual*graph*(Figure&25).*However,*the*MB2,*near*the*urban*
center,* has* a* larger* variety* of* profession,* including* all* the* other* categories* (60%),* seen* by* the*
lighter*disperse*spots.*
*
Figure&25:&Profession&total&distribution&and&residual&by&microCbasin&
5.1.6.5.
Literacy&level&
In*general,*the*observed*sample*presented*median*in*the*level*“incomplete*primary*education”,*
representing*46.7%*of*the*households.*It*was*detected*a*statistically*significant*difference*in*the*
level* of* education* of* MB1* and* MB2.* The* level* of* education* in* MB1* can* be* considered* lower* in*
relation* to* MB2.* The* minimum* education* level* in* MB1* is* “illiterate”,* and* the* maximum* level* is*
“secondary* education”.* In* MB2,* there* wasn’t* illiteracy* observed,* and* there* is* a* significant*
difference* in* the* maximum* level* of* literacy* “tertiary* education”* (Table& 10).* The* lower* level* of*
education* is* an* issue* of* significance,* to* call* for* an* improvement* of* educational* services* in* the*
rural*area*of*Varre;Sai,*particularly*in*more*distant*rural*areas,*such*as*MB1*“Ribeirão*da*Onça”.*It*
is* important* to* note* that* the* age* of* the* interviewees* interferes* on* the* result* of* literacy.*
Considering*that*the*education*in*the*rural*area*was*lower*by*the*time*they*were*in*schooling*age.*
Table&10:&Literacy&level&of&households&by&microCbasin&
Literacy&
Illiterate&
Incomplete&
primary&
education&
Primary&
education&
Incomplete&
secondary&
education&
Secondary&
education&
Tertiary&
education&
Min&&
Max&&
Median&&
MB1&
15.79%*
52.63%*
15.79%*
10.53%*
5.26%*
0.00%*
Illiterate*
Secondary*
education*
Incomplete*
primary*
education*
MB2&
0.00%*
36.36%*
9.09%*
9.09%*
18.18%*
27.27%
Incomplete*
primary*
education*
Tertiary*
education*
Primary*
education*
Total&
10.0%*
46.7%*
13.3%*
10.0%*
10.0%*
10.0%*
Illiterate*
Tertiary*
education*
Incomplete*
primary*
education*
MB&
A*
A
*significant*difference*(z;score,*p*=*0.016)*
!
53!
5.1.6.6.
Household&income&and&size&
Household*size*presented*a*normal*distribution*with*an*estimated*mean*4.267*±*0.635*at*5%*of*
significance.* The* household* size* “4”* usually* represents* the* couple* and* a* pair* of* children* or*
another*dependent*person.*One;third*(33%)*is*in*between*2*≤*Household*size*<*4*(from*no*up*to*2*
children).*Nearly*one;third*is*between*5*≤*Household*size*<*6*(3*to*4*children),*as*seen*in*Table&11.*
These* results* are* consistent* with* FAERJ* (1999),* which* also* identified* an* average* of* 2;3* children*
per*household.*
Table&11:&Household&size&range&and&frequency&within&observed&population&
Household&size&
&Raw&count&
Relative&frequency&
6*≤*Household*size*≤*8*
6*
20%*
5*≤*Household*size*<*6*
9*
30%*
4*≤*Household*size*<*5*
5*
17%*
2*≤*Household*size*<*4*
10*
33%*
The* relation* of* household* size* by* community* is* illustrated* in* Figure& 26.* The* figure* shows* the*
household*size*in*“Degredo”*tends*to*be*larger*(mean*5.286*±*1.276)*and*in*“Santa*Cruz*I”*tends*
to*be*smaller*(mean*3.545*±*0.919).*The*factor*age*could*be*one*variable*interfering*in*this*matter*
since*in*“Santa*Cruz*I”,*the*population*is*older*than*50*years*on*average.*Thus,*their*children*are*
no*longer*living*with*them.*Also*could*be*a*matter*of*household*income,*discussed*further.*
!!!Degredo!
!!!!!!Santa!Cruz!I!
*
Figure&26:&Household&size&by&community&showing&tCtest&estimated&means&and&predicted&household&size&vs.&age&for&
Degredo&and&Santa&Cruz&I.&
The* household* income* survey* was* performed* in* a* non;intimidating* way.* The* families* could*
choose*a*range*of*minimum*wages,*that*at*the*period*of*research*2014*was*R$*724,00,*to*express*
!
54!
their* monthly* household* income* (summing* all* income* of* all* contributing* households,* including*
those*not*linked*to*the*farm).*The*results*showed*that*the*frequency*of*the*lowest*income*range*
(≤*1*min.*wage)*was*observed*only*in*the*MB1,*representing*47.4%*of*income*range*in*this*micro;
basin.**
Both* communities* in* MB1* presented* significant* lower* income* range,* 41.7%* (≤* 1* min.* wage)* in*
“Boa*Ventura”,*and*57.1%*(≤*1*min.*wage)*in*“Degredo”.*The*event*was*not*observed*in*MB2,*or*
in* “Santa* Cruz* I”.* One* household* didn’t* want* to* answer.* The* MB2* (“Santa* Cruz* I”)* presented*
comparative*higher*income*range*frequency*in*relation*to*the*other*two*communities,*with*54.5%*
of*middle*income*(1*≤*min.*wage*≤*3)*and*18.2%*of*the*highest*income*range*(≥*12*min.*wage).**
Figure&27*illustrates*the*household*income*range*by*community.*
Figure&27:&Household&income&by&community&(right)&and&dots&by&household&size&(left)&
Another*important*point*of*consideration*is*the*relation*of*household*income*and*household*size.*
It*is*predicted*that*“Degredo”,*with*the*size*of*family*6.188,*has*more*probability*to*have*a*lower*
income*range*of*(≤*1*min.*wage).*One*points*out*that*the*size*of*the*family*has*an*adverse*relation*
with*household*income*(Figure&27)*left*side.*
!
55!
5.1.6.7.
Property&profile&
Households* were* asked* about* the* nature* of* their* property,* to* evaluate* land* tenure* rights.* The*
survey*revealed*that*70%*of*the*households’*property*is*owned,*and*30%*is*granted.*Granted*has*
higher*frequency*in*the*case*of*farmers*in*the*condition*of*“meeiro”,*a*sharecropper,*which*crops*
in*someone*else’s*land*and*shares*the*resulted*crop*value*with*the*owner*of*the*property.*Many*
of*landowners*have*sharecroppers*in*their*land,*working*as*a*family*farming*member.*The*main*
reason*is*that*coffee*growers*follow*rigid*labor*and*environmental*laws,*in*order*to*preserve*the*
biodiversity*and*to*respect*coffee*workers*(MAPA,*2015a).*And*sharecroppers*can*be*considered*
as*partners*of*the*production*rather*than*a*worker.*They*also*have*a*contract*relation,*applying*a*
rate*to*the*proceeds*from*the*sale*of*production,*and*entitled*benefits*under*the*law*(Paragraph*
8* Article* 195* of* the* Federal* Constitution,* Brasil,* 1988).* The* granted* property* showed* a* higher*
frequency* in* the* MB1* (36.8%),* with* a* higher* incidence* in* the* community* of* “Degredo.* It*
represented* more* than* half* of* the* properties* as* granted* (57.1%* of* MB1).* Less* of* this* condition*
incidence*was*in*MB2*(18.2%).*
Households* were* also* asked* about* the* size* of* their* property,* including* cultivated* coffee* land,*
grazing* land,* and* forest* fragments.* Regarding* the* size* of* the* property,* it* is* observed* that* the*
micro;basins*studied*have*considered*small*properties*with*an*estimated*mean*=*23.649*±*9.791*
ha.*The*distribution*is*not*normal*and*not*uniform*(Figure&28).*There*is*clearly*a*predominance*of*
small*farm*sizes,*and*few*larger*small*farms.**
*
Figure&28:&Distribution&of&farm&size.&Not&uniformly&distributed&(KolmogorovCSmirnov,&p&<&0.001)&
!
56!
There* was* no* statically* difference* of* property* sizes* between* MB1* and* MB2;* both* micro;basins*
presented*a*concentration*of*small*farm*size*(MB1*=*17.626*±*8.931*ha;*MB2*=*34.051*±*23.154*
ha).*The*difference*between*them*is*that*MB2*presented*the*maximum*property*size*in*100*ha,*
and*MB1*maximum*of*70*ha,*as*medium*property*size.*The*majority*holds*small*properties*(83%*
less* than* 50* ha)* and* few* hold* larger* properties* (3%* more* than* 100* ha).* This* result* implies* that*
there* is* a* concentration* of* the* distribution* of* land* in* the* region.* It* is* very* characteristic* of* the*
profile* the* Brazilian* production* by* family* farming* (IBGE,* 2006a).* According* to* FAERJ* (1999),* the*
majority*of*coffee*growers*in*Rio*de*Janeiro*State*is*smaller*than*50*ha,*which*is*considered*small*
for*the*coffee*activity.*In*the*Northwest,*properties*are*in*average*smaller*than*45*ha,*highlighting*
the* importance* of* coffee* growing* socioeconomically* for* the* region* (FAERJ,* 1999).* In* this* study,*
70%*of*all*households*has*farm*smaller*than*20*ha*and*43.3%*less*than*10*ha.*Table&12*shows*the*
distribution*by*property*size*ranges*in*the*studied*population.*
Table&12:&Farm&size&range&of&the&observed&population&in&raw&count,&relative&and&accumulative&frequency&
Farm&size&(ha)&
Count&
Relative&frequency&
Accumulative&frequency&
100*≤*farm*size*(ha)*≤*110*
1.00*
3.3%*
100.0%*
90*≤*farm*size*(ha)*<*100*
1.00*
3.3%*
96.7%*
70*≤*farm*size*(ha)*<*80*
1.00*
3.3%*
93.3%*
60*≤*farm*size*(ha)*<*70*
1.00*
3.3%*
90.0%*
50*≤*farm*size*(ha)*<*60*
1.00*
3.3%*
86.7%*
30*≤*farm*size*(ha)*<*40*
2.00*
6.7%*
83.3%*
20*≤*farm*size*(ha)*<*30*
2.00*
6.7%*
76.7%*
10*≤*farm*size*(ha)*<*20*
8.00*
26.7%*
70.0%*
0*≤*farm*size*(ha)*<*10*
13.00*
43.3%*
43.3%*
The*cultivated*area*shows*a*similar*behavior*of*concentration,*as*the*farm*size*presented.*There*is*
a* positive* correlation* between* farm* size* and* cultivated* area* (Correlation* test,* p* <* 0.001).* It*
suggests* that* the* farmers* interviewed* have* as* their* principal* economic* activity* coffee* growing.*
Other* activities* such* as* livestock* production* and* area* intended* to* forest* conservation* at* the*
mountains*are*present,*but*they*are*not*the*main*developed*activity*within*the*farm.* Figure& 29&
shows*the*correlation*between*farm*size*and*cultivated*area*in*hectares.*
!
57!
*
Figure&29:&Positive&correlation&between&farm&size&(ha)&and&cultivated&area&(ha)&
5.1.6.8.
Findings&of&the&household&survey&
The* economic* survey* was* useful* to* detect* the* most* vulnerable* groups* in* micro;basins* and*
communities.*It*is*considerable*that*the*population*of*coffee*growers*in*the*region*is*aging;*this*
implies*difficulties*in*the*labor*force*and*also*impacts*on*the*production*costs.*The*predominance*
of* married* is* a* real* characteristic* of* the* core* of* family* farming.* In* general,* the* MB1* is* at* a*
comparative* disadvantage* in* relation* to* the* MB2,* mainly* the* community* “Degredo”,* which*
presented* the* lower* indicators.* One* of* the* reasons* might* be* the* distance* of* MB1* to* the* urban*
center.*According*to*this*study*MB1*the*most*vulnerable*socioeconomic*group*comparatively.*The*
MB2*presented*better*indicators*due*to*the*facility*and*proximity*to*the*urban*center*of*Varre;Sai,*
which*suggests*that*the*public*services*are*in*need*of*improvement*and*expansion*to*distant*rural*
areas.* The* interviewed* farmers* can* be* considered* in* the* profile* as* family* farming,* since* the*
properties*are*in*its*majority*considered*small*for*the*coffee*activity.*
5.2.
Step&2:&Demand&for&coffee&value&chain&outputs&
5.2.1. Coffee&demand&–&consumption&and&market&trends&
Coffee* is* an* important* commodity* worldwide,* which* is* produced* mainly* to* supply* developed*
industrialized* countries* (Vilela* &* Rufino,* 2010).* The* largest* coffee* importing* countries* are* the*
USA,*Germany,*Italy,*Japan*and*France*(International*Coffee*Organization,*2015b).*Table& 13*lists*
Brazil’s* most* important* destinations* of* coffee* export.* The* largest* volume* exported* is* of* coffee*
!
58!
Arabica* with* a* total* of* 29,416,575* bags* of* 60kg.* Other* sorts* of* coffee* such* as* Robusta,* soluble,*
and*roasted*also*have*many*destinations*(CeCafé,*2015).*
Table&13:&Destination&of&the&Brazilian&coffee&exports&by&type&of&coffee&expressed&in&60kg&bags&in&2014&&
Destination&country&
Arabica&
Robusta&
Soluble&
Roasted&
Total&
%&
USA&
5,570,631*
1,010,120*
595,727*
10,261*
7,186,739*
19.78*
Germany&
6,437,382*
178,120*
115,715*
742*
6,731,959*
18.53*
Belgium&
2,362,808*
636,196*
1,000*
62*
3,000,066*
8.25*
Italy&
2,618,290*
127,305*
85,711*
3,743*
2,755,049*
7.58*
Japan&
2,326,785*
0*
287,769*
2,882*
2,617,436*
7.20*
Other&countries&
10,100,679*
1,495,077*
2,345,803*
7,766*
14,029,325*
39.0*
Total&export&
29,416,575*
3,446,818*
3,431,725*
25,456*
36,320,574*
100.0*
Source*of*data:*adapted*from*(CeCafé,*2015)*
According* to* the* statistical* report* by* the* International* Coffee* Organization* (2015e),* the* total*
world*coffee*consumption*in*2014*was*149,265,000*bags*of*60kg.*Brazil*consumed*domestically*
20,771,000*bags*of*coffee*in*2014*with*an*annual*growth*rate*of*2,0%.*The*Brazilian*coffee*market*
represents* 14%* of* the* global* demand,* having* a* prominent* position* as* second* largest* consumer*
country*after*the*USA*(Figure&30).**
all&expornng&
countries&except&
Brazil&
17%&
others&
25%&
European&
Union&
28%&
Brazil&
14%&
USA&
16%&
*
Figure&30:&World&coffee&consumption&in&percentage&by&country&or&group&in&2014&
Chart*elaborated*by*the*author.*Source*of*data:*(International*Coffee*Organization,*2015e)*
The* Brazilian* consumption* of* roasted* ground* coffee* in* 2014* was* 4.89kg/inhabitant* year;1,*
equivalent* to* 6.12* kg* of* the* green* coffee* grain,* or* 81* liters/inhabitant* year;1* (ABIC,* 2015a).* The*
Brazilian* coffee* consumer* market* has* the* potential* to* increase* when* comparing* to* the* top*
!
59!
ranking*traditional*markets.*Countries*such*as*Finland,*Norway,*and*Denmark*have*much*higher*
consumption*per*capita*of*12.3,*9.7*and*8.7*kg/inhabitant*year;1,*respectively*(CeCafé,*2012).*As*
stated* Abreu* et* al.* (2013),* the* Brazilian* coffee* needs* to* be* changed* in* perspective.* Not* only*
maintain* the* status* of* greatest* coffee* commodity* producer* and* exporter* in* the* world* but* also*
develop*new*strategies*to*be*competitive*with*the*higher*quality*and*specialized*coffee*markets.*
5.2.2. Coffee&consumption&in&the&State&Rio&de&Janeiro&
Rio* de* Janeiro* State* is* the* second* largest* Brazilian* coffee* consumer* of* Brazil* after* São* Paulo*
(Andrade*&*Silva,*2013).*Rio*de*Janeiro*consumes*in*average*1.35*million*bags*of*processed*coffee*
annually,*which*corresponds*to*around*10%*of*the*Brazilian*domestic*consumption*(CCCRJ,*2015;*
Andrade* et* al.,* 2009;* Andrade* &* Silva,* 2013).* However,* the* state* produces* only* 0.64%* of* the*
national* production* (Conab,* 2015b).* The* high* demand* is* supplied* through* imports* from* other*
Brazilian*states*producers.*Therefore,*it*is*necessary*to*increase*the*production*within*the*state*RJ*
(Andrade*et*al.,*2009;*Andrade*&*Silva,*2013).*
A*study*on*the*coffee*consumption*trends,*conducted*by*ABIC*&*MAPA*(2010),*used*the*city*of*
Rio* de* Janeiro* among* others* as* sampling.* The* study* revealed* that* coffee* is* the* second* most*
regularly* drink* consumed,* just* behind* water.* And* it* is* the* most* drink* consumed* among* its*
substitutes,*e.g.*hot*chocolate*and*tea.*The*consumer*location*shifted*from*home*to*out*of*home*
consumption,*an*increase*of*307%*in*eight*years.**
According*to*the*same*study,*the*prevalence*of*consumption*is*still*the*ground*filtered*traditional*
coffee.*However,*the*consumption*of*special*coffees*has*increased*over*the*last*eight*years,*from*
1.5%*in*2003*to*2.3%*in*2010.*People*would*pay*more*for*more*quality*and*sustainability*of*the*
production,*as*revealed*in*the*research.**It*is*noteworthy*the*position*of*consumption*in*Rio*de*
Janeiro* because* it* hosts* around* 1* million* tourists* annually,* and* this* requires* high;quality* coffee*
products*to*make*the*Brazilian*coffee*image*worldwide*(CCCRJ,*2015).*
Trends*in*consumer*preferences*have*changed*regarding*the*desire*for*more*quality,*as*well*as,*
for*the*use*of*different*blends,*different*consumption*locations,*various*preparation*methods*and*
diversification* of* the* coffee* use* (FAERJ,* 1999).* Following* Abreu* et* al.* (2013),* the* new* trends* in*
the* world* coffee* market* are* driven* towards* added* value* products* that* engage* the*
competitiveness*in*the*coffee*sector:*
*
*
!
60!
I.
Geographic* Indications* of* Origin* or* Denomination* of* Origin:* Associates* quality* and*
reputation*of*a*particular*coffee*production*geographic*origin;*a*good*strategy*to*enhance*
profits*particularly*for*small*productions*in*delimited*areas**
II.
High*quality*and*specialized*coffee:*Transforms*coffee*into*a*specialized*product*and*not*
any* more* seen* as* commodity,* for* instance,* espressos,* aromatized* coffees,* and* special*
roasting*and*grinding*methods*
III.
Certified* coffee:* Differentiates* coffee* produced* through* sustainable* standards* and* fair*
trade*instruments;*the*certification*prevents*the*producer*to*suffer*from*consequences*of*
price*fluctuation*in*the*market*
IV.
Partnerships* with* private* sector:* The* private* sector* may* help* to* include* small* coffee*
farmers*by*corporate*social*responsibility,*which*is*increasingly*demanded*by*the*society*
V.
Increase*national*consumption*by*countries*producers:*Increase*the*demand*in*emerging*
economies*and*countries*producers*is*essential*to*avoid*stagnation*of*the*coffee*sector*
5.2.3. Demand&for&outputs&in&the&Northwest&Region&
Table& 14* represents* the* demand* of* the* output* provided* by* the* three* roasters* interviewed* in*
Varre;Sai.* All* of* the* three* roasters* provided* locally,* e.g.* in* the* Northwest;* some* provided*
regionally,*e.g.*other*regions*of*the*State*Rio*de*Janeiro;*or*areas*nearby,*e.g.*Minas*Gerais*and*
Espírito*Santo.*Sale’s*price*varies*from*R$*8.00*to*R$*15.00*a*kilogram,*depending*on*the*product*
and*brand.*
Table&14:&Demand&for&value&chain&outputs&–&Roasters&products,&prices&and&demand&in&2014&
&
Type&of&products&
Roaster&1&
Roaster&2&
Traditional*roasted*ground*coffee*
(250;500g);*
Traditional*roasted*and*ground*
Extra;strong*roasted*and*ground*
coffee;*
coffee*(250;500g);*
Espresso*coffee;*
Espresso*roasted*beans*(5kg)*
Brand*name*“Vargas”*
Brand*“Fuerza”*
Roaster&3&
Roasted*ground*coffee*and*
roasted*beans*
5*different*brands:*Patusko,*K;
Sai,*Varre;Sai,*Delim,*Monte*
Azul*
R$*10.80*“Patusko”*
Sale&price&(R$)&per&
kilogram&(Kg)&
R$*8.00*traditional*
R$*10.00*traditional*
R$*12,00*special*line*(espresso)*
R$*15.00*special*line*(espresso)*
R$*10.00*“K;Sai”*
R$*8.00*“Delim”*
R$*10.50*“Monte*Azul”*
R$*9.00*“Varre;Sai”*
!
61!
Local*markets*and*retailers;*
Type&of&consumer&
Wholesalers*in*other*Rio*de*
Janeiro*regions,*
Minas*Gerais*and*Espírito*Santo*
Traditional*coffee*Northeast*Region*
(RJ),*"Região*dos*Lagos",*70%*for*the*
Northwest*Region*(RJ);*
Special*coffee*espresso*destination*to*
Regional*supermarkets*in*the*
Northwest*Region*(RJ)*
capital*RJ*and*Mountain*Region*
According*to*the*data*acquired*from*EMATER*during*the*expert’s*consultation,*the*price*paid*to*
coffee*growers*in*Varre;Sai*per*kilogram*of*green*coffee*was*R$*3.92*in*2013*and*R$*5.27*in*2014.*
In*this*research,*the*results*are*similar*to*the*EMATER.*The*price*(R$/kg)*in*2013*paid*to*coffee*
growers*was*in*average*R$*2.85,*or*R$*171.38*a*bag*of*60kg*of*coffee.*In*the*previous*year*2012,*it*
was*in*average*R$*5.23*the*kilogram,*or*R$*313.81*the*bag*of*60kg.*Figures& 31& and& 32*show*the*
range*of*prices*paid*to*the*interviewees.*The*variation*of*prices*is*due*to*differences*in*quality*of*
coffee*or*the*bargaining*power*of*some*recognized*and*respected*farmers.**
*
Figure&31:&Prices&in&Reais&(R$)&paid&to&interviewed&farmers&per&kilogram&(kg)&of&green&coffee&in&2012&
*
Figure&32:&Prices&in&Reais&(R$)&paid&to&interviewed&farmers&per&kilogram&(kg)&of&green&coffee&in&2013&
!
62!
5.2.4. Quality&of&Rio&de&Janeiro’s&coffee&
The*Brazilian*Legislation*has*a*particular*manner*of*grading*coffee*Arabica,*which*can*be*classified*
by* cupping* according* to* the* Normative* Ruling* (IN)* 16/2010* (MAPA,* 2010)* for* the* roasted* and*
ground*roasted*coffee.*Table&15*describes*the*coffee*grading*system*under*the*Normative*Ruling*
(IN)*08/2003*for*the*green*coffee*by*MAPA*(2003)10.*
Table&15:&Official&Brazilian&coffee&grading&system&&
Classification&
Description&
Strictly&soft&&
Aroma*and*flavor*markedly*as*“soft”*
Soft&drink&
Pleasant,*mild*and*sweet*aroma*and*flavor**
Softish&
Slightly*sweet*and*soft*flavor,*without*astringency*or*roughness*taste*
Hard&
Bitter*taste,*astringent*and*rough,*no*rare*palates*
“Riado”&
Slightly*typical*iodoform*taste*
“Rio”&
Typical*and*sharp*iodoform*taste*
“Rio&zona”&
Sharp*aroma*and*flavor*likely*to*iodoform*or*carbolic*acid*
Source:*Normative*Ruling*(IN)*08/2003*for*the*green*coffee*(MAPA,*2003)*
Many* coffee* experts* of* the* State* affirm* that* the* participation* of* low;quality* coffee* of* the* type*
"Rio"*is*still*high*in*the*state*of*Rio*de*Janeiro.*Despite,*40%*of*the*coffee*produced*in*Norwest*
Region* has* been* already* considered* the* finest* natural* coffee,* prepared* by* the* wet* method*
(Barbosa,*2010).*Coffee*“Rio”*acquired*its*name*from*the*exporting*port*of*coffee*grains*in*former*
times,* and* the* lower* quality* coffee* from* that* port* usually* was* called* "riado”.* All* carioca* coffee*
was* by* then* related* to* a* weaker* coffee,* usually* produced* in* Rio* de* Janeiro’s* lands* (Martins,*
2012).*“Rio”*coffee*has*acquired*this*bad*reputation*and*still*faces*bottlenecks.*The*low;quality*is*
attributed* to* the* expensive,* scarce,* and* not* specialized* labor* force;* and* also* to* the* lack* of*
processing*machinery,*which*would*improve*the*conditions*of*commercialization*(Barbosa,*2010).*
Coffee,*which*is*the*main*crop*of*the*city*Varre;Sai,*live*with*a*stigma*of*low*quality*due*to*the*
origin* ;* * "Rio"* Coffee* ;* which* gives* low* competitiveness* in* the* domestic* market.* Monoculture*
alone*is*disadvantageous*because*of*price*volatility*and*seasonality*of*production*(Ferreira,*2013).*
!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!
10
Note:* The* IN* 007/2013* repealed* IN* 16/2010;* no* updated* Normative* Ruling* has* been* published* after* repealing* by*
MAPA.
!
63!
5.3.
Step&3:&Institutional&set&up&of&value&chain&A&
“A)Associação)está)parada,)mas)a)união)não)deixou)de)existir.)Existe)o)COGEM”)
Zé)Erêneo)–)coffee)grower)in)Degredo)
5.3.1. Brazilian&Coffee&Legislation&framework&
The*Brazilian*legislation*for*coffee*has*been*developed*since*1927* (MAPA,*2015b).*According*to*
MAPA* (2015a),* the* coffee* growers* follow* rigid* labor* and* environmental* laws,* to* preserve* the*
biodiversity* and* to* respect* the* coffee* workers.* Additionally,* an* extensive* legislation* on* coffee*
processing* has* been* developed* to* regulate* the* coffee* quality,* set* standards* and* good*
manufacturing* practices,* etc.* (ABIC,* 2015b).* Table& 16* gives* some* examples* of* coffee* legislation*
relevant*for*the*purpose*of*this*study.*
Table&16:&Brazilian&coffee&legislation&&
Legislation&
Name&
Regulator&
Description&
Date&of&issue&
Type&
Establishes*maximum*limit*of*tolerated*residues*
8*October*
Land*
and*contaminants*for*pesticide*control*
2010*
Management*
purposes*
Normative&
Establishes*specific*Technical*Normative*for*the* 25*September*
Land*
MAPA*
Ruling&N°&49&
Integrated*coffee*production*
2013*
Management*
Normative&
Establishes*Technical*Regulation*for*roasted*
MAPA*
24*May*2010*
Processing*
Ruling&N°16&
coffee*beans*and*ground*roasted*coffee*
Normative&
Approves*Technical*Regulation*of*identity*and*
MAPA*
11*June*2003*
Processing*
Ruling&N°8&
quality*for*the*milled*green*coffee*classification*
Define*management*of*plague*coffee*borer*
Ordinance&
Land*
MAPA*
(Hypothenemus)hampei)*for*phytosanitary*
17*July*2014*
711/2014&
Management*
emergencies*
Ordinance&N°&
Metrologic*Regulation*to*determine*
INMETRO*
19*May*2008*
Metrologic*
153&
standardization*of*net*content*of*products*
Ordinance&N°&
Technical*Regulation*for*Standard*Operating*
21*October*
ANVISA*
Processing*
275&
Procedure*for*food*industrializers*
2002*
Technical*Regulation*for*hygienic*and*sanitary*
Ordinance&SVS&
ANVISA*
conditions*and*good*manufacturing*practices*
30*July*1997*
Processing*
N°&326&
for*food*industrializers*
ResolutionCRCD&
Approves*Technical*Regulation*for*coffee,*
22*September*
ANVISA*
Processing*
N°&277&
barley,*tea,*yerba;mate*and*soluble*products*
2005*
Civil*
Established*the*rights*for*temporary*farming*
Law&N°&11.718&
20*June*2008*
Labor*legislation*
cabinet*
worker*
Normative&
Provides*surveillance*for*the*eradication*of*
5*October*
MTE;SIT*
Labor*legislation*
Ruling&N°91&
work*in*conditions*analogous*to*slavery*
2011*
Approves*regulatory*standard*
Ordinance&N°&86&
MTE*
safety*and*health*at*work*in*agriculture,*
3*March*2005*
Labor*legislation*
livestock,*forestry*and*aquaculture**
Provides*the*tax*fees*ICMS*in*operations*
Decree&N°&
11*November*
RJ*State*
involving*goods*which*make*part*of*the*basic*
Commercialization*
32.161&
2002*
food*basket.*
Data*compiled*by*the*author,*source*of*search:*(ABIC,*2015b;*MAPA,*2015b;*Brasil,*2008,*2011,*2005;*Governo*do*
Estado*do*Rio*de*Janeiro,*2002)*
Normative&
Ruling&N°&026&
!
MAPA*
64!
Due* to* rigid* labour* laws,* many* farmers* decide* to* carry* out* a* form* of* partnership* with*
sharecroppers,*to*reduce*labour*costs.*The*frequency*of*the*type*of*work*in*the*study*area*is*in*
Figure&33.*It*is*observed*that*more*than*half*is*family;based*work*(54%),*in*which*the*property*is*
family* owned,* and* the* members* manage* the* economic* activities* within* the* farm.* The* second*
prevalent*type*of*work*is*the*sharecropping*system*(26%).*This*fact*is*advantageous*in*terms*of*
reducing* costs* and* avoiding* more* bureaucracy* for* the* property* owner.* However,* in* terms* of*
institutional*assistance,*sharecroppers*find*themselves*in*a*disadvantage*position*to*the*property*
owners.* Sharecroppers* usually* have* more* difficulties* in* getting* funding* or* credit,* or* taking*
participation* in* governmental* programmes,* as* reported* by* the* sharecropper* respondents*
themselves.**
Temporary* job* (11%)* is* also* one* category* of* work* very* common* during* the* harvest* period,* and*
usually* is* a* more* costly* type* of* labour* (around* R$* 50.00* up* to* R$80.00/day).* Legislation* exists*
(Law* N°* 11.718)* to* protect* the* rights* of* the* temporary* job,* since* temporary* workers* are* not*
registered,* and* the* payment* is* done* commonly* in* some* hampers* collected* in* a* day.* Farmers*
reported*that*the*inspection*is*strict,*especially*when*it*comes*to*labour*issues*and*the*conditions*
of*security*and*health*of*rural*workers.*
sharecroppers&
26%&
family&work&
54%&
hired&permanent&
job&
9%&
temporary&job&
11%&
*
Figure&33:&Work&category&percentage&in&respondent&producers&
5.3.2. Farmer’s&organizational&structure11&
Varre;Sai* has* an* associative* history* marked* by* politics* and* deception.* The* sensation* is* that* the*
time*hasn’t*past,*and*they*are*still*experiencing*the*“Café*com*Leite”*politics*of*the*old*republic.*
The* local* government* exerts* a* strong* influence* over* the* population,* who* fears* missing* the*
!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!
11!Note: This excerpt was written based on the fieldwork observation, daily life expereience with local farmers
and personal talks with people involved, cooperatives assembly, interviews and farmer’s questionnaires.!
65!
!
“gained”*perks*on*the*exchange*of*favours.*The*local*institution*ruling*Varre;Sai*has*contributed*
to*the*unsustainable*rural*development*in*the*way*its*policy*is*conducted.*As*a*matter*of*fact,*the*
interests* are* purely* aimed* at* winning* votes* and* keeping* quiet* opponents,* and* additionally* not*
giving*the*necessary*support*to*institutional*bodies*engaged*in*the*rural*development.*
5.3.2.1.
Associations&of&“Degredo”,&“Boa&Ventura”&and&“Santa&Cruz&I”&
According* to* the* local* community,* the* association* of* “Degredo”* was* subjected* to* blackmail* by*
politics.*Predecessor*mayors*sought*to*win*local*votes*in*return*for*favours,*ultimately*destroyed*
the* association* and* with* them* the* belief* of* the* farmers* on* the* power* of* the* associations.* The*
improper*use*of*the*associations,*as*a*way*of*money*transfer*in*the*past*by*the*local*government,*
resulted* in* the* bankruptcy* of* the* association,* leaving* an* enormous* debt,* and* a* dirty* name.* In*
addition,*the*most*influential*farmers,*who*could*rise*the*moral*of*the*association*were*hired*in*a*
position*of*trust*in*the*city*hall,*which*withdrawn*the*opposition.**
The*association*of*“Boa*Ventura”,*on*the*other*hand,*has*achieved*benefits*for*the*community,*
like* school* transport,* patrol* for* roads,* and* machinery* for* processing* coffee* of* the* Rio* Rural*
Program.*It*seems*the*farmers*feel*more*united*in*“Boa*Ventura”*than*in*“Degredo”.*The*COGEMs*
have*improved*the*sense*of*union,*according*to*associates12.**
The*community*of*Santa*Cruz*I*showed*a*more*cultural*valorization*inside*the*community*values,*
e.g.*tourism*and*crafts.*Besides*that,*farmers*usually*are*more*influent*on*the*coffee*business*in*
the*city,*in*comparison*to*the*other*micro;basin.*Most*of*them*are*part*of*the*association,*plus*
COOPERCANOL,* plus* COGEM 13 .* Government* has* actuated* in* the* community* with* coffee*
processing*machinery*to*help*improve*coffee*quality*(Governo*do*Estado*do*Rio*de*Janeiro,*2013).*
5.3.2.2.
COOPERCANOL&
The*history*of*the*COOPERCANOL*“Cooperativa*de*Produtores*de*Café*do*Noroeste*Fluminense”*
is* not* much* different* from* that.* According* to* “Zé* Ferreira”* (See& Appendix& 8),* the* cooperative*
exists* since* 1977.* Formerly* there* was* also* the* FAVS* “Federação* das* Associações* de* Varre* Sai”)
originated*in*1994,*which*also*was*a*local*cooperative,*today*is*deactivated.*The*cooperative*was*
also*politicking*target*and*ended*up*in*the*hand*of*a*minority.*According*to*him,*it*lacked*appeal*
to* capitalize* and* continue* construction* of* the* cooperative.* All* this* time* the* COOPERCANOL* has*
!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!
12
*Personal*conversation*with*Antonio*José*“Moreno”,*president*of*“Associação*dos*Pequenos*Produtores*de*Boa*
Ventura”**
13
*Data*according*to*farmers*questionnaires*
66!
!
been*disabled*because*of*the*decline*of*the*producers*in*taking*participation*and*also*because*of*
a*minority*involved*aiming*exclusively*theirs*interests*(Appendix&8).*
Recently,* new* generation* farmers* on* the* administration,* with* new* vision* and* interests,* have*
made*efforts*to*revive*the*COOPERCANOL14.*The*reactivation*of*COOPERCANOL*has*been*possible*
due* to* investment* of* R$* 1.7* million* by* the* BNDES* “Banco* Nacional* de* Desenvolvimento*
Econômico*e*Social”,*and*“Banco*do*Brasil”*through*the*Sustainable*Rural*Development*Strategy*
(DRS).*The*amount*adds*up*to*an*additional*R$*830,000*committed*by*the*Ministry*of*Agriculture,*
Programs*Rio*Rural*and*Rio*Café*(SEAPEC,*2015b).*The*cooperative*has*been*recently*launched*on*
July*16th,*2015*(See*Appendix&9*;*photos*of*the*construction*of*COOPERCANOL).*
The*goal*is*to*add*value*to*coffee,*sell*inputs*at*fairest*prices,*offer*farmer*benefits,*buy*coffee*at*
more*reasonable*price,*and*help*the*regulation*of*the*price*of*coffee*in*the*region,*improve*the*
quality* of* coffee,* provide* technical* support,* and* standardize* coffee.* Additionally,* it* aims* the*
inclusion* of* the* small* holder,* which* has* more* difficulty* of* selling* due* quality* and* quantity.*
Moreover,* the* cooperative* tends* to* improve* the* commercialization* of* coffee* domestically* and*
also* potential* exportation.* The* cooperative* will* mill* the* coffee,* and* select* the* quality* for*
exportation,* and* the* residue,* for* domestic* market* (Interview* with* José* Ferreira* Pinto* “Zé*
Ferreira”,*2014,*see*Appendix&8).**
5.3.2.3.
Farmers&discernment&of&the&associations&
There* is* still* the* need* for* engagement* of* the* farmers* who* do* not* believe* in* the* cooperative*
operating*potential.*After*many*stories*of*failures*in*associations*and*cooperatives,*small*farmers*
do* not* feel* motivated* to* "waste* time"* with* associations* that* don’t* function* properly* and* don’t*
benefit* them.* They* have* lost* the* union* to* work* associated* with* common* goods.* The* adverse*
position* to* the* associations* and* cooperatives* still* prevails.* However,* the* interviews* conducted*
revealed* something* surprising.* Some* respondents* presented* a* positive* view* of* associations,*
regarding* the* COOPERCANOL* and* the* COGEM,* which* is* the* organizational* unit* of* the*
implementation*programme*of*Rio*Rural.**
This*fact*reinforces*the*importance*of*the*programme*and*the*organizational*structure*in*building*
a*community*union*sense*and*hope*that*things*can*work*if*the*farmers*are*organized.*Detail:*the*
COGEM*was*not*even*asked,*the*farmers*mentioned*about*it.*The*focus*of*the*interview*was*on*
the*COOPERCANOL.*The*coordinator*of*the*EMATER*said*that*some*farmers*in*MB1*got*territorial*
Pronaf*aid*and*received*collective*pulping*machines,*concrete*yards,*and*coffee*dryers,*from*the*
!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!
14
*COOPERCANOL,*cooperate*assembly,*February*13th,*5pm*2014
!
67!
Rio* Rural,* merely* because* they* have* been* organized* and* united.* The* results* of* farmer’s*
perceptions*regarding*the*cooperative*and*association*are*displayed*on*Table&17.*
Table&17:&Farmer’s&perception&regarding&the&associations&and&cooperatives&in&VarreCSai&
Positive&position&
Negative&position&
⋅
The*benefits*only*depend*on*the*producers*
⋅
Too*much*politics*
⋅
COGEM*is*the*new*force*of*union*
⋅
Lack*of*confidence,*lack*of*unity*
⋅
Association*helps*in*a*way*
⋅
Prefers*to*associate*with*other*states*
⋅
COOPERCANOL*will*work*
⋅
Association*does*not*help*much*
⋅
COOPERCANOL*will*help*in*commercialization*and*
reduce*the*sale*to*the*middleman*
⋅
Never*heard*of*COOPERCANOL**
COOPERCANOL*will*never*work*
Would*attend*the*coopercanol*if*it*worked*
⋅
⋅
COOPERCANOL*have*all*the*producer*needs*for*coffee*
production*
⋅
"Evil*eye"*of*the*founders*of*coopercanol*
⋅
⋅
Do*not*want*to*get*involved*anymore*
⋅
COOPERCANOL*will*progress*
⋅
Association*is*over*
⋅
Intends*to*participate*in*the*COOPERCANOL*
⋅
Lack*producer’s*belief*
⋅
Dryers*projects,*pulping,*machine*patrol,*micro;tractor*
from*the*COGEM*
⋅
Associations*are*slowly,*little*agenda*and*lack*
project*
⋅
COOPERCANOL*worked*hidden*and*is*now*revealing*
⋅
The*association*only*works*40%*properly*
⋅
COOPERCANOL*'s*founders*have*all*almost*died*
⋅
After*30*years*stopped*is*hard*to*reactivate*
⋅
Do*not*like*to*participate*any*association*
⋅
Very*tangled,*do*not*have*interest*
⋅
Confusion*of*administration.*
Note:*Table*created*based*on*the*farmer’s*questionnaires*
5.3.3. Institutional&Support&
The*central*governmental*institutions*linked*to*agriculture*acting*in*Varre;Sai*are*the*Ministry*of*
Agrarian* Development* (MDA)* and* the* Secretariat* Agriculture* and* Livestock* of* the* state* Rio* de*
Janeiro* (SEAPEC).* Together,* these* institutions* have* set* a* sort* of* projects* in* the* micro;basins* in*
Varre;Sai,* contributing* to* the* investments* of* coffee* dryers,* pulping* machines,* concrete* yards*
from*the*Rio*Rural*Project*–*SEAPEC.*There*was*provided*alternatives*for*the*coffee*growers,*such*
as*rotational*grazing*for*livestock*production,*and*Private*reserve*of*natural*heritage*(RPPN)*with*
additional*green*VAT*for*forestry*conservation.*Besides*that,*the*institutions*have*contributed*to*
the* reactivation* of* the* COOPERCANOL,* Pronaf* credit* for* small* farmers,* Rio* Café* program,*
according* to* expert’s* consultation* research* and* previous* literature* review* in* this* study.* Along*
!
68!
with* them,* some* other* institutions* are* also* contributing* to* the* value* chain.* They* are* worth* of*
listing:*
I.
EMATER;RIO*unity*Varre;Sai:*The*Emater;Rio,*together*with*the*Secretariat*of*Agriculture*and*
Livestock*and*the*Superintendency*of*Sustainable*Development*in*the*State*of*Rio*de*Janeiro,*
performs*the*technical*assistance*and*rural*extension*work*in*the*micro;basins*supported*by*
the* Rio* Rural* Program,* through* meetings* of* Management* committees* of* micro;basins*
(COGEMs)*(EMATER;Rio,*2015).*
II.
PESAGRO;RIO:* The* Agricultural* Research* Corporation* of* the* State* of* Rio* de* Janeiro*
(PESAGRO;RIO),*“Empresa*de*Pesquisa*Agropecuária*do*Estado*do*Rio*de*Janeiro”,*develops*
works*with*coffee*through*the*Center*for*Research*and*Development*of*Dairy*Cattle*CEPDPL*
in* Itaocara* in* the* Northwest* Fluminense.* PESAGRO* have* conducted* research* with* dense*
coffee,*quality*improvement*and*diagnosis*of*the*state*of*coffee.*In*addition,*PESAGRO;RIO*is*
a* founding* member* of* the* Brazilian* Consortium* for* Research* and* Development* of* Coffee*
(PESAGRO;RIO,*2014).*
III.
FAERJ* System:* The* Federation* of* Agriculture,* Livestock* and* Fisheries* of* the* State* of* Rio* de*
Janeiro* (FAERJ),* “Federação* da* Agricultura,* Pecuária* e* Pesca* do* Estado* do* Rio* de* Janeiro”,*
represents* the* small* holder* in* the* civil* society,* contributing* to* conflict* resolution* and*
permanent*adequacy*of*laws*and*public*policies*in*the*Rio*de*Janeiro*state.*The*FAERJ*System*
supports*the**“Bule*Cheio”*Programme,*created*in*2010*by*Senar;Rio*(National*Rural*Training*
Service),*with*the*aim*to*promote*the*economic*viability*of*farms*through*technical*training*in*
the*technology*transfer*process*to*intensive*production*of*coffee*(Sistema*FAERJ,*2015).*
5.3.3.1.&Farmer’s&perception&of&the&institutional&support&
The* farmer’s* perception* about* the* institutional* support* is* in* Figure& 34.* Compliments* or*
complaints*regarding*the*classifications*“excellent”*“very*good”,*“good”,*“fair”,*“neutral”,*“bad”,*
or*“awful”*are*related*to*the*participation*in*the*programs*and*access*to*governmental*supports.*
For*instance,*the*negative*complaints**(20%)*are*due*to*the*lack*of*assistance,*the*lack*of*interest*
of* the* farmer* or* no* need* for* participating* the* governmental* support.* Some* of* the* respondents*
reported* that* they* were* left* out* of* the* micro;basin* selection* for* receiving* the* assistance.* The*
neutral*(17%)*respondents*didn't*want*to*express*their*opinion,*but*most*of*them*participates*in*
the*Pronaf*or*don’t*need*any*assistance.**
The* compliments* seen* were* good* (40%),* very* good* (10%)* and* excellent* (3%),* summing* up* the*
majority* of* the* respondents* (53%).* Respondents* said* that* Rio* Rural* improved* the* conditions* of*
!
