Ergonomic Workplace and Organisation Design in Small and

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Ergonomic Workplace and Organisation Design in Small and
Ergonomic Workplace and Organisation Design
in Small and Medium-sized Enterprises (SMEs)
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Ergonomic Workplace and Organisation Design
in Small and Medium-sized Enterprises (SMEs)
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Contents
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Foreword
A practical example
The ERGO wheel
Internal and external partners
Method selection and determination of the need for action
Methods
Implementation of the results
The practical test
Literature/Abbreviations
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Foreword
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The competitiveness of small and medium-sized enterprises can be
increased through ergonomic workplace and organisation design just as
much as the safety and health of the workers. Which methods lead to
success is demonstrated in the following, taking the example of the
casting cleaners’ workplaces at keulahütte krauschwitz GmbH.
With this brochure, INQA-Produktion aims to invite companies to
successfully combine competitiveness with occupational safety and
health. We also want to sensitise people to the fact that the “quality of
work in production” develops in a dynamic process and must always be
re-adjusted.
The practical description of the process is intended to make it easier
to transfer the potential solutions to your company.
The project was conducted jointly by the management, experts and
workers of keulahütte krauschwitz GmbH, representatives of the Berufsgenossenschaft (BG – institution for statutory accident insurance and
prevention) in the mechanical engineering and metal-working industry,
Berufsgenossenschaftliches Institut für Arbeitsschutz (BGIA – BG Institute for Occupational Safety and Health), Dresden university of Technology and Schweizerische unfallversicherungsanstalt (Suva – Swiss
national Accident Insurance Organisation). Our special thanks for
supporting the project goes to Mario Mackowiak, managing director of
keulahütte krauschwitz GmbH.
Dr. christoph Hecker
Head of InQA-produktion
c/o Berufsgenossenschaft Metall Süd
– for the Association of BGs in the Metal-working Industry
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A practical example
Just imagine: You are the managing director of an enterprise with about 150 employees. Your company produces
small parts in a wide variety of different sizes and also
reacts to orders for small quantities with great flexibility.
However, in recent weeks and months there has been
an increasing number of factors which have had a direct
and indirect impact on the operating result. The sickness
rate has risen continuously, the quality of work has fallen
and the downtimes have increased. Moreover, there has
been a notification of a suspected occupational illness
regarding a spinal column disorder. The origin of the unsettling events: the casting cleaning department.
keulahütte krauschwitz GmbH has successfully proved
that it was able to react successfully to such problems.
INQA-Production would like to present the successful
solution to this problem in the following:
In order to determine the causes, an inspection of the
workplaces (“on-site tour”) and the participation of the
employees (e.g. foremen) are required as an initial step.
The casting cleaning workplaces can obviously be characterised by the following features:
– Severe forward bending of the trunk is performed for
various activities.
– The unit weights which have to be handled by hand (18
to 25 kg) must be classified as heavy.
– The castings are lifted at a distance from the body and
sometimes with the trunk bent forward.
– The working heights for grinding work on the bench
and grinder stand cannot be adapted to suit the body
size of the employees.
– The ambient conditions such as climate, lighting and
noise are unsatisfactory.
– The employees do not change between the different
types of work and there are no rules on breaks.
Figure 1
Typical posture when
working at the grinder
stand. The worker is
wearing a respirator.
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The fact that “strong men” work as casting cleaners is
obvious but are the casting cleaners perhaps overloaded
by the sum of these influences? There must be a reaction
– but what?
If you examine the workplace characteristics, it quickly
becomes clear that the situation is complicated and must
be viewed from different aspects. Which aspects are important? Scientific explanations of the factors influencing
the work process often result in a system of interrelationships which is difficult to understand. A good, practical
basis for a comprehensive analysis is offered by the socalled ERGO wheel 1. Both the individual factors which act
on people and the effects between the factors can be
shown in a very simple way.
Figure 2
Constrained posture
when removing the
parts
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The ERGO wheel
The Swiss national Accident Insurance Organization
(Suva) has developed an ergonomics model in the form of
a wheel 1. people and tasks are in the centre of the wheel.
