kavkasia da kavkasielebi

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kavkasia da kavkasielebi
joni kviciani
kavkasia da kavkasielebi
socialur-kulturuli problemebi:
istoria da Tanamedroveoba
gamomcemloba `universali~
Tbilisi 2012
wignSi ganxilulia kavkasiis xalxTa istoriisa da socialur-kulturuli cxovrebis aqtualuri sakiTxebi,
romlebsac avtori meTodologiuri pluralizmisa da
interdisciplinaruli midgomis safuZvelze ganixilavs. amgvari midgoma SesaZleblobas iZleva axleburad davinaxoT kavkasiis xalxTa istoriaSi arsebuli
mravali problema. avtori yuradRebas amaxvilebs kavkasiuri erTianobis ideis istoriasa da misi realizebis perspeqtivaze. naSromSi warmodgenili analizis
Tanaxmad, kavkasiuri civilizacia, romelic efuZneba
kavkasiel xalxTa erTian istoriul warsulSi Camoyalibebul saerTo Rirebulebebs — etikets, sakomunikacio kulturas da eTnolingvistur erTobas, SeiZleba
aRiarebul iqnes regionis integraciis ideologiur
bazad.
pirveli gamocema 2010 wels
meore gamocema 2012 wels
redaqtori:
nino Ciqovani
recenzenti:
giorgi gociriZe
© j. kviciani, 2012 gamomcemloba `universali~, 2012
Tbilisi, 0179, i. WavWavaZis gamz. 19, : 22 36 09, 8(99) 17 22 30
E-mail: [email protected]
ISBN 978-9941-12-940-7 2 Sinaarsi
Sesavali.................................................................................. 5
Tavi I. kavkasia: istoria da meTodologiuri
pluralizmi......................................................................................9
sistemur-sinergetikuli Teoria ....................................... 9
sazogadoebrivi progresi: civilizaciuri da
formaciuli Teoriebi .......................................................... 12
a) civilizaciuri koncefcia............................................... 14
b) formaciuli koncefcia.................................................... 15
g) modernizaciuli Teoria .................................................. 18
Tavi II. kavkasia da kavkasielebi ............................. 21
kavkasiis Seswavlis etapebi.................................................. 21
kavkasiis buneba........................................................................ 25
kavkasiis mosaxleoba.............................................................. 29
paleokavkasiuri eTnokulturuli erToba.................... 31
saxelmwifoebriobis tradiciuli kultura.................. 33
Tavi III. kavkasiuri idea drois WrilSi ................ 37
gaerTianebuli kavkasia XI-XII saukuneebSi:
naTesauri Tu ZaldatanebiTi kavSiri?............................. 38
1817-1864 wlebis kavkasiis omebi da kavkasiuri idea .... 43
kavkasiuri idea 1917-1921 wlebSi ....................................... 52
kavkasiuri ideis praqtikuli realizebis mcdelobebi......57
sabWoTa politika erovnul sakiTxSi................................ 61
kavkasiuri civilizacia – kavkasiuri ideis safuZveli ......63
Tavi IV. Tanamedrove kavkasia: zogadi
saxelmwifoebriv-politikuri daxasiaTeba.... 67
kavkasiis eTnikuri ruka ........................................................ 68
azerbaijani ............................................................................... 70
saqarTvelo ............................................................................... 72
somxeTi....................................................................................... 74
samxreT ruseTis (CrdiloeT-kavkasiis) subieqtebi ..... 76
saxelmwifoebriobis formebis ganviTareba Crdilo
kavkasiaSi ................................................................................... 78
daRestani .................................................................................. 80
CrdiloeT oseTi-alania, inguSeTi da CeCneTi............... 82
Cerqezebi ................................................................................... 85
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kazakoba...................................................................................... 86
Tavi V. Crdilo-kavkasia (samxreT ruseTi):
eTnikuri, konfesiuri mozaika da
migraciuli procesebi .................................................. 90
qarTvelebi CrdiloeT kavkasiaSi ..................................... 92
somxebi CrdiloeT kavkasiaSi .............................................. 95
azerbaijanelebi CrdiloeT kavkasiaSi ............................ 96
rusebi kavkasiaSi ..................................................................... 98
eTnikur-migraciuli procesebis tendenciebi
samxreT ruseTSi...................................................................... 101
Crdilo kavkasiis xalxTa religiuri aRmsarebloba...........104
Tavi VI. kavkasia: eTnopolitikuri da
geopolitikuri problemebi ...................................... 109
lokaluri konfliqtebi Crdilo kavkasiaSi ................... 110
konfliqtebi samxreT kavkasiaSi......................................... 116
konfliqtebi saqarTveloSi................................................. 119
kavkasiis geopolitika........................................................... 125
TurqeTisa da iranis faqtorebi ........................................ 127
saqarTvelo-ruseTis urTierTobis problemebi .......... 129
daskvna..................................................................................... 132
SeniSvnebi da wyaroebi.................................................. 134
4
Sesavali
“adamiani globalur masStabSi Tavisi momavlis
Semoqmedi gaxda” - aurelio peCei
cnobili mecnierisa da romis klubis prezidentis
aurelio peCeis es sityvebi, romlebic man gasuli saukunis 70-80-iani wlebis mijnaze dawera wignSi saxelwodebiT “myofadi awmyoSi”, kargad asaxavs Tanamedrove
msoflioSi Seqmnil realobas. faqtobrivad, meore
msoflio omis Semdgom, adamianma (ZiriTadad, dasavleTSi - amerika, evropa) daiwyo axali, postindustriuli sazogadoebis mSenebloba. aqcenti gadatanili iyo
sazogadoebaSi demokratiis Semdgom ganviTarebaze,
adamianis codnis gaRrmavebaze, ganaTlebis amaRlebasa
da sainformacio teqnologiebis mkveTrad gaumjobesebaze.
amave dros, aRmosavleTSi, sadac liderad sabWoTa kavSiri moiazreboda, deklarirebul iqna, rom qveyanaSi socializmi aSenda. aqve aRiniSneboda, rom misi
gadazrda komunizmSi msoflios mtruli qveynebis
(igulisxmeba dasavleTi) garemocvis pirobebSi jerjerobiT SeuZlebeli xdeboda da Semdgom gamagrebasa da
ganviTarebas saWiroebda. es procesi, Tavis mxriv,
ukavSirdeboda ara imdenad adamianis inteleqtis, misi
materialuri da socialuri mdgomareobis zrdas, aramed qveynis samxedro-samrewvelo kompleqsis ganviTarebas da danarCen msoflioSi kapitalizmis damarcxebas.
sabWoelebis aseTi midgoma dasavleTisTvis angariSgasawevi gaxda. Sedegi is iyo, rom dasavleTi da aRmosavleTi Caeba e.w.“civ omSi” - SeiaraRebis uprecendento zrdaSi. jer kidev gasuli saukunis 50-60-iani
wlebis msoflio samecniero-teqnikuri ganviTarebis
Sedegad gamoCnda e. w. “Zalis paradoqsi”, rac imas niSnavda, rom Zala aris, magram misi gamoyeneba dauSvebelia. ukve 60-70-ian wlebSi aSS-sa da sabWoTa kavSiris
5
atomuri SeiaraRebis warmoebam yvela zRvars gadaabija. im dros xSirad gaigonebdiT, Tu ramdenjer SeuZliaT mxareebs erTmaneTis mospoba. ra Tqma unda, maSin me
da yvela Cems megobars gviCndeboda kiTxva: gana erTxel ganadgureba sakmarisi ar iyo?
1991 wels sabWoTa kavSiri daiSala. diax, sagareo
faqtorma mis daSlaSi garkveuli roli Seasrula, magram _ ara gadamwyveti. bevrisTvis udavoa, rom gadamwyveti gaxldaT sabWoTa adamianis uflebebis mdgomareobis faqtori. ssrk arademokratiulma, avtokratiulma mmarTvelobam, gasaxelmwifoebulma socialurma
urTierTobebma, adamiani meore planze gadaswia. mas,
sabWoTa moqalaqes, faqtobrivad, arafers ekiTxebodnen. ra Tqma unda, Sedegmac ar daayovna.
zemoTqmulTan dakavSirebiT, ibadeba kiTxva: ra
miiRo adamianma dasavlur da aRmosavlur sivrceSi bolo naxevari saukunis manZilze gatarebuli politikis
Sedegad, rogoria igi dRes?
dasavleTSi XX-XXI saukuneebis mijnaze adamianis
gonebis dominanturi matrica integraluri azrovnebaa. Sesabamisad, mas gadawyvetilebebis miRebaSi gazrdili pasuxismgebloba aqvs.
aRmosavleTSi, kerZod, kavkasiaSi, bevrad imis gamo, rom aq ver SeZles industriuli sazogadoebis Camoyalibebis pirobebis Seqmna da mas mxolod ruseTis kolonializmis pirobebSi eziarnen (Tanac adgilobrivi
kulturis, misi Taviseburebebis ignorirebis xarjze “caristulad” da Semdgom “sabWourad” - amis Sedegi aSkaraa), adamiani moklebulia araTu integralur, aramed industriuli sazogadoebisTvis damaxasiaTebel
racionalur azrovnebasac ki. xSirad mis azrovnebaSi
magiur, miTiur elementebTan erTad, vxedavT agraruli sazogadoebisTvis damaxasiaTebel religiuri matricis dominirebas. cnobilia, rom am sazogadoebisaTvis damaxasiaTebelia koleqtiuri, patrimonialuri
socialuri urTierTobebi da adamianis tradiciuli
azrovnebis inercia. xSirad, dRes aseTi adamianebis az6
rovnebis Sesabamis socialur praqtikas mivyavarT socialuri urTierTobebis garTulebamde, ekonomikur
stagnaciamde, separatizmamde, konfliqtebamde da a.S.