69!
the*farmer,*elevated*the*moral,*and*helped*to*hold*the*farmer*in*rural*areas.*These*farmers*also*
have*access*to*the*Pronaf,*they*have*had*access*to*new*agricultural*equipment*and*machinery*for*
coffee* processing,* and* they* were* satisfied* with* the* extension* of* EMATER* and* the* micro;basin*
Program.* They* suggested* more* help* on* acquiring* subsidies* for* inputs,* improve* farmer’s*
education,* and* provide* more* tractors* for* the* community.* The* overall* perception* is* that* the*
institutions*are*making*the*difference*in*the*region,*and*without*them,*the*rural*area*wouldn’t*yet*
hold*so*many*farmers*in*their*activities,*as*reported*by*themselves.*
40%&
17%&
17%&
10%&
10%&
3%&
awful&
3%&
bad&
neutral&
fair&
good&
very&good&
excellent&
*
Figure&34:&Farmer’s&perception&frequency&in&relation&to&the&institutional&support&
5.4.
Step&4:&Input&and&output&markets&
5.4.1. The&coffee&marketplace&
The*most*common*commercialization*channel*is*through*the*middleman*(67%),*or*the*local*trader*
commonly* called* the* broker,* who* buy* directly* from* producers* and* sell* to* other* locations.* Local*
roasters*are*also*representative*in*the*commercialization*(22%),*but*there*are*only*three*roasters*
in*the*city*of*Varre;Sai.*The*little*percentage*goes*for*other*local*market*or*interstate*sale*(Minas*
Gerais*and*Espírito*Santo).**
The*presence*of*the*middlemen*in*the*trade*of*coffee*is*usually*frowned*upon*the*coffee*growers*
respondents*of*this*research.*In*general,*farmers*demonstrated*a*discontentment*regarding*the*
price*of*the*coffee.*It*was*a*frequently*reported*complaint.*According*to*them,*prices*of*coffee*are*
low*to*pay*back*investments.*Farmers*have*a*disadvantage*trade;off,*in*which*the*goods*are*held*
(in* storage)* at* the* maximum* time* as* possible* till* a* great* opportunity* buyer* appears.* However,*
most*of*them*reported*the*incapability*to*keep*the*storage*for*long,*because*they*are*forced*to*
!
70!
sell* at* an* undesirable* price* to* pay* back* investments.& Figure& 35* shows* the* distribution* of* sales*
commonly*carried*out*by*the*coffee*growers*of*the*micro;basins*studied.*
interstate&sale&
8%&
roaster&
22%&
local&market&
3%&
middleman&
67%&
*
Figure&35:&Commercialization&channel&by&the&coffee&growers&respondents&
According* to* the* interviewed* brokers,* the* interstate* trade* is* very* difficult* due* to* higher*
transaction*taxes*and*fees,*which*does*not*make*it*worth.*Nevertheless,*the*interstate*trade*is*yet*
more*attractive*than*the*local*one,*since*the*coffee*industry*in*the*State*Rio*de*Janeiro*has*been*
impaired.* According* to* FAERJ* (1999),* the* decline* of* roasting* and* grinding* industry* is* due* the*
disparities* in* the* tax* burden* of* ICMS* (Merchandise* and* Services* Circulation* Tax* –* VAT* English*
acronym),*within*the*state*of*Rio*de*Janeiro.*For*roast*and*ground*coffee*is*charged*VAT*of*7%,*
because*it*composes*the*basic*food*basket.*But,*for*input*purchased*by*roasters*is*charged*a*12%*
VAT*on*the*raw*coffee,*equivalent*to*the*interstate*ICSM*(VAT).*This*fact*creates*a*debit*balance*
in*business,*since*most*of*the*coffee*has*to*be*imported*from*other*states,*considering*the*higher*
demand*in*the*state*RJ*(Governo*do*Estado*do*Rio*de*Janeiro,*2002;*FAERJ,*1999).*
Industrial* activity* in* Varre;Sai* restricts* to* the* coffee* processing* by* brands* Patusco,* Vargas* and*
Fuerza,* with* low* production* scale.* The* absence* of* industrial* facilities* is* due* to* lack* of* basic*
requirements* for* the* attractiveness* of* investments,* namely:* the* distance* from* the* consumer*
market* and* the* lack* of* raw* material* for* processing,* and* poor* logistics* infrastructure,* which*
aggravates*the*situation*(Ferreira,*2013).**
5.4.2. Degree&of&Competitiveness&
It* can* be* said* that* the* coffee* market* in* Varre;Sai* is* entangled* by* a* market* distortion* called*
OLIGOPSONY.*Bellù*(2013)*states*that*in*the*case*of*Oligopsony,*there*are*few*buyers,*who*enjoy*
positive* extra* profits,* while* sellers* earn* much* less* than* it* would* be* in* perfect* competition.* It*
!
71!
means*that*the*producers*don’t*enjoy*the*full*value*of*their*product,*thus*face*problems*to*sell*
their*output.*This*situation*stands*in*the*case*of*Varre;Sai.*Market*problems*of*competitiveness*
can* be* corrected* through* governmental* measures* (Bellù,* 2013).* The* commented* barriers* and*
opportunities*in*the*marketplace*are*in*Figure&36,*as*follow.*
*
Figure&36:&Marketplace&distortions&and&opportunities&in&the&value&chain&A&
One*of*the*opportunities*of*improvement*is*the*activation*of*the*COOPERCANOL.*Currently,*there*
are* only* 120* farmers’* members.* The* cooperative* could* encompass* ALL* coffee* producers* within*
the*State;RJ.*It*was*designed*to*have*NO*borders.*It*would*be*around*20K*coffee*bags*onset*up*to*
100K* bags* (50%)* of* the* share* produced* in* the* region.* The* cooperative* would* ensure* the* best*
price*for*the*producer.*There*will*be*more*appeal,*easing*the*access*to*the*markets.*Additionally,*
there* is* the* need* for* a* specific* policy* to* regulate* the* market* and* give* protection* against*
overproduction,*which*is*the*main*driver*of*price*depreciation.*The*Brazilian*Coffee*Institute*(IBC)*
was* extinct* in* 1990,* and* yet* there* is* the* lack* of* a* specific* a* regulatory* body15.* Additionally,* we*
shall*not*forget*that*coffee*growers*are*squeezed*between*the*buyers*and*input*providers,*which,*
according* to* this* research,* constitute* few* options,* usually* commercial* shops* in* Varre;Sai* (few*
sellers).**
!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!
15!Data*acquired*from*the*interview*with*José*Ferreira*(Appendix*8)!
!
72!
5.5.
Step&5:&Functional&Analysis&Value&Chain&A&(Coffee)&
Conforming* to* FAERJ* (1999),* the* Brazilian* coffee* value* chain* is* composed* of* rural* producers,*
processing*and*commercialization*agents,*exporters*and*consumers*(Figure&37).*
&
Figure&37:&Coffee&agroCindustry&value&chain&
Elaborated*by*the*author.*Source*of*data*(FAERJ,*1999)*
!
73!
5.5.1. Setting&the&boundaries&
The* set* boundary* in* this* research* comprises* the* two* micro;basins* studied* MB1* and* MB2* in* the*
city* of* Varre;Sai.* Outside* agents* were* considered* merely* as* an* illustration* of* national* and*
external*markets.*In*this*study,*data*was*collect*solely*within*the*set*boundary*of*the*city*Varre;
Sai.*Figure*38*illustrates*the*boundaries*agents*involved*and*gives*a*general*representation*of*the*
value*chain*A.**
*
Figure&38:&Value&Chain&A&(Coffee)&flowCchart&&
Chart*elaborated*by*the*author*based*on*field*research*
The* “blue* boundary”* and* “blue* flow* arrows”* represent* the* movement* inside* the* set* study*
boundary*of*Varre;Sai.*The*most*relevant*agents*for*this*research*and*their*flows*within*the*value*
chain*are*identified.*Coffee*growers*provide*supply*for*local*roasters,*local*storage*(private*farm*
storage),*local*traders*and*a*local*cooperative.*The*cooperative*COOPERCANOL*has*been*recently*
reactivated* (not* yet* activated* by* the* time* of* the* research).* The* “green* boundary”* and* “green*
arrows”* illustrate* the* connection* with* the* national* market,* including* Rio* de* Janeiro* state* and*
other*Brazilian*states.*The*“purple*boundary”*represents*the*external*market.*It*is*observed*that*
!
74!
some*farmers*commercialize*through*the*national*market.*However,*there*was*found*no*farmer,*
who* commercialize* directly* with* the* external* market.* It* might* be* at* some* point* within* the*
complexity*of*coffee*trade,*that*the*product*could*be*somehow*sent*to*external*market*via*the*
outside*boundary*of*the*national*market,*but*it*is*just*a*guessing.**
What* is* certainly,* and* it* is* represented* by* the* “striped* red* arrows”* in* the* flow* chart,* is* the*
potential* for* external* commercialization* by* the* cooperative.* Once* it* starts* to* operate,* it* will* be*
able* to* commercialize* directly* with* the* external* market* (potential* consumer* is* China),* and* also*
increase* the* local* trade* and* local* consumption* (Appendix& 8).* The* cooperative* offers* a* good*
opportunity* for* local* coffee* growers* to* upgrade* their* position* in* the* coffee* value* chain.* This*
requires,*though,*a*commitment*of*the*farmers*to*the*integration*in*the*cooperative,*so*that*the*
volume*of*coffee*in*the*cooperative*is*capable*of*supplying*the*load*demanded*for*exportation.**
Another* potential* is* to* increase* the* local* supply,* by* improving* the* production* technology.* The*
local* market* demand* is* already* higher* than* the* current* supply* and* would* certainly* absorb* the*
increased*production.*
5.5.2. Identification&of&activities&and&technical&analysis&
5.5.2.1.
Current&applied&technology&in&the&North&West&Region&coffee&
Many*studies*have*demonstrated*the*development*of*new*technologies*for*increasing*yield*at*the*
production* level* and* also* for* improving* the* quality* of* the* final* product,* by* adjusting* adequate*
technologies* at* different* levels* of* the* value* chain.* According* to* Andrade* &* Silva* (2013),* the*
problematic* of* the* “Fluminense’s”* coffee* lies* on* the* difficult* mechanization* of* the* “Mountain*
coffee”* production.* Consequently* the* production* costs* increases,* due* to* scarce* and* expensive*
labor*during*the*harvest.*And*also*the*competitiveness*of*other*economic*activities,*such*as*the*
oil* industry* developed* within* the* state,* which* inevitably* withdraws* the* rural* youth* willing* to* a*
more*attractive*source*of*income.*
In* the* specific* case* of* the* mountainous* landscape* of* the* Northwest* Rio* de* Janeiro,* it* has* been*
recommended*the*densification*of*coffee*bushes*per*hectare,*more*suitable*for*small*size*farms*
(Andrade*et*al.,*2009,*2014,*2002).*In*many*studies,*the*densification*of*coffee*plantations*in*the*
Northwest*has*proven*to*be*a*better*option*for*small*family*farmers,*and*very*important*for*the*
maintenance* of* local* livelihoods* within* the* rural* region* (Andrade* et* al.,* 2002,* 2009,* 2014).*
Experiments*in*Bom*Jesus*do*Itabapoana*(RJ)*showed*the*best*density,*which*is*the*plant*distance*
in*the*same*row*of*0.25;0.5m*and*between*each*row*of*2.0m*(Andrade*et*al.,*2009,*2014).*The*
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75!
overall* benefit* of* this* technology* adapted* and* appropriated* for* the* conditions* of* the* region,* as*
described*by*Andrade*et*al.*(2009),*is*that*it*presents*higher*productivity*in*shorter*term,*faster*
payback*of*initial*investments,*and*general*improvement*of*the*soil*in*slope*areas.*However,*the*
farmer* needs* to* be* aware* of* the* increased* harvest* labor* needs,* due* to* lesser* mechanization* in*
dense*spaces,*the*increased*care*with*pest*and*plague*control,*and*the*higher*initial*investment*
(Andrade*et*al.,*2009,*2014).*
5.5.2.2.
PostCharvest&technologies&
The*general*post;harvest*coffee*processing*is*simplified*in*Figure&39.*
*
Figure&39:&Coffee&postCharvest&processing&chart&
Figure*created*using*data*compiled*by*the*author*
Coffee*Harvest*
As*described*by*the*NCA*(2015),*coffee*can*be*harvested*by*two*different*methods:*
I.
Strip*picked:*coffee*cherries*stripped*of*the*branch*at*one*time*by*hand*or*mechanically*
II.
Selectively*Picked:*only*ripe*coffee*cherries*harvested*individually*by*hand*
According*to*Barbosa*et*al.*(2005),*the*type*of*harvest*plays*an*important*role*in*the*final*overall*
cost*of*the*harvested*bag*of*coffee.*His*experiments*revealed*that*semi;mechanical*harvest,*using*
portable* mechanical* coffee* harvesters,* performs* superiorly* at* lower* cost* in* comparison* to* the*
traditional*manual*coffee*harvest.**
The* distribution* of* harvest* technology* among* the* interviewed* farmers* is* represented* in* Figure&
40.*It*is*noted*nearly*half*(56.7%)*of*them*use*a*both*manual*strip*picked,*and*semi;mechanical*
strip* picked* (chi;square,* p* =* 0.014).* Only* 13.3%* of* the* farmers* use* the* manual* strip* picked*
technology,*due*lack*of*alternatives.*The*type*of*harvest*technology*implies*directly*on*the*labor*
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76!
costs,* considering* that* manual* strip* picked* technology* is* more* time* consuming* and* labor*
intensive.*
Figure&40:&Harvest&Technology&of&the&coffee&growers&
Coffee*Processing*
The* way* of* processing* and* the* drying* method* interfere* biochemically,* physically* and*
physiologically* on* the* coffee* beans,* thus* affecting* final* aroma* and* flavor* (Rosa* et* al.,* 2013;*
Livramento,* 2008).* The* processing* of* the* coffee* cherries* can* be* performed* by* two* different*
methods* (Rosa* et* al.,* 2013;* NCA,* 2015;* Livramento,* 2008;* Reinato* et* al.,* 2012;* Castoldi* &*
Castoldi,*2013):*
I.
Dry*method:*also*called*natural*coffee*processing.*The*coffee*cherries*are*kept*intact*with*
the*skin*and*the*mucilage.*The*cherries*are*spread*into*sun*drying*yards*till*reaching*up*
the*moisture*content*of*11%*
II.
Wet* method:* removes* the* pulp* from* the* beans* and* the* beans* dry* with* only* the*
parchment*skin*left*on.*There*are*several*ways:*coffee*cherries*can*be*peeled,*removing*
the* skin* and* part* of* the* parchment;* demucilaged,* pulp* and* husks* are* mechanically*
separated* from* the* bean;* or/and* coffee* can* pass* through* a* biological* fermentation,*
where*the*pulp*and*mucilage*are*removed*by*water;filled*fermentation*tanks*
In* Brazil,* it* is* predominant* the* dry* method* for* the* Arabica* coffee,* which* characterizes* the*
Brazilian* coffee* worldwide* known* as* “* Brazilian* natural* coffee”* (Castoldi* &* Castoldi,* 2013).* The*
processing* by* natural* conditions,* which* originates* the* distinct* Brazilian* natural* coffees,* is*
subjected*to*weather*conditions*such*as*precipitation*during*the*harvest*period*(Baquião*Filho*et*
al.,* 2013).* Studies* suggest* (Rosa* et* al.,* 2013;* Baquião* Filho* et* al.,* 2013)* that* the* natural*
processing* method* may* undermine* coffee* quality* due* to* undesired* fermentations.* Castoldi* &*
Castoldi* (2013)* also* observed* that* the* wet* method* has* presented* better* quality* and* increased*
value*of*the*product.*
!
77!
In*this*study,*it*is*observed*a*disproportional*post;harvest*technology**(chi;square,*p*<*0.001).*80%*
of* the* farmers* practice* the* dry* method.* And* the* minority* practices* the* wet* method* or* both*
(Figure&41),*depending*on*the*assets*acquired,*e.g.*pulping*machines.*Assets*were*acquired*with*
or* without* governmental* financial* subsidies.* Some* pulping* machines* were* obtained* via* the*
Micro;basin* Program* “Rio* Rural”.* * The* main* problem* of* the* wet* method* is* to* deal* with* the*
residual*water,*which*poses*an*environmental*problem,*and*offers*a*constraint*of*implementation*
upon*the*environmental*rules,*told*Ueber*(SDS;SEAPEC)*in*personal*conversation.*
Figure&41:&PostCharvest&Processing&predominance&among&coffee&growers&
Coffee*Drying*
After* one* or* combination* of* steps,* the* pulped* and* fermented,* the* coffee* beans* are* dried* till*
reaching*the*11%*final*moisture*(NCA,*2015).*The*coffee*drying*procedure*can*be*executed*using*
two*different*methods:**
•
Traditional* sun;drying* coffee* yards,* which* can* be* dirt* yards,* concrete* or* asphalt* mud*
yards*(Reinato*et*al.,*2012)*
•
Dryer* machine,* which* can* be* horizontal* or* vertical* cross* flow* large* tumblers* (Silva* &*
Cardoso*Sobrinho,*2001;*NCA,*2015)**
Oliveira*et*al.*(2001)*have*not*detected*a*significant*difference*in*coffee*quality*in*their*analyzed*
samples* submitted* to* different* drying* methods,* such* in* sun;drying* coffee* yards* or* dryer*
machines.* However,* they* observed* changes* in* the* quality* with* high* temperature* used* to* dry*
(>50°C).*Regarding*the*type*of*dryer*machine,*Silva*&*Cardoso*Sobrinho*(2001)*have*not*detected*
any* quality* differentiation* using* different* types* of* coffee* dryers* machines.* However,* they*
observed* that* a* combination* of* the* horizontal* with* the* vertical* cross* flow* reduces* the* energy*
intake*for*drying*procedures.*
The* moisture* content* in* coffee* is* critical* for* final* quality.* No* matter* the* drying* method* used,*
coffee*can't*be*stored*at*elevated*moisture*(≈*35%).*At*high*humidity,*it*favors*the*incidence*of*
fungus,*such*as*Penicillium)sp.,)Cladosporium)sp.,)Fusarium)sp.*and*Aspergillus)ocraceus,*according*
to* Rosa* et* al.* (2013).* One* of* the* major* problems* related* to* the* quality* of* the* coffee,* faced* by*
!
78!
Brazilian*coffee*growers,*both*domestically*and*externally,*is*associated*with*the*drying*process*
(Afonso*Jr.*et*al.,*2001).**
In*this*study,*the*coffee*drying*technology*distribution*was*very*heterogeneous*showing*unequal*
proportions*(chi;square,*p*=*0.037),*in*terms*of*method*and*materials*used*in*the*coffee*drying.*It*
seems*that*it*is*predominant*the*mixed*coffee*drying,*that*means,*a*previous*drying*in*the*coffee*
yard* and* a* further* drying* in* the* dryer* machine.* It* does* not* mean* that* all* these* farmers* have* a*
dryer*machine.*The*majority*has*to*pay*for*the*service*(R$*15.00*up*to*30.00*per*hour)*of*using*
other*farmer’s*machine*or*farmer’s*association*machine.*Some*machines*were*acquired*through*
private* purchasing* or* the* Micro;basin* program* “Rio* Rural”.* Still,* the* dirty* yards* (bare* soil)*
predominance*is*high,*26.7%*combined*with*mixed*drying*and*16.7%*dirty;yard*alone*(Figure&42).*
&
Figure&42:&Drying&technology&predominance&of&the&coffee&growers&
5.5.3. Identification&of&agents&&
In*Table&18,*all*relevant*activities*and*agents*in*the*studied*coffee*value*chain*are*listed*for*clarity*
of*analysis.*
Table&18:&&Functional&analysis&table:&coffee&chain&(A)&
Activity&
Coffee&production&
Agents&
⋅ Manual*strip*picked*coffee*growers*
⋅ Semi;mechanical*strip*picked*coffee*growers*
Output&
⋅ Coffee*cherries*
⋅ Self;processed*coffee*
SelfCconsumption&
⋅ Varre;Sai*coffee*growers*
PostCharvest&
⋅ Wet*method*processing*coffee*growers*
⋅ Pulped*coffee*beans*
processing&
⋅ Dry*method*processing*coffee*growers*
⋅ Parchment*coffee*
⋅ Dried*parchment*coffee*
⋅ Dirty;yards*drying*coffee*growers*
Coffee&drying&
⋅ Concrete;yards*drying*coffee*growers*
⋅ Parchment*coffee*
⋅ Machine;drying*coffee*growers*
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79!
⋅ Mixed;drying*coffee*growers*
Coffee&milling&
⋅ Milling*coffee*growers*
⋅ Cooperatives*
⋅ Milled*coffee*
⋅ Varre;Sai*coffee*growers*
⋅ Local*Cooperative*(Varre;Sai*or*RJ)*
Storage&
⋅ Regional*Cooperative*(MG,*ES)*
⋅ Parchment*coffee**
⋅ Coffee*traders*(intermediaries)*
⋅ Milled*coffee*
⋅ Local*coffee*roasters*
⋅ Coffee*importers*&*exporters**
Coffee&roasting&
⋅ Roasting*coffee*growers*(small*business)*
⋅ Roasters*(coffee*industry)*
⋅ Roasted*coffee*
⋅ Roasters*(coffee*industry)*
Coffee&grinding&
⋅ Consumer*(e.g.*coffee*shops,*individual*consumer,*
⋅ Ground*roasted*coffee*
supermarket,*bakery)*
⋅ “Middlemen”*–*intermediaries*(local*trader)*
Trade&(coffee&
⋅ Cooperatives*
bean)&
⋅ Roasters*
⋅ Coffee*bean*
⋅ Importers*&*exporters**
Trade&(coffee&
product)&
Coffee&brewing&
⋅ Wholesalers*
⋅ Supermarkets*
⋅ Direct*purchase*from*the*coffee*grower*
⋅ Consumer*(e.g.*coffee*shops,*individual*consumer,*
supermarket,*bakery)*
⋅ Roasted*ground*coffee*
⋅ Roasted*beans*
⋅ Drinking*coffee*
**Potential*trade/storage.*No*interviewed*farmers*held*direct*connection*to*importer*&*exporter;*most*of*the*supply*is*
for*the*domestic*market,*due*to*quantity*and*quality*of*the*coffee*produced*
It*is*noted*a*variety*of*agents*and*activities*performed.*The*majority*of*the*activities*are*held*on*
the*farm,*including*production,*storage,*post;harvest* processing,* drying,* milling,* and* sometimes*
the* processing* roasting* and* grinding.* Two* of* the* three* roasters* interviewed* were* held* on* the*
farm*(6.7%*of*the*farmers).*However,*93.3%*(z;score,*p*<*0.001)*of*the*farmers*does*not*process*
their*coffee,*and*sell*their*product*for*a*local*roaster,*or*local*trader.*
One* of* the* bottlenecks* identified,* apart* from* the* post;harvest* technologies* and* drying*
technologies,* are* the* processing* techniques.* Today* in* the* micro;basins* studied,* there* are* few*
coffee*milling*machines*available*for*the*farmers.*Almost*all*of*them*have*to*pay*for*the*milling*
process*(83.3%,*chi;square,*p*<*0.001,*Figure&43),*which*is*usually*1;1.5*kg*per*coffee*bag*(60kg).*
They*are*losing*about*1kg*for*each*coffee*bag.*The*larger*producers*possess*one*milling*machine*
and*sell*the*service*of*milling*for*the*smaller*holders.*The*cooperative*COOPERCANOL*is*intended*
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80!
for* this* purpose,* and* will* offer* coffee* milling* for* the* local* affiliated* coffee* growers,* and* should*
disentangle*this*problem.*
Figure&43:&Milling&distribution&among&the&coffee&growers&
The*results*suggest*that,*depending*on*the*stage*of*technology*and*innovation*of*the*farmers,*this*
can*place*them*in*a*worse*or*better*position*and*participation*in*the*value*chain.*The*bottlenecks*
that* are* undermining* the* development* of* coffee* growers* are* indirectly* related* to* the* type* of*
technology* used* which* affects* the* final* quality* of* the* product* and* consequently* diminishes* the*
payback* of* investments* and* costs.* This* issue* needs* more* governmental* attention;* in* terms* of,*
which* technologies* are* to* be* incentivized* and* which* of* them* would* have* more* impact* on* the*
rural* development.* According* to* the* literature* reviewed,* the* post;harvest* method* is* the* most*
important*factor*concerning*the*final*coffee*quality,*which*certainly*could*be*one*of*the*facets*of*
development*target,*since*the*production*is*small.*Policies*should*be*driven*towards*the*niche*of*
high*quality*and*specialized*coffees,*indented*to*the*city*of*Rio*de*Janeiro.*
5.5.4. Quantification&of&physical&flows&
The* total* quantification* of* physical* flows* in* terms* of* quantity* supplied* and* quantities* utilized*
within*the*studied*coffee*chain*is*represented*as*supply*utilization*account*(SUA)*in*Table&19.*The*
results* account* the* data* collected* from* the* interviewed* chain* agents,* in* this* case,* farmers,*
processors,*and*traders.**
Table&19:&Supply&Utilization&Account&(SUA)&coffee&
Biannual&supply&items&
Utilization&items&(annual)&
Coffee&production&of&micro&basins&"Onça"&and&"VarreCSai"&
820.83& Roasters&
915.4&
Farmer's&storage&
396.48& Own&consumption&
&
Traded&
Total&(tons)&
!
1217.31&
0.61696&
660&
1576.02&
C358.71&
81!
The*supply*of*coffee*is*available*in*a*biannual*cycle.*One*year*farmers*supply*more*and*one*year*
supply*less,*due*to*the*inherent*characteristic*of*the*coffee*crop.*It*was*accounted*in*this*research*
a*total*of*1217.31*tons*of*coffee*in*the*micro;basins*MB1*and*MB2,*considering*amount*produced*
during*the*last*biannual*cycle*plus*the*quantity*in*storage*by*the*30*farmers.*The*amount*of*coffee*
utilized*was*though*higher*than*the*amount*produced*(1576.02*tons).*It*is*noted*that*there*is*a*
deficit* of* 358.71* tons* of* coffee.* It* means* that* the* local* production* is* not* supplying* the* local*
demand,*e.g.*local*roasters,*own*consumption*on*farm*and*trading.*Even*considering*the*biannual*
production*the*demand*is*yet*higher*than*the*amount*supplied.*
Due* to* the* scope* of* this* research,* the* supply* items* accounted* the* total* supply* of* 30* farmers*
interviewed.* The* utilization* items* accounted* data* collected* from* all* the* three* available* local*
coffee* roasters* (processors)* and* two* traders* within* the* municipality* of* Varre;Sai.* The* own*
consumption* considers* the* on;farm* consumption.* Figure& 44* illustrates* the* physical* flow* of* the*
interviewed*chain*agents*in*the*value*chain*A.*
Figure&44:&Quantification&of&physical&flows&in&the&Value&chain&A&(coffee)&
Flow*chart*elaborated*by*the*author*based*on*the*field*research*
Nevertheless,* in* the* supply* utilization* account,* the* numbers* should* be* even,* the* quantity*
supplied*equals*the*quantity*utilized.*The*deficit*can*be*explained*by*some*factors.*This*particular*
chain* is* an* open* system;* the* quantity* supplied* not* necessary* is* intended* only* for* the* local*
demand.*Also,*the*utilized*items*could*have*their*raw*material*source*out*of*the*system,*meaning*
that,*the*roasters*acquired*the*coffee*from*other*cities*or*other*Brazilian*states.*The*interference*
of*the*openness*of*the*coffee*chain*might*be*permeating*the*results.*Or,*there*were*not*sufficient*
data* for* a* more* accurate* SUA.* A* complete* result* could* be* acquired* if* all* “out* of* chain”* agents*
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82!
were* interviewed.* It* means* actors* from* other* states* and* other* cities.* However* due* to* the*
resources*available*and*the*intention*of*research,*the*accounts*comprises*only*Varre;Sai*and*the*
selected*micro;basins.*
5.5.5. InputCoutput&matrices&
Based*on*the*activities,*agents,*and*physical*flows,*it*was*designed*input;output*matrices,*which*is*
a* synoptic* representation* of* the* flow* of* physical* quantities* by* each* agent.* In* this* analysis,* data*
was* “scaled* up”,* considering* the* average* of* the* yield* of* production* per* hectare* account* of* all*
producers,* and* the* average* of* the* production* factors* used* as* input.* These* factors* are* listed* in*
Table&20.*
Table&20:&InputCoutput&quantities&need&to&produce&1&ha&of&coffee&in&the&studied&area&
Activity:&growing&1&ha&of&coffee&(in&the&study&area)&
Unit&
&
Average&quantity&per&ha&
Fertilizer&
Bags*(50kg)*
21.9*
Specialized&fertilizer*&
Pulverization*
1.0*
Herbicide&
Gallon*(20L)*
0.5*
Pesticide*&
Pulverization*
0.8*
Seedlings&
Thousands*
4.4*
Limestone&
Tonnes*
1.2*
Fuel*&
Liters*
42.4*
Packing&
Units*
33.8*
Labor&
Men/day*
3.7*
Bags&of&coffee&(60kg)&
Bags*
26.43*
Coffee&in&tonnes&
Tonnes*
1.5856*
&
Input&quantities&per&ha*
Output&quantity&per&ha&
*Note:* Fuel* includes* gasoline* or* diesel,* oil* and* natural* gas* in* gasoline* equivalents.* Input* categories* of* specialized*
fertilizer* and* pesticides* group* many* different* sorts* of* products,* sometimes* purchased* as* litre* or* kilogram,* however,*
applied* as* pulverization.* Since* each* farmer* had* given* different* information,* this* group* was* made* as* a* way* of*
comparison.**
The*results*of*the*analysis*show*the*technical*quantification*of*physical*flow*grouped*by*a*farmer*
representative*of*each*community*investigated,*and* by* micro;basins.*The*input;output* matrices*
illustrate* the* account* performed* based* on* the* input;output* average* table* listed* above* for* each*
representative*of*community*and*micro;basin,*as*follow*(Figure&45):*
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83!
!
!
!
!
!
Figure&45:&InputCoutput&matrices&of&a&representative&producer&of&studied&community&and&microCbasin&&
Matrices*elaborated*by*the*author*based*on*the*fieldwork*and*the*methodology*(Bellù,*2013)*
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84!
5.5.6. Findings&of&the&Functional&analysis&
In* Brazil,* coffee* is* a* commodity* value* chain,* usually* intended* for* exportation,* in* which* roasters*
supply* only* the* national* market,* and* the* green* coffee* beans* are* commercialized* through* the*
external*market.*This*functional*analysis*revealed*that*the*production*in*Varre;Sai,*particularly*in*
the* two* micro;basins* studies* is* different,* because* it* focuses* on* the* local* and* regional*
consumption.*The*reasons*for*that*might*be*linked*to*the*low*production*yield*and*also*the*low*
quality*of*the*final*product,*in*which*Rio*de*Janeiro*gained*over*the*years*a*bad*status.*There*is*a*
potential*for*increasing*the*options*and*quality*of*commercialization*if:**
2. The* cooperative* COOPERCANOL* enters* in* operation:* would* expand* the* market* locally* and*
externally*as*well,*and*offer*benefits*to*the*farmers*e.g.*milling*process;*
3. The* technological* pattern* in* the* region* is* enhanced:* many* farmers* face* problems* with*
harvesting,* post;harvesting,* drying* and* milling* technology.* The* low* pattern* type* of* harvest*
allied*to*a*low*pattern*type*of*post;harvest*technologies*contributes*to*the*overall*low*quality*
of*the*final*product,*despite*being*much*more*costly*for*the*farmer;*
4. The*farmers*held*at*least*a*minimum*technological*threshold*to*start*up:*coffee*growers*have*
to* pay* for* the* services* of* sharing* drying* machines,* milling* machines.* It* is* required* a* more*
men/month*production*factor*than*usual*since*the*harvest*is*manual*and*semi;mechanical.*If*
more*assets*could*be*available*to*them,*they*could*have*the*minimum*to*start*the*value*chain*
upgrading*process;*
5. The* focus* is* addressed* on* quality* and* on* how* to* put* the* farmer* in* a* better* position* in* the*
value*chain:*not*only*increasing*the*local*production,*but*also*occupy*a*place*at*better*niches*
of* markets,* for* instance* special* coffees,* that* independently* of* the* quantity* produced,* give*
better*payback*of*investments.*
5.6.
Step&6:&Economic&analysis&of&value&chain&A&
5.6.1. Production&Account&
5.6.1.1.
Total&Output&Value&&
For*the*total*output*value,*there*are*four*assumptions*used*in*this*study:*
(A)*Sales*Revenue:*It*was*considered*the*total*output*value*sold*in*the*period*of*a*biannual*cycle.*
It*accounted*the*value*of*output*produced*in*the*1st*cropping*year*times*the*price*paid*in*the*1st*
!
85!
cropping*year*(2012),*plus*the*value*of*output*produced*in*the*2nd*cropping*year*times*the*price*
paid*in*the*2nd*cropping*year*(2013).**
(B)* Own* final* consumption:* Calculation* was* performed* using* the* household* size* times* the*
Brazilian* standard* annual* consumption* of* 6.12* kg* of* green* coffee* per* capita* year;1* (ABIC,* 2015)*
times* the* average* price* per* kilogram,* at* which* it* could* have* been* sold* on* the* market* for* the*
period*2012;2013.**
(C)*Change*in*the*inventories:**It*was*considered*the*value*of*the*coffee*in*storage*for*future*sale*
as*a*net*of*the*stock*at*the*end*and*the*stock*at*the*beginning*period.*As*the*research*combines*
the*biannual*cycle*of*2012;2013,*there*is*no*data*regarding*the*stock*at*the*beginning.*Therefore,*
the*change*in*the*inventories*considered*just*the*actual*stock*of*coffee*in*storage*held*by*farmers*
as*the*stock*at*the*end*of*the*period.**
(D)*Total*output*value:*A*+*B*+*C:*Results*were*clustered*into*communities*and*micro;basins,*for*
the* effect* of* comparison.* Therefore,* the* account* used* the* primary* data* of* each* farmer* as* a*
source* of* average* calculations* of* clustered* results.* For* upstream* it* was* used* the* average*
correspondent.*Upstream*agents*of*the*chain*were*accounted*separately.*
Total*output*value*results*are*in*Table& 21.*They*exemplify*the*average*“total*output*value”*by*a*
representative* farmer* of* each* community* and* each* micro;basin.* Results* show* that* the*
community*Santa*Cruz*I,*representing*the*MB2*has*a*greater*total*output*value*in*comparison*to*
the*MB1.*In*MB1,*farmers*of*Degredo*have*a*greater*value*of*output*in*relation*to*farmers*of*Boa*
Ventura.**
Table&21:&Total&Output&Value&of&Value&Chain&A&–&Producers&
&
A&
B&
C&
D=A+B+C&
&
Sales*
Revenues*
Own*Final*
Consumption*
Change*in*
Inventories*
Total*Output*
Value*
Santa&Cruz&I&
Degredo&
Boa&Ventura&
MB1&
MB2&
*R$253,666.73**
*R$94,110.00**
*R$38,287.44**
*R$66,198.72** *R$253,666.73**
*R$196.12**
*R$235.77**
*R$188.18**
*R$211.98**
*R$196.12**
*R$182,421.27**
*R$95,285.71**
R$14,439.42**
*R$54,862.57**
R$182,421.27**
R$436,284.12**
R$189,631.48**
R$52,915.05**
R$121,273.26**
R$436,284.12**
The* upstream* account* is* represented* in* Table& 22.* For* the* account,* it* was* considered* the* total*
sales*revenue,*as*the*processed*quantity*times*the*price*of*trade*of*the*final*product,*estimating*
the*average*of*all*upstream*agents*in*the*period*of*the*biannual*cycle.*The*own*consumption,*in*
this*case,*was*considered*the*quantity*lost*during*the*process*if*any.*The*change*in*the*inventories*
was*calculated*using*the*amount*bought*minus*quantity*used*in*production*or*traded*and*coffee*
!
86!
in*storage.*It*is*observed*that*the*total*output*value*has*an*ascending*increase*from*downstream*
to*upstream*value*chain*actors.*
Table&22:&Total&Output&Value&of&Value&Chain&A&–&Upstream&agents&
&
&
A&
Sales*Revenues*
B&
Own*Final*Consumption*
*R$114,872.22**
;*
C&
Change*in*Inventories*
*R$164,488.89**
*R$277,500.00**
D=A+B+C&
Total*Output*Value*
*R$5,249,694.44**
*R$2,782,500.00**
5.6.1.2.
Roasters&
Brokers&
*R$4,970,333.33**
R$2,505,000.00**
Gross&Value&Added&(GVA)&&
For*reason*of*analysis,*it*has*been*considered*the*two*assumptions:*
(E)*Intermediate*input*costs:*accounted*the*total*goods*entering*the*production*process,*entirely*
consumed* during* the* production* period.* Considering:* Intermediate* Inputs* Produced* Inside* the*
Value* chain* (IIIC)* as* outputs* of* downstream* agents,* e.g.* coffee* for* the* upstream* agents;* and*
Intermediate* Inputs* Outside* the* Value* Chain* (IIOC)* as* inputs,* such* as* fertilizers,* pesticides,* etc.*
The*last*one*is*mostly*common*among*the*producer*agent.*The* farmers* IIOC* are* in*Table& 23,* it*
was* used* the* analysis* of* input;output* matrices* to* base* the* quantity* of* input,* and* the* average*
price*paid*by*each*farmer*for*each*input.*
Table&23:&Intermediate&Inputs&Outside&the&Value&Chain&(IIOC)&by&farmers&
Input&
Fertilizer&
Unit&
Bag*
(50kg)*
Qt./&
ha&
Price/unit& Boa&Ventura&
Degredo&
Santa&Cruz&I&
(=&MB2)&
MB1&
21.9*
R$58.00*
R$7,620.04*
R$8,763.05* R$15,875.08*
R$8,013.74*
Specialized&fertilizer& Spraying*
1.0*
R$213.00*
R$1,235.40*
R$1,420.71*
R$2,573.75*
R$1,299.23*
Herbicide&
Gallon*(20L)*
0.5*
R$203.00*
R$592.76*
R$681.67*
R$1,234.92*
R$623.39*
Pesticide&
Spraying*
0.8*
R$304.00*
R$1,459.20*
R$1,678.08*
R$3,040.00*
R$1,534.59*
Seedlings&
K*
4.4*
R$213.30*
R$5,579.93*
R$6,416.92* R$11,624.85*
R$5,868.22*
Limestone&
Ton*
1.2*
R$110.00*
R$773.96*
R$890.05*
R$1,612.42*
R$813.95*
Fuel&
Liter*
42.4*
R$3.15*
R$801.36*
R$921.56*
R$1,669.50*
R$842.76*
Packing&
Unit*
33.8*
R$1.50*
R$304.38*
R$350.04*
R$634.13*
R$320.11*
Total&IIOC&
R$18,367.03* R$21,122.08* R$38,264.64* R$19,315.99*
*
*
Average*ha**
6*
6.9*
12.5*
6.31*
&
(Representative*producer)*
Note:*Quantity*input*used*per*hectare*and*price*per*unit*are*in*average*the*price*given*by*farmers*in*the*interview.*The*
hectares* of* a* representative* farmer* of* the* community* and* MB* were* obtained* through* the* input;output* matrices*
analysis.*
!
*
87!
(F)*Gross*Value*Added*(GVA):*F=D;E.*The*GVA*calculated*represents*the*value*of*output*net*of*the*
value*of*the*intermediate*input*costs.*The*results*were*clustered*in*community*and*micro;basins,*
for* the* effect* of* comparison.* Upstream* agents* of* the* chain* were* accounted* separately.* It* is*
important* to* remember* that* the* IIIC,* IIOC,* and* GVA* represent* the* average* of* a* representative*
agent,*community*or*micro;basin.*The*GVA*results*are*expressed*in*Table&24.*
Table&24:&Gross&Value&Added&in&Value&Chain&A&Coffee&
&
IIIC&
IIOC&
(E=&IIIC+IIOC)&
Intermediate&
Input&costs&
(D)&Total&Output&
Value&
(F=DCE)&&
Gross&value&
Added&
Santa&Cruz&I&
;*
*R$38,264.64**
*R$38,264.64**
*R$436,284.12**
*R$398,019.48**
Degredo&
;*
*R$21,122.08**
*R$21,122.08**
*R$189,631.48**
*R$168,509.40**
Boa&Ventura&
;*
*R$18,367.03**
*R$18,367.03**
*R$52,915.05**
*R$34,548.02**
MB1&
;*
*R$19,315.99**
*R$19,315.99**
*R$121,273.26**
*R$101,957.27**
MB2&
;*
*R$38,264.64**
*R$38,264.64**
*R$436,284.12**
*R$398,019.48**
Roasters&
*R$1,327,511.11** *R$2,893,000.00** *R$4,220,511.11**
*R$5,249,694.44**
*R$1,029,183.33**
Brokers&
*R$2,470,000.00**
*R$2,782,500.00**
*R$288,000.00**
*R$24,500.00** *R$2,494,500.00**
Note:*IIOC*considered*inputs*for*farmers,*transportation*costs*for*brokers,*processing*cost*for*roasters;*IIIC*considered*
the*raw*material*coffee*for*upstream*agents,*the*same*as*the*output*of*downstream*agents*(inside*the*value*chain).*
It* is* noted* an* ascending* creation* of* gross* value* added* (GVA)* at* the* intermediate* input* costs,*
which*is*lower*in*downstream*agents*and*higher*in*upstream*agents.*This*result*implies*that*there*
is*value*added*creation*along*the*value*chain.**
There*were*some*obstacles*for*this*analysis.*One*of*the*obstacles*was*the*insufficient*information*
provided* by* upstream* agents.* Roasters* and* the* middlemen* didn’t* want* to* expose* themselves,*
thus*didn’t*provide*clear*data*due*to*mistrust.*Data*was*approximately*stipulated*in*the*account.*
The*other*obstacle*was*regarding*the*producers.*It*was*not*entirely*clear*the*separation*of*costs*
among*property*owners*and*sharecroppers.*Some*sharecroppers*enjoy*the*use*of*property*assets*
and*inputs,*which*they*didn’t*contribute*in*terms*of*cost.**
Furthermore,* the* inputs* for* each* producer* weren’t* quite* homogenous;* some* of* them* used*
pulverization,* some* pesticides* in* kilograms,* etc.* In* order* to* calculate* and* compare* data,* the*
account*considered*the*following*aspects:*Fuel*included*gasoline,*natural*gas,*and*oil,*for*running*
machinery* and* vehicles;* Categories* of* inputs* were* grouped* according* to* characteristics* and*
function,* e.g.* fertilizers,* pesticides,* etc.,* considering* that* each* farmer* has* an* own* method,*
different*purchase*prices,*different*product*types,*and*so*forth.*The*calculation*was*made*using*
!
88!
the*technical*quantity*per*hectare*acquired*in*the*previous*analysis*input;output*matrices*as*an*
average*of*a*representative*producer*of*each*community*and*each*micro;basin.*
5.6.1.3.