Oc
cu
people have also certain possibilities of adapting to the
afety
Workplace
task. For this reason we find people again in the action
circle – the ergonomics area – together with the factors
co
ste
ess
ven
cti
ffe
skills and characteristics of the people, on the other hand,
p
On the one hand, the work must be adapted to suit the
al s
ion
t
a
people
people/
Task
Working
environment
Work
organization
work content.
M
i
ot
All the factors in the action circle influence the factors in
the reaction circle. A strong and balanced reaction circle is
va
tio
n
a precondition for well-being at the workplace and for a
Work
content
he
a lt
h
workplace, work organisation, working environment and
l
na
atio
p
u
c
Oc
good business result. The action and reaction circles are
inseparably connected with each other.
The action circle is comparable with the lubricant film in
a bearing. If the film tears at one point, friction and heat are
produced. Without the correct lubricant being replenished,
Well-being
at the workplace
Action circle
Good business
result
Reaction circle
the bearing is damaged. The world of work behaves in an
analogous way.
By using ergonomics, we want to lubricate the bearing
ined individually and together in an assessment. The variety
and move the wheel so that it rolls forward without any
of individual factors and their interactions clearly show that
major friction losses.
almost all components are mutually dependent on one
Just like the action circle segment “working environ-
another. Simply changing just one individual condition may
ment” shown in Fig. 4, all the other segments are also
change or influence other conditions unintentionally. This
described by the individual factors which have to be exam-
may have either positive or negative effects.
Figure 3
The ERGO wheel as
an overall system 1
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people require:
– a climate and light
adapted to suit the task
– colour as a means of
classification, warning,
feeling
– proper hygienic
conditions
– a good social climate
The work equipment and the work itself produce:
people
Workplace
Working
environment
people/
Task
Work
organization
Work
content
– heat (climate)
– air movement (climate)
– humidity (climate)
– dazzle
– noise
– vibration
– radiation
– hazardous substances
– smell
– dirt
– dust
These factors have an impact both on the person
causing them and on neighbouring workplaces.
Figure 4
Action circle
’work environment’
and its components 1
One example: You separate a casting cleaner’s work-
individual specialist to record all the aspects for improving
place from the surrounding workplaces to protect them
the casting cleaners’ workplaces. He is generally a specialist
against the noise level and the generation of dust. That is
in his own field. To solve the problem, it is necessary to
good for the others. But for the casting cleaner this means
have an interdisciplinary team which tackles the complex-
new conditions as regards climate, lighting and communi-
ities of the problem. But where do you find these special-
cation. A completely new workplace is created which also
ists? Who puts the team together and who moderates it?
places different demands on the worker. It may be that he
does not cope with this because entirely new load situations are created.
How can a solution be found? It is difficult for the
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Internal and external partners
It is recommended to include internal and external
partners in the team:
– Internal partners are representatives of the management, occupational safety and health specialists, staff
representatives and finally the employees affected
themselves.
– External partners are important for specialised advice.
For example, they may be ergonomists from the accident
insurers (Berufsgenossenschaften), occupational health
professionals and work hygienists, staff from health
insurance funds, research institutes or engineering
Figure 5
Members of an
advisory team
offices.
Moderators who have special knowledge and speak the
language of the technicians and occupational health pro-
subject matter these groups are based on the action circle
fessionals have proved their worth. Accident insurance
of the ERGO wheel. Individual factors are assigned to the
institutions and major health insurance funds are the
five segments of the action circle and they have to be
people to contact in this case.