amave dros, SemTxveviTi ar aris, rom postsabWouri kavkasiis sazogadoebaSi erTmniSvnelovnadaa popularuli Tavisufali, demokratiuli ganviTarebis samomavlo gza da, Sesabamisad, realuri samoqalaqo sazogadoebis mSeneblobisa da ganviTarebisaTvis mzaoba.
yovelive amas Sesabamisi safuZveli esaWiroeba - mxedvelobaSi gvaqvs regionis mosaxleobis mravalwliani
Tanacxovrebis tradiciebis gaTvaliswineba….
kavkasiis xalxTa istoriisa da kulturis Seswavla-rekonstruqcia axal meTodologiur safuZvlebze
imas gviCvenebs, rom aq individis pirovnebad Camoyalibebis, misi Rirsebisa da Tavisuflebis dacvis didi
tradicia arsebobs. dRes am resursis gamoyeneba axali,
postindustriuli sazogadoebis mSeneblobaSi gadaudebel amocanad rCeba. is, rac kavkasielebma adre, meXVII-XVIII saukuneebSi ver gaakeTes, ver moaxerxes industriuli sazogadoebis mSeneblobisTvis pirobebis
Seqmna, axla postindustriulisaTvis unda SeZlon.
amis karg saSualebas iZleva msoflioSi dRes Seqmnili
axali realoba, Tanamedrove informacia, teqnologiebi, maTi gaxsniloba da a.S.
kavkasiologia, rogorc axalgazrda mecniereba,
aRniSnuli tendenciebis SesabamisobaSia mosayvani. saWiroeba moiTxovs, rom misi problemebis xelaxali gaazreba istoriuli kvlevis CarCoSi moxdes - regionuli da globaluri interesebis dabalansebis gaTvaliswinebiT. magaliTad, Tu adre kavkasiis Seswavla “carizmis”, Semdgom sabWoTa saxelmwifos prioritetebs
emsaxureboda, dRes unda emsaxurebodes adamians, rogorc bunebis qmnilebis uzenaes faseulobas. es, erTi
mxriv, dagvexmareba, CamovayaliboT iseTi sazogadoeba,
sadac adamiani SeZlebs mTlianad “daixarjos”, gamoavlinos Tavisi SesaZleblobebi, xolo meore mxriv - upasuxos drois im gamowvevebs (globalizacia, ekologi7
uri problemebi, saerTaSoriso terorizmi da a.S.),
romlebic karzea momdgari.
kavkasiologiis amocanaa dagvanaxos, rom adamianis momavali regionSi da, zogadad, msoflioSi, yvelasTvis erTia. misi mizania gvaCvenos, rom globalizacia uzrunvelyofs postindustriuli msoflio sazogadoebis mSeneblobis procesSi yvela qveynis CarTvas,
maTi TviTmyofadobis, kulturis SenarCunebiT. aRsaniSnavia isic, rom Tu Cven am procesebSi ar CaverTvebiT da pozitiur nabijebs ar gadavdgamT, degradacia
gvelis….
zemoaRniSnulidan gamomdinare, Cven SevecdebiT,
msoflioSi mimdinare procesebis gaTvaliswinebiT,
warmovaCinoT kavkasiaSi arsebuli socialuri, istoriul-kulturuli problemebi da vimsjeloT maTi gadaWris savaraudo gzebze.
am naSromis Seqmnis dros didi mxardaWera gagviwia donis rostovSi arsebuli CrdiloeT kavkasiis
umaRlesi skolis samecniero centris xelmZRvanelma,
profesorma mixeil rozinma, ruseTis samxreT federaluri universitetis profesorma vladimer riabcevma,
yabardo-balyareTis saxelmwifo universitetis profesorma aslan borovma, qarTuli diplomatiis mkvlevarma, politikur mecnierebaTa akademiis wevrma simon
kilaZem da sxvebma, risTvisac maT madlobas vuxdiT. am
mecnierebTan gamarTulma Tematurma diskusiebma mniSvnelovani daxmareba gagviwies calkeuli sakiTxebis gadaWris saqmeSi.
8
Tavi I
kavkasia: istoria da
meTodologiuri pluralizmi
Tanamedrove sazogadoebaze arsebuli warmodgenebis istoriis Seswavla da analizi bevradaa dafuZnebuli sistemur midgomaze. sistemaSi igulisxmeba misi
warmomqmneli elementebis erToblioba, romlebic erTmaneTTan mdgrad kavSirsa da urTierTobebSi arian.
rusi filosofosi mixeil rutkeviCi adamianTa sazogadoebas ganixilavs, rogorc istoriuli ganviTarebis
procesSi myof rTul struqturizebul sistemas, romlis qvesistemebad gvevlinebian msxvili regionebi (civilizaciebi), ZiriTad elementebad ki sociumebi - eTnosebi, erebi, saxelmwifoebi (1).
rogorc mecnierebi Tvlian, adamianis moRvaweobis procesSi mudmivad warmoiqmnebian TviTorganizebadi mdgradi struqturebi. sayuradReboa, rom bunebaSi moqmed TviTorganizebis process germanelma mecnierma-fizikosma henrix hakenma 1973 wels “sinergetika”
uwoda (2). igi dafuZnebulia sistemur, an, SeiZleba iTqvas, samyaros mTlianobis ideebze.
1. sistemur-sinergetikuli Teoria
sinergetika XX saukunis 70-iani wlebidan ganixileba rogorc erT-erTi fundamenturi koncefcia, romelic Tanamedrove msoflios suraTs kargad asaxavs.
sinergetikuli gagebiT, sityva “ganviTareba” xarisxovnad iseTi axali procesis warmoqmnas niSnavs, romelic
bifurkaciis (3) wertilSi momxdar movlenas ukavSirdeba. am axalma disciplinaTSorisma midgomam istorikosebs perspeqtiva misca, gaaanalizon istoriuli ganviTarebis alternatiuli gzebi da is rTuli sakiTxebi,
romlebic civilizaciis “Catexvis” Sedegad wamoiWrnen.
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amerikeli sociologi da futurologi elvin
tofleri mokled ayalibebs sinergetikuli xedvis
arss, mis “enas” TviTorganizebad sistemebSi: yvela sistema Seicavs qvesistemas, romlebic fluqtuirebis (gadaxris) ganuwyvetliv procesSi imyofeba. zogjer calkeuli fluqtuacia Tu fluqtuaciuri kombinacia, dadebiTi ukukavSiris Sedegad, SeiZleba imdenad Zlieri
gaxdes, rom adre arsebuli organizacia mas veRar uZlebs da nadgurdeba. am gardamtex (anu bifurkaciis)
momentSi principulad SeuZlebelia imis winaswarmetyveleba, Tu romeli mimarTulebiT moxdeba ganviTareba: iqneba sistemis mdgomareoba qaosuri, Tu is gadava
axal, ufro diferencirebulze da mowesrigebulobis
ufro maRal doneze, romelsac disipaTiuri struqtura (4) ewodeba (disipaTia - nivTierebis gabneva energiaSi).
i.prigoJinis mier disipaTiuri struqturebis aRmoCenam, romlebic garemosTan mudmivi gacvlis pirobebSi arseboben, migviyvana ori urTierTsawinaaRmdego
aspeqtis saocari urTierTkavSiris gagebamde - disipaciisa, romelic ganpirobebulia entropiis warmomqmneli aqtiurobiT da wesrigisa, romelsac, tradiciuli
warmodgenebis Tanaxmad, igive disipacia arRvevs (5).
amrigad, qaosisa da wesrigis sinTezi, romelic disipaciuri sistemis mieraa ganxorcielebuli, imaSi
mdgomareobs, rom ukve mowesrigebul sistemas mouwesrigeblis gareSe arseboba ar SeuZlia (anu wesrigs - qaosis gareSe), Tanac mravalgzisi monacvleobiT - “qaosi-wesrigi-qaosi-wesrigi” - ganviTarebis procesSi. aseTi struqturebis arseboba ganpirobebulia ufro didi
energiiT, vidre amas iTxoven is martivi, ubralo
struqturebi, romlebic maT unda Secvalon. cvlis amgvari procesis Sewyvetis Semdeg disipaTiuri struqturac qreba.
i.prigoJinis koncefcia disipaTiur struqturebSi qaosidan wesrigis SemTxveviTi warmoqmnis Sesaxeb
dRemde diskusias iwvevs. georg hegelisa da karl marqsis dialeqtikuri koncefciisagan (SemTxveviTobisa
10
da aucileblobis kategoriebi) gansxvavebiT, romlebic saerTod seriozulad ar ganixilaven qaoss, prigoJiniseuli koncefcia aCvenebs, rom qaosi da wesrigi
disipaTiuri struqturis SigniT urTierTdakavSirebulia. i.prigoJinis azriT, bifurkaciis wertilSi
“SemTxveviToba biZgs aZlevs ganviTarebis axal gzaze
imas, rac sistemisagan rCeba, xolo mas Semdeg, rac gza
airCeva, kvlav ZalaSi Sedis determinacia da ase Semdeg
- bifurkaciis momdevno wertilamde” (6). amrigad, disipaTiur sistemebSi SemTxveviToba da aucilebloba erTmaneTTan “dapirispirebulebi” ki ar arian, aramed erTmaneTTan sinTezireben da erTmaneTs avseben.
zemoaRniSnul saerTo kanonzomierebebs dRes, meTodologiuri krizisis pirobebSi, sazogadoebis TviTorganizaciis dros, didi mniSvneloba aqvs.
kidev erTi momenti: Tu prigoJinis paradoqss ar
mivmarTavT, sinergetikuli msoflmxedvelobisa da
globalizaciis arsis bolomde Secnoba da misi gaxsna
SeuZlebelia. rusi mecnierebi vladimer branski da sviatoslav poJarski, imowmeben ra ilia prigoJinis bolo
intervius (2000 w.), aRniSnaven: “globalizaciasa da
qselur revolucias adamianebi mihyavs aramarto maRali donis kavSirebisaken, aramed istoriul procesSi
calkeuli individumebis rolis zrdamdec”. maTi azriT, paradoqsis arsi mdgomareobs ori dapirispirebuli tendenciis erTdroul dinebaSi: TiToeuli individumis sociumisagan damokidebulebis zrdaSi da, piriqiT, mTliani sociumis damokidebulebis zrdaSi TiToeuli individumis TviTnebobaze. pirveli tendencia
aris midrekileba totaluri daprogramebulobisaken
(anu wesrigis kultisaken - totalitarizmisaken), meore ki - totaluri TviTnebobisaken (anu qaosis kultisaken - anarqizmisaken). mecnierebi kiTxvaze, SesaZlebelia Tu ara prigoJinis paradoqsis gadalaxva, pasuxoben, rom es SesaZlebelia superatraqtorSi, sadac arsebobs Tavisuflebisa da pasuxismgeblobis (qaosisa da
wesrigis) sruli harmonia (7).