Net&Value&Added&(NVA)&
The*account*of*Net*Value*Added*considered*two*assumptions:*
(G)* Consumption* of* fixed* capital* –* Cf:* It* was* calculated* the* consumption* of* fixed* assets,* e.g.*
machinery,* equipment,* vehicles.* Cf* was* calculated* using* the* formula* Cf=) CIINT,* together* with*
income*account*over*the*next*topic16.*The*calculations*of*the*Cf*followed*the*considered*aspects:*
The*value*of*all*encountered*assets*(V)*of*each*agent*individually*divided*by*the*time*of*constant*
efficiency* (n).* It* was* used* the* standard* lifespan* of* fixed* assets* according* to* the* Normative*
Instruction* SFR* N°162* by* the* “Receita* Federal* do* Brasil”* (Ministério* da* Fazenda,* 2015,* 1998).*
Then,*it*was*accounted*the*average*of*the*total*value*of*Cf*summing*all*producers,*and*stipulated*
the*average*for*a*representative*producer*of*each*community*and*micro;basin.*However,*it*was*
observed* that* some* farmers* have* a* lot* of* assets* while* some* farmers* have* none.* Some* assets*
were* obtained* via* the* project* of* Micro;basin* Rio* Rural.* Although* the* investment* was* not* upon*
the* farmer,* there* is* the* consumption* of* that* fixed* asset,* and* thus* was* calculated.* The* same*
calculation*proceeded*for*other*agents.*
(H)*Net*Value*Added*(NVA):*calculations*were*made*according*to*H=F;G,*expressing*the*value*of*
output* net* of* the* value* of* both* intermediate* inputs* minus* the* consumption* of* fixed* asset.* The*
results*of*NVA*can*be*seen*in*Table&25.*
Table&25:&Net&Value&Added&NVA&in&Value&Chain&A&
&
(G)&Consumption&of&fixed&
asset&(Cf)&
(F)&Gross&Value&Added&–&
GVA&
(H=FCG)&Net&value&Added&–&
NVA&
Boa&Ventura&
*R$3,091.07**
*R$34,548.02**
*R$31,456.95**
Degredo&
*R$3,705.00**
*R$168,509.40**
*R$164,804.40**
Average&MB1&
*R$3,317.25**
*R$101,957.27**
*R$98,640.02**
Santa&Cruz&I&&(=MB2)&
*R$17,137.27**
*R$398,019.48**
*R$380,882.20**
Brokers&
*R$64,722.00**
*R$1,029,183.33**
*R$964,461.33**
Roasters&
*R$19,599.00**
*R$288,000.00**
*R$268,401.00**
*
!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!
16
*Formulas*and*calculations*of*Cf,)C*and*INT*are*detailed*in*the*Methodology*chapter*
!
89!
5.6.1.4.
Findings&of&Production&Account&
The* results* obtained* reveal* that* there* is* certainly* an* ascending* net* value* added* (NVA)* creation*
along*the*value*chain,*after*discounting*intermediate*inputs*and*consumption*of*fixed*capital.*The*
value*added*creation*follows*a*normal*and*natural*pattern*flow*(producer*<*broker*<*roaster),*in*
which*MB2*>*MB1.*It*is*noteworthy*that*MB2*(representing*the*community*of*Santa*Cruz*I)*enjoys*
a* greater* GVA* and* greater* NVA* in* comparison* to* the* MB1.* In* other* words,* Santa* Cruz* I*
community*(=MB2)*has*a*higher*output*in*terms*of*value,*also*has*higher*proprietorship*of*assets,*
thus*higher*consumption*of*fixed*capital.*In*MB1,*all*communities*have*the*same*type*of*assets,*
similar* consumption* of* fixed* capital.* However,* a* farmer* in* Degredo* has* a* comparative* higher*
value*of*output*in*comparison*to*a*farmer*in*Boa*Ventura.*Thus,*there*is*an*overall*higher*value*
added* in* Degredo* and* lower* value* added* in* Boa* Ventura,* comparatively.* The* value* added* flow*
chart*in*Figure&46*demonstrates*the*net*value*added*share*among*the*value*chain*agents.*
*
Figure&46:&Net&Value&Added&(NVA)&share&among&value&chain&A&agents&
5.6.2. Income&Account&
5.6.2.1.
Wages&and&operational&services&cost&
Wages* included* hired* employee,* informal* and* temporary* employee,* and* family* farm* labor*
estimated*at*opportunity*costs.*For*the*opportunity*cost,*it*was*considered*the*quantity*farmers*
would* pay* for* a* daily* ordinary* worker* if* farmers* do* not* carry* out* the* work.* It* was* assumed* a*
minimum* wage* of* R$* 724.00* in* 2014,* with* additional* labor* and* social* fees* for* rural* employee,*
according*to*Regulation*Law*No.*5.889/73,*Decree*No.*73.626/74*(Brasil*;*Casa*Civil,*1973,*1974;*
Hentcheke,*2012).*It*was*also*assumed*working*days*in*the*harvest*period*of*65*days,*and*daily*
payment* men/day* provided* by* the* farmers* with* different* daily* wages.* Sharecroppers* were*
accounted*in*bags*of*coffee*times*the*price*paid*per*bag*or*as*family*work.*When*their*production*
!
90!
share*has*been*already*deducted*from*the*total*output*value,*sharecroppers*weren’t*considered*
as*a*wage.*The*reference*price*used*per*coffee*bag*was*at*R$*227.00*in*average.*This*price*was*
useful* in* case* of* in;kind* contributions* for* services* and* payments* in* operational* cost,* when* the*
cost*was*not*accounted*for*men/day,*in*case*of*services*or*operational*cost.*The*results*of*wages*
in*the*communities*and*micro;basins*are*displayed*in*Table&26.*Results*of*operational*cost*are*in*
Table&27.*
Table&26:&Remuneration&of&wage&in&Value&Chain&A,&expressed&in&Reais&(R$)&
&
Family&
work&
Hired&
employee&
Temporary&
employee&
Social&and&
Labour&
charges&
13°&Wage&
Vacation&
extra&&
Temporary&
worker&
fees&
Total&
Boa&
Ventura&
31,329.17*
724.00*
2,914.17*
5,128.51*
2,660.41*
877.94*
358.44*
43,992.63*
Degredo&
46,667.86*
;*
4,252.86*
7,466.86*
3,873.43*
1,278.23*
523.10*
64,062.34*
Santa&Cruz&I&
37,287.91*
6,351.27*
4,845.45*
6,982.27*
3,622.05*
1,195.28*
595.99*
60,880.23*
MB1&
36,980.26*
457.26*
3,407.37*
5,990.00*
3,107.31*
1,025.41*
419.11*
51,386.73*
MB2&
37,287.91*
6,351.27*
4,845.45*
6,982.27*
3,622.05*
1,195.28*
595.99*
60,880.23*
Table&27:&Operational&services&cost&in&Vale&Chain&A,&expressed&in&Reais&(R$)&
&
Coffee&Drying&
Coffee&milling&
Coffee&yard&preparation&
vehicle&rent&
coffee&washing&
Total&
Boa&Ventura&
195.44*
336.56*
338.75*
188.64*
31.00*
1,090.39*
Degredo&
8.57*
910.70*
949.11*
107.14*
142.86*
2,118.38*
Santa&Cruz&I&
634.09*
205.33*
96.36*
;*
138.09*
1,073.88*
MB1&
126.60*
548.09*
563.62*
156.94*
77.06*
1,472.31*
MB2&
634.09*
205.33*
96.36*
;*
138.09*
1,073.88*
It* can* be* noted* that* the* production* factor* wage,* when* including* the* family* farm* labor,*
contributes* to* a* huge* value* imposed* to* the* overall* production* cost.* In* MB1* (Degredo* and* Boa*
Ventura),*it*prevails*the*family*labor*and*some*temporary*work*during*the*harvest*period.*In*MB2,*
there*are*costs*related*to*hired*employees*and*temporary*employment*during*the*harvest*period.*
The* overall* average* cost* in* wage* was* almost* similar* in* between* community* and* MB.* Regarding*
operational*services,*the*costs*were*attributed*to*coffee*drying,*coffee*milling*and*tractor*for*yard*
preparation,* since* farmers* don’t* have* these* assets;* they* need* to* pay* for* extra* service* of* the*
operation.*This*fact*is*an*issue*of*relevance*to*the*decision;making*process.*When*it*is*possible*to*
decide* technologies* to* alleviate* the* extra* operation* costs* and* then* give* the* opportunity* for*
farmers*to*save*money*for*future*investments,*and*then*upgrade*in*the*value*chain.*
!
91!
5.6.2.2.
Interests&of&fixed&assets&&
It*was*used*the*standard*depreciation*of*fixed*assets*as*n*according*to*the*Normative*Instruction*
SFR* N°162* by* the* “Receita* Federal* do* Brasil”* (Ministério* da* Fazenda,* 2015,* 1998).* The* rate* of*
interest*was*r*=*13.31%,*according*to*the*calculations*in*the*methodology*chapter.*It*was*used*the*
knowing* Purchase* price* Po* to* calculate* C,) INT* and* Cf) (Cf=CIINT).* Considering* that* C* is* the*
“consumption* of* fixed* assets* at* an* interest* rate* of* the* opportunity* cost* of* capital”* used* in* the*
investment,*C*was*calculated*just*to*separate*INT*from*Cf.*For*the*income*account*is*used*just*INT*
as* “interest* of* fixed* assets”,* since* Cf) was* already* accounted* in* the* Production* Account* part.*
Calculations*of*the*used*depreciation*rate*according*to*type*of*asset*are*displayed*in&Table&28.**
Table&28:&Interest&rate&calculation&
r"
n"
Depreciation&rate&for&C&
Depreciation&rate&for&INT&
Buildings&
&
0.1337*
25*
0.123*
0.083*
Machineries&and&equipment&
0.1337*
10*
0.165*
0.065*
Vehicles&
0.1337*
5*
0.253*
0.053*
Tractor&
0.1337*
4*
0.299*
0.049*
The* INT* of* each* asset* was* obtained,* using* the* above;calculated* interest* rates.* The* results* were*
grouped*by*category*of*asset,*by*community*and*by*micro;basin,*as*seen*in*Table& 29.*Upstream*
agents* were* separately* calculated.* It* is* significant* to* consider* that* despite* the* consumption* of*
fixed* asset* at* an* interest* rate,* the* assets* often* break* or* need* maintenance,* renovation* or*
purchase* of* new* parts* of* the* assets.* The* sum* of* all* maintenance* cost* attribute* to* those* assets*
grouped*by*community*and*micro;basin*are*also*in*Table&29.*
Table&29:&Annual&Interested&cost&(INT)&producers&Value&Chain&A&
&
Building&
Boa&Ventura&
R$711.17*
Degredo&
Santa&Cruz&I&
(=MB2)&
MB1&
Machinery&and&
Maintenance&
Vehicle&
Tractor&
Total&INT&
R$635.81*
R$44.21*
R$313.32*
R$1,704.51*
R$814.38*
R$1,427.72*
R$383.77*
R$75.79*
R$418.53*
R$2,305.81*
R$1,072.32*
R$3,761.39*
R$4,042.00*
R$245.97* R$1,598.03* R$9,647.39*
R$1,789.32*
R$975.16*
R$542.95*
equipment&
R$55.84*
R$352.08*
R$1,926.04*
cost&/year&
R$909.41*
*
!
92!
5.6.2.3.
Rents&
Rents*expressed*as*the*use*of*natural*resources*such*as*land,*water,*and*soil,*were*not*provided*
by* the* farmers.* Farmers* claimed* that* they* had* no* cost* of* water.* They* said* coffee* is* a* rain;fed*
crop.*Additionally,*since*they*subtract*water*from*the*springs,*this*cost*is*not*imposed*on*them,*
even*in*case*of*drought*when*it*is*needed*to*irrigate*manually.*Also,*they*do*not*lease*land*for*
production.* Or* the* property* is* owned,* or* the* land* is* granted* as* a* form* of* partnership* between*
sharecroppers*and*property*owners.*These*conditions*are*thus*not*considered*as*a*rental*cost.*So*
this* item* was* not* included* in* the* calculations* of* Income* Account.* Rentals* referred* to* payments*
for*the*use*of*a*fixed*asset*were*considered*as*operational*cost*services.*
5.6.2.4.
Taxes&related&to&the&production&
The* Statutory* Law* N°* 41777,* from* 29* September* 2003* (Governo* do* Estado* do* Rio* de* Janeiro,*
2003),*provides*tax*benefits*grants*for*family*farming*in*the*State*of*Rio*de*Janeiro.*In*this*law,*it*
is* attributed* reduced* taxes* of* VAT* (ICMS)* of* circulation* of* goods* and* services* in* the* State;RJ,*
charging* 6%* of* the* value* of* transaction* of* the* purchase* of* agricultural* goods* produced* in* the*
State* Rio* de* Janeiro.* It* is* conceded* benefit* grants* for* the* purchase* of* seeds,* services* of* rural*
extension*provided*by*an*official*or*private*institution,*and*also*gives*incentives*for*the*creation*
of*cooperatives*acting*in*the*commercialization*and*distribution*of*goods.**
The*VAT*of*6%*was*accounted*for*all*production*sales*revenue.*For*the*effect*of*analysis,*it*was*
considered* the* VAT* for* all* producers.* However,* the* majority* of* farmers* said* not* having* taxes*
relating*to*production.*They*don’t*practice*transactions*using*invoice*notes,*and*the*transaction*is*
made*mostly*informally.*Taxes*over*the*inputs*were*already*accounted*in*intermediate*costs.*As*
the*demand*is*all*in*the*national*market,*no*transaction*tax*was*attributed*to*export.*For*roasters*
and*brokers,*it*was*considered*the*provided*value*during*the*interview.*The*results*are*displayed*
in*Table&30.*
Table&30:&Taxes&in&Value&Chain&A&
Community&
VAT&6%&
MB&
VAT&6%&
Upstream&agents&
Taxes&(VAT&and&other&charges)&
Santa&Cruz&I&
R$15,220.00*
MB2*
R$15,220.00*
Roasters*
*
R$171,800.00*
*
Degredo&
R$5,646.60*
Boa&Ventura&
MB1*
R$3,971.92*
Brokers*
R$2,297.25*
R$150,300.00*
*
!
93!
5.6.2.5.
Profits&or&Losses&
The*Income*account*of*the*agents*of*the*value*chain*A,*expressed*by*Profit*or*Loss*followed*the*
equation*Profit)=)NVA)–)production)factors*(Wage,*Interests,*Taxes,*etc.).*Results*are*in*Table&31.*
Wages* for* upstream* agents* were* accounted* separately.* Interviewees* representing* these* agents*
didn’t*provide*detailed*information*regarding*the*constituents*of*the*production*factors,*but*the*
total* expenses* regarding* the* production* factor.* The* not* yet* accounted* production* factors* are*
nowhere* displayed.* Farmers* gave* much* more* detailed* information* than* the* upstream* agents.*
However,*since*the*group*target*is*the*producer*agent,*the*overall*expenses*of*upstream*agents*
were* enough* to* establish* the* comparison* and* analysis* of* the* value* chain* following* the*
presupposed*target*group*of*interest.*
Table&31:&Income&Account&of&Value&Chain&A&
NVA&
Wages&&&Op.&
Services&
Interests&&&
maintenance&
Taxes&
Profit&or&Loss&
Boa&Ventura&
R$31,456.95*
R$45,083.03*
R$2,518.88*
R$2,297.25*
;R$18,442.21*
Degredo&
R$164,804.40*
R$66,180.72*
R$3,378.13*
R$5,646.60*
R$89,598.94*
MB1&
R$98,640.02*
R$52,859.04*
R$2,835.45*
R$3,971.92*
R$38,973.60*
Santa&Cruz&I&(=MB2)&
R$380,882.20*
R$61,954.10*
R$11,436.71*
R$15,220.00*
R$292,271.39*
Roaster&
R$964,461.33*
R$505,750.00*
R$88,321.58*
R$171,800.00* R$198,589.76*
Broker&
R$268,401.00*
R$13,800.00*
R$5,198.88*
R$150,300.00*
&
R$99,102.12*
*The* results* of* the* Income* Account* reveal* that* in* terms* of* micro;basin,* both* MBs* obtained*
positive* balance* after* discounting* all* costs* (fixed* and* variables)* from* the* total* value* output.*
However,* the* distribution* of* value* added* is* unequal* when* comparing* micro;basins.* MB2* has* a*
greater*overall*value*added*creation*and*value;added*distribution*than*in*MB1.*It*is*noteworthy*
that*in*terms*of*community,*all*three*communities*presented*very*disparate*results.*While*Santa*
Cruz* I* enjoys* some* accumulation* of* wealth,* and* fair* distribution* of* the* value* added,* in* Boa*
Ventura,* the* balance* was* negative.* This* means* that* the* community* of* Boa* Ventura* is* the* most*
vulnerable*group*of*the*Value*Chain.*Boa*Ventura*does*not*have*a*safe*net*value*added*creation*
to*have*a*fair*distribution*of*value*added*within*production*factors.*Also,*although*the*community*
of* Degredo,* closed* with* a* positive* balance,* it* is* yet* remarkably* the* inequality* of* value* added*
distribution*among*the*communities.**
Of*course*the*results*are*related*to*one*representative*farmer*of*the*community.*Some*farmers*of*
the*same*community*might*experience*better*self;positioning*in*the*value*chain,*grabbing*enough*
value* added* to* cover* the* production* factors.* However,* some* farmers* are* struggling* to* develop*
!
94!
their*economic*activity,*and*thus*to*afford*their*livelihoods.*When,*considering*the*distribution*of*
value*added*in*upstream*agents,*it*could*be*noted*that*the*value*added*tends*to*concentrate*in*
the*upstream*part*of*the*value*chain.*Producers*of*MB1*are*at*a*disadvantage*in*comparison*to*
the*upstream*part.*MB2*are*in*greater*position,*even*comparing*the*upper*part*of*the*value*chain.*
5.6.2.6.
Findings&of&Income&Account&
The*income*account*revealed*the*distribution*of*value*added*along*the*value*chain.*This*issue*is*
worth* of* consideration* for* decision;makers,* in* order* to* equalize* the* disparate* distribution* of*
wealth,*and*providing*more*or*fewer*benefits*or*grants*depending*on*the*community*needs.*The*
institutional* support* has* to* look* not* only* to* the* quantity* of* benefited* micro;basins* or/and*
communities,*but*also*the*amount*distributed*for*each*and*its*impact*on*diminishing*imbalances*
such*as*seen*in*Boa*Ventura.*It*can*be*said*that*Santa*Cruz*I*is*already*well*positioned*in*the*value*
chain.*With*government*interference,*producers*of*the*MB1*could*achieve*the*same*distribution*
of* value* added* and* improve* the* concentration* of* wealth.* Figure& 47* illustrates* the* value* added*
distribution*share*among*value*chain*agents.*
42%&
28%&
14%&
13%&
6%&
C3%&
Boa&Ventura&
Degredo&
MB1&
Santa&Cruz&I&
(=MB2)&
Roaster&
Broker&
!
Figure&47:&Vale&Added&Distribution&Share&in&Value&Chain&A&
5.7.
Market&Map&Framework&Value&Chain&A&
The* market* map* framework* of* the* value* chain* A* (coffee)* is* represented* in* Figure& 48.* The* map*
displays* the* enabling* environment,* which* can* cause* a* change* in* the* value* chain,* including* the*
available* infrastructure,* policies,* institutions,* and* processes.* Additionally,* the* map* shows* the*
offerings* of* extension* services* or* business,* which* gives* the* opportunity* to* upgrade* the* value*
chain*level.*
!
95!
!
Figure&48:&Market&Map&Framework&Value&Chain&coffee&
The* six* step;analyses* revealed* the* enable* environment* existent* in* the* value* chain.* Laws,* taxes,*
and* policies* can* help* alleviate* entanglements,* such* as,* the* Pro;family* farming* policies* and*
programs,* or* can* also* cause* constraints,* such* as* the* case* of* commercialization* taxes* in*
development*of*the*coffee*roasting*industry*in*the*State*of*Rio*de*Janeiro.*The*Institutions*MDA,*
SEAPEC* and* extension* and* research* institutions* have* an* impact* on* value* chain’s* decisions.* It* is*
important* to* consider* though* the* nature* of* the* coffee* sector,* susceptible* to* the* biannual* cycle*
prices*volatilization,*which*impacts*the*vulnerable*groups*of*the*chain*mostly.*The*Brazilian*pro;
export* position* in* the* coffee* sector* is* an* already* set* stage* to* expand* the* market* for* Varre;Sai,*
considering*the*regional*relevance*of*this*producer*for*the*State*RJ.*
Furthermore,* it* is* suggested* some* business* and* services* opportunities* of* improvement.*
Facilitating* the* linkages* between* farmers* and* the* COOPERCANOL,* together* with* giving* more*
support* for* farmer’s* organization* can* help* to* create* a* better* opportunity* for* commercialization*
for* the* producers.* The* institutional* support* can* look* at* decisions* in* terms* of* improving* the*
technological* standard* of* production* and* processing,* to* improve* final* product’s* quality* and*
achieve*special*niches*of*markets,*such*as*the*specialized*and*quality*coffee.*However,*to*develop*
a*self;sustained*value*chain,*it*is*also*necessary*to*establish*a*minimum*threshold*of*technology,*
!
96!
and*assets,*which*can*contribute*to*an*upgrading*position*in*the*value*chain.*The*education*level*
could*also*improve*this*matter.*The*already*in*place*initiatives*and*programs*should*continue*for*
all*micro;basins,*with*a*special*set*targeted*most*vulnerable*groups.*It*is*important*to*address*the*
situation* of* the* farmers* in* the* Micro;basin* “Onça”,* which* were* detected* in* this* study* the* most*
disadvantageous*group,*due*to*either*internal*or*external*reasons.*
Table& 32* summarizes* the* problematic* of* the* northwestern* coffee* in* RJ* according* to* cause* and*
effect.* These* bottlenecks* could* be* tackled* by* the* actions* described* above* or* alleviated* due* to*
farmer’s*resilience*in*the*face*of*environment*changes.*
Table&32:&Cause&and&effect&of&the&bottlenecks&in&the&coffee&sector&in&the&Northwest&region&of&RJ&
Problematic&
Consequences&
Mountainous&landscape&
Difficult*mechanization,*high*operational*costs*
Low&technological&pattern&
Low*productivity,*low*quality,*low*competitiveness*
Biannual&cycle&
Prices*fluctuation*and*instability,*market*crisis,*difficult*commercialization,*
difficult*finance*
Demographic&change&
Aging*of*farmer’s*population*and*rural*exodus*of*the*youth*due*to*lack*of*
opportunities*for*employment*and*education*
Scarce&labor&force&
High*harvest*costs,*decrease*of*productive*area*
Low&industrialization&in&the&region&
Agriculture*is*the*main*source*of*livelihood;*coffee*roasting*is*the*main*
industrial*activity*
Insufficient&communityCbased&
Difficult*of*implementation*of*programs*and*solution*of*problems,*offside*
organization&
join*cooperative*will*
Data*compiled*by*the*author*as*a*result*of*literature*consultation*and*field*research*
&
!
&
97!
6.
CHAPTER:&RESULTS&AND&DISCUSSION&–&VALUE&CHAIN&B&HORTICULTURE&
6.1. Step&1:&Socioeconomic&context&of&the&Value&Chain&B:&Horticulture&
6.1.1. Overview&of&horticulture&in&the&world&and&Brazil&
It* is* estimated* around* 1135.7* million* tonnes* of* vegetables* produced* worldwide,* within* a* total*
harvested*area*of*58*million*hectares*in*2013*(FAOSTAT,*2013).*The*production*by*country*can*be*
illustrated* by* the* shaded* averages* over* the* map* in* Figure& 49.* Conforming* to* Weinberger* &*
Lumpkin* (2007),* horticulture* is* an* excellent* opportunity* to* increase* income* and* generate*
employment* in* developing* countries* when* taking* care* of* farmer* inclusion* and* proper*
investments* in* technologies* of* diversification.* Horticulture* is* one* of* the* most* profitable*
agricultural*activities.*The*reason*is*that*the*production*has*a*short*cycle,*which*makes*possible*
the*combination*of*many*sorts*of*crops.*Thus*it*results*in*real*profitability*in*space;time,*despite*
the*intense*land*use,*labour,*and*inputs*required*(Bevilacqua,*2008).*
*
Figure&49:&Total&Vegetable&Production&(average&tonnes)&worldwide&in&2013&
Source:*(FAOSTAT,*2013)*
In*Brazil,*horticulture*is*an*important*sector*growing*more*than*any*other*agricultural*activity,*and*
with*increasing*demand*(Mourão*&*Colombini,*2008).*In*2013,*Brazil*presented*a*total*of*468,698*
ha*of*harvest*area*and*had*a*total*production*of*11,548*thousand*tonnes*of*vegetables*(FAOSTAT,*
2013),*as*represented*in*Figure&50.*
!
98!
2010*
2011*
2012*
Total&Harvested&Area&in&
Thousands&of&Hectares&(ha)&
505*
500*
495*
490*
485*
480*
475*
470*
465*
460*
455*
450*
Thousands&
Millions&
Total&Vegetable&producnon&in&
millions&of&tonnes&
11.7*
11.6*
11.5*
11.4*
11.3*
11.2*
11.1*
11.0*
10.9*
10.8*
10.7*
2013*
*
Figure&50:&Total&Brazilian&vegetable&production&in&millions&of&tonnes&(primary&axis&in&blue);&Total&harvest&area&in&
thousands&of&hectares&(ha)&(secondary&axis&in&green)&over&the&period&from&2010&to&2013&
Source*of*data:*(FAOSTAT,*2013).*Note:*Vegetable*crops*grown*mainly*for*human*consumption,*including*also*melons*
on*the*category*
In*agreement*with*ABCSEM*(2011),*it*is*estimated*to*be*cultivated*over*700*thousand*hectares*of*
vegetables*reproduced*by*seedling*in*Brazil,*generating*around*2.4*million*direct*jobs*on*average*
3.5*employees/ha.*It*is*a*sector*that*makes*a*total*value*of*production*of*R$*4.3*billion,*2.7%*of*
the*total*agricultural*production*value*in*Brazil*(IBGE,*2009).*Consistent*with*(Embrapa;Hortaliças*
&*SEBRAE,*2010),*there*are*50*species*relevant*to*the*market,*in*which*only*eight*species*listed*
bellow*represent*around*80%*of*the*market*share*of*vegetables*(Table&33).*
Table&33:&Production&of&Vegetables&in&Brazil&
Production&
&
(thousand&tonnes)
Participation&(%)&
Crop&Area&(thousand&
Ha)&
Yield&(tonnes/ha)
Garlic&
102.23*
Sweet&Potato&
505.35*
1%*
9.57*
10.63*
3%*
39.39*
12.19*
Potato&
Onion&
3553.77*
21%*
128.12*
27.45*
1538.93*
9%*
57.59*
24.93*
Watermelon&
2163.50*
13%*
92.02*
21.98*
Melon&
565.90*
3%*
22.06*
25.25*
Tomato&
4187.65*
25%*
62.78*
60.67*
756.74*
5%*
26.15*
28.94*
3284.91*
20%*
313.20*
12.89*
16658.99*
100%*
750.88*
Main&Vegetables&
Carrot&
2&
Other&fresh&
2,&3&
vegetables&
Total&Vegetable&
4&
4&
1&
22.19*
1*
Note:* Majority* of* the* data* extracted* from* “Produção* Agrícola* Municipal”* (PAM)* 2013;* Data* from* PAM* 2012* (IBGE,*
2
3
2015d);* *Data*from*(Embrapa;Hortaliças,*2009);* *Data*from*(FAOSTAT,*2013)*–*estimative**of*FAO*of*vegetables*with*
*4
minor*contribution; *Estimative*resulted*of*calculation*done*by*the*author*based*on*the*compiled*data*in*the*table.*
!
99!
The*horticulture*production*is*composed*of*many*small*producers*and*various*origins*(Mourão*&*
Colombini,*2008).*There*are*in*total*190,954*establishments*of*horticulture*production*in*Brazil,*
wherein* 60%* is* concentrated* in* family;based* properties.* The* properties* range* in* less* than* 10*
hectares* intensely* cropped,* and* represent* 63%* of* the* gross* value* of* production* of* horticultural*
products*(IBGE,*2006a;*Melo*&*Vilela,*2007;*IBGE,*2006b).**
The*horticulture*chain*creates*value*added,*where*the*farmer*stays*with*only*15.03%*of*the*share;*
the*wholesale*market*with*28.40%;*and*the*retailer*market*with*56.57%*of*the*gross*value*of*the*
vegetable* market* in* Brazil* (ABCSEM,* 2011).* It* is* important* also* to* remember* that* the*
globalisation*has*changed*the*linkages*within*the*Brazilian*vegetable*production.*While*enabling*
technological* and* structural* advances,* it* also* gave* rise* to* other* bottlenecks* to* overcome* the*
increasing*competitiveness*of*the*sector*(Melo*&*Vilela,*2007).*
6.1.2. Horticulture&in&the&Mountain&Region&of&State&RJ&
The* Mountain* Region* alone* produces* 90%* of* greens* and* more* than* 50%* of* vegetables* in* the*
State*Rio*de*Janeiro*(Galliez*&*Schueler,*2004).*As*referred*by*Lima*(2010),*horticulture*in*Rio*de*
Janeiro*has*increased*53.83%*from*1996*to*2006.*Leaf*vegetable*production*increased*188.17%,*
and*fruit*vegetables,*9.19%*over*the*same*period,*says*the*same*author.*The*sector*presents*an*
enormous* potential* for* growth,* due* to* its* huge* consumer* market* in* the* capital* Rio* de* Janeiro.*
Also,* the* tropical* climate,* with* its* diverse* microclimates,* is* adequate* for* the* production* during*
the* whole* year.* And* the* short* cycle* of* the* production* is* more* suitable* for* small* farmers* with* a*
better*yield*per*area*(Lima,*2010).*Table&34*displays*the*main*vegetable*production*in*the*State*of*
Rio*de*Janeiro,*relevant*to*this*study.**
Table&34:&Studied&Vegetables&in&Rio&de&Janeiro&State&&
Vegetable&
N°&farmers&
Production&
(Tonnes)&
Sales&
(Tonnes)&
Gross&Value&
(1000&R$)&
Chinese&cabbage&
120*
761*
752*
534.00*
Lettuce&
2,943*
143,370*
142,561*
56,528.00*
Beetroot&
620*
3,792*
3,770*
2,116.00*
Cauliflower&
1,082*
17,452*
17,424*
10,818.00*
Parsley&
1,131*
3,202*
3,183*
5,076.00*
Tomato&
2,838*
114,175*
113,963*
97,388.00*
Green&bean&
1,358*
8,180*
8,105*
5,911.00*
Source*of*data:*Censo*Agropecuário*(IBGE,*2006b)*
!
100!
The*Mountain*Region*vegetable*supply*is*characterized*as*closest*to*as*a*“green*belt”*of*the*city*
of* Rio* de* Janeiro.* This* "green* belt"* respects* a* converged* structure* that* concentrates* the*
production* in* a* polarized* consumer* market* in* the* capital* (Figure& 51)* (Seabra* &* Marafon,* n.d.).*
The* Mountain* Region* produces* more* than* half* of* the* supply* of* leaf* vegetables,* e.g.* lettuce,*
parsley,* cauliflower,* etc.* * It* also* contributes* to* the* provision* of* vegetables,* such* as* tomato* and*
yams*(Ortiz,*2011b).**
*
Figure&51:&Green&belt&of&vegetables&of&the&capital&of&Rio&de&Janeiro&
Source:*CEASA;RJ*Data*information*Centre*of*the*State*Rio*de*Janeiro*(2004)*IN*Seabra*&*Marafon,*n.d.**
6.1.1.1. Horticulture&in&Nova&Friburgo&
Data* acquired* from* the* Municipal* Secretariat* of* Agriculture* and* Rural* Development* of* Nova*
Friburgo*(2011)*indicates*that*there*is*a*diverse*agricultural*activity*in*the*city.*Nova*Friburgo*is*
specialized*in*the*production*of*flowers*and*cut*foliage,**vegetable*crops,*and*other*varied*sized*
productions.* There* are* around* 1,600* farms,* covering* an* area* of* 21,000* ha* (average* ≈* 13*
ha/property).*From*the*2,400*farmers*involved*in*agricultural*production,*90%*are*small*farmers*
(properties*up*to*40*ha).*Producers*are*organized*in*more*than*30*rural*associations*(Secretaria*
de*Agricultura*e*Desenvolvimento*Rural*de*Nova*Friburgo,*2011).*
In*horticulture,*Nova*Friburgo*has*a*great*diversity*of*products,*and*crops*of*more*than*50*species*
and*distinct*varieties.*The*principal*crops*are*cauliflower,*parsley,*tomato,*cabbage,*broccoli*and*
yam.* There* are* 931* properties* producing* vegetables* in* a* cultivated* area* of* 2,700* hectares.* The*
!
101!
annual* production* is* around* 100,000* tonnes,* with* an* approximate* gross* value* of* R$*
60,000,000.00*(Secretaria*de*Agricultura*e*Desenvolvimento*Rural*de*Nova*Friburgo,*2011).*
Additionally,*Nova*Friburgo*is*one*of*the*largest*producers*of*vegetable*crops*in*the*state*Rio*de*
Janeiro.*The*city*is*a*leading*producer*of*cauliflower*in*the*country*(Iniciativa*Agenda*21*Comperj,*
2011).*Also,*it*is*a*significant*supply*of*83%*of*lettuce,*12%*of*chayote*and*33%*of*cabbage*in*Rio*
de*Janeiro*(Seabra*&*Marafon,*n.d.).*Table&35*displays*the*most*relevant*vegetables*for*this*study*
produced*in*Nova*Friburgo.*
Table&35:&Studied&vegetables&production&in&Nova&Friburgo&in&2013&
Vegetable&
N°&producer&
Production&(tons)&
Area&(ha)&
Gross&Value&(R$)&
Lettuce&
50*
1,100*
50*
561,000.00*
Cauliflower&
760*
20,420*
570*
23,687,200.00*
Parsley&
77*
3,507*
77*
5,541,060.00*
1
1
2
1
Chinese&cabbage&
12 *
261 *
ND *
212,000.00 *
Beetroot&
113*
1,763*
68*
2,379,780.00*
Tomato&
446*
24,528*
371*
61,565,280.00*
Green&bean&
105*
1,660*
63*
5,595,548.00*
Source:*Data*from*Aspa*2013*(EMATER;Rio,*2013b)*
1
No*updated*data*found,*used*data*from*2006*(IBGE,*2006b)*
2
ND:*no*data*found*
6.1.1.2. Vulnerability&of&the&Mountain&Region&
Landslides* are* a* very* common* feature* in* the* mountainous* area* of* south;eastern* Brazil,* due* to*
intense*summer*storms*(Fernandes*et*al.,*2004).*Rio*de*Janeiro*has*been*wide*used*as*an*object*
of*research*for*landslide*probability*in*many*studies*(Coelho;Netto*et*al.,*2007;*Fernandes*et*al.,*
2004).* Nova* Friburgo* has* also* been* portrayed* as* a* case* study* in* landslide* susceptibility.* The*
municipality* was* one* of* the* most* affected* areas* in* State* Rio* de* Janeiro* during* the* disaster* of*
January* 2011,* with* extensive* damage* to* rural* infrastructures* (Bétard* et* al.,* 2014).* The* tragedy*
occurred*in*the*Mountain*Region*in*January*2011,*and*hit*the*municipalities*of*Bom*Jardim,*Nova*
Friburgo,*Teresópolis*and*Petrópolis,*with*a*death*toll*of*900*people*(CREA;RJ,*2011).*Figure&52&is*
a*photograph*taken*three*years*after*the*landslide*happened,*just*to*illustrate*that*the*scars*still*
prevails*in*the*rural*landscape*of*the*studied*areas.*
!
102!
*
Figure&52:&Landslide&on&the&rural&area&in&Nova&Friburgo&three&years&after&the&disaster&
Photo*taken*by*the*author*(2014)*
In*agreement*with*Freitas*et*al.*(2012),*there*is*certainly*climate*and*geophysical*vulnerability*in*
the* Mountain* Region* of* Rio* de* Janeiro,* notably* market* by* landslides* and* flood* formation.* As*
Nacinovic*et*al.*(2014)*states,*the*rural*mountainous*area*of*Rio*de*Janeiro*presents*accelerated*
erosion* with* consequences* such* as* environmental* degradation* and* financial* loss.* The* risks* and*
the* socio;environmental* vulnerability* are* intrinsically* linked* to* the* socioeconomic* conditions*
established* combined* with* weak* governance* capabilities* in* building* disaster* risk* reduction* and*
resilience*(Freitas*et*al.,*2012).**
The* recovery* of* the* Mountain* Region* had* several* obstacles,* including* difficulties* of* acquiring*
budget,*delay*in*the*release*of*municipal*budget*due*to*corruption*of*regional*mayors,*and*delay*
due*to*the*bureaucracy*of*registration*and*resettlement*of*affected*households*(Prefeitura*do*Rio*
de*Janeiro,*2015b).*
6.1.2. Production&in&the&Study&Area&
The*production*of*the*studied*area*is*in*Table& 36.*The*results*displayed*reflects*only*the*output*
obtained* from* 30* interviewed* farmers.* It* is* observed* that* the* communities* are* specialized* in*
some*particular*vegetable.**For*instance,*Chinese*cabbage*was*only*found*in**“Rio*Grande”*and*
“Florândia*da*Serra”*in*MB4.*Likewise,*lettuce*is*mainly*produced*in*“Rio*Grande”,*being*not*much*
produced* in* the* other* communities* or* MB3.* MB3* is* specialized* in* beet,* green* beans* and*
cauliflower* in* the* community* “Salinas”,* and* parsley* in* the* community* “Santa* Cruz”.* Also,* the*
group*of*organic*producers*was*considered*apart*from*the*conventional*horticulture*production.*
!
103!
The* organic* production* is* not* substantial* in* quantity,* but* it* is* very* diverse,* no* specialization.* In*
the* regular* production,* on* the* other* hand,* the* farmers* are* specialized* only* in* lettuce,* or* only*
cauliflower,*or*only*tomato*and*green*beans.*
Table&36:&Annual&mean&production&and&total&production&of&studied&vegetables&in&the&Value&Chain&B&
Community/&
MicroCBasin&
Tomato&
(Ton)&
Beet&
(Ton)&
Green&
bean&
(Ton)&
Lettuce&
(Ton)&
Parsley&&
(K&unit)&
Chinese&
cabbage&
(Ton)&
Cauliflower&
(Ton)&
Mean&
Prod.&
(Ton)&
Mean&
Prod.&
(Ton/ha)&
Barracão&dos&
Mendes&
92.0*
0.0*
3.6*
20.0*
100.0*
0.0*
148.0*
90.9*
58.2*
Florândia&da&
Serra&
94.0*
9.0*
9.7*
28.3*
72.0*
5.0*
124.8*
68.6*
21.2*
Rio&Grande&
102.3*
20.5*
37.5*
216.8*
0.0*
80.0*
274.0*
104.4*
38.3*
Salinas&
144.0*
30.0*
37.5*
0.0*
73.5*
0.0*
230.0*
85.8*
41.0*
Santa&Cruz&
24.0*
20.0*
3.0*
11.2*
130.0*
0.0*
40.0*
114.1*
15.2*
Serra&Nova&e&
Serra&Velha&
322.0*
21.0*
27.0*
0.0*
9.0*
0.0*
150.0*
132.3*
36.6*
MB3&
168.0*
50.0*
40.5*
11.2*
203.5*
0.0*
270.0*
92.9*
34.5*
MB4&
610.3*
50.5*
77.8*
265.2*
181.0*
85.0*
696.8*
98.3*
37.7*
Organic&
Producers&
1.2*
3.2*
1.2*
4.1*
3.6*
0.0*
24.1*
18.7*
9.1*
Additionally,* it* can* be* said* that* the* production* of* vegetables* in* comparison* to* the* production*
yield* of* vegetables* (tones/ha)* follows* a* positive* correlation* (Correlation* test,* p* <* 0.001),* which*
can*be*represented*in*the*Figure&53.*
#
Figure&53:&Positive&correlation&between&total&vegetable&production&and&the&yield&(tonnes&per&hectare)&in&the&
horticulture&value&chain&
!
104!
6.1.3. Household&socioCeconomic&survey&of&Value&Chain&B&(Horticulture)&
Due* to* analysis* purposes,* results* were* grouped* in* micro;basin* MB3* “Santa;Cruz”* and* MB4*
“Barracão* dos* Mendes”.* The* sample* by* micro;basin* was* unequal* (p=0.041,* z;score).* MB4*
represented* 69%* of* the* sample* and* MB3* represented* 31%* of* the* sample.* The* reason* is* that*
initially*the*target*micro;basin*was*MB4*only,*then*due*to*the*Brazilian*partnership*logistics;*the*
MB3* was* incorporated* into* the* research* in* the* field.* Nevertheless,* the* distribution* by*
communities*showed*equal*proportions.*The*relation*of*the*distribution*of*Community*by*Micro;
basin* is* in* Table& 37.* “Rio* Grande”* represented* the* more* percentage* (35%)* of* the* micro;basin*
MB4*(p=0.042);*and*“Salinas”*and*“Santa*Cruz”*represented*66.7%*(p<0.001)*and*33%*(p=0.006)*
of*micro;basin*MB3,*respectively.*
Table&37:&Community&and&MicroCbasin&Relation&(Value&Chain&B)&
MicroCbasin&
Community&
MB3&
Relative&frequency&to&the&total& Relative&frequency&to&the&microCbasin&
Santa*Cruz*
10.3%*
33.3%*
Salinas*
20.7%*
66.7%*
Barracão*dos*Mendes*
13.8%*
20%*
Florândia*da*Serra*
17.2%*
25%*
Rio*Grande*
24.1%*
35%*
Serra*Nova*e*Serra*Velha*
13.8%*
20%*
MB4&
6.1.3.1. Age&Group&
The*observed*population*presented*a*uniform*and*normal*distribution*of*age,*and*an*estimated*
mean* of* 43.552* ±* 4.67* years* old.* * The* distribution* of* age* is* in* Table& 38.* The* population* is*
considerably*young,*presenting*24%*less*than*30*years*old;*38%*less*than*40*years*old,*and*66%*
less*than*50*years*old.*These*age*groups*comprehend*the*Brazilian*economically*active*population*
(IBGE,* 2014).* Only* 10%* of* the* households* were* considered* aged,* or* over* 60* years* old* (Brasil,*
2003).*
Table&38:&Group&of&age&in&the&observed&population&(Value&Chain&B)&
Age&
Relative&Frequency&
Inverse&Accumulative&Frequency&
Accumulative&Frequency&
60*≤*Age*≤*70*
10%*
100%*
10%*
50*≤*Age*<*60*
24%*
90%*
34%*
40*≤*Age*<*50*
28%*
66%*
62%*
30*≤*Age*<*40*
14%*
38%*
76%*
20*≤*Age*<*30*
24%*
24%*
100%*
*
!
105!
The*relation*of*age*by*micro;basin*presented*the*same*pattern*of*distribution,*with*equal*means*
MB3* (mean* 47.667* ±* 8.644)* and* MB4* (41.7* ±* 5.869).* It* also* showed* similar* medians,* as*
represented*in*Figure&54.*
*
Figure&54:&&Relation&of&age&by&community&with&correspondent&medians&boxes&&
(Kruskal;Wallis,*p*=*0.286)*
6.1.3.2. Gender&and&marital&status&
The*household’s*gender*profile*resulted*in*unequal*proportions*with*a*male*predominance*72.4%,*
and*the*female*ratio*of*27.6%,*meaning*that*it*was*interviewed*2/7*women*in*each*5/7*men.*The*
interviewed*women*were*powerful,*being*head*of*the*family*or*even*community*leaders.*Women*
were* very* representative* in* the* communities* “Barracão* dos* Mendes”* and* “Salinas”,* which*
counted*50%*of*the*interviewees*in*both*communities*(Table&39).*
Table&39:&Distribution&of&gender&by&community&
Community*
Barracão*dos*Mendes*
Florândia*da*Serra*
Rio*Grande*
Salinas*
Santa*Cruz*
Serra*Nova*e*Serra*Velha*
Female*
50.00%*
20.00%*
14.29%*
50.00%*
0.00%*
25.00%*
Gender*
Male*
50.00%*
80.00%*
85.71%*
50.00%*
100.00%*
75.00%*
*
!
106!