analysed singly and in combination. The following partners
The moderator puts together an interdisciplinary team
participated in our example:
in consultation with the management. The management’s
– Occupational safety and health specialists
representative informs the working group formed in this
– Staff representatives
way about the project and the current situation. This leads
– Employees
to a work plan with specific targets and deadlines. Smaller
– Occupational health professionals
groups of the various partners are formed within the team
– Ergonomists of the accident insurance institutions
in order to document the current situation as an initial step
– Health insurance fund
and to derive further procedure from this. In terms of
– Employees at research and development facilities
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Method selection and determination
of the need for action
The choice of the methods for the ergonomic analysis of
the work system depends on the objectives and tasks of
working environment such as noise and climate
– use of checklists on the load situation (standing/sitting
the working group. Simple or complicated methods may
workplaces, posture during work), on mental
be used. In the case of keulahütte krauschwitz a broad
components 2 or health problems
– use of key indicator methods to evaluate lifting and
range of methods were used to identify the load situations. These methods were:
carrying actions as well as for activities which involve
– Survey of the employees
pushing and pulling 3
– Ergonomic measurement analyses (cuELA measuring
– Weak point analysis in employee workshops
system) 4
– photo and video analyses of the workflows
– Measurement and evaluation of factors relating to the
To be taken into account:
people
Workplace
people/
Task
Work
organization
Figure 6
Individual factors from
the “Workplace”
segment 1
Working
environment
Work
content
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
sitting, standing
dimensions
room for movement
safety distances
constrained postures
lifting, carrying
angles of view
displays, actuators, handles
maintenance
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If several analysis methods can be chosen for one
segment of the work system, the assessment methods
most easy to use should be selected first. They often lead
quickly to a result. They provide an overview of the extent
of load situations and initial indications of the nature of
load in the form of a “screening procedure”. For their
quantification, measuring methods are available which
also provide results on the efficiency of preventive action
at a later date.
The procedure for choosing the methods is to be explained in the following taking the example of the “Workplace” segment with the individual factors lifting/carrying
and constrained postures. Fig. 6 shows the individual
factors of this workplace segment. These factors must be
evaluated both individually and in combination.
The weight of the workpieces of the casting cleaners
can be measured relatively easily. However, the crucial
factor is also how frequently, how long and with what
posture the casting cleaner holds or carries the workpiece.
This results in load situations which have to be described
using simple methods. In an initial stage these methods
can be used by trained employees. Above all, the so-called
key indicator methods are suitable for this purpose. In a
second stage special assessment methods should then be
applied which generally require specially trained staff. As a
rule, external partners are needed for this.
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Ergonomic Workplace and Organisation Design in Small and Medium-sized Enterprises (SMEs)
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Methods
using a screening procedure, the need for action is to be
10
Evaluation
recognised screening method is the “key indicator
variety of important conditions are entered in a calculation diagram which immediately provides information
on the load intensities on a point rating scale. This
system. You will find the diagram for our example in Fig. 7.
points
high
enables you to search efficiently for suitable and effective
possible risk is also shown using a colour identification
50
Individual resilience
method” for lifting and carrying loads (LMM)3. A wide
solution variations for this one workplace. The level of
25
low
initially determined in the first stage of the analysis. One
Low load situation,
health risk from
physical overload is
unlikely to appear.
The use of the key indicator method produced a point
rating value of 36 for our casting cleaners. The load
Increased load situation,
physical overload is
possible for people with
reduced resilience.
Design measures are
advisable for this group
of people.
Highly increased load
situation, physical overload is also possible for
people with normal
resilience. Design
measures are recommended.
High load situation,
physical overload is
likely to appear. Design
measures are required.
factors duration/frequency, load weight, posture and
performance condition are evaluated as key indicators.
When the key indicator method is used, it is necessary to
Assessment of the working conditions with load situations to the muscular and skeletal system.
have an exact knowledge of the activity to be evaluated.
However, additional ergonomic know-how is not required.
At over 50 points the load situation is definitely too
can be obtained by measurement analysis methods in step 2.
Here, the range stretches from easy-to-use measure-
high and it is possible that damage to health may result
ments, for example the lighting intensity at the workplace,
(e.g. musculoskeletal disorder). point rating values of up
down to more demanding processes for determining the
to 25 are viewed as acceptable for people who can cope
noise and vibration factors. posture and body movement
with normal load situations. A point rating value of less
can also be measured with expert processes (Fig. 8 and
than 10 is generally regarded as non-critical. Our example
Fig. 9).
shows there is therefore a need for action!