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kavkasiis regionis dabrunebas misi ganviTarebis
bunebriv, tradiciul gzaze (“buneba-sazogadoeba-adamiani”) ganapirobebs TviTorganizebis Sinagani, sistemur-sinergetikuli logika socialur da bunebriv garemoSi. amitom, ukve transformaciis meore etapis
(pirveli - 1990-iani wlebis dasawyisidan 2000 wlamde da
meore - 2000-idan dRemde) gamocdileba, kerZod, saqarTveloSi momxdari “vardebis revolucia”, gvaCvenebs,
rom sazogadoeba, TviTorganizebis socialuri struqturirebis ufro maRal safexurze asvlisas (vidre es
iyo transformaciis pirvel etapis dasawyisSi), axali
instituciuri makrostruqturis generirebas axdens
da sakuTari ganviTarebis ufro maRal dones uzrunvelyofs. sakiTxi exeba xelisuflebis saqmianobis gamWvirvaleobisa da misi efeqturobis amaRlebas, bazrebis monopolizebis aRmofxvras da sxva (8).
2. sazogadoebrivi progresi:
civilizaciuri da formaciuli Teoriebi
dasaxelebul Teoriul moZRvrebebs win uZRoda
sazogadoebrivi progresis Teoriis Seqmna.
jer kidev uZveles civilizaciebSi adamianebi acnobierebdnen sazogadoebriv cvlilebebs, ganviTarebas da mas sazogadoebis SegnebaSi afiqsirebdnen. amave
dros, iyo maTi gamomwvevi mizezebis Teoriuli axsnis,
Semdgomi mimarTulebisa da xasiaTis ganWvretis mcdelobebic.
sazogadoebis ganviTarebis pirveli koncefciebi
cdilobdnen ganemartaT is politikuri cvlilebebi,
romlebic, maTi azriT, ciklur xasiaTs atarebda. sazogadoebis ganviTarebis pirveli cikluri Teoriebis
Seqmna ki jer kidev platons (Zv.welTaRricxvis 428-347
wlebi) da aristoteles (Zv.welTaRricxvis 384-322
wlebi) ekuTvnis. isini cdilobdnen aexsnaT Zvel berZnul qalaqebSi mmarTvelobis cvlis mizezebi despotizmidan aristokratiamde, oligarqiamde, demokrati12
amde, anarqiamde da tiraniamde. SemdgomSi sazogadoebrivi cvlilebebis cikluri xasiaTi sazogadoebrivi
cxovrebis sxva sferoebzec gavrcelda.
unda aRvniSnoT, rom ori aseuli wlis winaT msoflio istoria aRiqmeboda rogorc didi imperiebis ayvaveba, sidiade da ngreva. magaliTad, XVIII saukuneSi
frangi ganmanaTleblis Sarl monteskies traqtati
“fiqrebi romaelTa ayvavebisa da daRupvis mizezebze”
(1734) zustad amaze miuTiTebs. istoriis mecnierebis
ganviTrebaSi, misi sistemuri Seswavlis gaazrebaSi
mniSvnelovani roli miuZRvis italiel filosofoss
jambatista vikos (1668-1744 w.w.), romelic istorizmis
koncefciis erT-erTi avtoricaa. misi azriT, am koncefciis umTavresi arsi istoriuli procesis winsvladobaa, rodesac SemTxvevebi da movlenebi mWidro urTierTkavSirSi da droSi ganviTarebadni arian. amasTan
erTad, jambatista vikos ekuTvnis istoriuli wrebrunvis sayovelTao Teoria, romlebic sami istoriuli
epoqisagan Sedgeba, Sesabamisi ciklebiT. esenia: RvTaebrivi, sagmiro da adamianuri, romlebic sayovelTao
krizisebisas erTmaneTs cvlian. aqve unda davZinoT,
rom dasavleT evropaSi renesansic ki (XV-XVII ss.) sayovelTaod iyo miCneuli antikuri epoqis miRwevebis
aRorZinebad.
mxolod XVIII saukunis bolos samecniero azri
(a.Tiurgo, e.giboni, i.herderi) mivida im daskvnamde, rom
Tanamedrove epoqa antikurisagan Tvisobrivad gansxvavdeba da rom is sazogadoebrivi ganviTarebis Semdgom safexurs warmoadgens. ase Seiqmna msoflio istoriaSi sazogadoebrivi progresis pirveli Teoriebi. unda iTqvas, rom swored maT uaryves warmodgenebi msoflio istoriis cikluri mimoqcevis Sesaxeb da kacobriobis winsvliTi ganviTarebis idea daamkvidres (9).
amave dros, sazogadoebrivi ganviTarebis Teoriam
XIX saukuneSi sxvadasxva forma miiRo, rac dakavSirebulia sazogadoebaSi mimdinare ideur dapirispirebebTan, kacobriobis momavlis xedvebTan mimarTebiT.
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a) civilizaciuri koncefcia
dReisaTvis saqarTveloSi da mTlianad kavkasiaSi
popularobas iZens istoriis procesebis civilizaciuri xedva, romlis Teoretikosebi arian a. danilevski
(1822-1885), o.Spengleri (1880-1936), a.toinbi (18801975). kacobriobis istoria miiCneva civilizaciebis
(agraruli, industriuli, postindustriuli) cvlad.
yoveli maTgani moicavs lokalur, regionul da globalur Semadgenlebs. aRniSnul civilizaciebs axasiaTebs aRmocenebis, ganviTarebisa da dakninebis stadiebi (10).
amgvari meTodologiis mimdevrebi Tvlian, rom ar
arsebobs kacobriobis kulturis ganviTarebis zogadi
kanonzomiereba, rac kulturis ganviTarebas mxolod
calkeul civilizaciaSi axasiaTebs. erTi mxriv, aq Cans
formaciuli modelis gamsxvileba, magram aqve vxedavT
veqtorul-stadiur modelsac, romelic kacobriobis
erTobis ideaze da am erTobis mravalferovnebazea dafuZnebuli.
amrigad, msoflio civilizacia - es aris mTlianoba, sistema, romelTanac regionuli, lokaluri civilizaciuri kulturebi struqturul-funqciur kavSirSia. rusi filosofosis n.rozovis azriT, lokaluri civilizacia socialuri evoluciis aramarto tipur da masobriv movlenad gvevlineba, aramed is “istoriis ZiriTadi erTeulis” statussac iZens (11).
dRes civilizaciur TeoriasTan dakavSirebiT
bevri samecniero naSromi iqmneba. samwuxarod, n.danilevskidan dawyebuli, romelic msoflioSi 11 civilizaciaze mianiSnebda (egvipturi, Cinuri, induri, iranuli, ebrauli, romauli, evropuli da sxva), damTavrebuli a.toinbiT (21 civilizacia), arc erTi maTgani kavkasiis civilizaciaze ar miuTiTebs. vfiqrobT, kargi iqneba, Tu mecnierebaSi es xarvezi gamoswordeba. amis
imeds, informaciuli universalizmisagan gansxvavebiT
(amas qvemoT ganvixilavT), dRes ukve civilizaciuri
pluralizmi gvaZlevs. saWiroa civilizaciuri midgo14
mis Semdgomi gaazreba kavkasiaSi, misi daxvewa da Semdeg, masze dayrdnobiT, regionis sociumze eqstrapolireba. am SemTxvevaSi misi amomxsneli kriteriumebi
sazogadoebis socialuri da politikuri urTierTobebis kulturul-ideur da zneobriv-fsiqologiur saxes unda ukavSirdebodes. civilizaciuri midgomis
dros aucilebelia adamianis bunebrivi, zogadi da lokaluri cxovelqmedebis pirobebis Seswavlac.