Regarding*the*marital*status,*the*majority*of*the*households*were*married,*representing*79.3%*of*
the* sample.* The* minority* was* single* (10.3%)* or* a* category* called* “other”* (10.3%),* which* are*
couples*co;living*together*as*“significant*other”,*however*without*a*civil*marriage.**
6.1.3.3. Occupation&
Figure& 55* illustrates* the* distribution* of* occupation* of* the* observed* population.* There* were*
observed* five* different* categories* of* occupation.* * 79.3%* are* just* “farmers”,* with* a* frequency* of*
77.8%* in* MB3* and* 80%* in* MB4;* and* 20.7%* are* farmers* and* have* an* additional* occupation.* For*
instance,*the*categories*of*“driver”,*“public*officer”*and*“housewife”*presented*3.4%*of*frequency*
each.**It*was*observed*10.3%*of*“agricultural*technicians”,*whom*the*percentage*in*MB4*is*10%,*
and* in* MB3* is* 11.1%.* The* incidence* of* agricultural* specialists* is* seen* more* among* the* younger*
farmers* (12.7%* higher* chance* at* 20* years* old).* One* reason* is* the* presence* of* the* Agricultural*
College*“Rei*Alberto*I”*in*partnership*with*the*IBELGA*Institute*(Instituto*Bélgica*Nova*Friburgo)*in*
Lower*Salinas.*The*IBELGA*has*the*intention*to*provide*better*inclusion*of*the*youth*in*agriculture*
developed*within*the*Region*(Nova*Friburgo*Agora,*2014).*The*fact*highlights*the*importance*of*
education*and*specialized*education*within*the*rural*areas.**
*
Figure&55:&Different&categories&of&occupation&of&the&households&interviewed&
6.1.3.4. Literacy&level&
The* median* was* in* “incomplete* primary* education”* reaching* 44.83%* of* all* interviewees,* with*
more* frequency* in* the* MB4* (55%* of* the* micro;basin)* than* in* MB3* (22.22%* of* the* micro;basin).*
The* micro;basins* have* different* literacy* levels.* MB3* is* at* the* level* of* “primary* education”*
(complete)*reaching*44.44%*of*the*micro;basin.*In*MB4,*the*frequency*was*only*15%*of*“primary*
education”.*However,*illiteracy*frequency*can*be*observed*similarly*in*both*micro;basins.*Tertiary*
education*was*only*present*in*the*MB3*(22.22%)*with*statistical*significance.*Results*are*found*in*
Table&40.*
!
107!
Table&40:&Literacy&level&by&microCbasin&
Literacy&
MicroI
basin"
Illiterate*
Incomplete*
primary*
education*
Primary*
education*
Secondary*
education*
Tertiary*
education*
Min&
(Literacy)&
Max&
(Literacy)&
Median&
(Literacy)&
MB3*
11.11%*
22.22%*
44.44%*
0.00%*
22.22% *
Illiterate*
Tertiary*
education*
Primary*
education*
MB4*
10.00%*
55.00%*
15.00%*
20.00%*
0.00%*
Illiterate*
Secondary*
education*
Incomplete*
primary*
education*
Total*
10.34%*
44.83%*
24.14%*
13.79%*
6.90%*
Illiterate*
Tertiary*
education*
Incomplete*
primary*
education*
A
A
*statistically*significant*difference*(z;score,*p*=*0.029)*5%*confidence*
6.1.3.5. Household&size&&
The*household*size*considered*the*number*of*children.*In*this*observed*population,*the*number*
of*children*per*household*had*a*mean*of*1.828*±*0.627*children.*MB3*presented*a*mean*of*2*±*
0.941*children,*and*MB4,*a*mean*of*1.75*±*0.857*children.*The*number*of*children*had*a*normal*
distribution.* However,* it* did* not* present* a* uniform* distribution,* due* to* the* frequency* of* ≥* 2*
children*(37.93%),*and*2*≤*children*≤*4*per*household*(55.17%).*Larger*family*was*observed*only*
one*case*≥*8*children*in*MB4.**
6.1.3.6. Household&income&
The* household* income* survey* asked* in* a* non;intimidating* way,* about* the* monthly* household*
income* (summing* all* income* of* all* contributing* households,* including* those* not* linked* to* the*
farm).*The*farmer*could*choose*a*range*of*minimum*wages,*corresponding*to*R$*724,00*in*2014.*
The*results*of*household*income*range*are*in*Table&41.**
Table&41:&Income&Range&frequency&by&community&and&in&the&observed&population&
MicroI
basin"
MB3&
MB4&
Household&income&
Community"
6*≤*min.*
wages*≤*9*
9*≤*min.*wages*
≤*12*
Sum&
33.33%*
0.00%*
33.33%*
33.33%*
100.00%*
50.00%*
33.33%*
0.00%*
0.00%*
100.00%*
25.00%*
50.00%*
0.00%*
0.00%*
25.00%*
100.00%*
0.00%*
57.14%*
14.29%*
14.29%*
14.29%*
100.00%*
25.00%*
75.00%*
0.00%*
0.00%*
0.00%*
100.00%*
1*≤*min.*
wages*≤*3*
Santa&Cruz&
0.00%*
Salinas&
16.67%*
Serra&Nova&e&Serra&
Velha&
Rio&Grande&
Barracão&dos&
Mendes&
Florândia&da&Serra&
Observed&population&
!
3*≤*min.*
wages*≤*6*
≤*1*min.*
wage*
40.00%*
40.00%*
20.00%*
0.00%*
0.00%*
100.00%*
17.24%&
51.72%&
13.79%&
6.90%&
10.34%&
100.00%&
108!
There* were* no* significant* differences* between* income* ranges* of* communities* or* micro;basins.*
However*it*can*be*noted*that*in*general,*nearly*half*(51.7%)*of*the*households*presented*income*
range*(1*≤*min.*wages*≤*3).*The*community*“Florândia*da*Serra”*had*the*higher*frequency*(40%)*
of* lower* income* * (≤* 1* min.* wage).* “Barracão* dos* Mendes”* presented* 75%* the* range* (1* ≤* min.*
wages*≤*3).*And*“Santa*Cruz”*showed*the*highest*income*range*of*all*communities,*exhibiting*a*
frequency*of*33.33%*for*6**≤*min.*wages*≤*9,*and*33.33%*for*9*≤*min.*wages*≤*12.*
6.1.3.7. Property&profile&
The*majority*of*the*properties*are*“owned”,*reaching*75.9%*of*the*observed*sample.*Only*24.1%*
are* “granted”,* which* is* more* prevalent* in* the* case* of* sharecroppers,* as* previously* explained.*
There* was* a* significant* difference* between* micro;basins* regarding* the* property* type.* MB3* only*
presented*“owned”*properties*(100%),*according*to*the*interviews*of*this*study.*MB4,*however,*
had* 35%* of* the* properties* in* the* category* “granted”,* which* is* statistically* significant* (Z;score,*
p=0.0042).* It* is* remarkable* that* from* these* 35%* in* the* MB4,* 42.9%* are* in* the* community*
“Barracão*dos*Mendes”,*summing*up*75%*of*frequency*in*the*whole*community.*And*42.9%*are*
in*“Florândia*da*Serra”,*summing*up*60%*of*the*entire*community,*as*seen*in*Figure&56&and&Table&
42.*It*was*encountered*a*positive*correlation*between*the*category*"granted"*and*the*community*
"Barracão* dos* Mendes"* (Correlation* test,* p* =* 0.008).* * The* condition* “granted”* has* 49.3%* more*
predicted*chance*to*be*found*in*“Barracão*dos*Mendes”*than*in*any*other*community.*
*
Figure&56:&&Type&of&Property&by&community,&highlighting&the&condition&of&“granted”&&
!
109!
Table&42:&Property&Type&at&Value&Chain&B&
Type"of"
Property"
Community&
*
Barracão*dos*
Mendes*
Florândia*da*
Serra*
Rio*
Grande*
Salinas*
Santa*
Cruz*
Serra*Nova*e*
Serra*Velha*
Total*
Granted&
42.86%*
42.86%*
14.29%*
0.00%*
0.00%*
0.00%*
100.00%*
Owned&
4.55%*
9.09%*
27.27%*
27.27%*
13.64%*
18.18%*
100.00%*
In* this* study* area,* there* is* the* predominance* of* small* family* farms.* In* average* the* size* of* the*
farms* was* considered* mini;properties,* i.e.* “minifundium”.* Nearly* 80%* of* the* households*
presented*property*size*smaller*than*10*ha,*which*is*the*threshold*for*one*fiscal*module*(10*ha*in*
Nova* Friburgo)* that* characterizes* family* farming* (INEA,* 2015).* The* distribution* of* farm* size* and*
cultivated*area*departs*from*a*uniform*and*normal*distribution.*There*is*a*high*predominance*of*
mini;properties*and*very*few*properties*larger*than*20*ha.*Additionally,*it*was*noted*that*the*farm*
size*varies*according*to*the*micro;basin.*Mann;Whitney*test*(p*=*0.015)*revealed*that*the*medians*
are*unequal,*wherein*MB4*has*notably*smaller*properties*than*MB3*(Figure&57).*To*have*an*idea,*
100%*of*properties*2*≤*farm*size*(ha)*≤*3*are*in*MB4,*and*80%*of*the*properties*3*≤*farm*size*(ha)*
≤*4*are*as*well*in*MB4.*These*mini;properties*are*particularly*found*in*the*community*“Barracão*
dos*Mendes”,*representing*75%*of*2*≤*farm*size*(ha)*≤*3*in*this*community.**
*
Figure&57:&Farm&size&(ha)&by&microCbasin&revealing&unequal&medians&and&significant&difference&
Moreover,* there* was* a* positive* correlation* between* farm* size* (ha)* and* the* cultivated* area* (ha)*
(Correlation*test,*p*<*0.001),*as*seen*in*Figure&58.*The*correlation*implies*that*besides*being*very*
small* properties,* the* farmers* make* use* of* almost* all* area* to* cultivate* vegetables* and* achieve*
maximum*outcome*as*possible.*Only*relatively*larger*properties*hold*smaller*vegetable*cultivated*
area,*due*to*the*destination*of*the*area*to*other*agricultural*or*livestock*activity.*
!
110!
*
Figure&58:&Positive&correlation&between&farm&size&(ha)&and&cultivated&area&(ha)&
6.1.3.8. Findings&of&the&household&survey&
The* socioeconomic* survey* was* useful* to* find* that* the* population* of* the* micro;basins* studied* is*
considered* young;* women* have* representativeness* in* their* communities;* the* predominance* of*
married* households* strengthens* the* family* farm* core.* Additionally* the* presence* of* a* technical*
agriculture* college* in* the* region* had* a* positive* impact* on* the* population.* In* general,* MB4*
“Barracão* dos* Mendes”* is* at* a* comparative* socio;economic* disadvantage* in* relation* to* MB3*
“Santa*Cruz”.*MB4*presented*almost*all*indicators*at*a*lower*position,*in*terms*of*lower*level*of*
education,* higher* household* size* (more* children),* lower* income* range,* more* frequency* of*
sharecropping* and* particular* smaller* properties.* This* condition* is* more* accentuated* in* the*
communities*of*“Barracão*dos*Mendes”*and*“Florândia*da*Serra”,*considered*by*this*analysis*as*
the*most*vulnerable*in*socio;economic*terms.*
6.2. Step&2:&Demand&for&horticulture&value&chain&outputs&
6.2.1. Demand&and&trends&on&vegetable&consumption&
The* Household* Budget* Survey* (IBGE,* 2010b)* studied* the* household* food* acquisition* in* Brazil,*
Regions*and*States.*The*survey*reported*that*the*annual*consumption*of*vegetables*in*Brazil*is*on*
average*27,075*kg*per*capita.*Additionally,*the*same*study*revealed*that*the*Southeast*Region*is*
the* second* largest* consumer* of* vegetable* in* Brazil* (27,995* kg* per* capita* year;1).* And* from* the*
Southeast,* Rio* de* Janeiro* presented* higher* consumption* in* comparison* to* other* states* in* the*
region,*reaching*an*average*of*30,068*kg*per*capita*year;1.**
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111!
The*consumption*of*the*studied*vegetables*in*Rio*de*Janeiro*are*total*herbaceous*vegetable*3,414*
kg;*where*Chinese*cabbage,*lettuce*and*cauliflower*have*consumption*of*0,361;*0,751;*0,317*kg*
per*capita*year;1*respectively.*Fruit*vegetables*presented*a*consumption*of*13,327*kg*per*capita*
year;1,*where*tomato*represented*4,333;*and*green*bean*0,346*kg*per*capita*year;1.*The*total*root*
vegetable*is*13,328*kg*per*capita*year;1,*where*beetroot*contributes*to*0,377*kg*per*capita*year;1*
(IBGE,*2010b).*
Another*publication*done*for*the*same*Household*Budget*Survey*(IBGE*et*al.,*2010)*focused*more*
on*the*nutritional*status*and*food*availability.*The*nutritional*study*reported*that*the*percentage*
of*vegetable*in*the*daily*caloric*intake*is*only*2,8%,*just*one;quarter*of*the*recommended*intake*
of* 9%* to* 12%* (400g).* It* is* important* to* consider* that* the* WHO* (2015)* recommends* the*
consumption*of*at*least*400g*or*5*portions*of*vegetable*and*fruit*a*day,*in*order*to*reduce*the*risk*
of*non;communicable*diseases*(NCDs)17*and*to*provide*the*adequate*daily*intake*of*dietary*fibre.*
In*Rio*de*Janeiro,*the*participation*of*vegetable*in*the*dietary*caloric*intake*is*just*1%,*basically*
composed*of*tomato*and*other*vegetables*(IBGE*et*al.,*2010).*
The* Food* and* Nutrition* Guide* for* the* Brazilian* Population* (Brasil,* 2014a)* identified* that* eating*
patterns* in* Brazil* have* changed,* replacing* the* formerly* consumed* fresh* vegetables* by*
industrialized*ready*to*eat*preparations.*The*population*has*presented*an*excessive*consumption*
of*refined*sugar*and*processed*foods*and*insufficient*consumption*of*fruit*and*vegetables*(IBGE*
et* al.,* 2010).* The* major* diseases* that* currently* affect* Brazilians* have* become* chronic,*
characterized*by*an*expressive*increase*of*overweight*and*obesity*in*all*ages,*counting*on*average*
one*in*every*two*adults*and*one*in*every*three*children*(Brasil,*2014a).**
Socioeconomic* factors* have* a* significant* influence* on* the* consumption* of* fruit* and* vegetables*
and*are*subject*to*intervention*to*contribute*to*healthier*habits*(Mondini*et*al.,*2010).*Vegetable*
consumption*tends*to*increase*by*up*to*187%*as*increase*the*household*purchasing*power*(IBGE,*
2010b).*Also,*there*is*a*need*to*promote*the*consumption*of*fresh*food*in*healthier*preparations*
and*also*strengthen*the*linkage*with*socially*and*environmentally*sustainable*production*systems*
(Brasil,*2014a).*
The* profile* of* the* vegetable* consumer,* mainly* in* large* consumer* centres* has* become* more*
exigent*in*terms*of*quality*and*nutritional*facts*(Melo*&*Vilela,*2007).*According*to*Lima*(2010),*
there*is*an*increasing*demand*for*higher*quality,*organic,*mini*processed*added*value,*small*and*
more* convenient* packaging* and* certified* labels* ensuring* the* origin* of* the* product.* There* is* a*
greater*desire*for*non;conventional*vegetables,*as*a*demand*originated*from*the*habit*of*eating*
!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!
17
*E.g.*diabetes,*heart*disease,*stroke*and*cancer*(WHO,*2015)*
!
112!
outside* home.* For* instance,* consumers* are* willing* more* innovative* veggies* with* a* variation* of*
colour*and*size*pattern*and*exotic*flavour*(Junqueira*&*Luengo,*2000;*Melo*&*Vilela,*2007).*In*this*
group,* the* “mini”* and* “baby”* vegetables* are* gaining* momentum,* e.g.* mini* tomatoes,* baby*
carrots,*and*baby*leaf*vegetables*(Carvalho*et*al.,*2013).*
Processed*vegetables*have*been*an*opportunity*for*a*market*niche*of*higher*income*and*easier*
consumption,* e.g.* frozen,* preserved,* lyophilised,* dehydrated,* such* as* peeled* tomatoes,* frozen*
peas*and*broccoli,*pepper*in*oil*(Carvalho*et*al.,*2013;*Junqueira*&*Luengo,*2000).*Also,*there*is*a*
trend*for*mini*processed*vegetables,*as*a*tendency*of*the*purchasing*preferences*in*the*retailer*
and*supermarkets.*And*organic*(bio)*vegetables,*as*an*increasing*demand*for*healthier*and*free*of*
chemicals*vegetables*(Junqueira*&*Luengo,*2000).**
Additionally,* since* vegetables* are* part* of* a* healthy* balanced* diet,* the* consumption* has* pushed*
this*market*further*to*contribute*the*daily*food*consumption*of*vegetables*(Alves*&*Silochi,*2010).*
The*eating*habits*of*Rio*de*Janeiro*are*changing*to*a*healthier*diet;*for*instance,*school*meals*are*
introducing*more*vegetables,*due*to*food*regulations*to*prevent*the*NCDs*(Lima,*2010).*
Brazil*has*not*yet*taken*the*external*market*of*horticulture.*The*country*has*only*a*total*sale*of*
260* thousand* tonnes/year,* which* represents* over* 1%* of* the* total* production* (Carvalho* et* al.,*
2013).*As*reported*by*Melo*&*Vilela*(2007),*the*participation*of*Brazil*is*very*limited*and*restrict*
to* few* commercialized* species* such* as* melons,* peppers,* bell* peppers* tomatoes* and* ginger.*
Although* the* Brazilian* horticulture* production* has* shown* great* potential* to* meet* demand,* this*
latter* has* not* met* the* expectations,* in* which* domestic* consumption* is* lagging* behind* the* real*
needs*(Carvalho*et*al.,*2013).*
It*is*relevant*that*the*State*Rio*de*Janeiro*faces*a*deficit*of*the*Fluminense's*supply.*As*stated*by*
Lima*(2010),*Rio*de*Janeiro*state*is*an*importer*of*vegetables*from*other*states,*and*only*28%*of*
the*total*vegetable*commercialized*in*the*CEASA;RJ*is*produced*in*Rio*de*Janeiro.*The*eight*major*
vegetable* crops* demanded* in* Rio* de* Janeiro,* e.g.* watermelon,* strawberry,* melon,* carrot,*
pumpkin,*sweet*potato,*beet*and*sweet*corn,*have*an*inexpressive*local*production.*The*deficit*
opens* space* for* the* supply* of* other* states,* occupying* a* considerable* share* of* the* market,* thus*
giving*their*farmers*the*value*of*output,*the*same*author*reports.*Rio*de*Janeiro’s*producers*lose*
the*competitiveness*in*roots,*such*as*carrots*and*potatoes,*because*the*producers*from*São*Paulo*
and*Minas*Gerais*have*higher*level*of*technology*applied*to*their*crops*(Ortiz,*2011b).*However,*a*
simple* reduction* of* the* deficit* by* 20%* would* provide* a* gross* value* of* R$* 42.352.160* to* Rio* de*
Janeiro’s*producers*(Lima,*2010).*
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6.2.2. The&supply&and&distribution&system&in&Rio&de&Janeiro&
The* vegetable* supply* of* Rio* de* Janeiro* is* mainly* carried* out* in* three* ways.* The* first* and* most*
important* historically* is* the* commercialization* via* CEASA* (Galliez* &* Schueler,* 2004).* The*
wholesale*market*system*(CEASA)*is*still*the*main*commercialization*channel*of*vegetables.*It*is*
estimated*that*around*55%*up*to*60%*of*the*total*volume*of*vegetables*commercialized*in*Brazil*
is* through* the* CEASA* System,* even* with* the* high* frequency* of* intermediaries* in* the* process*
(Vilela*&*Henz,*2000).*The*CEASA*Grande;Rio*is*the*main*distributor*and*supplier*of*vegetables*in*
Rio*de*Janeiro*(Table*42),*according*to*the*research*conducted*by*Lima*(2010)*
The*second*is*the*large*network*of*supermarket*chains,*which*negotiate*large*quantities*directly*
to* the* producers* (Galliez* &* Schueler,* 2004).* It* has* been* observed* an* increasing* participation* of*
the* supermarket* chains,* which* counts* to* 50%* for* the* commercialization* of* vegetables* in* large*
urban*centres*(César*&*Melo,*2005),*with*a*drift*of*mini*processed*and*frozen*vegetables*(Vilela*&*
Henz,*2000).**
And* third* is* the* direct* sale* from* the* producer* to* the* consumer,* more* specifically* developed* in*
niche* markets* such* as* the* organic* products* (Galliez* &* Schueler,* 2004).* Following* Vilela* &* Henz*
(2000),* the* direct* purchase* from* the* farmer* is* performed* through* street* market* vendors,*
supermarkets,* truck* vendors,* grocery* stores* and* institutional* consumers,* like* hospitals,* schools*
and*restaurants.*
Table& 43* displays* the* different* distribution* centers* of* Rio* de* Janeiro* and* the* main*
commercialization* channels* of* fruit* and* vegetables.* Also* it* is* displayed* from* which* supplier* the*
commercialization*channels*usually*purchase*their*produce.**
Table&43:&Frequency&of&supply&by&different&distribution&centers&to&the&main&commercialization&channels&
Main&Suppliers&
Supermarket&
Retailers&
“Hortifruti”&
Street&market&
CEASA*Grande;Rio*
78.7*
100.0*
85.7*
82.6*
Other*wholesale*centres*
8.5*
16.7*
20.0*
13.0*
Direct*purchase*from*producer*
21.3*
25.0*
28.6*
13.0*
Other*suppliers*
25.5*
0.0*
8.6*
4.3*
Source:*(Lima,*2010)*
Table&44*lists*the*preferable*vegetable*and*fruit*commercialization*locations*by*the*consumers*in*
the*city*of*Rio*de*Janeiro,*according*to*the*research*performed*by*Lima*(2010).*Supermarket*and*
Street* market* are* the* preferable* locations* to* purchase* vegetables,* according* to* the* same*
research*of*Lima*(2010).*
!
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Table&44:&Locations&of&vegetables&and&fruits&commercialization&by&consumer&preference&
Location*
Preference*(%)*
Hortifruti*chain*
57.7%&
Supermarkets*
55.3%*
Street*market*
43.0%*
Other*retailer*
20.7%*
Grocery*store*
1.8%*
Street*vendor*
1.3%*
Other*
4.8%*
*Source:*(Lima,*2010)*
6.2.3. The&CEASACRJ&wholesale&market&distribution&system&
The*CEASA;RJ*(Central*Supply)*is*a*wholesale*market*system*created*in*the*70’s.*The*aim*of*the*
CEASA* is* to* act* on* the* commercialization* of* agricultural* produce,* and* to* be* responsible* for* the*
concentration* and* further* distribution* of* produce* to* the* retailer* markets* in* the* State* Rio* de*
Janeiro* (Seabra* &* Marafon,* n.d.).* It* is* a* place* to* congregate* small* and* medium* producers,*
individual*merchants,*organizations,*and*producer’s*cooperatives*and*associations*(Ortiz,*2011a).*
The* CEASA;RJ* is* linked* to* the* State* Secretariat* of* Regional* Development,* Supply,* and* Fisheries.*
There*are*six*units*in*Rio*de*Janeiro:*Grande;Rio,*São*Gonçalo,*Mountain*Region*(Nova*Friburgo),*
Region* Northwest* Fluminense* (Itaocara),* North* Fluminense* Region* (São* José* de* Ubá)* and* East*
Region*Paraíba*(Paty*do*Alferes)*(CEASA;RJ,*2015a).*The*Unit*Grande;Rio,*located*in*Irajá,*in*the*
north* of* the* city,* is* the* second* largest* Central* Supply* in* Latin* America* (CEASA;RJ,* 2015a).* The*
CEASA*“Grande;Rio”*occupies*an*area*over*two*million*m2,*where*around*60*thousand*people*and*
hundreds*of*trucks*circulate*every*day.*The*commercialization*of*the*produce*starts*at*3:00*AM*till*
the*midday*(Ortiz,*2011a).*
Conforming*to*Conab*(2015c),*the*wholesale*supply*system*of*CEASA;RJ*commercializes*a*total*of*
1,682,508,000* kg* of* agricultural* produce,* generating* around* R$* 3,414,575,000.00* of* value* in*
2014.*The*unit*in*the*city*Rio*de*Janeiro*(Irajá)*contributes*to*the*majority*of*food*distribution,*as*
seen* in* Table& 45.* The* CEASA;RJ* commercializes* vegetables* originated* from* the* municipalities*
represented* in* Figure& 59.* In* comparison* to* other* CEASA* units,* Grande* Rio* unit* is* peculiar.**
Because* the* majority* of* the* produce* commercialized* is* greeneries,* originated* mainly* from* the*
Mountain*Region*RJ*(Seabra*&*Marafon,*n.d.).*
!
115!
Table&45:&Commercialization&of&produce&in&CEASACRJ&Units&in&the&period&2013/2014&
2013&
Unit&CEASACRJ&
2014&
Quantity&of&Produce&
(kg)&
Value&of&Produce&
(R$)&
Quantity&of&Produce&
(kg)&
Value&of&Produce&
(R$)&
Rio&de&Janeiro&
1,423,913,000*
2,935,579,000.00*
1,463,398,000*
3,033,700,000.00*
São&Gonçalo&
198,279,000*
274,545,000.00*
161,167,000*
306,935,000.00*
Nova&Friburgo&
15,321,000*
21,794,000.00*
13,238,000*
14,570,000.00*
Paty&do&Alferes&
15,452,000*
23,960,000.00*
13,297,000*
19,858,000.00*
São&José&de&Ubá&
19,090,000*
15,078,000.00*
1,654,000*
1,859,000.00*
Mercado&do&Produtor&
(Itaocara)&
27,586,000*
27,444,000.00*
29,754,000*
37,653,000.00*
Total&CEASAs&RJ&
1,699,641,000&
3,298,400,000.00&
1,682,508,000&
3,414,575,000.00&
Source*of*data:*(Conab,*2015c)*
*
Figure&59:&Main&vegetable&supplier&municipalities&of&the&CEASACRJ*
Source:*(Lima,*2010)*
The*Pavilion*21*in*“Ceasa*Grande*Rio”*is*intended*for*the*small*producer*of*State*Rio*de*Janeiro,*
through*a*concession*obtained*by*EMATER;RIO.*The*small*producer*can*acquire*a*“stone”18*(area*
delimited* in* the* Pavilion),* where* he* is* allowed* to* commercialize* his* goods* (Seabra* &* Marafon,*
!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!
18
Stone*means*the*demarcation*on*the*pavilion*floor*where*the*goods*are*exposed,*correspondent*to*15*square*
meters*(in*Brazilian*portuguese*original,*“pedra”)*(Seabra*&*Marafon,*n.d.)*
!
116!
n.d.).* The* Pavilion* 21* was* important* for* the* consolidation* of* the* vegetable* production* in* the*
Mountain*Region*by*giving*the*farmers*better*competitiveness*with*other*the*merchants*(Lima,*
2010).*Today,*more*than*half*(51.3%)*of*the*producers*in*the*Pavilion*21*are*from*Nova*Friburgo*
and* Teresópolis* (Seabra* &* Marafon,* n.d.).* There* is* also* the* Pavilion* 30* intended* to* the* family*
farming.* Only* farmers* belonging* to* the* Pronaf* can* commercialize* there* (Ortiz,* 2011a;* Galliez* &*
Schueler,* 2004).* According* to* experts* from* CEASA* Seinp* (expert’s* consultation),* the* Pavilion* 21*
has*in*total*800*farmers*registered*summing*up*total*revenue*of*R$36*million*monthly.*
6.2.3.1. Identified&Problematic&of&the&CEASA&system&
The* underperformance* of* the* vegetable* supply* and* distribution* system* is* one* of* the* main*
bottlenecks*affecting*the*horticulture*chain*(Lourenzani*&*Silva,*2004).*According*to*Melo*&*Vilela*
(2007),*there*have*been*changes*in*the*supply*and*distribution*of*vegetable*that*has*challenged*
the* whole* the* horticulture* chain.* The* CEASA* faces* problems* in* concealing* supply* and* demand.*
The* main* reason* is* due* logistics* and* quality* issues,* which* consequently* has* withdrawn* most* of*
the*supermarket*chain*out*of*the*central*wholesale*market*(CEASA)*(Lourenzani*&*Silva,*2004).**
However,*before*entering*the*problematic,*first*one*must*understand*the*historical*context*that*
permeates* the* Wholesale* Market.* Mourão* &* Colombini* (2008)* attributed* the* burden* of* the*
current*decline*of*the*CEASA*system*as*a*matter*of*the*poor*management*of*the*Brazilian*central*
government* since* the* 80's.* According* to* them,* the* central* government* invested* erroneously* or*
failed*to*invest*in*the*CEASAs,*and*consequently*left*the*responsibility*of*management*in*charge*
of*the*states*and*municipalities.*The*CEASAs*then*were*unruly,*and*each*unit*followed*its*course*
of*evolution,*regression*or*complete*stagnation,*according*to*the*same*authors.*
Particularly* in* Rio* de* Janeiro,* there* have* been* historically* problems* in* food* supply* and* related*
public* policies.* Seabra* &* Marafon* say* that* the* city* Rio* de* Janeiro* suffered* at* beginning* of* the*
20th* century* from* problems* of* food* supply.* Problems* were* due* to* an* elevated* population*
growth,*characterized*by*a*purchasing*power*class*in*need*of*products*at*expensive*prices*and*a*
penurious*service*at*the*suburb.*The*CEASA*system*was*created*to*overcome*the*increasing*food*
supply* issues* of* the* 60’s* and* to* organize* the* commercialization* of* agricultural* produce,* say* the*
same*authors.**
However,* the* city* of* Rio* de* Janeiro* already* has* a* dynamic* urban* expansion* of* high* content,*
regardless* to* basic* standards* of* organization* (Esher* Filho* &* Reis,* 2004).* It* is* possible* to*
understand*that*due*to*an*insufficient*integration*of*activities,*whether*it*is*on*consumption,*or*
on* services,* there* is* certainly* a* generalized* deficiency* of* attendance.* The* deficiencies* create*
!
117!
consequently*higher*operational*costs,*and*to*a*great*extent*more*time*than*required*to*carry*out*
any*activity*to*meet*the*sector*(Esher*Filho*&*Reis,*2004).**
In*order*to*exemplify,*the*road*network*of*the*State*RJ*was*designed*to*connect*the*production*
areas*with*the*supply*and*distribution*centres*in*a*strategic*manner*(Lima,*2010),*for*instance,*the*
“CEASA* Grande* Rio”* unit,* the* supply* centre* of* Irajá,* is* located* at* the* “Avenida* Brasil”* which* is*
near* very* important* access* roads* like* the* Via* Dutra* and* the* BR;040* (Seabra* &* Marafon,* n.d.).*
However,*Esher*Filho*&*Reis*(2004)*pointed*out*that*the*CEASA*Grande*Rio*is*now*situated*inside*
the*urban*mesh,*surrounded*by*the*territorial*occupancy*density*of*slums*and*unstructured*urban*
cores.* Additionally,* the* “Avenida* Brasil”* has* been* recently* oversaturated* by* stark* traffic*
difficulties*of*heavy*load*vehicles,*and*it*constitutes*undoubtedly*an*obstacle*to*the*utilization*of*
the* supply* centre* (Esher* Filho* &* Reis,* 2004).* Figure& 60* illustrates* the* current* location* of* the*
CEASA*Grande*Rio*unit*inside*the*urban*mesh.*
*
Figure&60:&CEASA&“GrandeCRio”&and&“Avenida&Brasil”&(BR101)&location&surrounded&by&the&urban&concentration&
Source:*Google*Earth*(2015)*
During*the*data*collection*in*the*CEASA;RJ,*it*was*noted*that*the*wholesale*center*has*a*difficult*
access,*considering*the*traffic*in*the*region*and*its*distance*to*the*main*consumer*sites*in*the*city.*
Besides,* the* region* surrounding* the* CEASA* was* considered* dangerous* by* the* same* people* who*
work*on*the*local,*due*to*the*concentration*of*slums*and*risk*to*violence.*It*was*not*advisable*to*
walk*there*for*data*collection*after*4*pm,*due*to*the*risk.*Leonardo*Brandão,*president*of*CEASA,*
stated* in* an* interview* (Ortiz,* 2011a)* that* the* situation* of* the* CEASA;RJ* was* very* critical* and*
!
118!
declining* by* 2011.* There* was* a* “cracolândia”,* a* place* for* drug* dealing,* and* even* infant* sexual*
abuse,*and*by*far*needed*urgent*renewing*of*the*place,*he*said.*
It* was* identified* a* very* poor* infrastructure* on* the* site,* showing* signs* of* disorganization,* lack* of*
infrastructure*for*the*conservation*of*products*exhibited.*Products*were*exposed*from*dawn*until*
noon*at*temperatures*between*30;40°C*in*the*summer*(when*the*data*collection*was*made*Nov;
Feb).* This* fact* was* completely* disregarding* the* quality* and* the* waste* of* vegetables* that* were*
thrown*literally*in*the*bin.*The*observed*waste*was*high,*around*80*tons*per*day,*according*to*the*
CEASA* Grande;Rio* Manager.* Several* buckets* were* viewed* exhaling* a* strong* odor* of* perishing*
vegetables* at* a* distance,* which* was* intensified* by* the* warm* weather.* The* waste* liquid* leaked*
directly* on* the* parking* spot,* where* occurs* loading* and* unloading* of* goods.* It* was* observed*
people*collecting*waste*products*to*find*food*or*to*look*for*products*that*can*be*resold,*often*still*
found*in*whole*and*closed*packages.**
This* observed* fact* is* also* affirmed* by* Esher* Filho* &* Reis* (2004).* They* say* that* the* CEASA;RJ* no*
longer* attends* the* necessities* of* storage,* does* not* have* refrigerated* containers,* parking* for*
loading*and*unloading*procedures*is*reduced.*Besides,*there*is*the*environmental*problem*caused*
by* the* inadequate* waste* residue* of* unsold* products* (Figure& 61),* and* problems* with* price*
volatilization*due*to*conditions*imposed*by*the*middlemen.**
*
Figure&61:&Inadequate&waste&disposal&at&the&parking&place&and&lack&of&refrigeration&for&vegetables&commercialized&in&
CEASACRJ&Grande&Rio&
Photos*taken*by*the*author*(2014)*
Seabra*&*Marafon*(n.d.)*also*observed*problems*regarding*the*agricultural*commercialization*in*
the* CEASA;RJ* System.* For* them,* there* is* an* asymmetry* of* spatial* interactions* in* the* wholesale*
market.* The* poor* infrastructure* offers* an* inadequate* commercialization,* mainly* for* the* small*
producer*of*Rio*de*Janeiro,*which*has*difficulties*with*the*middlemen*and*transportation*issues.**
!
119!
It* was* perceived* through* the* research* that* the* situation* remains* disordered* because* there* is* a*
lack* of* motivation* to* improve,* and* no* incentive* to* avail* resources* in* the* sector.* The*
administration* of* the* wholesale* lacks* of* employees,* salaries* are* low,* and* staff* loses* the*
motivation* to* work,* and* consequently* don’t* make* an* effort* to* improve.* Many* traders* also*
reported*that*the*routine*is*exhaustive,*and*the*conditions*of*infrastructure*and*disorganization*
discourage*working*on*the*site,*worsened*by*the*additional*low*hygiene*and*security*conditions,*
e.g.*no*available*restroom*available*for*traders.*
Additionally,*the*distribution*to*the*retailers*has*diminished*significantly,*due*to*the*development*
of* big* supermarket* chains,* which* do* not* depend* anymore* on* the* CEASA* (Esher* Filho* &* Reis,*
2004).*The*supermarkets*trade*large*amounts*of*products,*and*the*decrease*might*be*explained*
by*the*frequent*problems*with*high*operational*costs*and*time;consuming*of*loading*procedures*
in* the* CEASA* (Esher* Filho* &* Reis,* 2004).* The* change* seems* to* be* irreversible.* However,* the*
transformation* has* caused* an* overall* improvement* (Melo* &* Vilela,* 2007).* The* supermarkets*
would* play* an* important* role* in* the* development* and* the* transformation* of* the* agricultural*
products*commercialization*(Seabra*&*Marafon,*n.d.).*
As* suggested* by* Galliez* &* Schueler* (2004),* it* is* of* paramount* importance* to* develop* public*
policies*and*projects,*to*reorganize*a*new*model*of*supply*and*distribution*in*Rio*de*Janeiro.*In*
this*way,*to*achieve*a*better*chain*performance*with*fewer*inequalities,*it*is*important*to*support*
strategically* all* the* sector* related* to* the* supply* and* distribution,* whether* the* CEASAs,* the*
supermarket*chains,*or*the*street*market.*
6.2.4. Retail&Sector&in&Rio&de&Janeiro&
The*increasing*demand*for*the*supermarket*chains*and*other*retailers*is*due*to*the*convenience*
of*shopping.*The*consumer*can*purchase*vegetables*together*with*other*monthly*purchases*and*
pay*at*once*in*only*one*establishment*(Geraldini*&*Silveira,*2010).*The*supermarket*chains*own*
now*(César*&*Melo,*2005)*around*50%*of*the*market*of*fresh*vegetables*in*large*urban*centers.***
Although* the* majority* of* vegetables* are* still* commercialized* through* the* CEASA* System,*
supermarkets*and*retailers*have*found*more*effective*ways*to*commercialize*their*products.*They*
acquire* their* supply* directly* to* the* production* source* or* through* specialized* wholesalers*
(Lourenzani* &* Silva,* 2004).* The* supermarket* chains* and* grocery* stores* have* a* special* structure.*
These* retailers* buy* directly* from* the* producers,* which* provide* security* of* the* purchase* and*
certainty*of*the*price*paid*to*the*farmers.*However,*the*supermarkets*also*require*higher*quality*
standards,*which*inevitably*implies*higher*producing*costs*(Galliez*&*Schueler,*2004).**
!
120!
To* supply* the* supermarket* chains,* the* producer* needs* to* improve* assets* at* a* minimum* in*
packinghouses* and* logistics* (Geraldini* &* Silveira,* 2010).* The* same* last* article* also* lists* the* main*
requirements* of* the* supermarket* chains,* which* include* quality,* standardization,* regular* supply,*
prices,*discount*and*bonus,*and*packaged*products.*Table&46*ranks*the*three*larger*supermarket*
chains*in*Rio*de*Janeiro.*
Table&46:&Ranking&of&the&three&largest&supermarket&chains&in&Rio&de&Janeiro&
Brand&
&
&
&
Name&
Gross&value&
N°&of&shops&
Supermercado*Zona*Sul*
R$*1,437,272,053.70*
34*
Mercado*Torre*de*Jacarepaguá*
R$*696,141,473.00*
35*
Intercontinental*Comércio*de*Alimentos*Ltda*
R$*640,417,895.00*
21*
Source* of* data:* Raking* from* Supermercado* Moderno,* 2015;* Zona* Sul,* 2015;* Rede* Supermarket,* 2015;* Inter*
Supermercados,*2015*
It*is*important*to*highlight*the*participation*of*the*“Hortifruti”*retailer*chain.*The*"Hortifruiti"*is*
the*largest*retailer*of*fresh*produce*in*Brazil,*achieving*31*stores*located*in*Espírito*Santo,*Rio*de*
Janeiro*and*São*Paulo,*including*two*distribution*centres,*and*units*in*CEASA;RJ*and*CEAGESP*(in*
São*Paulo).*The*chain*commercializes*in*average*16*thousand*tons*of*fruit*and*vegetables*for*1.8*
million*costumers*(Rede*Varejista*Hortifruti,*2014).*
In* this* research* was* not* achieved* to* interview* the* large* network* supermarket* chains.* The*
network* called* “Tutti;frutti”* which* is* important* in* the* city* Nova* Friburgo* represents* the* retail*
sector* of* the* studied* value* chain* (Figure& 62).* “Tutti;frutti”* is* located* in* the* center* of* Nova*
Friburgo*is*pretty*much*similar*to*the*“Hortifruti”*retailer*chain,*and*practices*activities*related*to*
the*retail*sector*and*also*mini;processed*vegetables.*The*interviewed*staff*from*Tutti;frutti*said*
the*main*bottleneck*is*the*need*to*purchase*vegetables*from*distant*regions*and*attributed*the*
main*problem*of*the*commercialization*due*to*logistics.**
*
!
121!
*
Figure&62:&TuttiCfrutti&retailer&chain&center&of&city&Nova&Friburgo&
Photo*taken*by*the*author*in*2014*
6.2.5. Street&Market&in&Rio&de&Janeiro&
Agreeing*to*Rio*de*Janeiro’s*City*Hall,*the*street*market*exists*in*Brazil*since*colonial*times;*today*
still* there* are* 160* street* markets* in* diverse* districts* of* the* city* Rio* de* Janeiro.* The* segment*
generates* around* 6* thousand* jobs* and* supplying* around* 10%* of* the* volume* of* produce*
commercialized*in*Rio*de*Janeiro*(Nagel*et*al.,*2007).*The*street*market*is*regulated*by*the*Law*N°*
492*of*1984*(Prefeitura*do*Rio*de*Janeiro,*1984).*According*to*the*regulation,*the*street*markets*
in* the* capital* Rio* de* Janeiro* are* intended* to* supplement* the* supply* of* vegetables,* fruits,* fish,*
poultry* and* other* products.* It* is* reasonable* that* the* main* function* of* the* street* market* is* to*
complement* the* availability* of* fresh* produce* on* a* weekly* basis* (Prefeitura* do* Rio* de* Janeiro,*
2015a).* All* personnel* working* in* the* street* market* must* get* authorization* from* the* City* Hall.*
Figure&63*shows*a*typical*street*market*at*the*one*of*the*finest*neighbourhoods*in*the*city*of*Rio*
de*Janeiro.*
*
Figure&63:&Street&Market&in&the&“Zona&Sul”&area&
Photo*taken*by*M.*Paris*(2015)*
!
122!
Besides*the*impersonal*supply*of*vegetables*in*the*supermarket,*consumers*are*used*to*getting*
up* early* to* go* to* the* street* market.* As* Nagel* et* al.* (2007)* explain,* there* is* a* preferable* fresh*
quality*of*the*produce*and*a*friendly*environment*in*community*cultural*relations.*According*to*
Galliez* &* Schueler* (2004),* the* street* market* offers* a* great* opportunity* for* many* farmers* and*
consumers*seeking*for*a*closer*relationship*regarding*their*products*and*foods.**
Additionally,* the* “Circuito* Carioca* de* Feiras* Orgânicas”* is* a* street* market* circuit* intended* for*
organic*products*started*in*2010*(David,*2014).*The*circuit*has*coverage*in*13*districts*of*the*city*
Rio* de* Janeiro,* among* them,* Peixoto* (Copacabana),* Urca,* Ipanema,* Leblon,* Jardim* Botânico,*
Tijuca,*Glória,*Freguesia,*Barra*da*Tijuca,*Olaria,*Botafogo,*Flamengo,*Laranjeiras*and*Leopoldina.*
In* this* circuit,* the* producers* can* sell* directly,* without* intermediaries* and* at* fair* prices* to*
consumers.*Producers*undergo*a*rigorous*evaluation*by*environmental*standards*(David,*2014).*
6.3. Step&3:&Institutional&Setup&of&value&chain&B&
6.3.1. Institutional&support&and&governance&in&the&Mountain&Region&
A) Institutions:*
According* to* data* collected* during* the* research,* producers* of* Nova* Friburgo* counts* with* the*
presence*of*the*following*institutions:*
⋅
Municipal*Secretariat*of*Agriculture*and*Rural*Development*of*Nova*Friburgo*
⋅
EMATER;Rio*unit*Mountain*Region*
⋅
Brazilian*Agricultural*Research*Corporation*(EMBRAPA)*
⋅
PESAGRO;Rio*
⋅
Ministry*of*Agriculture,*Livestock*and*Food*Supply*(MAPA)*
⋅
Service*Micro*and*Small*Companies*of*the*State*of*Rio*de*Janeiro*(SEBRAE;RJ)*
⋅
State*Secretariat*of*Agriculture*and*Livestock*SEAPEC*
⋅
IBELGA*Institute*in*Nova*Friburgo*(Agricultural*Education)*
B) Actions:*
According*to*data*collected*during*this*research,*the*current*or*undertaken*institutional*support*
in*Nova*Friburgo*can*be*listed*as*follow:*
⋅
PAA*and*PNAE:**Public*policy*for*commercialization*of*Family*Farming*from*the*Federal*
government*through*the*direct*institutional*purchase*from*farmers*
⋅
!