A more accurate determination of the workload factors
The application of this measuring method requires
extensive technical equipment and expertise on how to
Figure 7
Example of the colour
identification of strain
values in the key
indicator method 5
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Figure 8 (left)
CUELA measuring
system for recording
physiological loads
Figure 9 (right)
Noise and vibration
measurements by
ergonomists from the
accident insurer
use it. The evaluation of the results also requires special-
(computer-assisted recording and long-term analysis of
ised knowledge. The external partners, e.g. the measuring
musculoskeletal loads) is suitable for this purpose.
services and research facilities of the Berufsgenossenschaften, provide support.
With such an expert measurement, the exact proportion
of time of the activities subjected to load situations (han-
In order to optimise the investments required and to
dling loads and unfavourable postures) can be quantified.
demonstrate the success of the preventive action, measure-
Load intensities can be readily identified as the individual
ments were conducted both before and after conversion
load phases measured can be assigned to the corre-
of the workplace. They related, for example, to physical
sponding task using the measurement documentation.
loads caused by the manual handling of loads or un4
favourable postures. The CUELA measuring system
To measure the physical load, sensors which measure
the posture are applied to the working clothes. Moreover,
METHODS
Video dokumentation
15
Angle of dorsal
spine
Back torsion
Angle of
lumbar spine
Data logger
Hip angle
Knee angle
Memory card
Foot pressure
measuring
soles
Figure 10
The CUELA measuring
system: Principle setup and application on
test person
Figure 11
Example of an expert
system for identifying
multiple individual
factors
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Load key indicators and proposals for prevention
Load key indicators:
Working in a position with the trunk bent forwards
severely and handling high load weights when lifting
and depositing the castings.
Preventive action:
– Adaptation of the working height of castings
containers
– Back school for the employees: Training to lift and
carry loads correctly
– Reduction of the load on individual workers through
job rotation
pressure-sensitive measuring soles in the employee’s
working shoes are used to determine the load weight. All
the data of one work shift are recorded in a system worn
on the body (Fig. 10).
The measurement data are evaluated and the video
recording linked to an assessment program which permits
the identification and documentation of the load (Fig. 11).
In the case of our company example, detailed load
situations were identified with the measurements. Result:
High load weights and unfavourable postures were detected for lifting the castings and depositing them into the
wire-mesh containers and cleaning at the grinder bench.
The data for this activity were:
Load key indicators:
Working in a position with the trunk bent forwards
severely and handling high load weights when cleaning
the castings, sometimes with the knees bent.
Preventive action:
– Adaptation of the working height of the grinding
bench
– creation of larger depositing areas with adjustable
height
Table 1
Prevention proposals
on workplace design
– Forward bending of trunk at angles of < 20°: approx.
36 %
– Load weights with weights of 20 kg: 51 %
The analysis represents the bridge to concrete improvements. In this way a number of preventive design actions
METHODS
were proposed for the following activities using the data
determined (Table 1).
The prevention proposals now have to be examined in
the working group to see if they can be implemented. The
advisory teams put forward a number of proposals for the
different segments of the ERGO wheel. Therefore, the
practitioner has the final word on the practicability of the
proposal.
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Implementation of the results
In the example of our casting cleaner, the following
measures were proposed to improve the work situation:
– Elimination of constrained postures when removing the
parts from the wire-mesh container pallets and depositing the parts in them
– Adaptation of the working heights to the highly different
employees
– Reduction in the holding work during grinding.
In addition to the above measures from the segment “Workplace design", the following proposals were also made:
– Elimination of one-sided workflows, optimisation of the
break system
– Optimisation of the lighting and extraction features.
lifting tool, which balancer or lifting table is suitable under
practical conditions.
You should always discuss the preventive action with the
The implementation of organisational changes which
employees and select the best options together. Workshop
are to be made directly in your company is agreed on
results documented on flip charts and posters provide
between the management and the working group and
assistance. You will find that in most cases those directly
incorporated in the work plan.
affected arrive at the same solution variations as the team
of experts.