Tu adre civilizaciebs Soris gansxvavebebis gamo
isini erTmaneTs upirispirdebodnen, dRes, rogorc
amas samarTlianad aRniSnavs italieli mecnieri vitorio strada, piriqiT, Sors wasuli globalizaciis pirobebSi, es gansxvavebebi dialogsa da TanamSromlobaSi axali erTobis Ziebas unda niSnavdes. amisaTvis, dasZens v.strada, civilizaciebs Soris mxolod gansxvavebebis Segnebas SeuZlia is gaakeTos, rom globalizaciis konstruqciulma SesaZleblobebma sawinaaRmdegoze
upiratesoba moipovon (12).
b) formaciuli koncefcia
marqsizmi dResac aqtualuria imitom, rom am moZRvrebaSi centraluri adgili ukavia axal filosofias, romelic materialistur dialeqtikaSi gamoixateba. am midgomiT, marqsizmi ganixilavs socialur-ekonomikuri urTierTobebis problemebs, romlebic warmoiqmnebian sazogadoebriv cxovrebaSi.
formaciul koncefciebs, farTo gagebiT, miekuTvneba ara marto karl marqsis (1818 -1883) sazogadoebრივი formaciebis Teoria, aramed istoriuli procesis iseTi Teoriebic, rogorc magaliTad, o.kontis
(1798 - 1857) pozitivizmis Teoria, agreTve XX saukuneSi Seqmnili “ekonomikuri zrdis stadiebis”, “erTiani
industriuli sazogadoebis”, “postindustriuli sazogadoebis”, “teqnotronuli sazogadoebis” Teoriebi. maT Soris yvelaze kargad iqna damuSavebuli mar15
qsistuli sazogadoebrivi progresi, rogorc formaciaTa Tanmimdevruli monacvleoba. masSi karl marqsi
da fridrix engelsi (1820-1895) did adgils uTmoben
sen-simonis, g.hegelis, l.morganisa da sxvaTa ideebs.
marqsizmi, xelmZRvanelobs ra, georg hegelis
“obieqturi” dialeqtikuri logikiT, msoflio istoriis periodizacias xuT formaciad yofs: pirvelyofilTemur, monaTmflobelur, feodalur, kapitalistur
da komunistur formaciebad (am ukanasknelTan misi
sawyisi faza - socializmi iyo gaigivebuli). formaciuli midgoma istoriis materialistur da, Sesabamisad,
vertikalur xedvas asaxavs. misi arsia istoriuli da
kulturuli procesebis unificireba da maTi erT sqemaSi moqceva.
aqve unda aRiniSnos, rom es moZRvreba formaciaTa cvlas xedavs rogorc bunebriv-istoriul process,
romelic araa damokidebuli adamianis Segnebaze da mis
ganzraxvaze. xazgasmulia, rom misi periodizacia ZiriTadad dafuZnebuli iyo evrocentristul interpretaciaze da miniSnebebze, rom is calkeul SemTxvevaSi
danarCen msoflioSic unda gavrcelebuliyo. ra Tqma
unda, iribad es iyo am Teoriis mikuTvneba bunebis obieqtur kanonebTan.
sabWoTa kavSiris pirobebSi formaciul moZRvrebas mecnierebis yvela sferoSi gabatonebuli mdgomareoba ekava. zemoaRniSnul sqemaSi ZiriTadi yuradReba
eTmoboda istoriul procesSi zogadis gamovlenas erTeulis, lokaluris ignorirebis xarjze, rac xSirad
Segnebulad ugulebelyofda sazogadoebis polivariantul ganviTarebasa da mis Taviseburebebs. amiT mTeli rigi xalxebi, faqtobrivad, amovardnili iyo kacobriobis saerTo “istoriis konteqstidan”. magaliTad,
CrdiloeT kavkasiis respublikebSi mcxovreb xalxebs,
imis gamo, rom am sqemaSi ver Tavsdebodnen, sabWoTa
kavSiris dros “CamorCenilebs” uwodebdnen da aRniSnavdnen, rom isini kapitalizmis gamotovebiT socializms aSenebeno. amasTan, maT xSirad ayvedridnen kidec - rom ara maTi “gasabWoeba”, isini amas ver miaRwev16
dnen da ver Caebmebodnen msoflios istoriis saerTo
ganviTarebaSio.
rogor dgas dRes saqarTveloSi kavkasiis xalxTa
civilizaciuri kuTvnilebis gansazRvris sakiTxi? unda iTqvas, rom CvenSi am process, winaTac da dResac,
xels uSlida da uSlis msoflio istoriis formaciuli
xedvis inercia. sabWoTa kavSiris “centris” gadmosaxedidan kavkasiis regionis xalxebi, maTi socialur-ekonomikuri ganviTarebis tradiciidan gamomdinare, iyofodnen “pirvel”, “meore” da “mesame” xarisxis xalxebad, rac maTi politikuri mowyobis statusSic isaxeboda (mokavSire respublikebad, avtonomiur respublikebad da avtonomiur olqebad dayofa).
unda aRiniSnos, rom am Teoriis mimarT dRes bevri
pretenzia arsebobs, gaCndnen misi kritikosebic. kerZod, eWvqveS dgeba g.hegelis dialeqtika, istoriuli
etapebis cvla. hegelis logikis gaTvaliswinebiT, saxelmwifo marqsizmi Tvlida, rom winaaRmdegobebis miyvana logikur dasasrulamde, maTi sruli “moxsna” SesaZlebelia romelime maTganis daRupvis (ganadgurebis) xarjze (13). es maSin, rodesac sinergetika, rogorc
zemoT iqna aRniSnuli, damatebulobis (komplimentarobis) principidan gamomdinare (nils bori, 1927 w.), winaaRmdegobaTa brZolis dialeqtikuri principebisagan gansxvavebiT, urTierTobaSi arsebul dapirispirebas tolerantobiT, SemwynareblobiT da sxvis azrTan
TanamSromlobiT cvlis.
rac Seexeba georg hegelis istoriuli progresis
ideas, cnobili rusi mecnieris a.gureviCis azriT, is
usafuZvloa. mecnieri xazs usvams, rom es idea gakotrebulia aramarto imiT, rom “mas umTavresad sawarmoo
Zalebisa da warmoebiT urTierTobebis ganviTareba miaCnia da, Sesabamisad, adamianis mTeli sulieri mxare,
misi pirovnuli arsi TiTqmis umciresia, aramed imitomac, rom am ideas kacobriobis istoria progresis ideamde dahyavs. ras gvTavazobs is? adre sazogadoeba uaresi iyo, is jer kidev ar iyo iseTi, rogoric Semdeg
17
gaxdeba da amitom adamianebma raRac ar icodnen, ar SeeZloT da, Sesabamisad, raRac dones ver miaRwies” (14).
amrigad, formaciuli midgomisaTvis damaxasiaTebelia erTi mxriv, sazogadoebis cxovrebaSi ekonomikuri urTierTobebis rolis primatis warmoCena da meore
mxriv, amis safasurad adamianis sazogadoebrivi kulturis, tradiciebis rolis daknineba.
amasTan erTad, aris sxva mosazrebebic. kerZod is,
rom marqsizmi dResac rCeba efeqtur socialur paradigmad, Tumca, maTi azriT, is ganaxlebas saWiroebs.
zemoTqmulis Sejameba saSualebas gvaZlevs, gamovyoT ramdenime tendencia postsabWour meTodologiaSi: 1)formaciuli midgomis ganaxleba; 2)civilizaciuri midgomis damuSaveba; 3)formaciulis da civilizaciuri midgomebis SeTavseba.
rogorc zemoT aRniSnulidan irkveva, orive midgoma
- formaciulic da civilizaciuric - sazogadoebis progresis ideazea dafuZnebuli. pirveli (formaciuli) sazogadoebaSi upiratesobas ekonomikas aniWebs, meore (civilizaciuri) - kulturas. albaT, maTi kategoriuli dapirispireba araswori iqneboda. ufro upriani iqneba, vifiqroT, rom isini erTmaneTs met-naklebad abalanseben.
g) modernizaciuli Teoria
mecnierebi, rogorc wesi, modernizacias ukavSireben socialur cvlilebebs, romlebic sazogadoebis
industriul ganviTarebasTan arian dakavSirebulni.
dasavleT evropaSi es procesi iwyeba XV-XVI saukuneebidan, roca manufaqturuli warmoebis ganviTareba daiwyo da aqcenti soflis meurneobidan mrewvelobaze
gadavida. mogvianebiT, manqanuri mrewvelobis gamarjvebis Semdgom, adamianis socialuri cxovrebis ganviTarebac swrafi tempiT mimdinareobs, yalibdeba industriuli sazogadoeba Tavisi profesiuli specializebiT, urbanizmis prioritetiT, ganaTlebis donis
18
amaRlebiT, sicocxlis saSualo xangrZlivobis momatebiT da swrafi ekonomikuri zrdiT.
XIX-XX saukeneebSi am procesis mecnierulad Seswavla, rogorc ityvian, “drom moitana”. warmoiSva ori sapirispiro: modernizaciis marqsistuli xedva miiCnevda,
rom kerZo sakuTrebis gauqmeba safuZvels daudebs eqsploataciis, uTanasworobisa da konfliqtebis dasasruls, xolo kapitalisturi xedvis Tanaxmad, ekonomikuri ganviTareba sazogadoebis cxovrebis donis amaRlebasa da demokratias uzrunvelyofda.
modernizaciis es ori xedva metoqeobas “civi
omis” drosac ganagrZobda, magram aRmoCnda, rom 1970iani wlebis “ganviTarebulma socializmma” Tavisi SesaZleblobebi amowura da komunizmamde ver miaRwia. Sesabamisad, dadga “uZraobis periodi”. rac Seexeba bevr
Rarib qveyanas, iq arc ekonomikuri ganviTareba da arc
demokratia ar SeiniSneboda. rogorc germaneli mecnieri qristian verceli da amerikeli ronald ingelharti
aRniSnaven, “ise gegonebodaT, TiTqos arcerTi TvalTaxedva ar dasturdeboda, amitom kritikosebma modernizaciis gardacvaleba gamoacxades” (15).
amave mecnierTa azriT, `civi omis~ dasrulebis Semdeg modernizacia kvlav aqtualuria da dRes is, ase
vTqvaT, “meore sicocxles” iZens. aqve SevniSnavT, rom postsabWoTa sivrceSi da kapitalistur samyaroSi modernizacias adre ganviTarebis gansxvavebuli gzebi hqondaT.
agraruli (tradiciuli) sazogadoebidan industriulSi gadasvla sazogadoebrivi cxovrebis yvela mxaris (politikuri, ekonomikuri, samarTlebrivi, kulturuli) gardaqmnas moicavs. amasTan, Tu es procesi kompleqsurad ar mimdinareobs, maT Soris Tavs iCens Seusabamoba da modernizacia SezRuduli saxiTaa warmodgenili. cnobilia, rom saqarTvelosa da, saerTod, kavkasiaSi
modernizacia “zemodan”, saxelmwifos, anu SeiZleba iTqvas, “CinovnikTa” patronaJiT inicirebul xasiaTs atarebda (da es dResac asea), maSin rodesac dasavleTSi is
xorcieldeboda “qvemodan”, mis warmmarTvel Zalad ki
mesakuTre, mewarme gvevlineboda. Sedegic Sesabamisia.