PROAGRO*;*agricultural*insurance*against*losses*
123!
⋅
Pronaf:*credit*for*rural*and*non;rural*activities*of*family*farming*
⋅
State*programmes:*“Cultivar*Orgânico”,*“Frutificar”,*“Rio*Hort”,*“Florescer”*and*
“Prosperar”*
⋅
Emergency*Plan*Rio*Rural*BIRD:*Strengthening*community*organizations,*emergency*
support*to*return*to*productive*capacities,*local*market*support,*ecological*production*
concepts*
⋅
Empraba*NPTA:*centre*for*producer*capacity*building*for*ecological*agricultural*practices*
⋅
DTE* project* ;* Territorial* Development* Endogenous:* the* commitment* of* people* and*
cooperation*for*sustainable*and*organic*production.**
C) Opportunities*for*market*expansion*(Private*Sector*Initiative)*
The* Petrochemical* Complex* of* State* Rio* de* Janeiro* (Comperj)* is* one* of* the* largest* investment*
projects* in* Brazil,* and* bet* to* increase* jobs* and* population* in* surrounding* areas.* Comperj* has*
developed* the* Agenda* 21* in* the* municipalities* of* Rio* de* Janeiro,* located* near* the* complex*
(Iniciativa*Agenda*21*Comperj,*2015a).**The*program*of*the*COMPERJ*gives*incentives*to*purchase*
local* and* sustainably* produced* vegetables,* according* to* local* institutions* interviewed.* The* new*
consumer* market* of* the* oil* refinery* company* is* an* opportunity* to* include* farmers* of* Nova*
Friburgo.**
D) Organic*Certification*;*Participatory*Guarantee*System*(SPG)*
The*Brazilian*regulation*for*the*organic*farming*is*established*by*the*Decree*N°*6.323/07*and*it*is*
credited* by* the* Ministry* of* Agriculture,* Livestock,* and* Supply* (MAPA)* denominated* Brazilian*
System*for*Organic*Conformity*Assessment19*(SisOrg)*(MAPA,*2015d).*The*Participatory*Body*for*
Assessment* of* Conformity 20 *(OPAC)* certifies* the* validation* of* the* organic* guarantee* using* a*
Participatory*Guarantee*System21*(SPG),*regulated*by*participant*members*of*the*chain*system*–*
farmers,*distributors,*carriers*and*other*collaborators*(MAPA,*2015d).*In*the*State*Rio*de*Janeiro,*
the*Biological*Farmers*Association*of*the*State*of*Rio*de*Janeiro22*(Abio)*handles*the*certification*
process* trough* SPG,* acting* as* OPAC* regulation* body* and* also* promotes* the* Carioca* Circuit* of*
Organic*Farmer’s*Market*(Abio,*2015).*
!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!
19
*“Sistema*Brasileiro*de*Avaliação*da*Conformidade*Orgânica”*
*“Organismo*Participativo*de*Avaliação*da*Conformidade”*
21
*“Sistema*Participativo*de*Garantia”*
22
*“Associação*de*Agricultores*Biológicos*do*Estado*do*Rio*de*Janeiro”!
20
!
124!
6.3.2. Governance&Satisfaction&of&farmers&
The* overall* satisfaction* of* the* farmers’* respondents* regarding* the* institutional* support* is*
displayed*in*Figure&64.**
47%&
23%&
17%&
7%&
Very&good&
Good&
Fair&
7%&
Bad&
no&response&or&no&
opinion&
Figure&64:&Governance&satisfaction&of&respondent&farmers&value&chain&B&
!
In* general,* farmers* are* satisfied* with* the* available* institutional* help.* 70%* of* them* said* the*
actuation* of* the* institutions* is* "very* good"* or* "good".* Farmers* reported* that* after* the* disaster*
happened*in*2011,*there*have*been*offered*support*from*Rio*Rural*Program.*PRR*assisted*in*the*
recovery* of* roads* and* facilitated* the* sale* of* the* produce,* and* also* it* was* provided* by* the* MDA*
easy*access*to*the*Pronaf,*and*better*assistance*from*Emater*and*Embrapa.*Few*farmers*said*24%*
the* support* was* fair* or* bad.* The* complaints* were* related* to* the* little* action* and* assistance* of*
Emater,*the*need*for*greater*participation*of*Embrapa.*Also,*they*complained*about*the*difficulty*
of* getting* the* DAP* to* participate* in* government* programs,* and* discrimination* suffered* in* at*
funding*institutions,*such*as*banks.*
6.3.3. Farmer&Organizational&Structure&
Besides* the* COGEM,* which* actuates* in* both* micro;basins* embracing* all* community,* it* was*
encountered*seven*different*types*of*farmer*associations.*They*are*all*listed*in*Table&47,*together*
with*the*perception*of*farmer’s*regarding*the*role*of*his/her*association.*
*
!
125!
Table&47:&Farmer’s&Associations&in&the&Value&Chain&B&
Association&
Farmer's&perception&of&the&role&of&the&Association&
⋅
⋅
⋅
⋅
⋅
⋅
⋅
⋅
⋅
⋅
⋅
Lethargy*2007;2013*
Currently*several*projects*
Conflict*of*opinion*between*members*
Labour*and*social*rights*for*farmers*
Solution*of*problems*
Favours*the*performance*of*EMBRAPA*and*SEBRAE*
Brings*benefits*to*society*
Favours*obtaining*resources*
Favours*requests*from*producers*
Benefits*depends*on*the*Association*
Problem*of*disagreement*
Association&of&Barracão&dos&
Mendes&
⋅
⋅
Documents,*doubts,*agricultural*machines**
Need*better*organization**
Salinas&small&farmer's&
Association&(MB3)&
⋅
⋅
⋅
⋅
⋅
Project*of*micro;basin*(Rural*Rio):*sustainability,*infrastructure,*transport*
Documentation,*retirement,*participation*in*programs*
Problem:*it*does*not*have*much*power*
Favours*the*assistance*of*technicians,*funds*
Problem*of*disagreement*
Santa&Cruz&small&farmer's&
Association&(MB3)&
⋅
⋅
⋅
PAA,*Rural*Rio,*other*programs*
Community*benefits*
Problem:*Association*expense*
⋅
⋅
⋅
⋅
⋅
⋅
⋅
⋅
⋅
⋅
Rights*to*the*farmer,*aid*motherhood*
Discord*problem*
Greatly*helps*the*producer*
Projects*
Lack*of*organization*
Product*quality*
Marketing*viability*
Organizational*conflicts*
Exchange*of*experience*on*organic*farming*
Lack*of*unity*
Rio&Grande&small&farmer's&
Association&(MB4)&
Florândia&da&Serra&
Association&(MB4)&
Serra&Nova&and&Serra&Velha&
small&farmer's&Association&
(MB4)&
SPG&System&C&Biological&
Farmers&Association&of&Rio&
de&Janeiro&State&(ABIO)&–&
Organic&producers&
It*is*noted*that*the*farmer*recognizes*the*importance*of*the*association*for*the*community,*which*
acts*as*an*organizational*unit*for*implementation*of*projects*and*programmes*of*government*and*
institutions.*Also*being*part*of*the*association*helps*to*be*more*aware*of*the*available*benefits*for*
the*farmer,*whether*farmer’s*rights,*or*funds,*resources,*technical*capacity,*and*improvement*of*
infrastructure.* However,* the* organization* still* faces* problems* of* unification* and* disagreement*
among*the*associates,*due*to*different*opinions.*
!
126!
6.4. Step&4:&Input&and&output&markets&in&value&chain&B&
6.4.1. Supply&and&prices&at&the&wholesale&market&
A*serial*publication*of*fresh*produce*commercialization*in*the*wholesale*in*Rio*de*Janeiro*(SIMA*&*
PESAGRO;RIO,* 2002)* was* acquired* during* the* expert’s* consultation* research.* According* to* the*
serial,*the*supply*of*the*studied*products*follows*a*pattern*of*"weak",*"regular"*or*"strong"*supply*
along*the*year*(Table&48).*Weak*supply*means*the*quantity*available*in*the*market*is*lower*than*
the*demand.*Regular*supply*means*the*quantity*supplied*and*quantity*demanded*are*much*alike.*
Strong*supply*means*the*market*quantity*of*supply*is*much*higher*than*the*demanded.*No*data*
regarding*Chinese*cabbage*was*found*in*the*serial.**
Table&48:&Supply&along&the&year&of&the&studied&vegetables&at&the&CEASA&wholesale&
Vegetable&
Lettuce*
Cauliflower*
Parsley*
Tomato*
Beetroot*
Green*bean*
Chinese*cabbage*
Jan.&
*
*
*
*
*
*
Feb.&
*
*
*
*
*
*
Mar.&
*
*
*
*
*
*
Apr.&
*
*
*
*
*
*
May&
*
*
*
*
*
*
Jun.& Jul.& Aug.&
*
*
*
*
*
*
*
*
*
*
*
*
*
*
*
*
*
*
No*data*found*
Sep.&
*
*
*
*
*
*
Oct.&
*
*
*
*
*
*
Nov.&
*
*
*
*
*
*
Dec.&
*
*
*
*
*
*
Legend:*weak*regular,strong*
Source*of*data:*(SIMA*&*PESAGRO;RIO,*2002)*
The*prices*are*consequently*self;regulated*by*the*supply*and*demand*relations.*Table&49*reflects*
the* drop* in* prices* or* elevation* of* the* prices* by* each* of* the* studied* produce,* except* Chinese*
cabbage*(SIMA*&*PESAGRO;RIO,*2002).*If*the*supply*is*higher*than*the*demand,*the*prices*tend*to*
drop*according*to*quotations.*If*the*attendance*in*the*market*is*satisfactory,*prices*get*stabilized.*
However,*if*the*supply*does*not*attend*the*demand,*the*prices*tend*to*rise.**
Table&49:&Prices&tendency&of&the&studied&vegetables&along&the&year&at&the&CEASA&wholesale&
Vegetable&
Lettuce*
Cauliflower*
Parsley*
Tomato*
Beetroot*
Green*bean*
Chinese*cabbage*
Jan.&
*
*
*
*
*
*
Feb.&
*
*
*
*
*
*
Mar.&
*
*
*
*
*
*
Apr.&
*
*
*
*
*
*
May&
*
*
*
*
*
*
Jun.& Jul.& Aug.&
*
*
*
*
*
*
*
*
*
*
*
*
*
*
*
*
*
*
No*data*found*
Sep.&
*
*
*
*
*
*
Oct.&
*
*
*
*
*
*
Nov.&
*
*
*
*
*
*
Dec.&
*
*
*
*
*
*
Legend:*low*prices,*stable*prices,*elevated*prices*
Source*of*data:*(SIMA*&*PESAGRO;RIO,*2002)*
!
127!
This*self;regulation*pattern*followed*along*the*year*constitutes*an*important*market*price*“guide”*
for*all*produce*transactions*for*producers*and*traders*(SIMA*&*PESAGRO;RIO,*2002).*
6.4.2. Degree&of&competitiveness&in&the&vegetable&market&
According*to*Corrêa*(1985)23,*the*commercialization*chain*of*vegetable*products*in*the*state*Rio*
de* Janeiro* is* characterized* by* a* dynamic* of* “dispersion) –) concentration) –) dispersion”.* As* Lima*
(2010)* states,* this* type* of* centralized* organization* for* the* commercialization* of* vegetables*
created*in*the*70’s*–*with*the*units*of*CEASA*in*Irajá,*São*Gonçalo,*and*the*units*of*Farmer*Market*
in*the*Mountain*Region*–*was*fundamental*for*the*initial*growth*of*the*Fluminense’s*horticulture.**
However,* the* effect* of* “dispersion* –* concentration* –* dispersion”,* together* with* the* rapid*
perishability*of*the*produce*creates*an*important*role*on*prices*formation.*The*CEASA;RJ*works*as*
if* it* was* a* stock* market* for* producers* and* buyers* (Seabra* &* Marafon,* n.d.).* Leonardo* Brandão,*
president*of*CEASA;RJ,*said*in*an*interview*(Ortiz,*2011a)*that*the*CEASA*has*a*collection*of*daily*
prices* used* as* a* reference* basis.* Since* the* prices* are* not* regulated* or* fixed,* they* are* self;
regulated*by*the*wholesale*market*environment.*
According*to*data*collected*during*this*research,*problems*with*price*regulation*are*so*extreme,*
that*it*ends*up*in*a*very*high*waste*of*still*edible*products.*The*prices*vary*widely*throughout*the*
commercialization* time,* and* the* competition* is* very* high.* This* “stock* market”* environment,*
created*due*to*the*concentration*of*goods*and*high*competition,*makes*traders*and*farmers*deal*
with*ultimate*decisions*to*avoid*the*loss*of*business.*Traders*dismiss*their*goods*directly*into*the*
bin*to*avoid*a*surplus*in*the*market*supply*and*prices*drop.*
As*a*matter*of*fact,*Horticulture*has*an*economical*importance*in*the*domestic*market*and*is*a*
very* important* component* of* the* Brazilian* diet.* However,* it* is* subjected* to* a* degree* of*
competitiveness* called* “Perfect& competition”* via* the* CEASA* supply* and* distribution* system.*
According* to* Bellù* 2013,* the* perfect* competition* happens* when* there* is* high* concentration* of*
buyers* and* sellers* trading* small* quantities* of* products,* having* NO* power* in* setting* the* price* of*
the*good*or*service*traded.*The*quantities*of*supply*and*demand*dictate*the*price*formation.*In*
this*scenario,*there*is*almost*homogeneity*of*the*product,*which*in*this*study*is*the*produce*with*
almost*or*no*differentiation*of*the*product.*That*is*why*the*awareness*to*the*basics*of*produce*
conservation* of* quality* and* safety,* such* as* refrigeration* and* appropriate* boxes* for* moving* the*
goods*lacks*behind.*
!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!
23
!
Cited IN Seabra & Marafon (n.d.)
128!
However,* due* to* the* increase* in* the* retail* sector,* the* competitiveness* tends* to* shift* slightly*
towards* near* to* oligopoly* or* few* sellers.* There* are* few* powerful* retailer* chains,* such* as*
supermarkets*and*“Hortifrutis”,*which*might*contribute*to*a*stabilization*of*the*price,*controlled*
by* them* at* a* higher* stage.* The* competition* of* the* retailers* also* enhances* the* quality* of* the*
produce* and* offers* a* higher* product* diversification* by* current* consumer* needs,* such* a* greater*
convenience,*and*differentiated*products,*as*previously*cited.**
6.4.3. Horticulture&marketplace&
6.4.3.1. Commercialization&channel&
Figure&65*represents*the*commercialization*channel*of*the*farmer*respondents*in*the*Value*Chain*
Horticulture.**
Federal&Programmes&
8%&
other&(direct&selling&
or&restaurant)&
5%&
hornfrun&chain&
5%&
street&market&
8%&
CEASA&
12%&
"middlemen"&
62%&
Figure&65:&Commercialization&channel&of&the&interviewed&farmers&value&chain&B&
*
The* majority* of* the* farmers* (62%)* commercialize* their* produce* through* the* “middlemen”.* This*
fact*is*a*reality*faced*in*the*study*area*due*to*problems*of*logistics*and*difficult*opportunity*for*
farmers*to*sell*directly*in*the*CEASA;Rio.*Farmers*say*they*face*a*difficult*trade;off*to*consider*on*
their* decisions.* Whether* stay* and* produce* (considering* the* scarce* available* labour)* or* to* leave*
the*farm*and*go*to*the*wholesale*at*the*capital*operating*high*costs*and*reduced*production*on*
the*land.*Nevertheless,*some*farmers*practice*the*commercialization*directly*via*CEASA*(12%)*in*
the*Pavilion*21.*In*this*sense,*the*role*of*the*middlemen*is*essential*as*an*active*agent*especially*
on* the* produce* collection* and* further* redistribution* to* the* wholesale* center.* Without* the*
intermediary,*the*burden*of*commercialization*would*be*total*upon*the*farmer.*The*middlemen*
!
129!
are* also* subjected* to* the* self;regulating* price* environment,* in* which* the* burden* comes* to* the*
farmers,*considering*that*the*trader*will*earn*on*the*top*of*the*traded*price.*
Interesting*to*observe*is*the*participation*of*farmers*in*Federal*Programmes,*i.e.*PNAE*(National*
School* Feeding* Programme)* and* PAA* (Food* Purchase* Programme)* through* the* institutional*
purchase.* Although* it* represents* only* 8%* of* the* respondents,* it* is* quite* considerable.* This* fact*
highlights*the*importance*of*the*governmental*programmes*in*regulating*the*market.*Some*piece*
of*the*pie*is*driven*to*the*institutional*purchase,*designed*to*meet*the*family*farming*and*food*
security*targets,*thus*paying*more*fair*prices*for*the*farmers.*The*difficulty*to*take*participation*in*
the* PAA* and* PNAE* is* due* the* requirements.* It* is* required* a* CNPJ* (document* of* the* enterprise),*
invoice* notes,* and* DAP* (Declaration* of* Aptitude* to* the* Pronaf),* that* in* some* cases* is* not*
acquirable,*i.e.*sharecropper’s*conditions.*Another*point*reported*by*the*manager*at*the*CEASA*
Grande;Rio*is*that*the*PAA*and*PNAE,*the*payment*is*not*instantly,*there*is*a*payment*deadline*at*
the*end*of*the*month.*That*is*the*reason*some*farmers*prefer*to*sell*to*the*wholesale*whenever*
they*decide,*or*through*the*middlemen,*because*the*payment*is*instantly*and*normally*in*cash.**
The*street*market*commercialization*channel*was*mostly*common*among*the*organic*producers.*
The*biological*farmers*commercialize*their*produce*directly*in*the*organic*street*market*through*
the*Carioca*Circuit*for*Street*Market*(“Circuito*Carioca*de*Feiras*Orgânicas”).*Likewise,*there*is*in*
Nova*Friburgo*an*organic*street*market*at*the*“Suspiro”*Square.*
6.4.3.2. Price&flow&
The*average*sale*price*at*the*production*level*is*in*Table&50.*Farmers*reported*the*minimum*and*
the*maximum*sale*price*at*that*year*(2013),*just*to*visualize*the*price*fluctuation*over*the*period*
of* research.* The* more* volatile* prices* are* for* tomato,* green* bean* and* beetroot,* normally*
commercialized*in*boxes*at*the*wholesale*market,*called*“caixaria”*products.*The*volatilization*is*
lesser*in*the*trade*of*leaf*vegetables,*showing*little*variation.*
Table&50:&Sale&price&at&the&producer&level&
Produce&
Unit&
Min&
Max&
Mean&
Variation&
*
Price&/kg&
*
Conventional&Producer&
Tomato&
Box*20kg*
R$17.86*
R$54.31*
R$36.09*
67%*
*R$1.80**
Cauliflower&
Unit*head*
R$0.90*
R$1.49*
R$1.20*
39%*
*R$0.60**
Green&bean&
Box*15*kg*
R$12.14*
R$33.27*
R$22.70*
64%*
*R$1.41**
Lettuce&
Dozen*
R$3.57*
R$6.36*
R$4.97*
44%*
*R$0.83**
Chinese&Cabbage&
Unit*head*
R$0.55*
R$0.55*
R$0.55*
0%*
*R$0.22**
Parsley&
Bunch*
R$0.34*
R$0.61*
R$0.48*
44%*
*R$0.96**
Beetroot&
Box*20*kg*
R$9.94*
R$23.83*
R$16.89*
58%*
*R$0.84**
!
130!
Organic&producer&
*
*
*
*
*
*
Tomato&
Kg*
R$10.00*
R$12.00*
R$11.00*
17%*
*R$2.00**
Cauliflower&
Unit*head*
R$3.50*
R$4.00*
R$3.75*
13%*
*R$1.00**
Green&bean&
Package*300g*
R$3.25*
R$5.25*
R$4.25*
38%*
*R$6.67**
Lettuce&
Bunch*
R$1.75*
R$1.75*
R$1.75*
0%*
*R$10.50**
Chinese&Cabbage&
Unit*head*
;*
;*
;*
;*
*;**
Parsley&
Bunch*
R$2.00*
R$2.00*
R$2.00*
0%*
*R$4.00**
Beetroot&
Bunch*
R$3.00*
R$3.75*
R$3.38*
20%*
*R$6.75**
It* is* noted* a* more* stabilization* of* sale's* prices* of* the* organic* producer,* presenting* almost* no*
fluctuation.* The* reason* is* the* type* of* commercialization* channel* they* use* through* the* organic*
street* market,* or* so* to* say* direct* sale* to* the* consumer,* without* intermediates.* In* the* case* of*
conventional* producers,* they* suffer* from* the* self;regulating* market,* having* to* pass* through*
middlemen*then*the*concentration*in*the*wholesale*market.*The*win*or*lose*product*is*tomato,*
considering*the*amount*produced*and*its*importance*in*the*domestic*market.*It*can*either*make*
the*producer*rich*or*can*bring*him*to*liquidation,*depending*on*the*set*price*at*the*market,*which*
the*control*is*not*upon*any*of*the*involved*agents*of*the*chain.*
The* average* sale* price* (R$/kg)* at* the* wholesale* market,* at* the* retailer* sector* and* processing*
plants*are*displayed*in*Table&51.*The*Ceasa*unit*in*Nova*Friburgo,*called*“Mercado*do*Produtor”*
only*trades*boxed*vegetables*(“caixaria”)*from*the*studied*vegetables.*The*mini;processing*plants*
focus*on*leaf*vegetables,*from*the*studied*products.*
Table&51:&Sale&Price&(R$/kg)&per&produce&of&upstream&agents&value&chain&B&
Produce&
Ceasa&
Grande&
Rio&
Ceasa&“Mercado&
do&Produtor”&
Nova&Fribrugo&
COOPFEIRA&
wholesaler&
TuttiCfrutti&
(MiniC
processed&
and&retail)&
Vale&Verde&
(MiniCprocessed/&
redistribution)&
Street&
Market&
(other)&
Tomato&
R$2.15*
R$2.20*
R$1.71*
;*
;*
R$6.00*
Cauliflower&
R$1.19*
R$1.15*
R$3.14*
R$19.90*
R$3.33*
R$1.50*
Green&bean&
R$2.72*
R$2.17*
R$2.69*
;*
;*
R$10.00*
Lettuce&
R$1.68*
;*
R$1.79*
R$19.90*
R$7.50*
R$3.00*
Chinese&Cabbage&
R$1.82*
;*
R$2.00*
R$1.99*
R$6.67*
R$3.00*
Parsley&
R$3.19*
;*
R$2.75*
R$19.90*
;*
R$4.00*
Beetroot&
R$1.22*
R$0.75*
R$1.38*
;*
;*
R$6.00*
Table* elaborated* by* the* author* based* on* questionnaires,* CEASA’s* expert’s* consultation,* and* price* collection* in* the*
24
street*market **
*
!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!
24
*It*was*just*collected*the*sale*price*by*a*third*person*(Paris,*M.).*There*weren’t*any*interview*or*questionnaires*in*the*
street*market,*but*prices*were*worth*for*comparison.*
!
131!
The* Producer* Market* in* Nova* Friburgo* (“Mercado* do* Produtor”* CEASA)* seems* to* be* currently*
stopped;*almost*no*producer*trades*goods*there.*Its*function*now*is*being*a*center*of*purchase*of*
agricultural* inputs* at* large* enterprises.* Its* purpose* is* not* anymore* a* center* for* collecting* and*
distributing*goods.*At*the*time*of*data*collection,*there*were*three*buyers,*trading*less*perishable*
vegetables,*such*as*tomato,*green*bean*and*beet*(“caixaria”*vegetables)*and*cauliflower,*but*no*
leaf*vegetables25.*The*circumstance*of*few*buyers*in*the*market*scares*producers*to*trade*there,*
so*they*prefer*to*give*the*produce*to*the*middleman,*which*is*safer.*
Figure&66*gives*an*insight*regarding*the*collected*sale*prices*throughout*the*value*chain*B.*It*can*
be*clearly*observed*the*entanglement*of*prices*in*the*agents*operating*at*the*CEASA*system.*The*
conventional*producer*is*the*weaker*side*of*the*chain,*due*to*the*competitiveness*in*the*market.**
Street&Market&
Vale&Verde&
TuÄfrun&&
COOPFEIRA&&
Ceasa&Mercado&Produtor&Nova&Fribrugo&
Ceasa&GrandeCRio&
Organic&Producer&
Convennonal&Producer&
beetroot&
parsley&
&$0.50&&
&$5.50&&
Chinese&Cabbage&
LeÅuce&
&$10.50&&
&$15.50&&
Green&bean&
Cauliflower&
&$20.50&&
Tomato&
Figure&66:&Sale&price&distribution&among&Value&chain&B&agents&for&the&studied&vegetables&
The* producer* sale* prices* are* “squeezed”* by* the* high* competitiveness* of* the* wholesale* system.*
Additionally,*it*is*possible*to*infer*that*the*mini;processing*activity*can*add*much*more*value*to*
the*sale*when*comparing*price*per*kilogram.*The*chain*Tutti;frutti*and*the*company*“Vale*Verde”,*
!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!
25!Detail:*the*prices*were*collected*by*the*market*management,*indicating*the*lack*of*trade*in*other*products*studied!
132!
!
for*example,*supply*for*supermarket*chains,*and*sell*at*much*higher*prices.*Furthermore,*it*can*be*
said*that*the*lesser*intermediates*in*the*chain,*the*greater*the*sale*price*for*producers.*Likewise,*
organic*producers*and*the*street*market*in*the*neighborhood*“Ipanema”*in*the*city*Rio*de*Janeiro*
had*a*comparatively*higher*sale*prices*in*relation*to*the*conventional*farmer.**
Finally,*it*is*important*to*rethink*the*supply*and*distribution*system*through*the*CEASAs,*which*is*
restricting*the*local*agricultural*economy*and*is*either*contributing*to*a*sustainable*development.*
One* of* the* ways* in* terms* of* decision;making* is* to* reinforce* the* already* existent* pro;family*
farming* programs* to* alleviate* the* commercialization* constraints,* and* additionally* focus* on* the*
real*upgrading*process*of*the*value*chain.*Some*examples*are*the*provision*of*better*education*
and*qualification,*better*logistics*system,*and*incentives*for*agro;processing*activities*within*the*
communities.*Since*there*are*few*mini;processing*plants*in*the*region,*the*inclusion*of*farmers*in*
this*market*niche*would*position*them*in*a*better*place*in*the*value*chain*and*improve*the*overall*
quality* and* competitiveness* in* the* sector.* The* simple* action* of* mini;processing,* e.g.* selecting,*
washing,* sanitizing,* chopping,* and* packing,* as* in* Figure& 67,* can* add* up* to* 95%* value* to* the*
product.* Moreover,* farmers* should* also* decide* to* produce* ecological* and* healthier* foods.* It*
means*that*if*they*opt*for*an*agroecological,*permaculture*or*organic*production,*they*would*also*
be*better*off,*in*social,*environmental*and*economically*terms*so*to*say.*
*
Figure&67:&Mini&processed&cauliflower&from&Vale&Verde&
Photo*taken*by*the*author*2014*
!
133!
6.5. Step&5:&Functional&analysis&of&value&chain&B&C&horticulture&
The* dynamic* of* the* distribution* of* vegetables* in* Brazil* follows* two* different* pathways,* as*
suggested*by*Lourenzani*&*Silva*(2004)*in*Figure&68.*The*same*authors*explain*that*the*channel*A*
relates* to* the* distribution* through* the* large* retail* shopping* centers,* such* as* supermarkets.* In*
channel* A,* producers* usually* have* a* high* technological* standard,* trade* their* produce* to*
specialized*wholesalers.*The*specialized*distributor*adds*value*to*the*produce*and*offers*regular*
supply*to*the*shopping*centers*and*their*shop*branches,*which*sell*to*the*consumer.*The*channel*
B*is*the*way*used*by*the*commercialization*through*the*CEASAs,*normally*composed*of*farmers*
with*high*or*low*technological*pattern,*which*trade*through*the*CEASAs.*The*CEASAs*distribute*to*
small*and*medium*retailers,*to*reach*consumers,*according*to*Lourenzani*&*Silva*(2004).*
&
Figure&68:&Involved&agents&in&the&distribution&of&vegetables&(except&leaf&vegetables)&in&the&different&
commercialization&channels&A&and&B.&
Figure*extracted*from*(Lourenzani*&*Silva,*2004)*
6.5.1. Setting&the&boundaries&of&Value&Chain&B&
In*this*study,*it*is*explored*the*three*main*commercialization*channels,*already*cited,*including*the*
channels*via*CEASA,*via*retailers*shopping*centers,*and*the*direct*sale*to*the*consumer.*Figure&69*
illustrates* the* set* boundaries* involving* the* Value* Chain* B.* It* was* set* two* boundaries.* One*
boundary* represents* the* consumer* boundary* found* in* this* research,* involving* all* options* of*
purchase* available,* and* interactions* among* the* agents.* The* other* boundary* set* represents* the*
research* scope* boundary,* indicating* which* agents* of* the* chain* reached* during* the* research.*
!
134!
Organic*producers,*although*not*being*the*focus*of*this*research,*are*worth*for*comparison*with*
the* conventional.* It* is* important* to* consider* that* the* aim* of* this* research* is* not* to* analyse* the*
whole* organic* chain,* which* comprises* much* more* distribution* chains* than* here* presented.*
However,* in* general,* the* organic* market* has* fewer* intermediaries* than* the* conventional*
production.*
*
Figure&69:&Set&Boundary&of&Value&Chain&B&–&Horticulture&
Chart*elaborated*using*fieldwork*data*
In*Figure& 69,* besides* the* set* boundaries,* it* can* be* observed* the* interactions* among* agents* and*
the*different*types*of*vegetables.*The*blue*arrows*show*the*connections*of*the*fruit*vegetables*
and*the*distribution*channels.*Fruits*vegetables*are*traded*through*the*middlemen,*through*the*
CEASAs* and* small* wholesalers,* or* direct* to* large* retailers,* specialized* retailers,* and* also* via*
institutional*purchase.*It*seems*fruit*vegetables*follow*the*same*pattern*described*by*Lourenzani*
&*Silva*(2004).**
The* red* arrows* are* representing* connections* of* the* leaf* vegetables* and* their* distribution*
channels.* Leaf* vegetables* are* also* traded* through* middlemen* and* institutional* purchase.*
!
135!
However,*in*this*research,*there*wasn’t*found*a*connection*with*the*channel*B*(as*suggested*by*
Lourenzani* &* Silva,* 2004)* via* the* CEASAs.* It* seems* the* leaf* vegetables* follow* another* way* of*
commercialization.*The*commercialization*channel*includes*the*direct*sale*to*the*consumer,*e.g.*
restaurants,* hotels* and* hospitals;* the* direct* sale* to* the* consumer* in* street* markets;* and* direct*
sale*to*retailers,*namely*small*retailers*and*specialized*retailers.**
This* circumstance* is* due* the* rapid* perishability* of* the* leaf* vegetables,* which* needs* rapid*
consumption.*The*fruit*vegetables,*on*the*other*hand,*have*comparatively*higher*durability*and*
thus*can*be*traded*in*a*more*complex*distribution*system.*
6.5.2. Identification&of&activities&and&technical&analsys&
The*term*of*Olericulture*comes*from*Latin*olus*(=vegetables)*and*colere*(=cultivate),*which*means*
the* cultivation* of* certain* herbaceous* plants* of* short* cycle* for* human* consumption,* normally*
denominated* as* vegetables* and* greens* (Bevilacqua,* 2008).* The* term* Horticulture,* according* to*
the*same*author*embraces*the*olericulture*and*additionally*includes*other*production*crops*such*
as* fruit,* mushrooms,* ornamental* plants,* medicinal* plants,* herbs,* flowers* and* bulbs,* and* also*
seedlings.*Horticulture*is*a*seasonal*crop*characterized*by*short*cycle,*usually*inferior*to*one*year,*
and* harvested* at* once,* because* harvest* undoes* the* whole* crop* (IBGE,* 2009).* The* overall* crop*
characteristics*of*the*studied*vegetables*are*described*as*follow.*
A)*Lettuce:**
According*to*Caetano*et*al.*(2001),*Rio*de*Janeiro's*consumer*market*has*a*preference*for*smooth*
(“Lisa”)*lettuce*and*iceberg*lettuce*for*fast*food*chains.*Other*varieties*include*"smooth*cabbage*
lettuce",* "curly* cabbage* lettuce”,* “curly* lettuce”* and* Roman* type* lettuce.* Lettuce* can* be*
produced*during*the*whole*year*within*favorable*weather*conditions,*avoiding*large*heat*stroke*
and* heavy* rains* in* the* summer* periods.* It* has* been* recommended* the* protected* cultivation* in*
greenhouses* with* pesticide* reduction* to* improve* productivity* and* product* quality.* It* is* also*
widely* practiced* hydroponics;* wherein* the* cultivation* is* performed* on* a* nutrient* solution*
required* for* plant* growth.* This* type* of* farming* is* also* advantageous* in* terms* of* avoiding* pests*
that*are*normally*contracted*in*the*soil*(Caetano*et*al.,*2001).*
B)*Tomato:))
Silva*et*al.,*2003*say*that*the*tomato*production*is*very*challenging,*because*the*investments*are*
high,* especially* the* excessive* use* of* pesticides.* The* production* can* be* focused* on* the* fresh*
!
136!
consumption* or* the* industrialization* of* sauces* and* purees.* There* are* producers* who* adopt*
techniques* such* as* integrated* pest* management* and* the* greenhouse* system,* preventing* that*
large*amounts*of*pesticides*applied.*The*Fluminense’s*producer*has*to*keep*an*eye*on*the*area*of*
cultivation* in* slopes;* the* cropping* system* (protected,* traditional* or* creeping);* the* fertilization*
(organic*or*mineral);*and*the*control*of*pests*and*weeds*(Silva*et*al.,*2003).)
C)*Beetroot:**
Beetroot*is*one*of*the*plants*propagated*by*seed,*planted*seed*or*transplant*trays*for*later.*There*
are* three* types* of* commercially* produced* beet,* sugar,* for* the* extraction* of* sugar,* forage,* feed,*
and*vegetable*or*red*beet*for*human*feeding.*The*culture*of*beet*must*undergo*an*intense*cold*
period,*and*should*be*avoided*high*temperatures*and*intense*rainfall*(Tivelli*et*al.,*2011).*
E) Parsley:**
Parsley*can*be*produced*in*open*spaces*during*the*whole*year*by*planting*in*beds.*It*can*also*be*
produced*inside*protected*tunnel*of*galvanized*steel*arches*and*plastic*cover,*to*protect*against*
heavy* rain* or* severe* winter.* Are* grown* salsas* of* the* Portuguese* type* and* flat;leaf* parsley*
(SEBRAE,*2011).*
E)*Cauliflower:**
The* cultivars* are* sorted* by* ideal* time* for* sowing,* including* crops* of* winter,* mid;season,* and*
summer* (May* et* al.,* 2007).* This* classification* considers* the* chilling* requirements* for* floral*
induction.* Winter* cultivars* develop* and* produce* "heads"* at* temperatures* ranging* from* 14* to*
20°C.* Above* this* range,* the* plants* continue* the* vegetative* growth* forming* semi;vegetative*
"heads"*with*a*greenish*color.*The*summer*crops*cannot*be*grown*under*conditions*below*20°C,*
as*this*may*lead*to*an*early*formation*of*inflorescence,*with*a*small*size*and*no*commercial*value.*
Cultivation* is* done* by* seed* propagation* and* subsequent* transplant* of* seedlings* to* the* area* of*
cultivation*(May*et*al.,*2007).*
F)*Green*Bean:**
The*green*beans*can*be*obtained*from*the*same*cultivar*of*a*regular*bean.*There*are*two*types*of*
pods,* following* different* growth* type.* One* is* the* pod* with* determinate* growth* (bushes),* which*
has* a* shorter* cycle,* and* is* more* suitable* for* mechanized* harvesting.* And* the* second* is* the* pod*
with* indeterminate* growth* (climbing* plants)* in* succession* with* tomato* and* cucumber* (UENF,*
2015).*There*are*several*commercial*types*of*green*beans,*the*“macarrão”*pod,*the*“manteiga”*
pod*and*the*“slim*trepador”*(UENF,*2015).*
!
137!
G)*Chinese*cabbage:**
The* Chinese* cabbage* is* erroneously* called* chard.* The* real* Chinese* cabbage* has* leaves* of* bright*
green* color,* oblong* clenched,* wavy* on* the* margins,* hairy,* with* fleshy,* thick* midrib* white* color*
(Seabra* Júnior* et* al.,* 2014).* The* passage* of* vegetative* stage* to* reproductive* is* induced* by* low*
temperatures,*being*inhibited*by*its*flowering*at*a*high*temperature*(Bernier*&*Périlleux,*2005).*
There* has* been* an* improvement* of* the* commercial* production* systems.* However,* yet* much*
remains*to*be*researched,*not*only*to*achieve*self;sufficiency*in*relation*to*production,*but*also*in*
relation*to*obtaining*higher*quality*seeds*(Lopes*&*Macedo,*2008).**
Bevilacqua* (2008)* has* three* classifications* of* vegetables.* The* first* is* the* group* of* tuberous*
vegetables,*which*usable*parts*are*the*ones*inside*the*soil,*e.g.*potatoes,*bulbs,*roots.*The*second*
group*is*of*herbaceous*vegetables,*which*the*usable*part*is*over*the*soil,*e.g.*lettuce,*cauliflower,*
cabbages.*The*last*group*is*the*fruit*vegetables,*which*the*fruit*is*the*usable*part,*e.g.*tomatoes,*
melons,* pods.* Table& 52* displays* he* overall* characteristics* of* the* studied* vegetables* in* this*
research.*
Table&52:&Characteristics&of&the&studied&vegetables&
Illustration&
Scientific&Name&
Classification&
Crop&(Southeast&
Brazil)&
Duration&of&the&
cycle&
Commercial&
form&(usual)&
“Chard”
Chinese*
cabbage*
Brassica)
pekinensis)
(Lou.).)
Leaf*
Whole*year*
60;70*days*
Bunch,*or*Box*
20kg;8*heads*
Lettuce*
Lactuca)sativa)
L.)
Leaf*
Winter*
(Feb./Jul.)*
Summer*(Whole*
year)*
60;80*days*
(winter)*
50;70*days*
(summer)*
Beetroot*
Beta)vulgaris)L.)
Root*
Whole*year*
60;70*days*
Cauliflower*
Brassica)
oleracea)var.)
botritys)
Flower*
Winter*
(Feb./Apr.)*
Summer*
(Oct./Feb.)*
100*;110*days*
(winter)*
90;100*days*
(Summer)*
Unit*–*head,*Box*
16kg*–*8*heads*
Green*bean/*
snap*bean/*
string*bean*
Phaseolus)
vulgaris)L.)
Fruit**
Aug./mar.*
60;70*days*
Box*–15*kg,*or*
disposable*tray*
0.5kg*or*in*bulk*
Tomato*
Lycopersicon)
esculentum)Mill)
Fruit**
Whole*year*
100;120*days*
Box*–*20kg*or*
disposable*tray*
0.5kg,*or*in*bulk*
Parsley*
Petroselinum)
crispum)(Mill.))
Nym.)
Herb*
Mar./Set.*
60;70*days*
Bunch*
Popular&Name&
1*
*
*
*
*
*
*
*
Box*6kg*–*18*
units,*or*
individually*
packed*
Boxes*–*20*kg*or*
packed,*or*in*
bunch,*or*in*
bulk*
Source:*Table*elaborated*by*the*author*using*data*and*pictures*from*(Embrapa;Hortaliças*&*SEBRAE,*2010)*and*(CEASA;
1
RJ,*2015b).* Note:*The*Chinese*cabbage*is*erroneously*called*by*the*name*of*“chard”*both*into*the*production*and*the*
commercialization* field,* however* they* are* technically* different* species,* the* chard* which* is* referred* in* this* study* is*
actually*the*Chinese*cabbage,*in*technical*terms.*
!
138!
The* respondent* farmers* in* this* research* could* be* classified* into* three* categories* regarding* the*
type*of*chosen*crop,*being*them*"seasonal",*"whole*year"*of*"both"*crops.*Figure& 70*represents*
the*results.*Half*of*the*farmers*opt*to*produce*only*season*crops*like*the*green*bean,*cauliflower,*
and*parsley.*Some*summer*varieties*of*vegetables*are*cropped*during*the*whole*year,*such*as*the*
case*of*lettuce.*17%*of*the*farmers*crop*whole*year*crops,*e.g.*tomatoes,*beetroot*and*Chinese*
cabbage.*One;third*of*the*interviewed*opts*to*crop*both*seasonal*and*whole*year*crops.**This*sort*
of*decision*is*an*issue*when*considering*lose*or*win*situations*regarding*crop*losses.*The*farmer*
who*produces*whole*year*crops*has*much*more*resilience*in*case*of*a*natural*disaster,*which*can*
ruin* the* whole* crop.* As* much* as* diversified* the* type* of* crop,* the* better* the* adaptation* due* to*
environmental*changes.*
!
Figure&70:&Categories&of&Farmers&according&to&the&crop&type&
H)*Organic*production*
According* to* EMBRAPA* (2005),* the* organic* production* is* sufficient* for* the* cultivation* of*
herbaceous* vegetables,* fruit* vegetables,* and* tuberous* vegetables.* In* addition* to* high*
productivity,* it* has* obtained* good* quality* products* to* meet* the* demand* of* the* consumer.* Two*
practices*are*critical*to*maintaining*the*productive*capacity:*organic*manure*and*green*manure.*
Regarding*the*phytosanitary*aspect,*there*is*an*appreciation*of*the*use*of*plants*that*provide*vital*
resources* for* natural* enemies* of* pests,* as* well* as,* adopting* measures* for* full* expression* of* the*
natural*mechanisms*of*plant*defense.*Also*,*it*is*practiced*the*use*of*alternative*pesticides,**such*
as*homemade*juices*(bordeaux*mixture),*biocontrol*agents*and*plant*extracts*(EMBRAPA,*2005).*
6.5.2.2.
PostCharvest&losses&
One*important*technical*point*of*consideration*is*the*post;harvest*losses,*which*is*certainly*one*
bottleneck* to* overcome.* Although* the* vegetable* diversity* in* Brazil* is* plentiful,* its*
commercialization* is* limited* due* to* high* perishability,* handling* conditions,* and* environmental*
conditions,* which* accelerate* the* ripening.* The* logistics* are* also* a* matter,* which* jeopardizes* the*
commercialization*due*to*elevated*costs*(Censi,*2006).*Specifically*in*Brazil,*the*average*levels*of*
!
139!
post;harvest*losses*reach*35%*up*to*40%,*while*in*other*countries,*like*the*United*States*are*only*
10%*(Vilela*et*al.,*2003).*
The*post;harvest*losses*might*happen*in*every*point*of*commercialization*of*the*chain,*starting*in*
the*harvest*and*ending*up*in*the*consumption*(Censi,*2006).*The*FAO*(2011)*states*the*segments*
where*food*losses*are*estimated*to*happen:*
A. Production:*mechanical*losses*during*the*harvest,*and*post;harvest*sorting*
B. Postharvest:*during*handling,*storage*and*transportation*
C. Processing:*losses*due*to*the*processing,*spillage,*and*degradation*
D. Distribution:*waste*in*the*market*system*
E. Consumption:*at*the*household*level*
As*reported*by*Vilela*&*Henz*(2000),*vegetables*often*arrive*at*the*main*distribution*centres*with*
the* quality* relatively* depreciated,* due* to* inadequate* handling* during* the* harvest,* post;harvest,*
precarious* transportation* in* inappropriate* boxes.* According* to* Lourenzani* &* Silva* (2004),* the*
commonly* used* wooden* boxes* present* several* problems,* such* as* contamination* by* pests* and*
pathogens,*since*they*are*often*re;used.*The*wooden*boxes*also*propitiate*losses*due*to*crushing*
and* spoilage* of* products,* which* contributes* to* one* of* the* greatest* causes* of* losses* of* fruit* and*
vegetables*in*the*distribution.*The*left*side*of*Figure& 71*illustrates*the*inadequate*boxes*used*in*
the*tomato*distribution.*Lourenzani*&*Silva*(2004)*suggest*that*the*most*appropriate*box*are*the*
plastic*boxes*that*allow*the*cleaning,*are*durable*besides*being*reusable,*and*provide*even*better*
stacking.*The*right*side*of*Figure&71*shows*the*plastic*boxed*used*in*the*distribution*of*parsley.*
*
Figure&71:&Inadequate&wooden&boxes&for&tomatoes&at&the&wholesale&in&Nova&Friburgo;&plastic&boxes&for&parsley&at&the&
producer&sale&in&Santa&Cruz&
Photo*taken*by*the*author*(2014)*
!