The objective is then to find the best technical solution
for the working conditions. To this end it has proved
worthwhile to request several manufacturers of work
equipment to have their products tried out in practice. In
this way, the employees on the shop floor can test which
All solutions, whether the acquisition of lifting tools or
new break regulations, are discussed jointly and appropriate decisions taken, stipulating deadlines and areas of
responsibility.
Figure 12/13
Examples of flip charts
from workshops with
the employees
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Figure 15
Use of a lifting table
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The practical test
In our example the solutions are as follows:
– use of lifting/tilting tables
– use of wire-mesh containers with better access
– Larger depositing areas on the grinding bench
– Adaptation of the heights of work tables and grinding
benches
– Introduction of short-break systems
– cycle changes
– Job rotation
– Renewal of the extraction and lighting facilities
The important aspect is that you give the employees
enough time to be able to adapt to the changes in the
working conditions. The working group should continue
to provide support. After the introductory phase had been
completed, follow-up evaluations of the loads and subsequent measurements of other physical or mental factors
can take place. As a result, you also obtain operational
data on the cost/benefit situation.
Figure 16
Use of a lifting/
tilting table
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answer should be found to the following questions:
– Has the sickness rate fallen?
– Have the quality of work and the employees’ motivation
improved?
– Has there finally been a positive impact on the
business result?
Quality feedback
control
workplace
If, as a result, the business result and the well-being of the
employees have improved, your accountants will also be
delighted!
The example shows that only an interdisciplinary team
Figure 17
Example of the
extension of work
through job rotation 1
Job rot ation
of experts in close collaboration with the company’s
workers can overcome such complex tasks. Methods and
processes which are also suitable for small and mediumsized enterprises are available and have proved their
For the “Workplace design” segment the following
improvements were verified for the load factors:
The load situations caused by trunk positions with
bending greater than 20° (Fig. 18, yellow columns in the
left-hand diagram) were almost completely eliminated.
Apart from the harmful bent trunk positions, the proportionately high number of load handling operations
(Fig. 19, orange and red columns in the left-hand diagram)
were also reduced by the design measures taken. After a
period of about one year, the working group should meet
again and analyse how the situation has developed. An
practicability. If you want to solve similar problems, you
will also find experienced partners in your area. And the
ERGO wheel can be of valuable assistance to you.
† HE
Trunk inclined forwards [°] (angle classes)
Frequency [%]
60
23
Trunk inclined forwards [°] (angle classes)
Frequency [%]
60,3
pRAcTIcAL TEST
before
93
92,9
after
32,5
30
46
3,3
3,2
0
=‹-2
-2‹›20
20‹›40
40‹›60
0,7
0,0
60‹›90
90›=
6,8
0
=‹-2
-2‹›20
0,3
0,0
0,0
0,0
20‹›40
40‹›60
60‹›90
90›=
Angle range [°]
Angle range [°]
Load weight [kg] (load weight classes)
Frequency [%]
33,5
34
28,3
28,3
Figure 18
Bent trunk positions
before and after
ergonomic
intervention
Load weight [kg] (load weight classes)
Frequency [%]
73 72,6
before
14
after
36
15,8
6,6
10,2
2,6
0
0,2
0
0‹›5
0,0
0,0
0,0
5‹›10 10‹›15 15‹›20 20‹›25 25‹›30 30‹›35 35‹›40
0,0
40›=
Load weight [kg]
0
0,1
0
0‹›5
1,0
0,3
0,1
5‹›10 10‹›15 15‹›20 20‹›25 25‹›30 30‹›35 35‹›40
40›=
Load weight [kg]
Figure 19
Load handling before
and after ergonomic
intervention
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Literature
Abbreviations
1 Ergonomie. Erfolgsfaktor für jedes unternehmen, Suva,
Luzern, 1996, Schmitter, D; et alia
BAuA
Bundesanstalt für Arbeitsschutz und
Arbeitsmedizin [Federal Institute for
Occupational Safety and Health], Berlin
BG
Institution(s) for statutory accident
insurance and prevention
BGIA
Berufsgenossenschaftliches Institut für
Arbeitsschutz [BG Institute for Occupational Safety and Health], Sankt
Augustin
CUELA
computer-assisted recording and longterm analysis of musculoskeletal loading
LMM
key indicator method, BAuA, Berlin
MMBG
BG in the mechanical engineering and
metal-working industry, Düsseldorf
2 Rechnergestütztes Dialogverfahren für die Bewertung und
Gestaltung von Arbeitstätigkeiten REBA 7.1, Dresden
university of Technology, InfoMediaVerlag e.k., 2005,
Richter, p; et alia
3 Leitmerkmalmethoden Heben und Tragen/ziehen und
Schieben, BAuA, Berlin, Juli 2007, Steinberg, u.; et alia
4 Einsatz des Messsystems cuELA zur Erfassung und
Bewertung physischer Arbeitsbelastungen, BGIA, Sankt
Augustin, 2006, Ellegast, R.p.; Hermanns, I.