19
q.vercelisa da r.ingelhartis azriT, dReisaTvis
dasavleTSi Semnil modernizaciis axal versiaSi (“postindustriuli sazogadoeba”) naTladaa warmodgenili,
Tu sadamde unda migviyvanos globalurma ekonomikurma ganviTarebam. misi amocanebia genderuli Tanasworobis, demokratiisa da adamianis TviTgamoxatvis faseulobaTa damkvidreba cxovrebaSi (16).
dasavleTisagan gansxvavebiT, CvenSi jer kidev mougvarebel problemad rCeba adamianis, rogorc ekonomikur, aseve fizikur usafrTxoebasTan dakavSirebuli
sakiTxebi. kavkasiaSi demokratizaciis gzaze Semdgomi
winsvla saWiroebs biurokratiulobisa da ierarqiulobis gadalaxvas, avtokratiuli reJimebisagan Tavis
daRwevas da tradiciul faseulobebze dayrdnobiT saero, racionaluri faseulobebisaken svlas.
Tu Cven am sakiTxebs kargad SeviswavliT, aRmoCndeba, rom kavkasieli xalxebis tradiciebSi arsebuli
adamianis dafasebis sabaziso faseulobebi SesaZloa
kargad “Caeweros” postindustriul realobaSi.
industriul “liberalur civilizaciaSi”, rogorc sistemaSi, oTx ZiriTad faseulobas gamoyofen.
esenia: 1) individualizmi, 2) universalizmi (adamianis
uflebebi), 3) egalitarizmi (adamianebs Soris yovelgvari moraluri da politikuri ierarqiulobis uaryofa), 4) meliorizmi (sazogadoebriv-politikuri institutebis srulyofa).
kavkasiuri kulturuli (civilizaciuri) tradiciis kvlevisas yuradReba unda mieqces agreTve msoflio modernizaciis procesSi Camoyalibebul Tanamedrove liberalur da pluralistur samoqalaqo sazogadoebebs Soris arsebul gansxvavebas. principuli gansxvaveba maT Soris imaSi gamoixateba, rom pirvel SemTxvevaSi samoqalaqo sazogadoebaSi ZiriTadi uflebebis matareblad individebi gvevlinebian, xolo pluralisturSi - jgufebi da gaerTianebebi.
sainteresoa, Cven, qarTvelebi da yvela danarCeni
kavkasieli, kulturuli TvalsazrisiT samoqalaqo sazogadoebis romel formasTan varT axlos?
20
Tavi II
kavkasia da kavkasielebi
ramdenime wlis win dmanisSi arqeologiurma aRmoCenam (napovnia qalisa da mamakacis 1,8 mln. wlis winandeli Tavis qala) cxadyo, rom kavkasia adamianis gaCenis
regioni Tu ara, misi sapientaciis anu Tanamedrove
adamianad Camoyalibebis adgili mainc aris. es faqti
kidev ufro amtkicebs mecnierebis adrindel aRiarebas, rom kavkasia msoflio civilizaciis uZvelesi keraa. dRes is aris unikaluri istoriul-kulturuli,
polieTnikuri, polikonfesiuri regioni, romelsac
mniSvnelovani geopolitikuri adgilmdebareoba ukavia. kavkasias, rogorc evropasa da azias Soris mdebare
erT-erT mniSvnelovan regions, yovelTvis ekisreboda
wina aziis qveynebisa da aRmosavleT evropis damakavSirebeli funqcia.
kavkasia odiTganve ipyrobda gare samyaros yuradRebas. dampyroblebs aq arsebuli simdidre izidavda. bevri
mogzauri da mecnieri kavkasiis monaxulebisa da gacnobis
Semdeg aq Tavisi Semoqmedebis wyaros poulobda.
kavkasiis Seswavlis etapebi
saxelwodeba “kavkasia” pirvelad jer kidev Cvens
welTaRricxvamde VI saukuneSia moxseniebuli - berZeni
dramaturgis esqiles tragediaSi “mijaWvuli promeTe”. mogvianebiT, Zv. w. aR. V saukuneSi “istoriis mama”
herodote werda idumalebiT mocul “mTaTa qveyanaze”
da konkretulad mianiSnebda, rom “kavkasiaSi bevri
sxvadasxva tomi cxovrobs”. xuTasi wlis Semdeg, antikuri xanis cnobil geograf strabons “geografiaSi”
sakmaod vrclad aqvs aRwerili kavkasia. isic gakvirvebulia am mTian qveyanaSi dasaxlebul eTnosTa simravliT. misi sityvebiT, marto qalaq dioskuriaSi (soxumi)
savaWrod dasavleT kavkasiidan 70 tomTa warmomadgenlobis vaWari Camodioda. TiTqmis aTasi wlis Semdeg ara21
bi enciklopedisti al masudi aRniSnavda: “mTa kabk (kavkasia) - didi mTaa, romelsac udidesi teritoria ukavia.
is bevr samefosa da xalxebs moicavs” (1).
kavkasiis Sesaswavlad didi mniSvneloba aqvs Sua
saukuneebis adgilobriv avtorTa nawarmoebebs, rogorebic arian agaTangelosi, egiSe, movses xorenaci (somxeTi); leonti mroveli (“qarTlis cxovreba”), «История
страны Агван» da sxv.
antikuri da Sua saukuneebis avtorTa es da sxva
nawarmoebebi, pirobiTad, kavkasiis Seswavlis pirvel
etapad SeiZleba iqnas miCneuli.
meore etapi ukavSirdeba regionis mecnierulad
Seswavlas, romelic daiwyo XVIII-XIX saukuneebSi da 1917
wlis revoluciebamde gagrZelda. am dros kavkasiis sakiTxi, aRmosavlurTan erTad, saerTaSoriso politikis umniSvnelovanesi problema xdeba. kavkasiis regioni didi qveynebis - inglisisa da safrangeTis, sparseTis, osmaleTisa da ruseTis imperiebis umwvavesi urTierdapirispirebis adgilad gadaiqca. movlenebis
dramatulma ganviTarebam xangrZlivi kavkasiuri omebi
ganapiroba. XIX saukunis 30-50-iani wlebSi ruseTis mier warmoebuli omebis finali iyo kavkasieli xalxebis
damoukideblobis dakargva da maTi kolonizacia ruseTis imperiaSi. SeiZleba iTqvas, rom am movlenebma udidesi daintereseba gamoiwvia ara marto ruseTis imperiaSi, aramed sazRvargareTac - aRniSnul periodSi
kavkasiaSi mimdinare procesebs evropis TiTqmis yvela
cnobili gazeTi aSuqebda. aqedan gamomdinare, sazogadoebis aqtiurma interesma regionuli movlenebis mimarT kavkasiismcodneobis ganviTarebas damatebiTi
stimuli misca.
unda aRvniSnoT, rom axal droSi kavkasiismcodneobas safuZveli Caeyara vaxuSti bagrationis, s. g. gmelinis, i. a. giuldenStedtis, p.s. palasis nawarmoebebSi.
XIX saukuneSi kavkasiismcodneobas gansakuTrebuli mniSvneloba ruseTis imperiis mecnierebaSi eniWeba.
am dros moRvaweobdnen ruseTis cnobili kavkasiolo22
gebi n.dubrovini, p.butkovi, m.kovalevski, s. belokurovi; azerbaijanelebi - a.bakixanovi da m.kazembeki;
qarTvelebi - d. baqraZe, e.TayaiSvili, s. esaZe; somxebi v. zasTomiani da s. egiazarovi; adiRelebi - xan girei da
Sora nogmovi; osebi - k. xeTagurovi da a. gasievi; CeCeni
u. laudaevi da bevri sxva istorikosi, eTnografi, filologi da geografi.
kavkasiasTan aris dakavSirebuli msoflioSi aRiarebuli avtorebis - a.diumas, a.puSkinis, m.lermontovis, l.tolstois da bevri sxva cnobili mwerlis, poetisa da mxatvris Semoqmedeba. kavkasiaze Seyvarebuli
mixeil lermontovi Tavis cnobil nawarmoebSi “ismailbei” werda:
И диких тех ущелий племена,
Их бог - свобода, и закон - война,
Там за добро - добро, и кровь - за кровь,
И ненависть безмерна, как любовь.