140!
It*was*possible*to*observe,*during*the*research,*that*the*commonly*called*“caixaria”*vegetables,*
i.e.*fruit*vegetables*of*this*study,*were*often*commercialized*in*wooden*boxes.*The*reason*is*that*
with*the*fluctuation*of*prices*and*the*type*of*commercialization*via*the*wholesale,*it*is*not*worth*
for* the* farmer* to* investment* in* better* packing,* considering* the* uncertainty* sale* price* of* the*
produce.*Leaf*vegetables,*on*the*other*hand,*could*be*often*seen*traded*in*plastics*boxes,*due*to*
the* exigencies* of* the* retailer* sector* or* the* consumer,* in* which* is* required* better* technological*
standards.*In*this*last*case,*it*is*worth*for*the*farmer*to*invest*in*better*boxes*and*be*included*in*
this*market.*It*is*important*to*highlight*that*through*the*institutional*purchase,*in*PAA*and*PNAE,*
it*is*also*expected*this*sort*of*standard*requirement*to*participate*in*the*programme.*
Alves* &* Silochi* (2010)* add* that* the* quality* of* vegetable,* in* its* sensorial* characteristics,* is*
considered* a* problem* within* the* Brazilian* commercialization* chain,* whether* in* the* wholesale,*
retail,*and*direct*sale.*They*point*out*that*there*is*a*general*unawareness*regarding*essential*care*
within* the* chain,* causing* significant* losses* due* to* handling,* spillage,* transportation,*
contamination*and*inadequate*storage*without*refrigeration.*The*way*of*exposure*in*the*market*
and* the* consumer* handling* are* also* responsible* for* losses* in* the* distribution* (Vilela* &* Henz,*
2000).*
6.5.3. Identification&of&agents&
In*the*following*Table&53,*all*activities*and*agents*related*to*the*horticulture*value*chain*are*listed*
for*clarity*of*analysis.*
Table&53:&Functional&analysis&table&value&chain&B&C&horticulture&
Activity&
Agents&
⋅
Vegetable&Production&
SelfCconsumption&
Collection&of&the&produce&
Supply&Centre&and&Distribution&
!
Conventional*producers*(whole*year,*seasonal*
Output&
⋅
vegetables*
or*both*crop*types)*
⋅
Organic*producers*
⋅
Household*farmers**
⋅
Middlemen*
⋅
Large*retailers*
⋅
Specialized*retailers*
⋅
CEASAs*wholesale*
⋅
Small*wholesale*
⋅
Large*retailers*
⋅
Specialized*retailers*
Fresh*conventional*
⋅
Organic*fresh*
vegetables*
⋅
Fresh*vegetables*
⋅
Fresh*vegetables*
(greens*and*veggies)*
⋅
Fresh*vegetables*
(greens*and*veggies)*
141!
Shopping&Centre&
Mini&processing&
(Selection,&washing,&sanitizing,&
processing&and&packing)&
⋅
Fresh*vegetables*
⋅
Large*Retailer*
⋅
Small*retailer*
⋅
Specialized*retailer*
⋅
Agro;processing*plants*
⋅
Specialized*Retailers*
⋅
Large*retailers*
⋅
Producer**
⋅
Producer*
⋅
Street*market*vendor*(can*be*the*producer*
⋅
Fresh*vegetables*
himself)*
⋅
Mini*processed*
Direct&sale&
⋅
Restaurant/hotel/hospital*purchase*
⋅
Institutional*purchase*(PAA,*PNAE*and*others)*
packed*or*in*bulk*
⋅
Mini;processed*
vegetables*
⋅
Mini;processed*
vegetables**
vegetables*
*Potential*agent*for*the*selected*activity*
It*is*remarkable*that*while*the*CEASAs*come*down*to*be*merely*a*supply*and*distribution*center*
of*the*produce,*the*retailers*are*developing*a*variety*of*activities*in*the*value*chain.*Retailers*are*
performing*all*activities*since*the*collection*of*the*produce*till*the*consumer,*depending*on*the*
size* and* also* on* the* specialization* of* the* retailer* network.* Additionally,* the* producer* can* also*
handle* the* mini;processing* if* there* was* sufficient* investment* in* the* infrastructure* for* that*
activity.*There*is*a*minimum*threshold*for*the*value*chain*upgrading*process,*which*initially*could*
be* avoiding* the* complexity* and* the* uncertainty* of* the* channel* through* CEASAs,* and* secondly*
adding*value*to*the*produce,*that*up*till*this*moment*has*been*centered*on*the*retail*sector.*
6.5.4. Quantification&of&Physical&Flows&
The* total* quantification* of* physical* flows* in* terms* of* quantity* supplied* and* quantities* utilized*
within* the* studied* horticulture* chain* is* represented* as* supply* utilization* account* (SUA)* in*Table&
54.*The*results*consider*the*following*assumptions:*
•
Supply* items* were* accounted* for* the* total* production* of* vegetables* and* greeneries* in* the*
MB3*and*MB4*from*30*farmer*respondents;*
•
Utilization* items* data:* data* acquired* via* consultation* of* experts* in* the* management* of* the*
supply* centers* (CEASA),* quantity* supplied* and* distributed* in* 2013* in* its* totality.* Other*
wholesalers* reflect* the* total* distributed* items* in* the* “Mercado* do* Produtor”* (management*
interview)* and* the* quantity* acquired* through* interviewed* traders* in* the* COOPFEIRA.*
Specialized*retailer*reflects*the*utilized*items*in*the*unit*of*Tutti;frutti*in*Nova*Friburgo.*Mini*
!
142!
processing*accounted*the*quantity*processed*by*the*company*Vale*Verde*in*Teresópolis.*Self;
consumption* was* calculated* through* the* IBGE* (2010b)* Household* Budget* Survey* for* 119*
found*households*in*MB3*and*MB4.*
Table&54:&Supply&Utilization&Account&(SUA)&Horticulture&
Vegetable&supply&items&(2013)&
Utilization&items&(2013)&
Fruit&vegetables&production&MB3,&MB4&
1,003.0&
Leaf&vegetables&production&MB3,&MB4&
1,744.5&
Leaf&vegetables& 25,607.7&
CEASA&
Fruit&vegetables& 61,058.2&
Other&wholesaler&
&
Specialized&retailer&
&
Total&(tons)&
Leaf&vegetables&
15.5&
Fruit&vegetables&
38.7&
Leaf&vegetables& 29,747.5&
MiniCprocessing&
Leaf&vegetables&
1.484&
Self&consumption&
Vegetables&
0.771715&
116469.89&
2747.455&
C113722.43&
The*SUA*cannot*be*considered*fulfilled*because*the*total*supplied*items*do*not*fulfill*the*utilized*
items.* A* broader* analysis,* embracing* out;of;the;chain* border* actors* would* be* necessary.* For*
instance,*the*quantity*utilized*in*the*CEASA*is*referred*to*the*produce*from*other*cities*of*State*
Rio* de* Janeiro* and* other* Brazilian* states* as* well.* Also,* the* Tutti;frutti* chain,* which* is* the*
intermediary*of*the*“Hortifruti*chain”,* also*purchases* products* from* Minas* Gerais,* being* few* of*
the* produce* acquired* in* Nova* Friburgo.* The* consumer* market* is* inside* Rio* de* Janeiro* State,*
mainly*the*metropolitan*region*of*the*capital*Rio*de*Janeiro.*Only*the*“Mercado*do*Produtor”*and*
“COOPFEIRA”* can* represent* the* majority* of* the* commercialized* produce* coming* from* Nova*
Friburgo*for*the*local*consumer*market*of*the*city.*
Nevertheless,*the*SUA*was*useful*to*illustrate*the*physical*flows*of*the*agents*of*this*research.*It*
is* worth* to* consider* that* Rio* de* Janeiro* is* not* self;sufficient* in* vegetables.* The* majority* of* the*
vegetables*consumed*in*the*State*are*imported*from*the*other*Brazilian*States,*to*supply*the*high*
demand.*The*utilized*items*of*the*CEASA*represent*more*out;of;the*chain*supply.*It*also*highlights*
the*importance*of*the*potential*increase*in*the*market*for*the*Fluminense’s*production*to*satisfy*
the*high*demand*of*the*city*Rio*de*Janeiro.*Due*to*the*scope*of*the*research,*the*SUA*embraces*
only* the* interviewed* agents* and* 30* farmers* of* the* micro;basins.* The* overall* physical* flows* of*
value*chain*B*can*be*illustrated*in*Figure&72.*
!
143!
*
Figure&72:&Physical&flows&in&the&value&chain&B&C&Horticulture&
6.5.5. Input&output&matrices&
The* input;output* matrices* of* the* horticulture* chain* were* undertaken* basing* on* the* input* per*
hectare*of*general*vegetable*production.*There*were*difficulties*in*gathering*data*of*inputs*from*
farmers.*Some*farmers*didn’t*provide*the*enough*data.*The*reason*for*that*can*be*explained*due*
to*the*lack*of*knowledge*about*the*different*types*of*inputs,*or*the*confusing*way*of*the*farmers*
in*exposing*the*asked*information*during*interviews.*Also,*some*farmers*didn't*have*enough*time*
or*were*very*timid,*and*the*intention*was*not*to*cause*any*pressure*on*the*interviewees.*Either*
was* possible* to* calculate* a* detailed* input* per* type* of* crop,* due* to* these* constraints* cited,* as*
farmers*provided*inputs*for*all*products*together,*not*detailed*by*crop.*In*this*case,*it*was*used*
the* “scale* up”* procedure,* to* homogenize* data* and* also* cover* individually* input* gaps,* reflecting*
the* inputs* for* any* vegetable* per* hectare* as* a* generalization.* The* average* input* per* hectare*
calculated* from* the* farmer’s* questionnaire* is* in* Table& 55.* For* organic* production,* it* was*
calculated*another*table*of*inputs,*separately*shown*in*the*same*Table&55.*
Input;output*matrices*were*grouped*in*micro;basin*and*activity*for*comparison.*The*community*
referent*results*are*in*Table&56.*Visual*matrices*illustrate*the*results*of*MB3*and*MB4*(Figure&73).*
The* organic* production* was* accounted* separately* in* a* different* matrix,* and* presented*
comparatively*lower*output*per*hectares*and*also*lower*quantity*of*input*per*hectares.*
!
144!
Table&55:&InputCoutput&quantities&need&to&produce&1&ha&of&vegetables&in&the&studied&area&
Activity:&growing&1&ha&of&vegetables&(in&the&study&area)&
Unit&
&
Input&quantities&per&ha&(conventional&production)*
&
Average&quantity&per&ha&
Manure*
Ton*
9.7*
Fertilizer*
Ton*
2.3*
Pesticides*(many*types*)*
Kg/Litre*
8.9*
Micro*nutrients*
Litre*
0.8*
Boxes*
Unit*
571.1*
Limestone*
Ton*
1.3*
Fuel*
Litre*
324.4*
Thousand*
9,052.5*
Ton*
36.1*
Organic*Compost*
Ton*
2.5*
Castor*plant*compost*
Ton*
0.75*
Bordeaux*mixture*
Kg*
5*
Organic*pesticides*
Litre*
2.5*
Ton*
9.1*
Seedlings**
Output&quantity&per&ha&
Vegetable*produce*
Input&quantities&per&ha&(organic&C&biological&production)&
Output&quantity&per&ha&
Vegetable*produce*
*Note:* Many* pesticides* are* used* for* one* specific* crop,* and* each* crop* has* its* different* type* of* pesticide* used.* For*
calculation,* it* was* generalized* to* aggregate* data* for* analysis.* The* seeds* are* acquired* or* through* seedling* or* seeds,*
depending* on* the* crop,* it* was* considered* the* amount* of* plants* used* per* hectares* independently* on* the* type* of*
acquisition.*
Table&56:&InputCOutput&matrices&table&by&community&in&Value&Chain&B&
Input&quantities&per&ha&
(conventional&production)&
Barracão&dos&
Mendes&
Florândia&da&
Serra&
Rio&
Grande&
Serra&Nova&e&
Serra&Velha&
Salinas&
Santa&
Cruz&
Manure*
Ton*
14.6*
23.3*
32.0*
66.0*
21.3*
58.2*
Fertilizer*
Ton*
3.5*
5.5*
7.6*
15.6*
5.1*
13.8*
Pesticides*(many*
types)*
Kg/L*
13.4*
21.4*
29.4*
60.5*
19.6*
53.4*
Micro*nutrients*
L*
1.2*
1.9*
2.6*
5.4*
1.8*
4.8*
Boxes*
Unit*
856.7*
1,370.6*
1,884.6*
3,883.5*
1,256.4*
3,426.6*
Limestone*
Ton*
2.0*
3.1*
4.3*
8.8*
2.9*
7.8*
Fuel*
L*
486.6*
778.6*
1,070.5*
2,205.9*
713.7*
1,946.4*
Seedlings*
K*
13,578.8*
21,726.0*
29,873.3*
61,557.0*
19,915.5*
54,315.0*
Ton*
54.2*
86.6*
119.13*
245.48*
79.42*
216.6*
Output&quantity&per&ha&
Vegetable*produce*
*
!
145!
*
*
*
Figure&73:&InputCoutput&matrices&of&one&representative&producer&for&value&chain&B&
Matrices*elaborated*by*the*author*based*on*the*fieldwork*and*the*methodology*(Bellù,*2013).*Note:*seedling*was*
simplified*to*thousand*K.*
6.6. Step&6:&Economic&Analysis&of&the&value&chain&B&
6.6.1. Production&Account&
6.6.1.1. Total&Output&Value&
For*the*total*output*value,*there*are*four*assumptions*used*in*this*study:*
(A)*Sales*Revenue:*It*was*considered*the*total*output*value*of*a*representative*farmer*in*2013*of*
each* community* and* micro;basin,* considering* all* vegetables* sold* in* kilograms* and* the* average*
sale*price*per*kilogram*of*each*vegetable.*
(B)*Own*final*consumption:*Calculation*was*performed*using*the*sum*of*encountered*household*
size* and* the* average* consumption* per* capita* of* vegetables* in* Rio* de* Janeiro.* The* annual* per*
!
146!
capita* consumption* (kg/per* capita* year;1)* according* to* the* Household* Budget* Survey* (IBGE,*
2010b)* is* 0.361* for* Chinese* cabbage,* 0.751* for* lettuce,* 0.317* for* cauliflower,* 4.333* for* tomato,*
and* 0.346* for* green* bean* and* 0.377* for* beetroot.* It* was* used* the* average* sale* price* at* the*
producer*level*to*calculate.*
(C)*Change*in*the*inventories:*There*was*not*found*any*storage*in*the*vegetable*production.*The*
produce* is* distributed* right* after* being* harvested,* due* to* high* perishability* of* the* product.* No*
farmers*had*fridge*chambers*to*store*the*produce*for*a*longer*period.*As*a*matter*of*fact,*it*is*not*
common*to*observe*cold*chain*in*the*domestic*market.*In*this*case,*this*item*was*considered*null*
in*the*calculations.*
(D)* Total* output* value* =* A+B+C:* The* output* value* represents* the* account* of* a* representative*
farmer*of*the*clustered*group.*The*results*are*in*Table&58.*
It* is* possible* to* infer* from* the* total* output* value* from* the* farmers* that* in* general,* the*
representative* farmers* of* the* conventional* production* have* similar* output* values.* Only* the*
community*Serra*Velha*and*Serra*Nova*presented*higher*output*value*in*comparison*to*the*other*
communities*in*the*same*micro;basin.*That*is*the*reason*the*MB4*showed*a*higher*output*value*
as* compared* to* the* MB3.* The* organic* producers* still* have* less* output* value,* due* to* the* lower*
outputs*obtained*in*general.*However,*the*price*paid*per*kilogram*was*much*higher,*offering*the*
organic*farmer*a*comparatively*higher*output*value*in*relation*to*the*total*production.*
Table&57:&Total&output&value&at&the&production&level&C&Value&chain&B&
Sales&Revenues&
(A)&
Own&Final&
Consumption&(B)&
Change&in&
Inventories&(C)&
Total&Output&Value&
(D=A+B+C)&
Barracão&dos&Mendes&
R$92,992.58*
R$31.09*
;*
R$93,023.67*
Florândia&da&Serra&
R$71,809.48*
R$34.25*
;*
R$71,843.74*
Rio&Grande&
R$87,974.24*
R$38.06*
;*
R$88,012.30*
Salinas&
R$89,264.51*
R$38.06*
;*
R$89,302.57*
Santa&Cruz&
R$91,199.59*
R$47.57*
;*
R$91,247.17*
Serra&Nova&e&Serra&Velha&
R$183,805.94*
R$47.57*
;*
R$183,853.52*
MB3&
R$101,024.72*
R$37.11*
;*
R$101,061.83*
MB4&
R$109,145.56*
R$38.50*
;*
R$109,184.06**
Organic&Producers&
R$56,777.00*
R$49.15*
;*
R$56,826.15*
Total&
R$201,949.23*
R$40.15*
;*
R$201,989.39*
One&representative&producer&
Upstream* agents* were* accounted* separately,* using* available* data* acquired* through* interviews.*
There*were*many*obstacles*in*performing*the*interviews.*At*the*CEASA*wholesale,*data*was*not*
fully*obtained,*due*to*lack*of*interest*of*the*traders*in*participating*in*the*questionnaire*interview*
!
147!
and* also* due* to* lack* of* help* from* the* market* management.* Traders* were* suspicious* and* didn’t*
want*to*waste*their*time*to*cope*with*the*research.*The*study*was*conducted*in*three*days*at*the*
CEASA*Grande;Rio,*few*traders*or*managers*wanted*to*cope*with*the*research.*The*results*reflect*
the*data*acquired*from*6*traders,*which*gave*incomplete*answers.*The*manager*of*the*wholesale*
confiscated*the*questionnaires,*to*avoid*disturbance*of*the*traders,*and*offered*the*collection*of*
data*along*with*the*collection*of*daily*prices*performed*by*them.*No*data*has*yet*even*returned*
after*two*attempts*to*meet*the*manager.*Calculations*assumed*the*quantity*traded*and*the*sale*
price*by*each*to*make*up*a*representative*of*the*sector.*
The*same*sort*of*obstacles*was*found*with*other*upstream*agents.*They*also*provided*incomplete*
information*in*the*questionnaires.*The*middlemen*at*the*“Mercado*do*Produtor”*didn’t*provide*
complete*answers.*The*surveys*of*traders*at*the*COOPFEIRA*were*the*completed*ones,*and*most*
helpful* in* the* research.* The* mini;processing* and* specialized* retailers* didn’t* provide* entirely*
accurate* information.* No* pressure* was* imposed* on* them* either.* The* calculation* considered* an*
estimated* quantity* sold* at* the* sale* price* and* change* in* the* inventories* was* considered* the*
amount*stored*at*the*enterprise*according*to*fridge*chambers*capacities,*with*the*available*data*
collected.*The*results*of*the*upstream*agents*for*a*year*period*are*shown*in*Table&59.*
Table&58:&Total&Output&value&upstream&agents&Value&Chain&B&
One&representative&agent&
A*
B*
C*
D=A+B+C*
Sales&
Revenues&
Own*Final*
Consumption*
Change*in*
Inventories*
Total*Output*
Value*
CEASA&trader&
Small&
wholesale&
trader&
Middlemen&
Mini&C
processing&
Distributer&for&
specialized&
retailer&
2,434,656.00*
314,170.00*
282,525.00*
2,032,247.00*
5,110,000.00*
;*
;*
;*
;*
;*
;*
;*
22,325.00*
70.00*
16,250.00*
2,434,656.00*
314,170.00*
304,850.00*
2,032,317.00*
5,126,250.00*
6.6.1.2. Gross&Value&Added&(GVA)&&
For*reason*of*analysis,*it*has*been*considered*the*two*assumptions:*
(E)*Intermediate*input*costs:*accounted*the*total*inputs*entering*the*production*process,*totally*
consumed* in* the* production* period* of* the* year* 2013.* It* were* considered:* Intermediate* Inputs*
Produced* Inside* the* Value* chain* (IIIC),* which* are* the* outputs* of* downstream* agents,* e.g.*
vegetables;* and* Intermediate* Inputs* Outside* the* Value* Chain* (IIOC)* were* the* inputs* such* as*
fertilizers,* pesticides,* etc.* Due* to* the* already* explained* problems* with* data* collection* regarding*
!
148!
inputs* of* the* farmers,* the* IIOC* was* estimated* as* the* total* cost* per* hectare* of* each* farmer,* to*
homogenize* and* get* rid* of* the* gaps.* Then* the* cost* of* input* per* hectare* was* scaled* up* to* the*
representative* of* micro;basin* and* community.* Discrepant* data* was* annulled* during* the*
homogenization.*The*detailed*results*of*IIOC*are*presented*in*Appendix&11*in*Table&65.*
(F)*Gross*Value*Added*(GVA):*The*GVA*calculated*represents*the*value*of*output*net*of*the*value*
of* the* intermediate* input* costs.* The* results* were* clustered* in* community* and* micro;basin,*
separating* the* organic* producers,* for* the* effect* of* comparison.* Upstream* agents* of* the* chain*
were* accounted* separately.* The* IIIC,* IIOC,* and* GVA* represent* the* average* of* a* representative*
agent,*community*or*micro;basin.*The*overall*GVA*calculation*results*are*in*Table&60.**
Table&59:&Gross&Value&Added&(GVA)&of&the&agents&in&the&Value&Chain&B&
Representative&
agent&
Producer&agents&
IIIC&
IIOC&
(E)&Intermediate&
Input&costs&
(D)&Total&Output&
Value&
(F)&Gross&value&
Added&
*
*
*
*
*
;*
R$13,530.44*
R$13,530.44*
R$93,023.67*
R$79,493.23*
;*
R$21,648.70*
R$21,648.70*
R$71,843.74*
R$50,195.04*
Rio&Grande&
;*
R$29,766.96*
R$29,766.96*
R$88,012.30*
R$58,245.34*
Barracão&dos&
Mendes&
Florândia&da&
Serra&
Salinas&
;*
R$19,844.64*
R$19,844.64*
R$89,302.57*
R$69,457.93*
Santa&Cruz&
;*
R$54,121.75*
R$54,121.75*
R$91,247.17*
R$37,125.42*
Serra&Nova&e&
Serra&Velha&
;*
R$61,337.99*
R$61,337.99*
R$183,853.52*
R$122,515.53*
MB3&
;*
R$36,983.20*
R$36,983.20*
R$101,061.83*
R$64,078.63*
MB4&
;*
R$31,571.02*
R$31,571.02*
R$109,184.06*
R$77,613.04*
;*
R$33,600.59*
R$33,600.59*
R$103,441.11*
R$69,840.52*
;*
R$3,906.50*
R$3,906.50*
R$56,826.15*
R$52,919.65*
*
R$2,108,622.00*
*
R$19,092.00*
*
R$2,127,714.00*
*
R$2,434,656.00*
*
R$306,942.00*
Small&wholesale&
trader&
R$236,889.30*
R$22,784.00*
R$259,673.30*
R$314,170.00*
R$54,496.70*
Middlemen&
R$194,992.50*
R$18,558.00*
R$213,550.50*
R$304,850.00*
R$91,299.50*
MiniCprocessing&
R$754,236.00*
R$308,200.00*
R$1,062,436.00*
R$2,032,317.00*
R$969,881.00*
Distributor&
specialized&
retailer&
R$3,041,362.50*
R$588,000.00*
R$3,629,362.50*
R$5,126,250.00*
R$1,496,887.50*
Average&
conventional&
Producer&
Organic&
Producers&
Upstream&agents&
CEASA&trader&
The* results* revealed* an* ascending* add* of* the* gross* value* in* the* horticulture* chain.* Also,* it* is*
remarkable* that* the* specialized* retailer* distributors* and* the* mini;processing* plants* have* much*
more*value;added*as*compared*to*the*wholesalers*and*traders*acting*through*the*CEASA*system.*
!
149!
These*specialized*agents*trade*more*individually*packed*vegetables,*sanitized*and*mini;processed*
vegetables,*and*ready;to;eat*meals,*which*meets*the*consumer*market*needs.*On*the*other*hand,*
the*system*of*the*CEASAs*trades*more*in*quantity,*being*more*a*center*for*supply*and*distribution*
system.*There*was*no*difference*found*in*terms*of*gross*value*added*by*conventional*and*organic*
producers*
6.6.1.3. Net&Value&Added&(NVA)&
The*account*of*Net*Value*Added*considered*the*same*two*assumptions,*as*described*in*the*coffee*
value*chain:*
(G)* Consumption* of* fixed* capital* –* Cf:* It* was* calculated* the* consumption* of* fixed* assets,* e.g.*
machinery,* equipment,* buildings.* Cf* was* calculated* using* the* formula* Cf=) CIINT,* together* with*
income* account* over* the* next* topic 26.* The* same* standard* lifespan* of* fixed* assets* used* was*
extracted*from*Normative*Instruction*SFR*N°162*by*the*“Receita*Federal*do*Brasil”*(Ministério*da*
Fazenda,* 1998,* 2015).* The* results* were* grouped* to* get* a* representative* farmer* of* each*
community,*each*micro;basin;*also*to*every*upstream*representative*agent.*It*is*observed*that*for*
the*value*chain*B,*farmers*do*not*hold*many*assets.*The*assets*found*were*resumed*to*irrigation*
systems,*small*tractor*and*greenhouses.*The*majority*of*the*assets*were*acquired*via*institutional*
finance*from*Pronaf.*Organic*producers*had*much*more*incentives*in*this*regarding.*
(H)*Net*Value*Added*(NVA):*the*account*was*according*to*the*formula*H=F;G,*expressing*the*value*
of*output*net*of*the*value*of*both*intermediate*inputs*minus*the*consumption*of*fixed*asset.*The*
results*of*the*value*chain*B*are*in*Table&61.*
Table&60:&Net&value&Added&Value&Chain&B&
(G)&Consumption&of&
fixed&asset&(Cf)&
(F)&Gross&Value&
Added&–&GVA&
(H=FCG)&Net&value&
Added&–&NVA&
Barracão&dos&Mendes&
R$5,050.00*
R$79,493.23*
R$74,443.23*
Florândia&da&Serra&
R$1,276.00*
R$50,195.04*
R$48,919.04*
Rio&Grande&
R$2,633.75*
R$58,245.34*
R$55,611.59*
Serra&Nova&e&Serra&Velha&
R$5,820.00*
R$122,515.53*
R$116,695.53*
Salinas&
R$10,145.00*
R$69,457.93*
R$59,312.93*
Santa&Cruz&
R$22,625.00*
R$37,125.42*
R$14,500.42*
MB3&
R$16,385.00*
R$64,078.63*
R$47,693.63*
MB4&
R$3,694.94*
R$77,613.04*
R$73,918.10*
*
!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!
26
*Formulas*and*calculations*of*Cf,)C*and*INT*are*detailed*in*the*Methodology*chapter*
!
150!
Average&conventional&
Producer&
R$7,924.96*
R$69,840.52*
R$61,915.56*
Organic&Producers&
R$1,385.00*
R$52,919.65*
R$51,534.65*
CEASA&trader&
R$29,250.00*
R$306,942.00*
R$277,692.00*
Small&wholesale&trader&
R$27,333.33*
R$54,496.70*
R$27,163.37*
Middleman&
R$42,600.00*
R$91,299.50*
R$48,699.50*
MiniCprocessing&
R$15,940.00*
R$969,881.00*
R$953,941.00*
Specialized&retailer&
distributor&
R$360,000.00*
R$1,496,887.50*
R$1,136,887.50*
6.6.1.4. Findings&of&the&Production&Account&
The* distribution* of* value;added* along* the* horticulture* chain* is* not* even,* after* discounting* the*
consumable*costs.**The*producer,*whether*conventional*or*organic,*is*the*most*vulnerable*agent*
of* the* chain,* with* less* share* of* value;added.* The* distribution* of* value* added* does* not* follow* a*
normal*trend*line,*and*it*is*possible*to*infer*that*the*value;added*concentrates*on*the*specialized*
retailers* and* mini;processing* plants.* These* agents* are* the* ones* targeting* at* most* the* consumer*
preferences* and* needs,* and* the* consumer* pay* for* the* higher* price* of* the* products* offered* by*
them.*On*the*other*side,*there*are*the*wholesale*agents,*whose*primary*objective*is*to*supply*and*
distribute*the*produce*in*State*of*Rio*de*Janeiro.*Nevertheless,*the*environment*of*trade*created*
by* the* concentration* of* the* produce* (supply)* at* one* center* of* purchase,* reduce* the* sale* prices*
significantly.* Consequently,* all* other* agents* that* depend* on* this* uncontrolled* price* system* (i.e.*
producers,* small* wholesalers,* and* middlemen)* are* squeezed* to* fit* the* market.* Figure& 74*
illustrates*the*unequal*value;added*distribution*of*the*value*chain,*representing*the*agents’*share*
of*value;added*and*the*trend*line*of*value;added*concentration.*
Specialized&retailer&distributor&
44%&
MiniCprocessing&
Middleman&
Small&wholesale&trader&
37%&
2%&
1%&
CEASA&trader&
11%&
Organic&Producers&
2%&
Average&convennonal&Producer&
2%&
*
Figure&74:&Net&value&added&in&the&horticulture&value&chain&
!
151!
Certainly* there* is* an* unequal* distribution* of* value;added* in* the* horticulture* chain.* This* fact*
highlights*the*importance*of*decision;makers*to*provide*more*incentives*to*the*producers*so*that*
they*can*achieve*a*minimum*threshold*to*upgrade*in*the*value*chain.*One*of*the*options,*already*
cited*is*the*provision*of*agro;processing*assets*for*the*community,*to*bring*overall*benefit*to*the*
producers.* Another* aspect* is* the* decision* of* the* farmers* to* opt* for* more* ecological* production*
systems,*which*has*reduced*inputs,*and*allied*to*the*agro;processing,*would*bring*more*wealth*to*
the*farmer*communities.*
6.6.2. Income&Account&
6.6.2.1. Wages&
Wages*followed*the*same*structure*of*the*coffee*value*chain*section.*Same*labor*and*social*fees*
were* considered.* The* only* exceptions* are:* Family* work* was* estimated* at* opportunity* cost,*
considering*the*minimum*wage*of*R$724.00,*or*the*value*of*a*day*of*service,*plus*all*charges.*The*
sharecroppers* were* treated* as* family* labor.* Temporary* workers* considered* the* minimum* wage*
for* the* minimum* period* contract* of* two* months* according* to* Regulation* Law* No.* 5.889/73,*
Decree* No.* 73.626/74* (Brasil* ;* Casa* Civil,* 1973,* 1974).* The* traders* were* also* estimated* by* a*
minimum*wage*service*payment,*considering*that*they*are*the*enterprise*owners.*The*results*of*
wage*account*are*in*Table&66*in*Appendix&12.*
6.6.2.2. Interests&of&fixed&assets&&
It*was*used*the*Normative*Instruction*SFR*N°162*by*the*“Receita*Federal*do*Brasil”*(Ministério*da*
Fazenda,* 1998,* 2015)* as* calculation* reference,* and* the* rate* of* r) =* 13.31%.* INT* was* calculated*
through*the*equation*Cf)(Cf=CIINT).*The*coefficients*of*depreciation*rate*used*are*in*Table&28*the*
Chapter&5.**
The*differentiation*of*assets*was*not*high.*Most*of*the*assets*were*farming*equipment*and*small*
tractors.*Some*producers*held*greenhouses*for*intensive*production.*The*wholesalers*and*traders*
most*of*the*time*just*had*a*vehicle*for*the*transportation*of*theirs*goods.*For*specialized*retailers*
and*mini;processing*plants,*it*was*considered*the*building*installations,*the*processing*machinery*
and*equipment,*and*vehicles*for*transportation.*The*total*interest*cost*plus*eventual*maintenance*
costs*of*the*assets*in*the*value*chain*B*are*in*Table&62.*
!
152!
Table&61:&Interests&of&fixed&assets&and&eventual&maintenance&cost&in&value&chain&B&
Barracão&dos&Mendes&
&
Florândia&da&Serra&
Total&INT&
Maintenance&cost&/year&
R$1,261.32*
R$790.00*
R$828.98*
;*
Rio&Grande&
R$2,789.91*
R$706.19*
Serra&Nova&e&Serra&Velha&
R$1,424.11*
R$902.50*
Salinas&
R$2,549.29*
R$1,600.00*
Santa&Cruz&
R$4,873.36*
R$3,350.00*
MB3&
R$3,711.32*
R$2,475.00*
MB4&
R$1,576.08*
R$599.67*
Average&conventional&Producer&
R$2,287.83*
R$1,224.78*
Organic&Producers&
R$2,131.67*
R$135.00*
*
R$7,758.93*
*
;*
Small&wholesale&trader&
R$7,250.51*
;*
Middleman&
R$11,300.19*
;*
MiniCprocessing&
R$20,812.39*
R$1,250.00*
Specialized&retailer&distributor&
R$181,172.60*
;*
Upstream&agents&
CEASA&trader&
6.6.2.3. Taxes&
About*37%*of*the*farmers*claims*pay*taxes*about*the*production.*The*other*part*declared*to*be*
exempt* from* it* or* didn’t* have* the* acknowledgement* of* such* information.* The* fact* is* that*
according*to*the*Agreement*ICMS*(VAT)*89/00*(Governo*do*Estado*do*Rio*de*Janeiro,*2000),*there*
is*exemption*from*VAT*in*the*State*of*Rio*de*Janeiro*for*horticultural*products.*Additionally,*in*the*
article*7*of*the*common*law*Nº*4367,*from*28th*June*2004*(Governo*do*Estado*do*Rio*de*Janeiro,*
2004),*is*given*the*benefit*of*the*reduction*of*100%*for*the*output*of*fruit*and*vegetables*within*
the*territory*of*Rio*de*Janeiro.*It*conforms*to*the*standards*set*by*Resolution*N°*112*from*21st*
June*2004*referred*to*the*invoice*notes*of*the*farmer*(Secretaria*de*Estado*da*Fazenda*do*Rio*de*
Janeiro,*2004).*The*37%*respondent*farmers*realize*the*transaction*of*goods*using*invoice*notes,*
often*imposed*by*the*purchaser*or*by*institutional*programs.*Usually,*there*is*a*tax*fee*collected*
by*trade*union*Senar;Rio*over*the*sales*revenue*of*agricultural*products,*which*falls*to*them*at*a*
0.2%*rate*over*the*producer*(Senar;Rio,*2009).*
In*this*sense,*it*was*calculated*for*the*37%*tax*payers*the*aliquot*of*0.2%*over*the*sales*revenues.*
The*upstream*agents*also*claimed*to*be*exempt*from*tax*in*the*state*of*Rio*de*Janeiro,*as*proved*
by* the* law* above.* The* wholesale* sector* of* retail* industry* shall* issue* the* electronic* invoice,* and*
pay* 10%* tax* on* the* goods.* However,* many* of* the* respondents* do* not* operate* within* the* rules,*
and* many* horticultural* products* are* traded* in* the* informality.* According* to* a* government*
!
153!
assessment,* selling* without* issuance* of* an* invoice* is* the* most* common* irregularity* seen* within*
the* CEASAs* (Governo* do* Estado* do* Rio* de* Janeiro,* 2015).* That* might* be* one* of* the* reasons,*
traders* were* so* fearful* about* the* questionnaire* and* didn’t* participate.* Calculation* considered*
only*33%*of*the*respondents*of*the*wholesalers,*including*the*CEASA,*“Mercado*do*Produtor”*and*
COOPFEIRA.* None* of* the* specialized* retailer* distributor* or* mini;processed* plants* paid* taxes,*
according*to*the*provided*information*during*the*interview.*The*taxes*of*the*value*chain*B*are*in*
Table&63.*
Table&62:&Annual&production&taxes&in&the&value&chain&B&
Producer&
Barracão&dos&Mendes&
Taxes&(invoice&notes)&
;*
Upstream&
Taxes&(electronic&invoices)&
CEASA&
81155.2*
Florândia&da&Serra&
R$1,436.19*
Small&wholesale&
Rio&Grande&
R$1,759.48*
Middleman&
Serra&Nova&e&Serra&Velha&
R$3,676.12*
MiniCprocessing&
;*
Salinas&
R$1,785.29*
Specialized&distributor&
;*
Santa&Cruz&
9417.5*
;*
MB3&
R$892.65*
MB4&
R$1,717.95*
Organic&Producers&
10472.33333*
*
;*
6.6.2.4. Rents&
Producers* interviewed* said* they* do* not* have* costs* related* to* water* or* land* rent* or* any* other*
resource* because* they* subtract* water* directly* from* water* sources* and* springs* at* no* charge*
imposed* on* them.* The* organic* producer* said* to* lease* land,* and* the* cost* was* counted.* CEASA*
traders* and* small* wholesalers* (COOPFEIRA)* also* pay* for* the* use* of* stone* (“pedra”),* the* space*
where* they* trade,* which* is* R$12.00* per* 80* volumes* in* the* Pavilion* 21.* The* results* of* taxes* are*
together*with*the*general*calculation*of*profits*or*losses*in*Table&67*in*Appendix&13.*
6.6.2.5. Profit&or&Losses&
It* was* used* the* equation* Profit) =) NVA) –) production) factors) (Wage,) Interests,) Taxes,) Rents)* for*
calculations.* All* detailed* results* are* in* Table& 67* in* Appendix& 13.* For* the* effect* of* analysis,* the*
profits* or* losses* were* compared* according* to* the* profit* share* in* the* value* chain.* Figure& 75*
illustrates*the*proportion*of*profit*among*the*value*chain*agents.*
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154!
*
Figure&75:&Value&added&distribution&share&in&the&value&chain&B&
6.6.2.6. Income&Account&findings&
The* results* show* that* after* discounting* all* costs,* fixed* and* variables,* some* value* chain* agents*
presented*dividends*instead*of*a*profit.*The*negative*share*rate*is*of*some*importance*in*the*farm*
or*business*management.*It*seems*producers*don't*take*into*consideration*the*production*factor*
wage,*being*the*reason*some*farmers*don’t*notice*the*annual*losses*in*his*enterprise.*It*is*possible*
to* see* that* the* most* vulnerable* groups* are* at* the* production* level,* mainly* the* communities*
Florândia*da*Serra,*Rio*Grande,*Salinas*and*Santa*Cruz,*in*both*micro;basins.*It*was*surprising*that*
the*organic*producer*presented*a*positive*balance,*despite*the*need*to*rent*land*to*produce.*The*
organic* producers* also* count* with* many* benefits* from* the* institutional* support,* due* to* the*
program* aims* of* giving* incentive* to* more* sustainable* production.* The* sustainable* production*
should* continuously* be* encouraged* within* the* micro;basins.* The* organic* production* would* rid*
conventional* producer* from* the* prices* instability* of* the* CEASA* system,* and* additionally* achieve*
higher*income*through*the*direct*sale.**
The*wholesale*market*didn’t*present*so*much*great*profit*either*as*compared*to*the*other*agents,*
grabbing* around* 8.5%* of* the* value* added* share.* The* small* wholesalers,* i.e.* traders* at* the*
COOPFEIRA* and* middlemen* at* the* “Mercado* do* Produtor”* are* the* most* affected* among* the*
wholesaler*agents.*These*agents*are*squeezed,*because*they*operate*under*the*price*system*of*
the* CEASA,* entirely* vulnerable* to* price* crashes.* Consequently* they* impose* these* conditions* on*
the*producers,*in*order*to*fit*the*market*environment.*
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155!
The*disparity*seen*is*indeed*about*the*specialized*market.*These*agents*add*value*to*the*produce,*
by*packing,*by*sanitizing,*selecting*or*mini;processing*the*vegetables.*They*pay*the*producer*the*
same*price*as*the*wholesaler*agents*do.*However,*they*get*extremely*elevated*sales*revenue,*in*
selling*those*convenient*products,*ready;to;eat*meals,*to*the*higher*income*consumer*market*in*
the*capital*through*a*very*specialized*market*such*as*the*Hortifruti/Tutti;frutti*chain.*This*network*
is*specialized*in*selling*mini;processed*or*in*bulk*vegetables,*which*is*convenient*to*the*consumer.*
It*is*relevant*to*note*that*the*account*here*presented*is*relative*only*to*the*studied*vegetables,*
i.e.*tomato,*green*bean,*parsley,*beetroot,*cauliflower,*lettuce*and*Chinese*cabbage.*One*might*
imagine*how*high*it*would*be*the*profit*of*such*powerful*retailer*chains,*considering*all*types*of*
vegetables*and*products.*
The*conclusion*of*this*finding*is*that*the*value*chain*is*creating*value*added,*but*the*distribution*is*
very* concentrated* at* the* specialized* market* agents.* It* can* be* said* that* some* producers* are*
practically*struggling*to*carry*on*their*businesses*and*thus*their*livelihoods.*
6.7. Market&Map&Framework&Value&Chain&B&
The*market*map*framework*of*the*value*chain*B*(horticulture)*is*represented*in*Figure&76.*
*
Figure&76:&Market&Map&Framework&Value&Chain&B&
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156!
The* map* displays* the* enabling* environment.* Additionally,* the* map* shows* the* current* or*
suggested*offerings*of*extension*services*or*business,*which*gives*the*opportunity*to*upgrade*the*
value* chain* level.* Also,* the* analysis* SWOT 27 *of* this* value* chain* obtained* through* the*
questionnaire*is*in*Table&68*in*Appendix&14.*The*SWOT*analysis*provided*valuable*information*to*
base*the*market*map.*
The* map* considers* many* aspects.* One* aspect* is* that* it* resumed* all* performed* analysis.* Every*
point*of*consideration*in*every*analytical*step*is*highlighted*in*this*figure.*Another*aspect*is*the*
suggested*opportunity*for*improvement*in*the*chain.*The*analysis*revealed*that*the*farmer*is*the*
most* vulnerable* agent* of* the* value* chain.* The* primary* factor* constraining* the* farmer* is* the*
traditional* way* of* distribution* through* the* CEASAs,* which* concentrates* the* production* and*
changes* the* environment* of* prices.* Although* the* CEASA* is* still* the* main* channel* of*
commercialization,* the* system* no* longer* attends* to* the* demand* of* the* market* and* does* not*
contribute* to* a* sustainable* development* of* the* value* chain.* The* suggested* option* here* is* to*
minimize*the*dependency*on*the*wholesale,*on*the*middlemen,*which*is*limiting*the*farmer*and*
his*enterprises*balance.*
Another* point* that* is* limiting* the* farmer* is* the* little* technological* pattern.* Although* there* are*
many* policies* giving* incentives* to* them,* yet* they* have* not* reached* a* minimum* threshold* to* be*
independent.* The* technological* mode* restricts* their* inclusion* in* the* specialized* market,* which*
demands*higher*standards*of*production.**
However,*the*farmer*has*things*on*his*side:*high*profitability*in*short;term,*strategic*location*near*
the*urban*centre*and*the*Comperj*system,*availability*of*pro;family*farming*programmes*already*
in* place,* and* an* increasing* demand* for* healthier* foods,* due* to* epidemiologic* problem* of* the*
NCDs.**
The* benchmark* for* an* improvement* of* the* value* chain* is* the* inner* organization.* Farmers* need*
more*union*for*their*own*benefit.*The*union*has*already*started*after*the*disaster*in*2011,*to*get*
the*emergency*help*from*the*government.*
So,* the* post;emergency* programs* need* to* continue,* strengthening* the* farmer,* enhancing* the*
promotion*of*more*sustainable*production,*which*is*the*main*way*to*get*more*resilience*to*future*
disasters.* Also,* local* institutions* working* in* the* study* area* can* facilitate* the* linkages* between*
farmers* and* benefits,* including* accessibility* to* better* markets.* Additionally,* the* supporting*
institutions* can* easy* the* means* to* get* finance* for* agro;processing* structure* owned* by* the*
community.*The*facilitation*together*with*the*sense*of*union*is*the*great*recipe*for*an*upgrading*
process*and*valorisation*of*the*communities.*
*
!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!