http://www.hvbg.de/d/bia/fac/ergonomie/pdf/cuela.pdf
REBA 7.1 computer-assisted dialogue process for
the evaluation and design of work
activities allowing for occupational safety
and health, InfoMediaVerlag e.k.,
Bochum, 2005
Suva
Schweizerische unfallversicherungsanstalt [Swiss national Accident Insurance Organization], Lucerne
Imprint
Ergonomic Workplace and Organisation Design in Small and Medium-sized Enterprises (SMEs)
Authors:
Dr. Rolf Ellegast, Markus post, Berufsgenossenschaftliches Institut für Arbeitsschutz, division 4,
work science/ergonomics group, Sankt Augustin
Dieter Schmitter, Suva, Lucerne, pDF team Healthy companies, ergonomics division
Detlef Trippler, Berufsgenossenschaft in the mechanical engineering and metal-working industry,
prevention department, ergonomics group, Düsseldorf
Thematischer Initiativkreis – Arbeitssysteme in der produktion – InQA-produktion
der Initiative neue Qualität der Arbeit (InQA)
[Theme action group – Work Systems in production –
InQA production of the new Quality of Work Initiative (InQA)]
c/o Bundesanstalt für Arbeitsschutz und Arbeitsmedizin, Berlin
nöldnerstraße 40–42
10317 Berlin
Telephone +49(0)30 515 48-44 33
Fax +49(0)30 515 48-4170
[email protected]
www.inqa-produktion.de
publisher:
Bundesanstalt für Arbeitsschutz und Arbeitsmedizin
[Federal Institute for Occupational Safety and Health]
Friedrich-Henkel-Weg 1–25
D-44149 Dortmund
Telefon +49.2 31.90 71-0
Fax +49.2 31.90 71-24 54
[email protected]
Editor: pascal Frai, BAuA
Design: GuD – Helmut Schmidt, Braunschweig
Responsible for Translation: Verena Frfr. v.d. Heyden-Rynsch, Dortmund
[email protected]
photos: uwe Völkner – FOX-Fotoagentur, Lindlar/cologne
photo p. 15: Dr. Rolf Ellegast, BGIA, Sankt Augustin
photo p. 9, 14, 19: Detlef Trippler MMBG, Düsseldorf
production and printing: Rademann GmbH Druck und Medienhaus, Lüdinghausen
Reproduction, also of extracts, only with the prior approval of the BAuA.
1st edition
Dortmund/Berlin 2007
978-3-88261-578-4
www.baua.de
Geschäftsstelle der Initiative Neue Qualität der Arbeit
(Office of the New Quality of Work Initiative )
c/o Bundesanstalt für Arbeitsschutz und Arbeitsmedizin
Friedrich-Henkel-Weg 1–25
D-44149 Dortmund
Telephone +49 (0)231 9071-2250
[email protected]
www.inqa.de
Fax +49 (0)231 9071-2363

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