1917 wlis revoluciebamde daiwyes moRvaweoba
cnobilma kavkasiologebma n. marma, v. v. struvem, iv. javaxiSvilma, k. kekeliZem, i. minandianma da sxvebma, romlebsac didi Rvawli miuZRviT sabWoTa kavkasiologiis
ganviTarebaSic. maTi TaosnobiT iwyeba sabWoTa kavkasiologiis skolis Camoyalibeba, romelic am mecnierebis ganviTarebis Semdgom, mesame etapad SeiZleba miviCnioT. ruseTis imperiis droindeli kavkasiologiis
skolisgan gansxvavebiT, am etapze kavkasiologiam centridan adgilebze - kavkasiaSi Seqmnil Sesabamis samecniero-saswavlo dawesebulebebSi gadainacvla.
miuxedavad imisa, rom kavkasielebi sabWoTa kavSirSi yofnisas Tavisuflebadakargulni viyaviT da ar
“gavbednierebulvarT”, faqtia, rom mokavSire sabWoTa
socialistur respublikebSi (azerbaijani, somxeTi, saqarTvelo) sakmaod mZlavri mecnierebaTa akademiebi
Seiqmna, romelTa SemadgenlobaSi myofi samecnierokvleviTi institutebi kavkasiis xalxTa istoriisa da
kulturis aqtualur sakiTxebs swavlobdnen. amasTan
erTad, msgavsi humanitaruli erovnuli samecnierokvleviTi dawesebulebebi Camoyalibda rsfsr-s Crdi23
lokavkasiur avtonomiur respublikebSic (daRestani,
CrdiloeT oseTi, CeCneT-inguSeTi, yabardo-balyareTi
da a.S.).
sabWoTa periodSi kavkasiis sakiTxebis kvlevebi
TandaTan vrceldeba zemoCamoTvlili respublikebis
umaRles saswavleblebSic. magaliTad, 1933 wels Tbilisis saxelmwifo universitetSi filologiis fakultetze arnold Ciqobavas TaosnobiT gaixsna kavkasiur
enaTa kaTedra, romelic male, enaTmecnierebis institutTan erTad, kavkasiaSi cnobil iberiul-kavkasiuri
enebis Semswavlel samecniero skolad gadaiqca. madlierma Crdilokavkasielebma, romlebic am skolaSi mSobliur enebs mecnierulad Seiswavlidnen, arnold Ciqobavas “kavkasiis didi Svili” uwodes.
amrigad, sabWoTa kavkasiologiaSi Camoyalibda
mTeli rigi samecniero skolebi, sadac moRvaweobda
kavkasiis xalxTa TiTqmis yvela warmomadgeneli: s.janaSia, g.meliqiSvili, a.robaqiZe, s.eremiani, e.marqariani, v.abaevi, m.blievi, z.buniaTovi, g.ZiZaria, z.anCabaZe,
t.kumikovi, a.gadagaTli, a.Saxsaidovi da sxvebi.
mniSvnelovani Sromebia Seqmnili rusi sabWoTa
mkvlevrebis mierac. esenia: b.b.piotrovski, e.i.krupnovi, l.i.lavrovi, a.m.ladiSenski, n.i.pokrovski, m.o.kosveni, a.p.novoselcevi da sxv.
aqve unda iTqvas, rom zemoCamoTvlil avtorTa
umetesi nawili kavkasiologiis istoriul-eTnografiul skolas miekuTvneboda. kavkasiologia, ssrk pirobebSi, erTaderTi samecniero dargi iyo, romelic regionis xalxTa eTnokulturuli Taviseburebebis Seswavlas axerxebda. samwuxarod, maTi “produqcia” farTo sazogadoebas naklebad miewodeboda (is ar pasuxobda ssrk generalur gegmas - “sabWoTa xalxis” Camoyalibebis ideas, romlis Tanaxmad, calkeuli erebi mniSvnelobas kargavdnen). mas, rogorc wesi, ecnoboda student-istorikosTa auditoria, romelsac eTnografiis
leqcias sul erTi semestris ganmavlobaSi ukiTxavdnen.
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kavkasiologiuri skolis muSaobis meoTxe etapad
SeiZleba postsabWouri kavkasiologia CavTvaloT, romelsac, samwuxarod, 1990-iani wlebidan erTgvari “uZraobis xana”daewyo. kavkasiaSi mimdinare dezintegraciuli procesebi adamianis cxovrebis yvela sferoSi,
maT Soris mecnierebaSic, negatiurad aisaxa. am dezintegraciuli procesebis logikuri Sedegia is, rom
dRes kavkasiaSi uamravi socialur-ekonomikuri, politikuri problemaa Seqmnili. saqme iqamdec ki mivida,
rom aqauri lokaluri konfliqtebi (mTiani yarabaRi,
afxazeTi, e.w.samxreT oseTi, CeCneTi) regionulSi - saqarTvelo-ruseTis omSic ki gadaizarda (2008 wlis agvistoSi).
Tumca isic unda vTqvaT, rom bolo wlebSi am dargSi garkveuli gamococxleba igrZnoba - kavkasiologiuri centrebi iqmneba da aqtiurdeba TbilisSi, baqoSi,
rostovSi, nalCikSi, maxaCyalaSi, maikopSi da a. S. regularulad gamodis Jurnalebi, ewyoba samecniero konferenciebi da, rac yvelaze mTavaria, mzaddeba kavkasiologTa axali kadrebi.
amasTan, aSkaraa, rom axali kadrebis srulfasovani momzadeba, saerTo regionuli sakiTxebis kvleva da
kavkasiis sxva saWirboroto sakiTxebis mogvareba xalxebs Soris TanamSromlobas moiTxovs. yovelive amisaTvis, rogorc ukve dasawyisSive aRvniSneT, saWiroa
kavkasiis problemebis axleburad gaazreba Tanamedroveobis moTxovnebis Sesabamisad.
kavkasiis buneba
kavkasia mTiani geografiuli regionia, romelic
Sav da kaspiis zRvebs Soris mdebareobs. qarTveli mecnieris levan maruaSvilis naSromis “kavkasiis fizikuri
geografiis” Tanaxmad, es regioni moicavs ruseTis federaciis SemadgenlobaSi arsebul mTiswineTsa da vakes q.tamanidan q.maxaCyalamde, anu CrdiloeT kavkasias
(imierkavkasias - sigrZe 900 km. da maqsimaluri sigane
25
300 km.), kavkasionis mTavar wyalgamyof qeds, samxreT
kavkasias (amierkavkasias), romelic moicavs mTaTaSoris bars (saqarTvelosa da azerbaijanSi), mcire kavkasions (somxeTSi) da TaliSis mTebs (azerbaijansa da
iranSi) (2). kavkasias geografiulad miekuTvneba TurqeTis Crdilo-aRmosavleTi nawilic.
kavkasionis mTavari qediT kavkasiis dayofa or nawilad - CrdiloeTad da samxreTad - pirobiTia ara marto eTnografiuli, aramed geografiuli mosazrebiTac. magaliTad, azerbaijanis Crdilo-aRmosavleTi
nawili, romelic samxreT kavkasiis teritoriad iTvleba, kavkasionis mTavari qedis CrdiloeTiT mdebareobs,
ruseTis krasnodaris mxris q.soWi ki, romelic mikuTvnebulia Crdilo kavkasias, mTavari qedis samxreTiT
mdebareobs (3). aseve pirobiTia kavkasiis dasavleT da
aRmosavleT nawilad gayofac (CrdiloeT kavkasiaSi
gamyofi xazi stavropolis maRlobia, samxreTSi ki - suramis anu lixis qedi).
kavkasionzea ganlagebuli evropasa da wina aziaSi
yvelaze maRali xuTi mTa, romelTa simaRle zRvis donidan 5 aTas metrs aRemateba. esenia: ialbuzi (5635 m.),
Sxara (5201 m.), dix-Tau (5198 m.), koSTan-Tau (5144 m.),
myinvarwveri anu yazbegi (5047 m.). kavkasiis mTavar qedze gadis cnobili uReltexilebi: maruxis, qluxoris,
mamisonis, jvris da sxva. amaT garda, iyo da aris bevri
adgilobrivi mniSvnelobis uReltexili da gza-biliki.
sxvaTa Soris, kavkasielebs Soris urTierTobebSi gza
damabrkolebeli faqtori ar yofila. yvelaze mniSvnelovan saerTaSoriso funqcias istoriaSi mainc ori gasasvleli asrulebda: erTs - darialis xeobis gavliT,
romelsac mogvianebiT rusebma “alanskie vorota”
(“alaniis kari”)uwodes, meores ki, darubandis gavliT “Jeleznie vorota”-s (“rkinis kari”).
kavkasia Sedis aRmosavleT xmelTaSua zRvis sistemaSi, sadac koncentrirebulia jer kidev indoevropamdeli “Suaguli samyaros” kulturis yvelaze uZvelesi komponentebi (sxvagvarad am regions “iokumenas”,
26
anu adamianebiT dasaxlebul adgils uwodeben). sainteresoa, rom bevri am elementTagan SeiZleba kavkasiis
xalxTa tradiciul da Tanamedrove kulturaSi davinaxoT. kaspiis zRvis sanapiroze da centralur da dasavleT kavkasiis uReltexilebze gadioda marSrutebi,
romlebic antikur da Sua saukuneebis periodSi didi
abreSumis gzis ganStoebebs miekuTvneboda (4).
kavkasiis buneba mravalferovania, aq originaluradaa Sexamebuli mSrali da nestiani subtropikebis
peizaJebi. Tbili zRvebisa da yinulovani mTebis aseT
siaxloves dedamiwaze iSviaTad Tu naxavT.
kavkasia zomieri da subtropikuli havis sartylebis sazRvarze mdebareobs. kavkasionis mTavari wyalgamyofi qedi ki mniSvnelovani klimatgamyoficaa - igi
abrkolebs CrdiloeTis civi haeris masebis gavrcelebas samxreTisaken, xolo samxreTis Tbili haerisas CrdiloeTisaken. swored amitomaa, rom CrdiloeT kavkasiasa da samxreT kavkasias Soris mkveTr klimatur
gansxvavebas vxedavT. rogorc wesi, Crdilo kavkasias
miakuTvneben zomier sartyels, samxreTs ki - subtropikuls. saSualo wliuri temperaturuli gansxvaveba
6° aRwevs (samxreTiT +16°, CrdiloeTiT ki _ +10°).
klimaturi gansxvaveba dasavleT da aRmosavleT
kavkasias Soris gansakuTrebiT SesamCnevia zafxulSi.
dasavleT kavkasiaSi xmelTaSua zRvis klimatis gavlena igrZnoba, zafxuli aq SedarebiT naklebad mSrali da
cxelia, vidre aRmosavleTSi, sadac aSkaraa aziis udabnoebidan SemoWrili cxeli haeris gavlena. ivlisis saSualo temperaturuli gansxvaveba dasavleTsa da aRmosavleT kavkasiaSi 5-6° aRwevs (Sesabamisad, +23-24° da
+25-29°) (5).