27
*The*SWOT*analysis*was*used*only*in*the*analysis*of*value*chain*B.*For*the*value*chain*A*was*used*table*of*cause*and*
effect.*
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157!
7.
CONCLUSIONS&AND&RECOMMENDATIONS&
The*value*chain*analysis*was*an*efficient*tool*to*detect*the*main*misalignments*and*opportunities*
for* improvement* in* the* value* chains* of* coffee* in* the* Northwest* Region* and* horticulture* in* the*
Mountain* Region.* The* analysis* was* driven* to* target* particular* groups* of* family* farming*
communities* in* the* micro;basins* studied.* The* research* identified* the* most* vulnerable*
communities,*which*were*Degredo*and*Boa*Ventura*in*the*micro;basin*Ribeirão*da*Onça,*and*the*
majority*of*the*communities*in*micro;basins*Barracão*dos*Mendes*and*Santa*Cruz.*The*perceived*
problems* can* offer* insight* into* the* decision;making* process,* to* address* adequate* technologies,*
and* facilitate* the* linkages* with* better* markets.* Consequently* by* upgrading* the* condition* of* the*
stallholder,*it*enables*the*conditions*for*sustainable*development*in*the*rural*regions*of*the*State*
Rio*de*Janeiro.*
There*is*an*ultimate*need*to*modernize*the*commercialization*of*agricultural*products*within*the*
State,* considering* the* deficit* in* quantity* and* quality,* regarding* the* demand,* and* the* increasing*
changes*in*the*market*environment,*which*difficult*the*adaptation*of*the* small*producer.*Three*
main*concluding*and*recommending*issues*are*worth*of*consideration.**
Initially,*the*decision;makers*should*facilitate*the*access*to*technologies,*addressing*at*the*same*
time* a* higher* quality* product* standard* and* the* conservation* of* the* natural* environment.* The*
current*low*technological*pattern*is*constraining*the*coffee*growers*to*pursuit*better*quality*and*
reduced* costs* of* production.* The* technology* structure* is* also* restricting* the* access* to* better*
markets*and*socio;environmental*resilience*for*the*horticulture*producer.*It*is*essential*to*set*a*
minimum*technological*threshold*to*upgrade*the*farmer*in*the*value*chain*and*be*independent*of*
the*governmental*assistance*in*a*long*term.*This*fact*is*significant*to*be*tackled*into*programs*and*
policies.* More* specifically,* Northwest* Region* still* needs* investments* in* adequate* harvest* and*
post;harvest* processing* technologies* to* overcome* the* bad* reputation* of* its* coffee* quality* and*
prepare* for* the* biannual* cycle* changes.* Moreover,* the* Mountain* Region* needs* improvement* in*
the* logistic* structure* and* sustainable* production* systems,* to* better* deal* with* the* high*
competitiveness*of*the*market*and*the*exigent*demand.*
Second,*it*is*fundamental*to*propitiate*an*equalization*of*wealth*and*a*reasonable*distribution*of*
value;added* in* the* value* chain.* For* that* matter,* there* is* an* urgent* necessity* to* establish*
appropriate*regulatory*bodies,*to*regulate*market*distortions.*More*accordingly,*Rio*de*Janeiro’s*
coffee*industry*has*shrunk*due*to*applied*market*regulations,*which*limits*the*options*of*trade*for*
the* coffee* growers* at* relatively* low* sale* prices.* This* sort* of* weaknesses* is* in* the* face* of* the*
requirement*of*new*incentives,*which*could*be*set*at*the*production*level,*providing*farmers*the*
!
158!
maximum*value;adding*activities*as*possible.*Furthermore,*the*horticulture*chain*is*entangled*by*
the* traps* of* the* competitiveness* imposed* by* the* CEASA* system,* which* constraints* all* agents*
operating*at*the*maladjusted*price*system.*Inevitably,*the*burden*falls*on*the*producer*at*most.*
However,*to*transform*the*whole*CEASA*system*is*beyond*the*Secretariat*of*Agriculture*changing*
capabilities.*The*options,*in*this*case,*are*to*start*from*the*bottom*and*improve*the*core*of*the*
production* system.* Strengthening* the* most* weakened* part* can* unbind* the* producer* from* the*
wholesale,*and*facilitate*the*linkages*with*enhanced*markets,*more*conveniently*the*green*ones.*
And* last,* for* an* adequately* rural* sustainable* development,* the* setup* value* chain* governance*
should*consider*an*inner*change.*There*is*a*deep*necessity*of*improved*coordination*among*the*
stakeholders,* including* value* chain* agents,* and* institutions* supporting* the* value* chain.*
Additionally,* farmers* ought* to* recognize* the* power* of* their* organization* structure* as* the*
benchmark* key* for* the* development.* It* is* worthwhile* that* the* most* vulnerable* groups* organize*
more*efficiently,*to*open*space*for*governmental*intervention,*capacity*building,*and*resilience*to*
all*sorts*of*changes,*whether*social,*economic*or*environmental.*
&
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&
159!
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and*modeling’,*CATENA,*55(2),*pp.*163–181,*[online]*Available*from:*
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Governo*do*Estado*do*Rio*de*Janeiro*(2002)*‘Decreto*N.o*32.161*de*11*de*novembro*de*2002’,*
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Governo*do*Estado*do*Rio*de*Janeiro*(2003)*‘Lei*Ordinária*N°4177,*de*29*de*Setembro*de*2003’,*
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IBGE*(2010a)*‘IBGE*|*Censo*2010’,*Censo)Demográfico)2010,*[online]*Available*from:*
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IBGE*(2015b)*‘IBGE*|*Cidades*|*Rio*de*Janeiro*|*Varre;Sai’,*[email protected],*[online]*Available*from:*
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IBGE*(2014)*Pesquisa)Nacional)por)Amostra)de)Domicílios)Contínua,*Trabalho)e)Rendimento.)
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IBGE*(2015d)*‘Produção*Agrícola*Municipal*PAM’,*Instituto)Brasileiro)de)Geografia)e)Estatística,*
[online]*Available*from:*
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July*2015).*
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IBGE*(2015e)*‘Sistema*IBGE*de*Recuperação*Automática*;*SIDRA’,*Instituto)Brasileiro)de)Geografia)
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de)Orçamentos)Familiares)2008I2009:)Avaliação)nutricional)da)disponibilidade)domiciliar)de)
alimentos)no)Brasil,*Rio*de*Janeiro,*[online]*Available*from:*
http://www.ibge.gov.br/english/estatistica/populacao/condicaodevida/pof/2008_2009_aval
_nutricional/pof20082009_avaliacao.pdf.*
IFAD*(2012)*Agricultural)value)chain)finance)strategy)and)design,*International*Fund*for*
Agricultural*Development*(IFAD).*
ILO,*FAO*and*IFAD*(2012)*Agricultural)value)chain)development:)Threat)or)opportunity)for)
women’s)employment?,*International*Labour*Organization;*Food*and*Agriculture*
Organization;*International*Fund*for*Agriculture*Development,*[online]*Available*from:*
http://www.fao.org/docrep/013/i2008e/i2008e04.pdf.*
INCRA*and*FAO*(2000)*‘Novo*Retrato*da*Agricultura*Familiar:*O*Brasil*Redescoberto’,*Projeto)de)
Cooperação)Técnica)INCRA)/)FAO,*Food*and*Agriculture*Organization*of*the*United*Nations;*
Instituto*Nacional*de*Colonização*e*Reforma*Agrária.*
INEA*(2015)*‘Apoio*aos*pequenos*produtores*rurais’,*Instituto)Estadual)do)Meio)Ambiente,*
[online]*Available*from:*
http://www.inea.rj.gov.br/cs/groups/public/documents/document/zwew/mdu5/~edisp/ine
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Iniciativa*Agenda*21*Comperj*(2011)*‘Agricultura*em*Nova*Friburgo’,*Agenda)21)Comperj,*[online]*
Available*from:*http://agenda21comperj.com.br/content/agricultura;em;nova;friburgo*
(Accessed*15*July*2015).*
Iniciativa*Agenda*21*Comperj*(2015a)*‘Municípios*|*Agenda*21*Comperj*Desenvolvimento*
Sustentável’,*[online]*Available*from:*http://www.agenda21comperj.com.br/municipios*
(Accessed*21*August*2015).*
Iniciativa*Agenda*21*Comperj*(2015b)*‘O*Município*|*Nova*Friburgo’,*Agenda)21)Nova)Friburgo,*
[online]*Available*from:*http://agenda21novafriburgo.com.br/o;municipio/*(Accessed*15*
July*2015).*
INTECRAL*(2015)*‘Summary*Integrated*Eco*Technologies*and*Services*for*a*Sustainable*Rural*Rio*
de*Janeiro’,*Cologne,*Cologne*University*of*Applied*Sciences.*Institute*for*Technology*and*
Resources*Management*in*the*Tropics*and*Subtropics,*[online]*Available*from:*
http://intecral;project.web.fh;
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Inter*Supermercados*(2015)*‘Inter*Supermercados’,*[online]*Available*from:*
http://www.supermercadosinter.com.br/empresa.php*(Accessed*14*July*2015).*
International*Coffee*Organization*(2015a)*‘Exports*of*all*forms*of*coffee*by*all*exporting*
countries’,*[online]*Available*from:*http://www.ico.org/historical/1990*onwards/PDF/2a;
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International*Coffee*Organization*(2015b)*‘Imports*by*selected*importing*countries’,*[online]*
Available*from:*http://www.ico.org/new_historical.asp?section=Statistics*(Accessed*11*May*
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International*Coffee*Organization*(2015c)*‘Prices*paid*to*growers*in*exporting*countries’,*
Historical)Data)on)the)Global)Coffee)Trade,*[online]*Available*from:*
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International*Coffee*Organization*(2015d)*‘Total*production*by*exporting*countries’,*[online]*
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International*Coffee*Organization*(2015e)*‘World*coffee*consumption’,*[online]*Available*from:*
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SpringerPlus,*2(1),*p.*161,*[online]*Available*from:*
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Kottek,*M.,*Grieser,*J.,*Beck,*C.,*Rudolf,*B.*and*Rubel,*F.*(2006)*‘World*map*of*the*Köppen;Geiger*
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Lima,*J.*L.*C.*D.*R.*(2010)*‘Cadeia*Produtiva*de*Olericultura’,*Rio*de*Janeiro,*Emater;Rio.*
Livramento,*K.*G.*(2008)*‘Proteômica*Diferencial*de*Café*Arábica*Submetido*a*Diferentes*
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Lopes,*J.*C.*and*Macedo,*C.*M.*P.*De*(2008)*‘Germinação*de*sementes*de*couve*chinesa*sob*
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MAPA*(2015a)*‘Culturas:*Café’,*Ministério)da)Agricultura,)Pecuária)e)do)Abastecimento,*[online]*
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MAPA*(2015b)*‘Histórico*da*Política*do*Café’,*Ementário)do)Café.)Ministério)da)Agricultura,)
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MAPA*(2015c)*‘Informe*Estatístico*do*Café*2013;2014’,*Ministério)da)Agricultura,)Pecuária)e)do)
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MDS*(2015)*‘Programa*de*Aquisição*de*Alimentos*–*PAA’,*Ministério)do)Desenvolvimento)Social)e)
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Ministério*do*Trabalho*e*do*Emprego*and*Secretaria*de*Inspeção*do*Trabalho*(2011)*‘Instrução*
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Mondini,*L.,*Moraes,*S.*A.*De,*Freitas,*I.*C.*M.*De*and*Gimeno,*S.*G.*A.*(2010)*‘Fruit*and*vegetable*
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Mourão,*I.*R.*A.*and*Colombini,*R.*(2008)*Manual)I)I)Breve)História)do)Sistema)de)Ceasas)no)Brasil)
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agricultural*land*use*in*Rio*de*Janeiro’,*Soil)and)Tillage)Research,*144,*pp.*164–173,*[online]*
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NCA*(2015)*‘Ten*steps*to*coffee:*From*seed*to*cup’,*National)Coffee)Association)USA,*[online]*
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2015).*
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PESAGRO;RIO*(2014)*Relatório)da)Administração,*[online]*Available*from:*
http://www.pesagro.rj.gov.br/downloads/RELATÓRIO*DA*ADMINISTRAÇÃO*2014*
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PMNF*(2015)*‘PMNF:*Dados*Gerais’,*Prefeitura)Municipal)de)Nova)Friburgo,*[online]*Available*
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PNUD,*Ipea*and*FJP*(2013)*‘Índice*de*Desenvolvimento*Humano*Municipal*Brasileiro.*Atlas*do*
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Prefeitura*do*Rio*de*Janeiro*(2015a)*‘A*Feira*Livre*do*Município*do*Rio*de*Janeiro’,*Secretaria)
Municipal)de)Ordem)Pública)I)SEOP,*[online]*Available*from:*
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dá)outras)providências,*[online]*Available*from:*
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Prefeitura*do*Rio*de*Janeiro*(2015b)*‘Recuperação*da*Região*Serrana’,*Secretaria)de)Estado)do)
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Prefeitura*Municipal*Varre;Sai*(2015)*‘Portal*da*Prefeitura*de*Varre;sai’,*[online]*Available*from:*
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Programa*Rio*Rural*(2013)*‘Desenvolvimento*Rural*Sustentável*Em*Microbacias*Hidrográficas’,*
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Rede*Varejista*Hortifruti*(2014)*‘Hortifruti*;*É*de*família.’,*Quem)somos)nós,*[online]*Available*
from:*http://www.hortifruti.com.br/*(Accessed*14*July*2015).*
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em*terreiros*com*diferentes*pavimentações*e*espessuras*de*Camada’,*Coffee)Science,*7(3),*
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Rio*Rural*;*BIRD*(2014a)*‘Plano*Executivo*da*Microbacia*(PEM)*;*Barracão*dos*Mendes’,*Governo*
do*Estado*do*Rio*de*Janeiro.*Secretaria*de*Estado*de*Agricultura*e*Pecuária.*
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Rio*Rural*;*GEF*(2015b)*‘Plano*Executivo*de*Microbaca*(PEM)*;*Ribeirão*da*Onça’,*SEAPEC;SDS;*
Governo*do*Estado*do*Rio*de*Janeiro.*
Rosa,*S.*D.*V.*F.,*Clemente,*A.*C.*S.,*Caixeta,*F.,*Pereira,*C.*C.*P.,*Coelho,*L.*F.*S.,*Abreu,*L.*A.*S.,*
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SAF*(2015)*‘Programas*|*Ministério*do*Desenvolvimento*Agrário’,*Secretaria)da)Agricultura)
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SEAPEC*(2015a)*‘Secretaria*de*Estado*de*Agricultura*e*Pecuária*–*SEAPEC’,*Projetos)e)Programas)
estruturais)e)setoriais,*[online]*Available*from:*
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toseProgramas%27);&forward=setoriais&label=setoriais&search;
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SEAPEC*(2015b)*‘Secretaria*de*Estado*de*Agricultura*e*Pecuária*–*SEAPEC*;*Cooperativa*de*Café*
no*Noroeste*recebe*investimentos’,*Governador)participou)de)inauguração)de)unidade)em)
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SEAPEC;SDS*(2015a)*‘Microbacias:*Ribeirão*da*Onça’,*Programa)de)Desenvolvimento)Rural)
Sustentável)em)Microbacias)Hidrográficas)I)Rio)Rural)I)Secretaria)de)Agricultura)e)Pecuária,*
[online]*Available*from:*http://www.microbacias.rj.gov.br/en/watershed/ribeirao;da;onca*
(Accessed*22*July*2015).*
SEAPEC;SDS*(2015b)*‘Rio*Rural*;*Portal*do*Desenvolvimento*Rural*Sustentável’,*Microbacias,*
[online]*Available*from:*http://www.microbacias.rj.gov.br/microbacia.jsp*(Accessed*21*July*
2015).*
SEAPEC;SDS*and*FAO*(2013)*‘Revised*Economic*and*Financial*Analysis*BRAZIL:*Rio*de*Janeiro*
Sustainable*Rural*Development*Project*with*Additional*Financing’,*Rio*de*Janeiro.*
SEBRAE*(2011)*‘Cheiro;Verde.*Saiba*como*cultivar*hortaliças*para*semear*bons*negócios’,*Série*
Agricultura*Familiar.*
Secretaria*de*Agricultura*e*Desenvolvimento*Rural*de*Nova*Friburgo*(2011)*‘Agropecuária*em*
Nova*Friburgo’,*Nova*Friburgo.*
Secretaria*de*Estado*da*Fazenda*do*Rio*de*Janeiro*(2004)*‘Resolução*SER*N.o*112*de*21*de*junho*
de*2004’,*Dispõe)sobre)os)procedimentos)a)serem)adotados)por)produtor)rural,)
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fruição)dos)tratamentos)tributários)previstos)na)Lei)n.o)4.177/2003)e)dá)outras)providências,*
[online]*Available*from:*
http://www.fazenda.rj.gov.br/sefaz/faces/menu_structure/servicos?_afrLoop=5083286594
93000&datasource=UCMServer%23dDocName%3A83476&_afrWindowMode=0&_adf.ctrl;
state=11xnk906qw_706*(Accessed*26*August*2015).*
Senar;Rio*(2009)*‘Produtor*Rural*Pessoa*Física.*Recolhimento*sobre*a*comercialização*da*
produção’,*Sistema*FAERJ,*[online]*Available*from:*http://sistemafaerj.com.br/senar;
rio/arrecadacao/.*
Shahiida*bt*Musa,*Boniface,*B.*and*Tanakinjal,*G.*(2014)*‘Relationship*Marketing*Moderating*
Effect*On*Value*Chain*Of*Horticulture*Produce :*An*Intermediaries*’*Perspective’,*In*
International)Agribusiness)Marketing)Conference)2013)UMK)Procedia,*Lumpur,*Selangor,*
Malaysia,*Elsevier*B.V.,*pp.*82–92,*[online]*Available*from:*
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.umkpro.2014.07.011.*
Silva,*B.*A.*de*O.*and*Reis,*E.*A.*(2013)*‘A*bienalidade*da*cafeicultura*e*o*resultado*econômico*da*
estocagem’,*Custos)e)Agronegócio,*9(3),*pp.*2–26.*
Silva,*J.*A.*da*C.*e,*Costa,*R.*A.*da*and*Storch,*M.*(2003)*‘Panorama*da*tomaticultura*no*Brasil*e*
sua*evolução*no*Estado*do*Rio*de*Janeiro’,*Pesquisa)Agropecuária)e)Desenvolvimento)
Sustentável,*2(2),*pp.*62–74.*
Silva,*J.*N.*and*Cardoso*Sobrinho,*J.*(2001)*‘Energy*analysis*in*coffee*drying*using*horizontal*
rotative*dryer*and*vertical*crossflow*dryer’,*In*II)Simpósio)de)Pesquisa)dos)Cafés)do)Brasil,*
Vitória,*ES,*Embrapa*Café,*pp.*717–723,*[online]*Available*from:*
http://www.sapc.embrapa.br/antigo/index.php/ii;simposio;de;pesquisa;dos;cafes;do;
brasil/.*
!
175!
SIMA*and*PESAGRO;RIO*(2002)*‘Comercialização*no*Atacado*de*Hortigranjeiros.*Ofertas*e*preços*;*
período*1995/2000.*Documento*82’,*Niterói,*Serviço*de*Informação*de*Mercado*Agrícola*
(SIMA);Empresa*de*Pesquisa*Agropecuária*do*Estado*do*Rio*de*Janeiro.*
Sistema*FAERJ*(2015)*‘Programa*Bule*Cheio’,*Federação)da)Agricultura,)Pecuária)e)Pesca)do)
Estado)do)Rio)de)Janeiro,*[online]*Available*from:*
http://sistemafaerj.com.br/programas/bule;cheio/*(Accessed*15*August*2015).*
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Oxford*Landing*From*“Vine*to*Dine”’,*Supply)Chain)Management:)An)International)Journal,*
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condições*de*risco,*para*agricultores*familiares*das*Regiões*Norte*e*Noroeste*do*Estado*do*
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Technische*Zusammenarneit*(GTZ)*GmbH,*[online]*Available*from:*
http://www.valuelinks.org/index.php/material/manual.*
Springer;Heinze,*A.*(2008b)*ValueLinks)Manual:)the)methodology)of)value)chain)promotion,*first*
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46–59.*
Stoian,*D.,*Donovan,*J.,*Fisk,*J.*and*Muldoon,*M.*F.*(2012)*‘Value*chain*development*for*rural*
poverty*reduction:*A*reality*check*and*a*warning’,*Enterprise)Development)and)Microfinance,*
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2015).*
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!
176!
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http://www.who.int/mediacentre/factsheets/fs394/en/*(Accessed*13*July*2015).*
Zona*Sul*(2015)*‘Zona*Sul*Atende’,*Institucional,*[online]*Available*from:*
http://www.zonasulatende.com.br/Quem;Somos/*(Accessed*14*July*2015).*
*
*
!
*
177!
10.
*
APPENDICES&AND&ANNEXES&
10.1. Annex&1:&VCA&Data&Requirements&
Table&63:&Data&requirements&used&for&value&chain&analysis&in&this&study,&when&applicable&
I.
•
Wholesale*price*at*different*locations*(including*international*prices*CIF;*FOB,*if*any)*
•
Producer*price*of*the*commodity*at*different*locations*
•
Consumer*price*of*the*commodity*at*different*locations*
•
Produced*and*traded*quantities*of*the*commodity*
•
Location*of*the*main*markets*in*the*region*and/or*at*national*level*
•
Home*consumption*and*marketed*shares*of*the*produced*good,*if*any*
•
Numbers*of*the*actual*and*potential*consumers*in*destination*area*
•
Seasonality*in*prices*and*output*quantities***
II.
Primary&production&process&
•
Prevailing*farming*or*other*production*systems*in*the*production*area*
•
Average*farm/firm*size*or*typology*of*representative*farms*or*firms*
•
Number*of*the*representative*farms*and*firms*in*the*area*
•
Yield*per*unit*of*activity*for*each*representative*farms/firms*
•
Total*production*from*each*farming*system*type*in*the*relevant*area*
•
Post;harvest*losses*
•
Output*storage*capacity***
III.
Inputs&and&factors&for&primary&production&
•
Quantity*of*each*input*per*unit*of*output*(technical*coefficients)*
•
Purchase*prices*of*input*per*input*type*
•
Seasonality*in*prices*and*quantities*of*the*main*inputs*
•
Stocking*costs*of*inputs*
•
Packaging*and*stocking*costs*of*output*
•
Transportation*costs*of*inputs*from*various*locations*
•
Equipment,*required*investment,*facilities*and*related*depreciation*
•
Other*Costs*
•
Tariffs*and*taxes*
•
Labor*wages*at*various*locations*
•
Total*land*in*the*relevant*area*
•
Total*arable*land*in*the*in*the*relevant*area*
•
Water*resources*(types,*number,*capacity)*
•
Land,*water*and*other*natural*resource*use*rents***
IV.
!
Output:&
CollectionCtrade&of&raw&commodity&
•
Typology*of*representative*trading*agents*
•
Type*of*market*(competitive,*monopsony*etc.)*and*contractual*arrangements*
178!
•
Facilities*available*for*collection;trade*of*the*raw*commodity*(Storage*capacity,*specific*infrastructures*etc.)*
•
Transportation*costs*from*the*production*to*the*processor*
•
Other*transaction*costs*(informal*taxes,*losses*etc.)*
•
Investment*costs*for*collection;trade*and*related*depreciation*
•
Commodity*purchase*price*of*trader*
•
Commodity*sale*price*of*trader*
•
Trade*margins**
V.
Processing&
•
Typology*of*representative*processing*agents*
•
Quantity*of*commodity*processed*by*type*of*representative*processing*agent*
•
Purchase*price*of*raw*commodities*
•
Processing;conversion*coefficients*by*type*of*representative*processing*agent*
•
Other*processing*inputs*and*factors*by*type*of*representative*processing*agent**(technology)*
•
Prices*of*other*inputs*and*factors*required*in*processing*
•
Losses*due*to*processing*
•
Sale*prices*of*processed*commodities*
•
Storage*capacity*of*processors*
•
Investment*costs*and*related*depreciation*for*processing.***
VI.
Wholesalers,&Exporters&and/or&Importers&of&the&processed&commodity&
•
Transportation*costs*
•
Transaction*costs*
•
Equipment*and*facilities*costs*
•
Investment*costs*and*depreciation*
•
Purchased*quantity*
•
Storage*capacity*
•
Purchase*price*
•
Sale*prices***
VII.
•
General&and&institutional&context&
Economic*and*social*infrastructures*available*(electricity*roads,*schools,*hospitals,*markets,*communications,*
etc.)*
•
Distance*from*production*sites*and*the*closest*infrastructure*
•
National*laws*and*or*international*treaties*affecting*the*value*chain*
•
Market*regulations*and*functioning*
•
Producers’*organizations*acting*in*support*to*the*value*chain*
•
NGOs*acting*in*support*to*the*value*chain*
Retrieved) from) Bellù,) L.) G.) (2013)) Value) Chain) Analysis) for) Policy) Making) Methodological)
Guidelines) and) country) cases) for) a) Quantitative) Approach) Restricted) circulation,) Food) and)
Agriculture)Organization)of)the)United)Nations)*
!
*
!
*
179!
10.2. Annex&2:&Accounting&Definitions&
Sales& revenues:& Flow* of* output* generated* by* the* production* process* and* sold* on* the* market*
multiplied* by* the* unit* price.* Sales* are* measured* before* the* application* of* any* taxes* on* the*
product.* Sales* exclude* all* payments* received* from* government* unless* they* are* granted* to* any*
producers*undertaking*the*same*activity.**
Own& Final& Use:& Products*retained*by*producers*for*personal*use*as*final*consumption*or*capital*
formation.**
Changes&in&inventories:&The*value*of*the*entries*into*inventories*net*of*the*value*of*withdrawals*
and*of*the*value*of*any*losses*of*goods*held*in*inventories.**
Total&output&value:&Sales*revenues+*Own*Final*Use*of*output*+*Changes*in*inventories.**
Intermediate& inputs:& Flow* of* goods* and* services* entering* the* production* process* and* totally*
consumed*during*a*production*period.**
Fixed&capital&consumption:&The*loss*of*value*of*an*asset*in*a*given*period.*It*can*be*calculated*as*
the*sum*of*the*discounted*expected*future*benefits*from*using*the*asset*for*its*remaining*service*
life* periods,* which* is* calculated* at* the* beginning* of* the* period* net* of* the* sum* of* discounted*
expected*future*benefits*at*the*end*of*the*period.**
Interest&cost:&Either*the*interest*paid*on*funds*borrowed*to*purchase*the*asset*or*the*opportunity*
cost*of*capital*measured*as*the*yield*obtainable*from*investing*on*the*best*alternative*asset.**
Gross& Value& Added& (GVA):& The* difference* between* total* output* value* and* the* cost* of*
intermediate*inputs,*before*fixed*capital*consumption.**
Net&Value&Added&(NVA):&The*difference*between*total*output*value*and*the*cost*of*intermediate*
inputs,*after*deducting*fixed*capital*consumption.**
Production& factors& (PF):& Labour,*capital,*land,*general*public*services,*entrepreneurial*capacities*
and*all*the*non;man;made*assets*the*services*of*which*contribute*to*a*production*process.**
Profits& (or& losses):& NVA* net* of* the* remuneration* of* production* factors* except* entrepreneurial*
capacities.)*
This)entire)definition)was)retrieved)from)Bellù,)L.)G.)(2013))Value)Chain)Analysis)for)Policy)Making)
Methodological) Guidelines) and) country) cases) for) a) Quantitative) Approach) Restricted) circulation,)
Food)and)Agriculture)Organization)of)the)United)Nations.)
Original) Source) cited) by) Bellù) (2013):) UNSTATs) et) al.) 2009:) System) of) National) Accounts) 2008.)
European)Commission,)International)Monetary)Fund,)Organisation)for)Economic)CoIoperation)and)
Development,)United)Nations)and)World)Bank,)New)York,)Dec.)2009.
!
!
!
180!
10.3. Appendix&1:&&Questionnaire&Horticulture&Producer&
Segmento:*Produtores*de*Hortifruti*em*Nova*Friburgo&
Setor:&
Data:&
Questionário&N°:&
Local:&&
MB:&
&
I.&Dados&Pessoais:&
*
Idade:*
Sexo:*F**☐***M☐*
Estado*civil:*
Cidade*de*nascimento:*
Tamanho*da*Família*(N°*de*pessoas:*casal*mais*
*
filhos*que*vivem*nesta*casa):*
Profissão:*
*
*
Escolaridade:*
1°Grau*incompleto*☐**********1°*Grau*completo*☐*********2°Grau*incompleto☐*************2°Grau*completo☐********
3°Grau*incompleto☐****Nível*superior*incompleto☐*
Nível*Superior*completo☐******mestrado*ou*doutorado☐*****sem*escolaridade☐*
Poderia*gentilmente*informar*qual*é*a*renda*média*mensal*familiar?*
obs.:*somando*todas*renda*de*todas*as*pessoas*da*casa*
☐Nenhuma*renda*
☐Até$1$salário;mínimo!(até%R$%724,00)%*
☐De*1*a*3*salários;mínimos!(de$R$$724,00$até$R$$2.172,00)*
☐De*3*a*6*salários;mínimos!(de$R$$2.172,00$até$R$$4.344,00)$*
☐De*6*a*9*salários;mínimos!(de$R$$4.344,00$até$R$$6.516,00)$*
☐De*9*a*12*salários;mínimos!(de$R$$6.516,00$até$R$$8.688,00)*
☐Mais*de*12*salários*mínimos*(mais*de*R$*8.688,00)*
A*casa*que*você*e*sua*família*mora*é:*
Própria☐********************Alugada****☐********Concedida☐*
&
II.&Dados&sobre&a&área&produtora:&
*
1. Poderia*informar*qual*a*área*total*em*hectares*de*sua*propriedade?*(Favor*considerar*a*soma*total*das*
propriedades*em*caso*de*possuir*mais*de*uma)*
*
(**)* até*5*ha**
(**)* de*5*a*10*ha**
(**)* de*10*a*20*ha***
(**)* de*20*a*30*ha**
(**)* de*30*a*50*ha**
(**)* mais*de*50*ha**
*
!
181!
2. E*qual*seria*a*área*total*cultivada?*
*
*
*
3. O(a)*senhora(a)*poderia*informar*quais*são*os*produtos*produzidos*em*sua*propriedade*e*o*rendimento*
de* produtividade* da* safra* por* hectare* (ha)?* Por* favor,* usar* unidades* como* ex.* caixas* de* alface/ha,*
molhos*de*cheiro*verde)*
*
Produto*(ex.*tomate,*alface)*
Rendimento*(Unid.)/ha*por*safra*
*
*
*
*
*
*
*
*
*
*
*
*
*
4. Quantos*ciclos*de*safras*foram*realizados*no*ano*passado*de*cada*produto*descrito*acima?*
*
Produto*
Produção*anual*(em*numero*de*ciclos)*
*
*
*
*
*
*
*
*
*
*
*
*
*
5. Poderia* dizer* qual* é* o* preço* pago* na* ultima* safrapor* unidade* do* produto* produzido?* (exemplo:* R$*
40,00*a*caixa*de*tomate).*Se*houve*variação,*por*favor,*especificar*o*preço*mínimo*e*máximo*por*cada*
unidade*de*produto.*
*
Produto*
unidade*
Preço*(R$)*mín.*
Preço*(R$)*máx.*
*
*
*
*
*
*
*
*
*
*
*
*
*
*
*
*
*
*
*
*
*
*
*
*
*
6. Existe*sazonalidade*no*plantio*dos*produtos,*ou*a*produção*é*continua*durante*todo*o*ano?**
Pode*ser*plantado*todo*o*ano☐*******************existe*época*certa*para*plantio☐*
*
7. Qual*é*a*quantidade*em*média*de*perdas(em*%)*de*seus*produtospor*hectareem*cada*safra?*
*
*
*
8. Qual*é*a*capacidade*máxima*de*armazenamento*(caso*haja)para*seus*produtos*em*unidades*(exemplo:*
caixa,*molho,*etc.)*dentro*da*sua*propriedade?*
*
*
9. Assinale* abaixo* qual* é* o* tipo* de* mercado* no* qual* o(a)* senhor(a)* realiza* a* venda* de* seusprodutos.* Se*
houver*mais*de*um*tipo,*por*favor,*assinalar*mais*de*um.*
*
(**)* Ao*Atravessador*
(**)* Diretamente*no*atacado*
!
182!
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
(**)* Diretamente*no*Varejo*
(**)* Feira*limpa*
(**)* Redes*de*Hortifrúti*
(**)* Ou*em*outro*ponto*(por*favor*especificar):*
*
10. Qual*é*forma*de*pagamento*aos*seus*produtos?*
*
(**)*Crédito*
(**)*dinheiro*
*
III.&Dados&Econômicos:&
*
Qual*é*a*categoria*de*trabalho*na*sua*fazenda?*Se*houver*mais*de*uma*categoria,*por*favor,*assinalar*mais*
de*um.*
*
(**)*Trabalho*familiar*
(**)*Trabalhador*contratado*permanente*
(**)*Trabalhados*contratado*temporário*
*
Qual*é*o*numero*total*de*trabalhadores,*contando*os*membros*da*família,*que*trabalham*na*produção?*
*
*
*
Qual*é*o*valor*pago*em*média*(salario*em*R$)*ao*trabalhador*por*dia*ou*mês(a*opção*melhor*no*seu*caso)?*
*
Tipo&de&trabalho&
Salario&(R$)/&dia&ou&mês&
Trabalho*Familiar*
*
Trabalhador*contratado*temporário*
*
Trabalhador*contratado*permanente*
*
*
O(a)* senhor(a)* possui* instalações* próprias* de* utilização* da* propriedade* (exemplo:* poços,* lojas,* armazéns,*
estábulos,*etc.)*
*
Sim☐**************Não*☐*
*
Caso*a*resposta*seja*sim,*por*favor,*especifique*na*tabela*abaixo:*cada*tipo*de*instalação,*o*número,*qual*foi*
o*custo*inicial,*a*vida*útil*e*caso*exista*manutenção,*custo*dela*também.*
Custo*de*manutenção*por*
Tipo*de*
Custo*por*unidade*de*
Vida*útil*
Número*
tipo*de*instalação**
instalação*
instalação(em*R$)*
(anos)*
(por*ano)*
*
*
*
*
*
*
*
*
*
*
*
*
*
*
*
*
Houve*financiamento*para*adquirir*as*instalações*descritas*acima?*
Sim☐***********Não*☐*
*
O(a)* senhor(a)* possui* equipamentos* de* grande* porte* (exemplo:* tratores,* colhedoras* etc.)* que* foram*
adquiridas*dentro*dos*últimos*2*anos?*
Sim☐******Não*☐*
*
Caso*a*resposta*seja*sim,*por*favor,*especifique*cada*instalação*na*tabela*abaixo:*
*
*
*
*
!
183!
7.
8.
9.
10.
11.
12.
13.
14.
15.
Tipo*de*
equipamento*
Numero*de*
equipamentos*
*
*
*
*
*
*
*
*
Custo*por*
unidade*(em*
R$)*
*
*
*
*
Vida*útil*
(anos)*
Custo*de*manutenção*por*tipo*de*
equipamento(ao*ano)*
*
*
*
*
*
*
*
*
*
Houve*financiamento*para*adquirir*os*equipamentos*descritos*acima?*
Sim☐*******Não*☐*
*
O(a)*senhor(a)*poderia*informar*se*possui*equipamentos*de*pequeno*porte*usados*na*sua*fazenda?*
*
Sim☐*******Não*☐*
*
Caso*a*resposta*seja*sim,*por*favor,*qual*seria*a*quantidade*comprada*anualmente,*local*de*compra,*e*o*
custo*(em*R$)*no*total*por*safra?*
*
*
*
O(a)*senhor(a)*poderia*informar*na*tabela*abaixo*os*seus*custos*em*insumos*(exemplo:*adubos,*defensivos*
agrícolas,*calcários,*entre*outros)por*safra,*a*quantidade*comprada*e*o*local*de*compra?*(exemplo:*
sementes,*inseticidas,*fertilizantes,*gasolina,*etc.)*
Insumos*
Quantidade*/ano*
Custo*(em*R$)**
Local*de*compra*
*
*
*
*
*
*
*
*
*
*
*
*
*
*
*
*
*
*
*
*
*
*
*
*
*
*
*
*
*
*
*
*
*
O(a)*senhor(a)*possui*custos*operacionais*adicionais*como*por*exemplo*aluguel*da*propriedade*e/ou*
instalações,*custos*com*estocagem,*transporte,*embalagens*e*royalties?*
Sim☐Não*☐*
*
Caso*a*resposta*seja*sim,*por*favor,*especificar*o*custo*anual(R$)*com*cada*operação:*
*
*
*
Existe*sazonalidade*nos*custos*operacionais*e*na*compra*de*insumos?*
Sim☐Não*☐*
*
O(a)*senhor*(a)*poderia*informar*qual*o*custo*anual*(R$)*em*media*com*tarifas*e*impostos*relativos*a*sua*
produção?*
*
*
*
Existe*o*consumo*próprio*dos*produtos*produzidos*na*sua*fazenda?*
Sim☐*****Não*☐*
*
O(a)*senhor(a)*participa*de*alguma*organização*de*produtores,*como*por*exemplo*cooperativa,*associação*
ou*grupos?*
*
!
184!
Sim☐*****Não*☐*
*
Qual*o*nome?*
*
16. Na*sua*opinião*a*associação/cooperativa*favorece*de*alguma*forma*o*produtor?Existe*algum*problema*na*
organização*de*produtores?*Por*favor*relatar.*
*
*
*
17. Qual*a*sua*satisfação*em*relação*às*medidas*de*ajuda*do*Programa*Rio*Rural*e/ou*assistência*técnica*da*
EMATER*para*o*produtor*familiar,*por*favor,*assinale?*
(**)insatisfeito***(***)*pouco*satisfeito****(**)*satisfeito***(**)*muito*satisfeito*
*
18. Qual*é*a*maior*dificuldade*enfrentada*pelo(a)*senhor(a)*como*produtor*rural?*
*
*
*
19. Na*sua*opinião,*qual*é*o*principal*problema*enfrentado*no*mercado*de*hortaliças*no*estado*do*Rio*de*
Janeiro?*
*
*
*
*
*
*
Muito*Obrigada*pela*sua*cooperação!*A*confidencialidade*de*suas*informações*será*mantida!*
!
!
*
!
*
185!
10.4. Appendix&2:&Questionnaire&Coffee&Grower&
Segmento:*Produtores*de*Café*da*região*de*Varre;Sai*(Noroeste)*
Setor:&
Data:&
Questionário&N°:&
Local:&&
MB:&
&
I.&Dados&Pessoais:&
*
Idade:*
Sexo:*F**☐M☐*
Estado*civil:*
Cidade*de*nascimento:*
Tamanho*da*Família*(N°*de*pessoas*casal*mais*
Profissão:*
filhos):*
Escolaridade:*
1°Grau*incompleto*☐********1°*Grau*completo**☐*********2°Grau*incompleto☐*************2°Grau*completo☐***********
3°*Grau*incompleto☐**************3°*Grau*completo☐mestrado*ou*doutorado☐**************sem*escolaridade☐*
Poderia*gentilmente*informar*qual*é*a*renda*média*mensal*familiar?*
obs.:*somando*todas*renda*de*todas*as*pessoas*da*casa*
☐Nenhuma*renda*
☐Até$1$salário$mínimo$(até$R$$724,00)$*
☐De#1#a#3#salários#mínimos#(de#R$#724,00#até#R$#2.172,00)*
☐De#3#a#6#salários#mínimos#(de#R$#2.172,00#até#R$#4.344,00)#*
☐De#6#a#9#salários#mínimos#(de#R$#4.344,00#até#R$#6.516,00)#*
☐De*9*a!12#salários#mínimos#(de#R$#6.516,00#até#R$#8.688,00)*
☐Mais*de*12*salários*mínimos*(mais*de*R$*8.688,00)*
A*casa*que*você*e*sua*família*mora*é:*
Própria☐********************Alugada****☐***Concedida☐*
*
II.&Dados&sobre&a&área&produtora:&
*
11. Poderia*informar*qual*a*área*total*em*hectares*da*suapropriedade?*(Favor*considerar*a*soma*total*das*
propriedades*em*caso*de*possuir*mais*de*uma)*
*
(**)* até*10*ha**
(**)* de*10*a*50*ha**
(**)* de*50*ha*120*ha*
(**)* de*120*a*500*ha**
(**)* acima*de*500*ha**
*
12. E*qual*seria*a*área*total*cultivada*de*café*em*hectares?*Caso*não*saiba,*por*favor*informe*quantos*pés*
possui*no*total*e*qual*o*espaçamento*utilizado?*
*
*
*
*
!
186!
20.
21.
22.
23.
13. Poderia*informar*qual*éo*rendimento*(sacas*60*kg)*da*produtividade*de*café*por*hectarea*cada*biênio?*
*
*
14. Poderia*informar*qual*é*a*produção*total*de*cafépor*biêniopelo*senhor?*
*
*
15. Poderia*dizer*qual*é*o*preço*pago*à*saca*de*café*em*reais?*
*
*
16. Existe*sazonalidade*na*produção*e*nos*preços*dos*produtos?**
*
Sim☐***********Não*☐***************Motivo:*
*
17. Qual*é*a*quantidade*de*perdas*(em*%)*devido*a*diversos*fatorespor*safra?*
*
*
18. Qual*é*a*capacidade*máxima*de*armazenamento*de*café*em*unidades*de*sacas*dentro*da*sua*fazenda?*
(por*quanto*tempo*e*se*influencia*no*preço)**
*
*
19. Qual*é*o*tipo*de*mercado*no*qual*o(a)*senhor(a)*realiza*a*venda*de*produtos?*
(**)* Atravessador*
(**)* Diretamente*no*atacado*
(**)* Diretamente*no*Varejo*
(**)*Diretamente*para*a*Torrefadora*
(***)*Cooperativa*
(**)* Ou*em*outro*ponto*(por*favor*especificar):*
*
20. Qual*é*forma*de*pagamento*aos*seus*produtos?*
*
(**)*Crédito*
(**)*dinheiro*
*
III.&Dados&Econômicos:*
*
Qual*é*a*categoria*de*trabalho*na*sua*fazenda?*
(**)*Trabalho*familiar*
(**)*Trabalhador*contratado*permanente*
(**)*Trabalhados*contratado*temporário*
(**)*Meeiro***
*
Qual*é*o*numero*total*de*trabalhadores*contando*os*membros*da*família*que*trabalham*na*fazenda?*
*
*
Qual*é*o*valor*pago*em*média*(salario*em*R$)*ao*trabalhador*por*mês*e/ou*colheita?*
*
Tipo&de&trabalho&
Salario&(R$)&
Trabalhador*contratado*temporário*
*
Trabalhador*contratado*permanente*
*
*
O(a)* senhor(a)* possui* instalações* próprias* de* utilização* da* fazenda* (exemplo:* poços,* lojas,* armazéns,*
estábulos,*etc.)*
*
Sim☐*******Não*☐*
Caso*a*resposta*seja*sim,*por*favor*especifique*cada*instalação*na*tabela*descrita*abaixo:*
*
!
187!