gasaTvaliswinebelia agreTve, rom klimati da
landSafti kavkasiis mTel mTianeTSi vertikaluri zonalobis kanons emorCileba (es idea ekuTvnis vaxuSti
bagrations, romelmac sameurneo-zonuri Taviseburebebis axsnas safuZvlad bunebrivi pirobebis mniSvneloba daudo). reliefis simaRlis zrdasTan erTad kli27
matic icvleba - is jer subtropikulidan zomierad
TbilSi gadadis, Semdeg ki sxvadasxva tipis civ sartyelSi. Sesabamisad icvleba landSaftic: maRal zonebSi (Tovlis xazis dabla) alpuri da subalpuri mdeloebia, romlebic sazafxulo saZovrebad gamoiyeneba;
maT qvemoT tyiT dafaruli zona mdebareobs, kidev ufro qvemoT mdebare zonebSi kargad izrdeba xili, Txili, vazi, xorbali, bamba da sxva siTbosmoyvaruli kulturebi. dabolos, kolxeTisa (saqarTvelo) da lenqoranis (azerbaijanis samxreT-aRmosavleTi) dablobSi,
aseve zogierT sxva raionebSi arsebuli bunebrivi pirobebi xels uwyobs subtropikuli kulturebis ganviTarebas.
kavkasia Zalze mdidaria hidroresursebiT. mTavari mdinareebi, romlebic kaspiis zRvaSi Caedineba, aris
mtkvari (araqsiT), kuma, Tergi, sulaki. mdinare yubani
erTvis azovis zRvas. enguri, rioni, Woroxi - Sav zRvas.
sigrZis mixedviT kavkasiis yvelaze didi mdinareebia
mtkvari (1515 km.), yubani (941 km.), araqsi (914 km.) da
Tergi (600 km. ).
kavkasiaSi ori aTasze meti tbaa. isini mcire zomisani arian, sevanis (gogCis) tbis gamoklebiT. sevanis
tba mdebareobs somxeTSi, 1914 m. simaRleze, misi farTobia 1416 kv.km., siRrme ki 99 metri. am tbidan gamoedineba mdinare razdani da araqss uerTdeba.
mdidaria kavkasiis flora - mcenareTa samyaro aq 6
aTasi saxeobiTa warmodgenili. rogorc sabWoTa specialistebi Tvlidnen, es raodenoba orjer aRemateboda
ssrk mTel evropul teritoriaze arsebul mcenareTa
saxeobas. aseve mravalferovania kavkasiis cxovelTa
samyaro (fauna), wiaRiseuli (rkina, spilenZi, oqro,
tyvia, manganumi, vercxli, navTobi, kiri, mineraluri
wylebi, Tixa da sxva). regioni gamoirCeva saSeni masalis
mniSvnelovani maragiT (xe-tye, qva, tufi). kavkasielebi
odiTganve iTvlebodnen qvisa d xis damuSavebis karg
ostatebad. garda amisa, xarisxiani Tixis arsebobam sameTuneo warmoebis farTo ganviTarebac ganapiroba.
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kavkasiis mosaxleoba
kavkasia, rogorc ukve avRniSneT, mravalferovani
mosaxleobiT da tradiciuli kulturis mdgradobiT
gamoirCeva. aq sul raRac 450 aTas kv.km -ze 50-ze meti
erovnebis xalxi cxovrobs. miCneulia, rom iberiulkavkasiuri (aborigenuli) enebi Tavisi struqturiT,
mdidari leqsikiT da sistema _ struqturiT uZveles
enaTa ojaxs miekuTvneba (6).
gamokvleulia agreTve, rom ZirZvel kavkasielebs
miwaTmoqmedebis kulturis Seqmnasa da ganviTarebaSi
udidesi roli miuZRviT. samxreT kavkasia miCneulia
xorbleulis zogierTi endemuri jiSisa da mefutkreobis samSoblod.
aRiarebulia, rom kavkasia dedamiwis im raionTa
ricxvSi Sedioda, sadac gareuli cxovelebis moSinaureba xdeboda. aq iqna gamoyvanili mravali adgilobrivi jiSis saqoneli: yabardouli cxeni, balyaruli xari,
xevsuruli Zroxa, osuri Txa, cxvris ramdenime saxeoba
(TuSuri, yaraCauli, lezguri) da sxv.
kavkasia ganTqmulia mebaReobiTa da mevenaxeobiT.
qarTveli eTnologi medea qanTaria mianiSnebs, rom kavkasiis mTiel xalxTa tradiciuli sameurneo kultura Camoyalibebuli iyo ekologiuri midgomis principiT. es gamoixateboda eTnodasaxulebaSi, rac imas niSnavda, rom bunebis mimoqcevis procesSi adamianis Careva minimaluri yofiliyo (7). magaliTad, kavkasiis mTielebSi gavrcelebuli
wesi iyo, rom Tu monadire, TemSi dadgenili wesis darRveviT, nadiris zedmet raodenobas moklavda, Semdeg mas nadirobisTvis Tavi unda daenebebina da Tofi daemarxa.
kavkasiaSi cxovrobdnen cnobili metalurgi tomebi. ganviTarebis maRal dones miaRwia spilenZis,
brinjaosa da rkinis damuSavebam.
kavkasiis xalxTa TviTmyofadi kulturis kidev
erT magaliTs warmoadgens Tevzi-viSapebis Zeglebi,
romlebTac qvis skulpturebis saxiT somxeTisa da saqarTvelos teritoriaze mravladaa warmodgenili da
ar meordeba msoflios arc erT sxva regionSi.
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kavkasiis xalxTa kultura asaxulia rogorc adgilobrivi, aseve mezobeli xalxebis miTebsa da religiur warmodgenebSi. magaliTad, adgilobrivi zepirsityvierebis nimuSebs miekuTvneba: saerTokavkasiur sagmiro eposSi - Tqmuleba narTebze; Tqmuleba amiran-abraskil-mxerze da a.S. iranul eposSi (“avesta”-Si) kavkasiis yvelaze maRali mTa ialbuzi (yabardo-balyareTi)
warmodgenilia samyaros centrad, bednierebis mTad (8).
Sumeruli eposi gilgameSze, romelSic msoflio
warRvnis Semdgom dedamiwis mcxovrebTa xelmeored gansaxlebis Sesaxebaa moTxrobili, kavkasias ukavSirdeba masSi figurirebs mTa ararati, romelzec bibliuri noes kidobani arsebobs. eposis mixdviT, swored aq daiwyo
noem miwaTmoqmedeba da dargo vazi, gaaSena venaxi (9).
romantikulia uZvelesi berZnuli miTi promeTes
Sesaxeb: rogorc cnobili qarTveli eTnologi vaxtang
SamilaZe wers, kavkasiis maRal mTaze itanjeboda mkacri da Seubralebeli zevsis mier mijaWvuli promeTe kulturuli gmiri, romelmac adamianebs cecxli misca.
swored aq Caidina heraklem Tavisi keTilSobiluri
gmiroba, gaaTavisufla ra xalxis es mfarveli saSineli
sasjelisa da tanjvisagan (10). amasTan dakavSirebiT,
sainteresoa cnobili rusi mecnieris iuri Jdanovis miniSnebac: “cota vinmem Tu icis, rom promeTe kavkasiaSi
daibada da rom amis Sesaxeb hegeli Tavis “esTetikaSic”
miuTiTebs” (11).
dramatizmiTaa aRsavse Zveli berZnuli Tqmuleba
argonavtebze, romlebic rainduli TavgadasavlebiT
ganTqmuli gmirebi iyvnen: Soreul warsulSi kolxeTSi
mdebare qalaq fazisSi (foTSi), iasonis meTaurobiT,
xomaldi “argo” Semovida. argonavtebi movidnen im mizniT, rom xelT egdoT jadosnuri Zalisa da simdidris
simbolo - “oqros sawmisi”.
amrigad, kavkasielebis mier agrarul civilizaciaSi maRalkulturulma ganviTarebam da masSi Setanilma wvlilma garesamyarosaTvis is romantikuli elferi
ganapiroba, romelic didxans Tan sdevda kavkasias.
30
paleokavkasiuri eTnokulturuli erToba
arqeologiuri, anTropologiuri, lingvisturi
da sxva samecniero disciplinaTa monacemebiT dasturdeba, rom wina aziisa da kavkasiis kulturebs Soris
sakmaod mniSvnelovani kavSiri arsebobs. niSandoblivia isic, rom arqeologebis mtkicebiT, materialuri
kultura kavkasiaSi Tanmimdevrulad viTardeboda.
es imas mowmobs, rom aq adamiani mudmivad cxovrobda.
akademikos arqeolog oTar jafariZis azriT, qvis xanaSi kulturis memkvidreobiTi ganviTareba kavkasiis
uZvelesi mosaxleobis eTnikur erTgvarovnebaze mianiSnebs (12).
amasTan erTad, gasaTvaliswinebelia isic, rom kavkasiaSi xSiri iyo Zveli adamianebis migraciebi wina aziidan, rac ZiriTadad ori marSrutiT sruldeboda: aRmosavluri - kaspiis zRviT da dasavluri - anatoliis
gavliT. Savi zRvisken mimavali orive gza kavkasiaze gadioda. “kavkasiaSi, - miiCnevs rusi mecnieri i.fiodorovi, - mosuli da aborigenuli mosaxleobis urTierTSexameba sxvadasxva etapebze am xalxTa eTnikuri istoriis Sinaarss Seadgens” (13).