Tipo*de*
instalação*
*
*
*
*
Numero*
*
*
*
*
Custo*por*unidade*de*
instalação(em*R$)*
*
*
*
*
Vida*útil*
(anos)*
*
*
*
*
Custo*de*manutenção*por*
tipo*de*instalação*(por*ano)*
*
*
*
*
*
24. Houve*financiamento*para*adquirir*as*instalações*descritas*acima?*
Sim☐************Não*☐*
*
25. O(a)*senhor(a)*possui*equipamentos*de*grande*porte*(exemplo:*tratores,*colhedoras*etc.)?*
Sim☐***********Não*☐*
*
Caso*a*resposta*seja*sim,*por*favor*especifique*cada*instalação*na*tabela*descrita*abaixo:*
Custo*por*
Tipo*de*
Numero*de*
Vida*útil* Custo*de*manutenção*por*tipo*de*
unidade*(em*
equipamento*
equipamentos*
(anos)*
equipamento(ao*ano)*
R$)*
*
*
*
*
*
*
*
*
*
*
*
26. Houve*financiamento*para*adquirir*os*equipamentos*descritos*acima?*
Sim☐**********Não*☐*
*
27. O(a)*senhor(a)*poderia*informar*se*possui*equipamentos*de*pequeno*porte*usados*na*sua*fazenda?*
*
Sim☐**********Não*☐*
*
28. Caso*a*resposta*seja*sim,*por*favor*qual*seria*a*quantidade*comprada*anualmente,*local*de*compra,*e*o*
custo*(em*R$)*por*ano?*
*
Custo*por*
Tipo*de*
Numero*de*
Vida*útil* Custo*de*manutenção*por*tipo*de*
unidade*(em*
equipamento*
equipamentos*
(anos)*
equipamento(ao*ano)*
R$)*
*
*
*
*
*
*
*
*
*
*
*
*
*
*
*
*
29. O(a)*senhor(a)*poderia*informar*na*tabela*abaixo*os*seus*custos*em*insumos*anuais,*a*quantidade*
comprada*e*o*local*de*compra?*(exemplo:*sementes,*inseticidas,*fertilizantes,*gasolina,*etc)*
Insumos*
Quantidade*/ano*
Custo*(em*R$)*por*ano*
Local*de*compra*
*
*
*
*
*
*
*
*
*
*
*
*
*
*
*
*
*
*
*
*
*
*
*
*
*
*
*
*
*
30. O(a)*senhor(a)*possui*custos*operacionais*adicionais*como*por*exemplo*aluguel*da*propriedade*e/ou*
instalações,*custos*com*serviços*adicionais,*custos*com*estocagem,*transporte,*embalagens*e*royalties?*
Sim☐**************Não*☐*
*
Caso*a*resposta*seja*sim*por*favor*especificar*o*custo*anual(R$)*com*cada*operação:*
*
*
31. Existe*sazonalidade*nos*custos*operacionais*e*na*compra*de*insumos?*
!
188!
32.
33.
34.
35.
36.
Sim☐**************Não*☐*
*
O(a)*senhor*(a)*poderia*informar*qual*o*custo*anual*(R$)*com*tarifas*e*impostos*relativos*a*sua*produção?*
*
*
*
Existe*o*consumo*próprio*dos*produtos*produzidos*na*sua*fazenda?*
Sim☐************Não*☐*
*
O(a)*senhor(a)*participa*de*alguma*organização*de*produtores,*como*por*exemplo*cooperativa,*associação*
ou*grupos?*
Sim☐*************Não*☐*
Qual*o*nome?*
*
Na*sua*opinião*existe*algum*problema*na*organização*de*produtores?*Por*favor*relatar.*
*
*
*
Qual*a*sua*satisfação*em*relação*às*medidas*de*ajuda*do*Programa*Rio*Rural*e/ou*assistência*técnica*da*
EMATER*para*o*produtor*familiar?*
*
*
*
18.**Na*sua*opinião,*qual*é*o*maior*problema*que*dificulta*o*mercado*do*café*no*estado*do*Rio*de*Janeiro?*
*
*
*
Muito*Obrigada*pela*sua*cooperação!*A*confidencialidade*de*suas*informações*será*mantida!*
*
*
!
189!
10.5. Appendix&3:&Questionnaire&Coffee&Roaster&
Segmento:*Processamento*de*café*(Torrefadoras)*na*região*de*Varre*Sai*
Setor:&
Data:&
Questionário&N°:&
Local:&&
Tipo:&
!
1. Qual*é*o*tipo*de*empresa*processadora*de*café?*
(**)*Torrefadora*
(**)*Solubilizadora*
(**)*ambos*
(**)*outra.*Especifique:*
*
2. Como*o*(a)*senhor(a)*considera*o*tipo*de*Mercado*de*café,*considerando*a*compra*de*grão*cru*de*café,*na*
região*noroeste*do*Estado*do*Rio*de*Janeiro?*
*
(**)*Existem*muitos*compradores*e*a*concorrência*é*alta*
(**)*Somente*há*um*comprador*
(**)*Existem*poucos*compradores*
(**)*outro,*especificar:*
*
3. Qual*é*o*maior*mercado*consumidor*desta*empresa?*
*
*
*
4. Existe*algum*tipo*de*acordo*contratual*pré;estabelecido*entre*os*compradores*e*as*empresas*torrefadoras?*
(**)*Sim************************(**)*Não*
*
5. Qual*é*em*média*o*volume*de*grãos*(em*sacas)*processado*anualmente*por*esta*empresa?*
*
*
*
6. Qual*é*o*preço*(R$)*pago*normalmente*à*saca*de*café*cru?*
*
*
*
7. Quais*os*tipos*de*produtos*produzidos*pela*empresa?*
*
*
*
8. Qual*é*o*preço*(R$)*de*venda*do*café*já*processado*para*cada*tipo*de*produto*produzido?*
*
*
*
9. Em*média*qual*é*o*custo(R$)*de*produção*por*unidade*de*produto*já*processado?*
*
*
*
10. Qual*é*o*insumo*de*maior*custo*(R$)*para*esta*empresa?*
*
*
*
11. Qual*é*o*volume*de*café*processado*vendido*por*esta*empresa*ao*mês?*
!
190!
*
*
*
12. Qual*o*volume*de*perdas*devido*ao*processamento*em*reais*por*mês?*
*
*
*
13. Qual*é*a*capacidade*de*armazenamento*no*mês*de*matéria*prima?*
*
*
*
14. O(a)*senhor(a)*poderia*gentilmente*nos*ajudar*a*realizar*a*pesquisa*sobre*valor*agregado*nos*informando,*
por*favor*os*custos*médios(R$)**e*investimentos*da*empresa*de*torrefação/solubilização?*Basta*completar*a*
tabela*com*dados*aproximados.**
*
Obs:*Caso*não*se*aplique,*não*há*necessidade*de*preenchimento.*
*
Despesas*fixas*
Numero(unidade)*
Custo*(R$)*investimento*
mobiliário*
*
*
equipamentos*
*
*
automóveis*
*
*
Instalações*prediais*
*
*
*
Serviços*pagos*
Custo*(R$)*ao*mês*
Remuneração*de*técnicos*
*
Remuneração*de*funcionários*
*
Conta*de*água*luz*e*outros*
*
Honorário*contador*
*
Manutenção*de*equipamentos*
*
Impostos*e*taxas*
*
Outras*despesas*
*
*
Compra*matéria;prima*
Valor*(R$)*
Café*em*sacas*de*café*cru*
*
Impostos*sobre*o*café*
*
*
15. Qual*é*a*maior*dificuldade*enfrentada*pelo*senhor*no*processamento*de*café*no*estado*do*Rio*de*
Janeiro?*
*
*
*
16. *Na*sua*opinião*qual*é*a*maior*dificuldade*para*o*Rio*de*Janeiro*no*mercado*de*café?*
*
*
*
Muito*obrigada*pela*sua*cooperação!*As*informações*aqui*apresentadas*serão*mantidas*de*forma*
confidencial!*
*
!
*
191!
10.6. Appendix&4:&Questionnaire&Coffee&Broker&
Segmento:*Processamento*de*café*(Torrefadoras)*na*região*de*Varre*Sai*
Setor:&
Data:&
Questionário&N°:&
Local:&&
*
1.
Tipo:&
O*(a)*senhor(a)*se*considera*em*qual*tipo*de*agente*comercial?*
*
(**)*Atravessador*
(**)*Agente*financeiro*
(**)**Atacadista*
(**)*Varejista*
(**)*Agroindústria*
(**)*Transportador*
(**)*Cooperativa*
*
2. Como*o*(a)*senhor(a)*considera*o*tipo*de*Mercado*de*café,*considerando*a*compra*de*grão*cru*de*café,*na*
região*noroeste*do*Estado*do*Rio*de*Janeiro?*
*
(**)*Existem*muitos*compradores*e*a*concorrência*é*alta*
(**)*Somente*há*um*comprador*
(**)*Existem*poucos*compradores*
(**)*outro,*especificar:*
*
3. Existe*algum*tipo*de*acordo*contratual*pré;estabelecido*entre*os*compradores*e*os*produtores,*e/ou*entre*
os*compradores*e*as*empresas*torrefadoras?*
(**)*Sim************************(**)*Não*
*
4. Qual*é*o*destino*mais*comum*da*matéria;prima*vendida*pelo(a)*senhor*(a)?*
*
*
*
5. O(a)*senhor(a)*possui*algum*tipo*de*instalação*para*a*coleta*e*comercio*de*matéria;prima,*como*exemplo,*
armazém*ou*outras*estruturas*especificas?*Aluguel*de*instalação?**
*
*
*
6. Qual*a*sua*capacidade*máxima*de*armazenamento?*
*
*
*
7. Qual*o*custo*das*instalações*adquiridas*e*ha*quanto*tempo*as*possui?*
*
*
*
8. O(a)*senhor(a)*tem*algum*custo*com*transporte*do*grão*de*café*até*a*torrefadora?*Se*sim*qual*é*
aproximadamente*o*custo*mensal*com*transporte*(pedágio,*frete,*combustível,*entre*outros)?*
*
(**)*Sim********(**)*Não**********custo(R$):**
*
9. Existe*algum*custo*de*transação,*como*por*exemplo*impostos,*e*perdas*de*grãos*devido*a*vários*fatores?*
Poderia*informar*aproximadamente*o*custo*mensal?*
*
!
192!
*
*
*
10. *O(a)*senhora(a)*poderia*nos*informar,*caso*se*aplique,*o*custo*aproximado*de*investimentos*realizados*nos*
últimos*5*anos,*como*por*exemplo*em*uma*instalação*ou*compra*de*automóvel,*para*o*comercio*de*café?*
*
*
*
*
11. Por*quanto*(R$)*o(a)*senhor(a)*compra*a*saca*de*grãos*crus*de*café?*
*
*
*
12. *Qual*é*a*quantidade*comprada*aproximadamente*em*sacas*de*café*por*ano*pelo(a)*senhor(a)?*
*
*
*
13. Existe*sazonalidade*nos*preços?*Se*sim*qual*a*frequência?*
*
(**)*Sim********(**)*Não**********frequência:**
*
14. Qual*é*o*preço*de*venda*normalmente*às*industrias*torrefadoras*ou*à*outro*comprador/exportador?*
*
*
*
15. Qual*é*o*volume*aproximado*vendido*por*ano*de*sacas*de*café*pelo(a)*senhor(a)?*
*
*
*
16. Existe*alguma*taxa*ou*imposto*sobre*o*produto?*Se*sim,*quanto*seria*aproximadamente*em*reais?*
*
(**)*Sim***************(**)*Não***********Valor*aproximado*(R$):*
*
17. Qual*é*a*maior*dificuldade*enfrentada*na*compra*e*venda*de*café*pelo*senhor?*
*
*
*
*
18. Na*sua*opinião,*qual*o*maior*problema*no*mercado*de*café*do*estado*do*Rio*de*Janeiro?*
*
!
*
193!
10.7. Appendix&5:&Questionnaire&CEASA&Trader&
Segmento:*Atacadistas,*Varejistas,*Feirantes,*Comerciantes,*Exportadores*e*Importadores*
Setor:&
Data:&
Questionário&N°:&
Local:&
*
1;
Cidade:&
O(a)*senhor(a)*vende*algum*dos*produtos*listados*abaixo?*
Alface*
Sim* Não*
Acelga*
Sim* Não*
Salsa*
Sim* Não*
Couve;flor* Sim* Não*
Tomate*
Sim* Não*
Vagem*
Sim* Não*
Beterraba* Sim* Não*
*
2; Destes*produtos*quais*são*provenientes*da*região*serrana*de*Nova*Friburgo?*
Alface*
Sim* Não*
Acelga*
Sim* Não*
Salsa*
Sim* Não*
Couve;flor* Sim* Não*
Tomate*
Sim* Não*
Vagem*
Sim* Não*
Beterraba* Sim* Não*
*
3; Qual*é*a*quantidade*comprada*mensalmente*dos*produtos*por*unidade*(ex.:*caixas*de*tomate,*molhos*
de*cheiro*verde)*listados*abaixo?*
Produto*
Quantidade*comprada* Unidade*
Alface*
*
*
Acelga*
*
*
Salsa*
*
*
Couve;flor* *
*
Tomate*
*
*
Vagem*
*
*
Beterraba* *
*
*
4; Qual*é*o*Preço*(em*reais*R$)*de*venda*por*unidade*dos*produtos*listados*abaixo?*
Produto*
Mínimo*(R$)* Máximo*(R$)*
Alface*
*
*
Acelga*
*
*
Salsa*
*
*
Couve;flor* *
*
Tomate*
*
*
Vagem*
*
*
Beterraba* *
*
*
5; Existe*sazonalidade*dos*preços?*Qual*é*o*maior*motivo*do*aumento*e*queda*de*preços?**
(**)*Sim*********(**)**Não*******Motivo:*
!
194!
6;
O*(a)*senhor*(a)*poderia*nos*dizer*qual*é*o*preço*(em*reais*R$)*pago*pelo(a)*senhor(a)*na*compra*desses*
produtos?*
Produto*
Mínimo*(R$)* Máximo*(R$)*
Alface*
*
*
Acelga*
*
*
Salsa*
*
*
Couve;flor* *
*
Tomate*
*
*
Vagem*
*
*
Beterraba* *
*
*
7; Aproximadamente*qual*a*quantidade*de*perdas*(em*unidades*ou*%)*de*produtos*não*vendidos*ou*por*
terem*perecido*no*dia?*
*
*
8; O(a)*senhor(a)*tem*algum*custo*de*transporte*(incluindo*pedágio,*combustível,*ou*propriedade*de*um*
caminhão*ou*carro)*para*suas*mercadorias?*
*
Sim☐**********************************************Não☐*
*
Se*sim*qual*o*valor*pago*em*reais*(R$)*por*dia?*
*
a; Pedágio:*
b; Combustível:*
c; Caminhão*ou*carro*(dizer*o*valor*do*automóvel*e*a*quanto*tempo*possui*o*automóvel):*
*******d;*frete:*
*
9; O*(a)*senhor(a)*tem*algum*custo*de*transação*(exemplo*impostos,*IOF,*ICMS)*para*compra*ou*venda*de*
suas*mercadorias?*Se*sim*quanto*por*unidade*de*produto?*
*
Sim*☐**************Não*☐***Quanto*(R$)*p/*unidade:*
*
10; O(a)* senhor(a)* possui* algum* equipamento* e/ou* instalações* (exemplo:* câmara* frigorifica,* etc.)* para* o*
armazenamento*de*seus*produtos?*
Sim*☐**********************************************Não*☐*
*
Se* sim,* qual* foi* o* investimento* na* instalação* e* qual* é* o* custo* mensal* em* média* (R$)* respectivo* para*
mantimento* (exemplo:* energia,* aluguel)* e* manutenção* (técnicos* para* reparação)* dos* seus* equipamentos*
e/ou*instalações?*
*
*
11; Qual*a*capacidade*máxima*de*armazenamento*(em*unidades*de*produto)*pra*as*suas*mercadorias?*
*
*
12; O(a)*senhor(a)*fez*algum*investimento*para*o*seu*negócio?*
Sim*☐**********************************************Não*☐*
*
Se*sim,*poderia*nos*informar*aproximadamente*o*valor*(R$)*do*seu*investimento,*se*foi*empréstimo,*e*à*
quanto*tempo*foi*feito?*(exemplo:*compra*de*um*caminhão,*etc)*
*
*
13; Quem*são*seus*consumidores?*Varejistas,*supermercados*ou*outros?*
*
*
!
195!
14; Qual*é*a*maior*dificuldade*que*o(a)*senhor(a)*enfrenta*em*geral*no*seu*trabalho?*
*
*
*
15; Qual*é*a*sua*satisfação*com*esta*unidade*do*CEASA*no*estado*do*Rio*de*Janeiro*e*porque?*
*
*
*
16; Na*sua*opinião*o*que*poderia*ser*melhorado*na*comercialização*de*produtos*agrícolas*no*estado*do*Rio*
de*Janeiro,*algum*problema*em*especifico?*
*
*
*
Muito*obrigada*pela*sua*ajuda!*
Sua*confidencialidade*será*mantida!*
!
!
!
196!
10.8. Appendix&6:&Questionnaire&Middleman&and&Distributor&(Horticulture)&
Segmento:*Recolhimento*e*comércio*de*produtos*hortifrúti*em*Nova*Friburgo*
Setor:&
Data:&
Questionário&N°:&
Local:&&
Tipo:&
17. *O*(a)*senhor(a)*se*considera*qual*tipo*de*agente*comercial?*
*
(**)*comprador/*vendedor*intermediário*
(**)*Agente*financeiro*
(**)*Atacadista*
(**)*Varejista*
(**)*Agroindústria*
(**)*Transportador*
(**)*Cooperativa*
*
18. Como*o*(a)*senhor(a)*considera*o*tipo*de*Mercado*de*produtos*hortifrúti*na*região*serrana*do*Estado*do*Rio*
de*Janeiro?*
*
(**)*Existem*muitos*compradores*e*a*concorrência*é*alta*
(**)*Somente*há*um*comprador*
(**)*Existem*poucos*compradores*
(**)*outro,*especificar:*
*
19. Existe*algum*tipo*de*acordo*contratual*pré;estabelecido*entre*os*compradores*e*os*produtores,*e/ou*entre*os*
compradores*e*outras*empresas?*Se*sim,*por*favor,*relate*qual*é*a*condição.*
*
(**)*Sim************************(**)*Não*
Condição:*
*
20. Qual*é*o*destino*(mercado*consumidor)*mais*comum*da*matéria;prima*vendida*pelo*(a)*senhor*(a)?*
*
*
*
21. O*(a)*senhor*(a)*possui*algum*tipo*de*instalação*para*a*coleta*e*comercio*de*matéria;prima,*como*exemplo,*
armazém*ou*outras*estruturas*específicas?*Por*favor,*descrever*cada*uma.*
*
*
*
22. Qual*a*sua*capacidade*máxima*(em*unidades*ex.*caixas*de*tomate)*de*armazenamento*ao*por*dia?*
*
23. Poderia*informar*qual*é*o*custo*das*instalações*adquiridas*e*há*quanto*tempo*as*possui?*
*
*
*
24. O(a)*senhor(a)*tem*algum*custo*com*transporte*de*produtos*hortifrúti*desde*o*produtor*até*o*destino*final?*
Se*sim*qual*é*aproximadamente*o*custo*mensal*com*transporte*como,*por*exemplo,*pedágio,*frete,*
combustível?*
*
(**)*Sim********(**)*Não**********custo(R$):**
25. Existe*algum*custo*de*transação,*como*por*exemplo,*impostos,*e*perdas*devido*a*vários*fatores?*Poderia*
informar*aproximadamente*o*custo*mensal?*
*
*
!
197!
*
*
26. O*(a)*senhora*(a)*poderia*nos*informar,*caso*se*aplique,*o*valor*(R$)*aproximado*de*investimentos*realizados*
nos*últimos*5*anos,*como*por*exemplo*em*uma*instalação*ou*compra*de*automóvel?*
*
*
*
*
27. Qual*é*a*quantidade*comprada*(em*unidades,*ex.:*caixas)*semanalmente*dos*produtores*dos*produtos*
listados*abaixo?*
Produto*
Quantidade*comprada* Unidade*(molho,*caixa)*
Alface*
*
*
Acelga*
*
*
Salsa*
*
*
Couve;flor* *
*
Tomate*
*
*
Vagem*
*
*
Beterraba* *
*
*
28. O(a)*senhor(a)*poderia*nos*dizer*qual*é*o*preço*(em*reais*R$)*pago*pelo(a)*senhor(a)*na*compra*desses*
produtos*por*unidade?*
Produto*
Mínimo*(R$)* Máximo*(R$)*
Alface*
*
*
Acelga*
*
*
Salsa*
*
*
Couve;flor* *
*
Tomate*
*
*
Vagem*
*
*
*
29. Qual*é*o*Preço*(em*reais*R$)*de*venda*pelo*(a)*senhor*(a)*ao*mercado*seguinte,*por*unidade*dos*produtos*
listados*abaixo?*
Produto*
Preço*de*venda*(R$)* Unidade*(caixa)*
Alface*
*
*
Acelga*
*
*
Salsa*
*
*
Couve;flor* *
*
Tomate*
*
*
Vagem*
*
*
Beterraba* *
*
*
*
30. Existe*sazonalidade*nos*preços?*Qual*é*o*maior*motivo*da*flutuação*nos*preços?*
(**)*Sim********(**)*Não*************************************Motivo:*
*
31. Qual*é*o*volume*aproximado*vendido*por*ano*dos*produtos*listados*abaixo,*pelo(a)*senhor(a)?*
Produto*
Quantidade*vendida* Unidade*(caixa)*
Alface*
*
*
Acelga*
*
*
Salsa*
*
*
Couve;flor* *
*
Tomate*
*
*
Vagem*
*
*
Beterraba* *
*
*
!
198!
32. Existe*alguma*taxa*ou*imposto*sobre*o*produto?*Se*sim,*quanto*seria*por*unidade*de*produto*
aproximadamente?*
*
(**)*Sim***************(**)*Não***********Valor*aproximado*(R$):*
*
33. Qual*é*a*maior*dificuldade*enfrentada*no*seu*trabalho?*
*
*
*
34. Na*sua*opinião,*qual*é*o*maior*problema*no*comércio*de*produtos*hortifrúti*no*Estado*do*Rio*de*Janeiro?**
*
*
*
*
*
Muito*Obrigada*pela*sua*cooperação!**
A*confidencialidade*de*suas*informações*será*mantida!*
*
*
!
199!
10.9. Appendix&7:&Questionnaire&Mini&Processing&Plant&
Segmento:*Processamento*de*hortifrúti*na*região*serrana*
Setor:&
Data:&
Questionário&N°:&
Local:&&
Tipo:&
*
*
35. Qual*é*categoria*desta*empresa*processadora*de*hortifrúti?*
(**)*Agroindústria*
(**)*Merenda*escolar*
(**)*Mini;processados*
(**)*outra.*Especifique:*
*
36. Como*o*(a)*senhor*(a)*considera*o*tipo*de*mercado*de*hortifrúti*na*região*Serrana*do*Estado*do*Rio*de*
Janeiro?*
*
(**)*Existem*muitos*compradores*e*a*concorrência*é*alta*
(**)*Somente*há*um*comprador*
(**)*Existem*poucos*compradores*
(**)*outro,*especificar:*
*
37. Qual*é*o*maior*mercado*consumidor*desta*empresa?*
*
*
38. Existe*algum*tipo*de*acordo*contratual*pré;estabelecido*entre*os*atravessadores*e*a*agroindústria?*Qual*a*
categoria?*
*
(**)*Sim************************(**)*Não*************************categoria:*
*
39. Qual*é*em*média*o*volume*(em*unidades,*ex.*caixas*de*tomate)*de*produtos*hortifrúti*processados*
diariamente*por*esta*empresa?*
*
*
*
40. Qual*é*o*preço*(R$)*de*compra*normalmente*aos*produtos*listados*baixo?*
*
Produto*
Quantidade*comprada*(caixas,*molhos)* Preço*R$*
Alface*
*
*
Acelga*
*
*
Salsa*
*
*
Couve;flor* *
*
Tomate*
*
*
Vagem*
*
*
Beterraba* *
*
*
41. Quais*os*tipos*de*produtos*produzidos*pela*empresa?*
*
*
*
*
*
42. Em*média*qual*é*o*custo*(R$)*e*o*preço*de*venda*(R$)*por*unidade*de*produto*já*processado*dos*produtos*
fabricados*por*esta?*
!
200!
*
Produto*
Custo*por*unidade*(R$)*
Preço*vendido*R$*
*
*
*
*
*
*
*
*
*
*
*
*
*
*
*
*
*
*
*
*
*
*
43. Qual*é*o*insumo*de*maior*custo*(R$)*para*esta*empresa?*
*
*
*
44. Qual*é*o*volume*de*produtos*vendidos*por*esta*empresa*ao*dia?*
*
*
*
45. Qual*o*volume*de*perdas*devido*ao*processamento*(em*%)*por*dia?*
*
*
*
46. Qual*é*a*capacidade*de*armazenamento*no*dia*de*matéria*prima?*
*
*
*
47. O(a)*senhor(a)*poderia*gentilmente*nos*ajudar*a*realizar*a*pesquisa*informando,*por*favor*os*custos*
médios(R$)**e*investimentos*da*empresa*de*processamento?*Basta*completar*a*tabela*com*dados*
aproximados.*Caso*não*se*aplique,*não*há*necessidade*de*preenchimento.*
*
Despesas*fixas*
Numero(unidade)*
Custo*(R$)*investimento*
mobiliário*
*
*
equipamentos*
*
*
automóveis*
*
*
Instalações*prediais*
*
*
*
Serviços*pagos*
Custo*(R$)*ao*mês*
Remuneração*do*proprietário*
*
Remuneração*de*técnicos*
*
Remuneração*de*funcionários*
*
Conta*de*água*luz*e*outros*
*
Depreciação*dos*investimentos*fixos*
*
Honorário*contador*
*
Manutenção*de*equipamentos*
*
Impostos*e*taxas*
*
Outras*despesas*
*
*
Compra*matéria;prima*
Valor*(R$)*
Produtos*Hortifrúti*
*
Impostos*sobre*o*café*
*
*
*
Muito*obrigada*pela*sua*cooperação!*As*informações*aqui*apresentadas*serão*mantidas*de*forma*
confidencial!*
*
*
!
201!
10.10. Appendix&8:&José&Ferreira&(COOPERCANOL)&Interview&Transcript&
Perguntas&ao&Zé&Ferreira&
&
Sobre&a&COOPERCANOL&&
*
P:&Há&Quanto&Tempo&existe&essas&organizações?&
R:) A) COOPERCANOl) foi) fundada) em) 1977) e) a) FAVS) em) 1994,) que) era) na) verdade) a) Federação) das)
Associações)de)Varre)Sai.)
*
P:&Qual&é&Objetivo?&
R:)O)objetivo)é)agregar)valor)ao)café,)venda)de)insumos,)beneficio)do)agricultor,)comprar)café)a)um)preço)
mais)justo,)regularizar)o)preço)do)café)na)região,)beneficiais,)melhorar)a)qualidade)de)café,)apoio)técnico,)
padronizar)o)café,)fazer)o)lote,)pois)pequeno)é)difícil)de)vender)o)café)dele)(pouco))de)qualidade,)nivelar)o)
grande)e)o)pequeno)produtor)
*
P:&qual&o&numero&de&beneficiários&que&pretende&englobar?&
R:) Atualmente) existem) 120) associados,) mas) poderia) englobar) todos) os) produtores) do) estado) do) Rio,) não)
possui)fronteiras)
*
P:&Porque&ficou&desativada?*
R:) Problema) politico) e) ficou) nas) mãos) de) poucos.) Faltou) recurso) para) capitalizar) e) continuar) a) obra.)
Recentemente)existem)novos)associados)para)tocar)e)conseguiram)reativar.)Os)produtores)tem)que)creditar,)
vai)concretizar)quando)funcionar)mesmo,)geralmente)não)dá)certo)pelos)próprios)produtores)e)gente)com)
interesse)próprio.)
*
P:&Qual&foi&o&investimento&atual?&E&Apoio&Institucional?&
R:)Recurso)do)BNDS)R$)1.499.310,00).)Recurso)próprio)mais)100)mil)dos)associados.))
*
P:&qual&será&a&entrada&de&volume&de&café&cru?&
R:)20)mil)sacas)de)inicio,)100)mil)(50%))fatia)produzida)na)região.)
*
P:&Qual&será&o&mercado&consumidor?&
R:)Mercado)interno)e)exportação)(o)mais)rápido)possível).)Existe)a)possibilidade)de)exportar)para)a)China)só)
o)grão)beneficiado.)A)Cooperativa)vai)rebenificiar)o)café:)que)é)selecionar)o)café)de)qualidade,)vai)para)a)
exportação) e) o) resíduo) para) o) mercado) interno.) Separar) o) grão) em) tamanho) de) fava,) por) cor,) retira)
impurezas)e)defeitos.*
*
P:&Qual&será&o&custo&por&unidade&de&café&beneficiado?&
R:)1kg)de)café)por)saca)para)cobrir)despesas)de)manutenção)da)cooperativa)
*
P:&Quais&são&os&requisitos&para&associarCse?&
R:)tem)que)ser)produtor,)a)quota)está)a)definir,)mas)a)intenção)é)facilitar)a)entrada)do)produtor.)
*
P:&Qual&seria&os&preços&de&compra&e&venda?&
R:) A) cooperativa) garantirá) o) melhor) preço.) Existe) a) garantia) do) governo) (mas) não) necessariamente) irá)
conseguir).)Para)não)inviabilizar)o)produtor.)Vai)ter)mais)recurso,)facilidade)de)atingir)os)mercados.)Para)a)
venda)existe)uma)porcentagem)em)cima)da)venda,)mas)ainda)não)está)definido.*
*
P:&Quais&são&os&entraves&e&dificuldades&para&os&produtores&na&comercializacao?&
R:) Produtores) tem) muita) coisa) contra) ele:) o) tempo,) clima,) medidas) do) governo) que) acabam) chegando)
atrasado)para)solucionar)os)problemas.)
O)melhor)seria)existir)uma)Politica)de)regularizar)o)mercado)e)Proteção)ao)excesso)de)produção.)IBC)extinto)
em)1990)e)falta)um)órgão)regulador.)
)
)
!
202!
10.11. Appendix&9:&Photos&fieldwork&Coffee&chain&
Figure&77:&&Milled&coffee&bags&(left);&Milling&process&(right)&
&
!
Figure&78:&Coffee&brands&of&VarreCSai&
*
!
!
Figure&79:&COOPERCANOL’s&processing&installation&(left);&COGEM&meeting&in&Itaperuna&(right)&
Figure&80:&Concrete&yards&for&drying&coffee&(left);&Coffee&bush&about&to&ripen&(right)&
!
*Note:*Own*photos*
!
&
&
*
203!
10.12. Appendix&10:&Photos&fieldwork&Horticulture&chain&
*
Figure&81:&Tomato&harvesting&(left);&boxed&tomatoes&(right)&
&
Figure&82:&Agroecology&transition&in&tomatoes&(left);&Lettuce&ready&to&distribution&(right)&&
&
Figure&83:&Biological&beetroot&(left);&Hydroponic&lettuce&(right)&
*
Figure&84:&COGEM&meeting&in&Rio&Grande&Community&(left);&“Empty”&Mercado&do&Produtor&(right)&
*Note:*Own*photos
!
204!
6.8$
4.1$
3.5$
Serra,Nova,e,Serra,Velha,
MB3,
MB4,
!
3$
2,280.00$
825.00$
Castor,compost,
7,100.76$
6,671.86$
7,815.60$
12,962.46$
11,437.47$
4,193.74$
6,290.61$
4,574.99$
2,859.37$
Fertilizer,
57.00$
Bordeaux,mix,
7,365.62$
6,920.72$
8,107.13$
13,445.97$
11,864.09$
4,350.17$
6,525.25$
4,745.64$
2,966.02$
Pesticide,
,
Biological,
pesticides,
744.50$
3,298.30$
3,099.07$
3,630.34$
6,021.06$
5,312.70$
1,947.99$
2,921.98$
2,125.08$
1,328.17$
Packing,
237.86$
223.49$
261.80$
434.21$
383.13$
140.48$
210.72$
153.25$
95.78$
Micro,
Nutrients,
,
2,075.63$
1,950.26$
2,284.59$
3,789.08$
3,343.30$
1,225.88$
1,838.82$
1,337.32$
835.83$
Limestone,
,
2,252.24$
2,116.20$
2,478.98$
4,111.48$
3,627.78$
1,330.18$
1,995.28$
1,451.11$
906.94$
Fuel,
,
4,533.00$
4,259.19$
4,989.34$
8,275.01$
7,301.48$
2,677.21$
4,015.81$
2,920.59$
1,825.37$
Seedling,
Total,IIOC,
33,600.59$
31,571.02$
36,983.20$
61,337.99$
54,121.75$
19,844.64$
29,766.96$
21,648.70$
13,530.44$
Total,IIOC,
3,906.50$
$
Note:$The$total$intermediate$input$costs$were$obtained$through$a$homogenization$of$the$acquired$data,$in$terms$of$total$cost$per$hectare$for$each$input.$The$total$cost$per$hectare$was$then$
scaled$up$to$represent$the$cost$of$a$representative$producer$by$community$or$by$microHbasin.$Organic$producers$were$accounted$separately.$
$
Organic,Producers,
,
6,330.23$
7,415.41$
12,298.72$
10,851.82$
Organic,compost,
6$
Santa,Cruz,
3,979.00$
Ha,
2.2$
Salinas,
5,968.50$
6,737.17$
3.3$
Rio,Grande,
4,340.73$
2,712.95$
Manure,
3.725$
2.4$
Florândia,da,Serra,
Average,conventional,Producer,
1.5$
Average,ha,
Barracão,dos,Mendes,
Representative,
Table,64:,IIOC,–,Intermediate,input,costs,in,Value,chain,B,in,total,Reais,(R$),for,each,representative,producer,of,community,and,or,microIbasin,
10.13. Appendix,11:,Intermediate,input,costs,of,farmers,in,Value,Chain,B,
!
,!
Specialized,retail,distributor,
!
R$47,784.00!
R$33,408.00!
R$8,688.00!
R$8,688.00!
R$8,688.00!
!
,!
R$794.40!
R$1,083.86!
,!
,!
,!
R$2,172.00!
R$2,163.43!
,!
,!
!
,!
,!
,!
,!
,!
!
R$1,800.00!
R$2,273.33!
R$1,899.29!
R$5,150.00!
R$7,200.00!
R$3,100.00!
,!
R$257.14!
R$440.00!
R$6,900.00!
!
R$7,645.44!
R$5,345.28!
R$1,390.08!
R$1,390.08!
R$1,390.08!
!
R$5,560.32!
R$6,795.11!
R$6,139.52!
R$8,585.89!
R$8,690.08!
R$8,481.71!
R$6,672.80!
R$6,518.67!
R$6,674.05!
R$4,692.56!
R$3,966.07!
R$2,772.86!
R$721.10!
R$721.10!
R$721.10!
!
R$2,884.42!
R$3,524.97!
R$3,184.88!
R$4,453.93!
R$4,507.98!
R$4,399.89!
R$3,461.52!
R$3,381.56!
R$3,462.16!
R$2,434.27!
!
13°,Wage,
R$1,308.80!
R$915.05!
R$237.96!
R$237.96!
R$237.96!
!
R$951.86!
R$1,163.24!
R$1,051.01!
R$1,469.80!
R$1,487.63!
R$1,451.96!
R$1,142.30!
R$1,115.92!
R$1,142.51!
R$803.31!
!
Vacation,
,!
,!
,!
,!
,!
!
R$221.40!
R$279.62!
R$233.61!
R$633.45!
R$885.60!
R$381.30!
,!
R$31.63!
R$54.12!
R$848.70!
!
Temporary,worker,fess,
R$60,704.32!
R$42,441.19!
R$11,037.15!
R$11,037.15!
R$11,037.15!
!
R$46,169.99!
R$56,505.74!
R$50,880.31!
R$73,954.91!
R$77,084.29!
R$70,825.52!
R$52,981.61!
R$52,046.64!
R$53,485.64!
R$45,007.33!
!
Total,
!
Base!calculation!at!minimum!wage!R$!724.00!(2014),!family!work!as!opportunity!cost,!trader!as!a!hired!opportunity!cost.!Account!according!to!legislation!Law!No.!5.889/73,!Decree!No.!
73.626/74!(Brasil!,!Casa!Civil,!1973,!1974)!
!
!
,!
R$34,752.00!
Organic,
Mini2processing,
R$41,675.07!
Conventional,producer,
,!
R$37,288.15!
MB4,
,!
R$53,661.83!
MB3,
Middlemen,
R$54,313.00!
Santa,Cruz,
Small,Wholesaler,
R$53,010.67!
Salinas,
,!
R$39,533.00!
Serra,Nova,e,Serra,Velha,
CEASA,trader,
R$38,578.29!
Rio,Grande,
!
R$41,712.80!
Florândia,da,Serra,
Upstream,level,
R$29,328.50!
!
Family,work, Hired,employee, Temporary,employee, Social,and,Labor,charges,
Barracão,dos,Mendes,
Producer,level,
Representative,
Table,65:,Wage,account,in,the,Value,Chain,horticulture,
10.14. Appendix,12:,Wage,2,Value,Chain,B,
!
R$53,485.64!
R$52,046.64!
R$73,954.91!
R$50,880.31!
R$48,919.04!
R$55,611.59!
R$116,695.53!
R$59,312.93!
R$14,500.42!
R$47,693.63!
R$73,918.10!
R$61,915.56!
R$51,534.65!
!
R$277,692.00!
R$27,163.37!
R$48,699.50!
R$953,941.00!
Florândia,da,Serra,
Rio,Grande,
Serra,Nova,e,Serra,
Velha,
Salinas,
Santa,Cruz,
MB3,
MB4,
Average,conventional,
Producer,
Organic,Producers,
Upstream,level,
CEASA,trader,
Small,wholesale,trader,
Middleman,
Mini2processing,
!
Specialized,retailer,
R$1,136,887.50!
R$60,704.32!
distributor,
Profit'='NVA'–'production'factors!(Wage,!Interests,!Taxes,!Rents)!
R$42,441.19!
R$11,037.15!
R$11,037.15!
R$11,037.15!
!
R$46,169.99!
R$56,505.74!
R$77,084.29!
R$70,825.52!
R$52,981.61!
R$45,007.33!
R$74,443.23!
Barracão,dos,Mendes,
!
Wage,
!
NVA,
Producer,level,
,
Table,66:,Income,Account,expressed,in,profit,or,loss,in,the,horticulture,value,chain,
10.15. Appendix,13:,Profit,or,Loss,in,Value,Chain,B,
!
,!
,!
R$22,062.39!
R$181,172.60!
R$9,417.50!
R$10,472.33!
R$81,155.20!
!
,!
R$1,305.30!
R$1,717.95!
R$892.65!
,!
R$1,785.29!
R$3,676.12!
R$1,759.48!
R$1,436.19!
,!
!
Taxes,
R$11,300.19!
R$7,250.51!
R$7,758.93!
!
R$2,266.67!
R$3,512.61!
R$2,175.75!
R$6,186.32!
R$8,223.36!
R$4,149.29!
R$2,326.61!
R$3,496.10!
R$828.98!
R$2,051.32!
!
Interests,&,
Maintenance,Cost,
,!
,!
,!
R$12,720.00!
R$13,276.80!
!
R$2,400.00!
,!
,!
,!
,!
,!
,!
,!
,!
,!
!
Rents,
R$895,010.59,
R$889,437.42,
R$16,944.66,
2R$14,316.63,
R$164,463.92,
,
R$697.98,
R$591.92,
R$19,144.09,
2R$33,340.24,
2R$70,807.24,
2R$17,447.17,
R$57,711.19,
2R$1,690.63,
2R$6,831.77,
R$27,384.57,
,
Profit,or,Loss,
!
Opportunity,
•
Opportunity!getting!into!Government`s!projects!and!programs!
•
Opportunity!in!receiving!public!resources!
•
Better!orientation,!assistance!and!agricultural!extension!for!farmers!
•
Direct!commercialization!and!more!value!added!for!the!farmers!
•
Expand!direct!commercialization!through!governmental!programs!
•
Regional!development!–!could!expand!the!market!(COMPERJ!project)!
•
Enable!technological!advance!in!order!to!improve!food!quality!(cold!chain)!and!
diversification!of!products!(mini!processing),!therefore!adding!value!for!farmers!
•
Provide!more!advertisement!on!agricultural!products!
•
Value!the!farmer’s!role!and!their!importance!on!the!society!
•
Create!an!environment!of!self!resilience!underneath!the!climate!vulnerability!and!further!
consequences!
•
Public!services!improvement!such!as!education,!health,!security!
•
Provide!better!infrastructure!for!transportation!and!green!energy!supply,
!
Strength,,
•
Better!set!of!organization!through!farmer’s!association!and!micro,watershed!committee!
(COGEM)!
•
Exchange!of!knowledge!and!experience!between!farmers!within!the!associations!
•
Policies!and!programs!creation!after!the!Tragedy!of!2012,!brought!infrastructure!
improvement!on!rural!area!and!sustainable!land!use!practices!(Micro!watershed!program!–!
PPR)!
•
Short!production!cycles!and!immediate!income!
•
Strategic!localization!near!urban!center!!
•
Importance!on!local!vegetable’s!supply!market!
•
Government’s!programs!to!easy!the!access!to!the!markets!(however!needs!expansion)!
,
,
,
,
,
Table,67:,SWOT,Analysis,–,Nova,Friburgo,conventional,farmers,
10.16. Appendix,14:,SWOT,Analysis,Value,chain,B,
!
Weakness,
•
Disagreement!within!farmers!association!and!conflicts!of!opinion!
•
Association’s!insufficient!legal!power!and!self!organization!
•
Insufficient!resources!driven!to!technical!assistance!and!extension!institutions!
(EMATER),!which!sometimes!depend!on!municipal!capital!resources!
•
Harvest’s!losses!due!to!climate!and!inadequate!land!use!
•
Labor!scarcity!
•
Low!qualified!labor!and!low!community!education!
•
Infrastructure!necessity!for!roads!to!easy!the!supply!of!agricultural!products!
•
Low!technology!on!farming!!
•
Dependency!on!the!middleman,!responsible!for!crossing!the!agricultural!goods!
•
High!transportation!and!sales!costs!
•
Centralized!commercialization!problems!(among!low!hygiene,!prices!instability,!high!
operational!costs,!low!food!quality,!lack!of!regulation!and!bad!infrastructure)!
•
Low!inspection!and!abusive!use!of!pesticides!!
•
Local!wholesale!market!does!not!explore!its!potential!of!use!and!farmers!prefer!not!
to!sell!their!goods!there!
•
Difficulties!in!having!access!to!the!markets!and!commercialization!(mainly!direct!
commercialization),
Threats,
•
Climate!change!vulnerability!(heavy!rains!or!long!droughts),!tragedies!
•
Commitment!and!the!further!non!realization!of!policies!and!governance,!which!
creates!public!frustration!and!distrust!!
•
High!fluctuation!on!market!prices!of!agricultural!products!
•
Difficulties!in!acquiring!rural!credits!and!finance,!due!to!high!bureaucracy!and!
exigency!of!banks!and!government!funds!programs!
•
Lack!of!regulation!on!market!prices,!which!leads!to!high!instability!
•
Difficulties!in!setting!a!place!on!the!wholesale!farmer’s!market!(CEASA)!
•
Competition!with!other!Brazilian!states!large!producers!
•
Lack!of!planning!and!control!of!production,!generating!very!high!supply!and!low!
prices,!increasing!food!wastage!!
•
Labor!loss!for!other!economical!activities!and!Family!Allowance!(“Bolsa!Família”)!
•
Regional!development!–!could!take!away!most!labor!force!(COMPERJ!project),
!
DECLARATION+IN+LIEU+OF+OATH+
!
By!
Juliana!Minetto!Gellert!Paris!
!
This!is!to!confirm!my!Master’s!Thesis!was!independently!composed/authored!by!myself,!using!
solely!the!referred!sources!and!support.!
I!additionally!assert!that!this!Thesis!has!not!been!part!of!another!examination!process.!
!
!
!
!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!12!September!2015,!Cologne!
Place!and!Date!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!Signature!
!
!
!
209!
!
!
!
!
210!