anTropologebi Tvlian, rom Tanamedrove kavkasiis aborigenuli mosaxleoba ganekuTvneba didi evropeiduli rasis samxreT Stos, anu indoxmelTaSuazRvispirul rasas. igi, Tavis mxriv, sam did rasobriv Stod
iyofa: indo-pamirul, xmelTaSua-balkanur da winaaziur rasebad. mecnierTa azriT, swored am sami didi ganStoebis warmomadgenlebi iqcnen kavkasiis Tanamedrove
adgilobriv mcxovreblebad: kaspiuri tipad (aRmosavleT azerbaijani da aRmosavleT daRestani); pontour
tipad (kavkasiis Crdilo-dasavleT nawilSi - adiRelebi, Cerqezebi, yabardoelebi, abazelebi); kavkasiur tipad (kavkasionis mTianeTi, saqarTvelo, dasavleT azebaijani).
cnobili qarTveli anTropologi m.abduSeliSvili Tvlida, rom “samive am ganStoebis kavkasiuri nairsaxeobebi erTmaneTTan msgavsebis garkveuli kompleq31
siTaa dakavSirebuli da amitom Tamamad SeiZleba msjeloba maT kavkasiur erTobaze”. misive azriT, amgvar
“kavkasiur erTobas” fesvebi saukuneebis siRrmeSi adgilobriv aqvs gadgmuli, vinaidan rac ufro Zvelia am
teritoriaze aRmoCenili paleoanTropologiuri masala, miT ufro metia maT Soris morfologiuri msgavseba” (14).
amrigad, arqeologiur kulturaTa saerTokavkasiuri erToba da anTropologiuri naTesaoba safuZvels gvaZlevs, vivaraudoT, rom qvis xanaSi kavkasiuri
substrati arsebobda. es ukanaskneli safuZvlad daedo iberiul-kavkasiur enaTa ojaxis Camoyalibebas. kavkasiuri enobrivi erToba, mecnierTa azriT, zeda paleoliTis pirvel naxevarSi Camoyalibda. hipoTeza kavkasiuri enebis genetikuri naTesaobis Sesaxeb XIX saukunis pirvel naxevarSi cnobilma rusma enaTmecnierma da
kavkasologma petre uslarma gamoTqva. kavkasiur enebs
leqsikuri, sintaqsuri, morfologiuri da fonetikuri erToba akavSirebT.
yovelive zemoTqmulTan dakavSirebiT, yuradRebas ipyrobs agreTve XI saukunis cnobili qarTveli istorikosis leonti mrovelis koncefcia kavkasiis xalxTa saerTo warmomavlobis Sesaxeb, romlis Tanaxmad,
kavkasielebi bibliuri noes SvilTaSvilis - Targamosis STamomavlebi arian. arqeologi givi RambaSiZe am
koncefciis Sefasebisas samarTlianad xazs usvams, rom
“kavkasielTa saerTo warmomavlobis mroveliseuli
koncefcia mniSvnelovania imiTac, rom is, savaraudod,
uZveles tradiciasac asaxavda da, amave dros, Tavisi
epoqis msoflmxedveloba-suliskveTebasac gamoxatavda” (15).
paleokavkasiuri eTnokulturuli da enobrivi
erTobis daSlis dasawyisad mecnierebi paleoliTidan
neoliTSi gardamaval periods miiCneven, rasac xeli
kavkasiis rTulma geografiulma reliefma Seuwyo. Zveli w. aR.-is V-IV aTaswleulSi paleokavkasiuri erToba
sam eTnikur erTobad - dasavlur (afxazur-adiRur),
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aRmosavlur (naxur-daRestnur) da samxrul (qarTvelur) erTobebad daiSala.
paleokavkasiuri eTnokulturuli erTobis “kvali” Crdilo da samxreT kavkasiis xalxTa kulturebis
urTierTqmedebaSi kargad Cans Semdgom aTaswleulebSic: arqeologebi xazs usvamen Zv. w. aR.-is III-I aTaswleulebSi gavrcelebul arqeologiur kulturaTa paralelebs (Crdilo kavkasiaSi - maikopi, yobani da samxreT
kavkasiaSi - mtkvar-araqsi, kolxeTi). mopovebuli masalebi gvamcnoben, rom aq mcxovreb xalxebs sakmaod ganviTarebuli
samiwaTmoqmedo-sasaqonle
meurneoba
hqondaT. cnobilia, rom am kulturebis arealSi Cndeba
terasuli miwaTmoqmedeba da gadarekviTi mesaqonleoba. mogvianebiT, yobanisa (Crdilo oseTi - alania) da
kolxeTis arqeologiur kulturaTa SedarebiTi analizi gvaCvenebs, rom maT Soris rkinis inventarisa da sabrZolo iaraRebis damzadeba-gamoyenebaSi erTgvari pariteti arsebobda.
am kulturaTa masalebis Seswavla saSualebas iZleva gavakeToT daskvna, rom II aTaswleulis meore naxevris kavkasiaSi iwyeba pirvelyofili sazogadoebis
daSla da safuZveli eyreba axali klasobrivi diferencirebuli sazogadoebis warmoqmnas. saxelmwifoebrivi
kulturis ganviTareba ki xels uwyobs eTnogenetikuri
procesebis Semdgom ganviTarebas.
saxelmwifoebriobis tradiciuli kultura
Zv. w. aR.-is II aTaswleulidan samxreT kavkasiaSi
sxvadasxva tomTa kavSirebis Camoyalibeba iwyeba. xeTebis saxelmwifos warmoqmnam da urartus aRzevebis xanam kavkasiis tomTa urTierTkavSirebi kidev ufro gaaZliera. dRevandeli dasavleT saqarTvelos teritoriaze, Zv. w. aR.-is II-I aTaswleulebis mijnaze warmoiqmneba diaoxis samefo, Semdgom saukuneebSi - kolxa, egrisi (kolxeTi). antikuri xanis IV saukuneSi Seiqmna pir33
veli aRmosavleT - qarTuli iberiis samefo, romelsac
farnavazi edga saTaveSi.
somxebis pirvel samefoebad, cnobili rusi armenologis i.m.diakonovis TvalsazrisiT, miCneulia melidi da tabali, romlebic Zv. w. aR.-is VIII-VII saukuneebiT TariRdeba. antikuri xanis somxebis saxelmwifoebrivi aRzevebis xanad iTvleba Zv. w. aR.-is II-I saukuneebis “didi somxeTi”, romelic kaspiis zRvidan egviptemde iyo gadaWimuli. somxeTma yvelaze did warmatebas
didi tigranis mefobis dros (Zv. w. aR.-is 95-55 ww.) miaRwia. sxvaTaSoris, bevri mecnieri xazs usvams, rom am
saxelmwifom mniSvnelovani roli Seasrula somexi
xalxis genetikuri identobis SenarCunebis saqmeSi:
“somxebma masze gacilebiT meti ician, vidre mogvianebiT arsebul sxva somxur saxelmwifoebze” (16).
rac Seexeba azerbaijanis teritoriaze warmoSobil pirvel saxelmwifos, is manas samefos saxiT arsebobda (Zv.w. aR.-is IX-VI saukuneebi) samxreT azerbaijanSi (dRevandeli iranis Crdilo-dasavleT nawilSi). manelTa samefos dacemis Semdeg misi teritoria jer midiis, Semdgom aqemeniduri iranis SemadgenlobaSi Sedis. CrdiloeT azerbaijanSi (anu dRevandeli azerbaijanis respublikis teritoriaze) Zv.w. aR.-is II saukuneSi kavkasiis albaneTis saxelmwifo warmoiqmna. qarTvel da azerbaijanel mecnierTa azriT, `aris yvela
safuZveli imisa, rom albanuri ena kavkasiur enaTa
Crdilo-aRmosavlur ojaxs mivakuTvnoT~ (17). strabonis cnobiT, kavkasiis albaneTi 26 tomiT iyo dasaxlebuli. maT Soris iyvnen gelebi da legebi (qarTulad lekebi). daRestnel mecnierTa azriT, `lekebSi mTlianad daRestnis xalxebia nagulisxmevi~ (18). dRes sayovelTaod aRiarebulia, rom samxreT daRestani kavkasiis albaneTis nawili iyo.
kavkasiaSi sazogadoebis saxelmwifoebrivi marTvis qalaquri kulturis tradiciis CamoyalibebaSi
garkveuli wvlili antikur xanas (Cv.w.aRricxvamde VI-V
saukuneebi) miuZRvis, roca SavizRvispireTSi (Crdilo
da samxreT kavkasia) berZnuli qalaq-saxelmwifoebi 34
polisebi arsebobda. sxvadasxva dros kavkasiaSi 30-ze
meti aseTi qalaqi warmoiqmna, maT Soris fazisi, dioskuria, pantikapeoni da fanagoria. Crdilo kavkasiaSi
Camoyalibda bosforis samefo, romlis SemadgenlobaSi
Sediodnen meoTebi da sindebi - dRevandel adiRel
xalxTa winaprebi. zogi mecnieri miiCnevs, rom bosforis samefos axlos sindebis saxelmwifoc arsebobda.
magaliTad, yabardo-balyareTis istoriis saxelmZRvaneloSi vkiTxulobT: “bosforis saxelmwifosTan mierTebamde, sindebs, Zv. w. aR.-is V saukuneSi TavianTi saxelmwifo hqondaT, romelic sakuTar monetas (fuls)
Wrida “sindon”-is warweriT. sindTa samefos dedaqalaqi iyo q. sindiki, romelsac Zv.w. aR.-is IV saukuneSi giorgipia ewoda” (19).
Crdilo kavkasiaSi arsebuli antikuri xanis saxelmwifoebrivi warmonaqmnebi samxreT kavkasiis saxelmwifoebTan SedarebiT naklebi mdgradobiTa da
TviTmmarTvelur sasoflo TemebTan orTabrZolebiT
gamoirCeodnen.
somxeTs, saqarTvelosa da kavkasiis albaneTs
ukavSirdeba qristianuli sarwmunoebis miReba da Semdgom mTel regionSi misi gavrceleba. “iranelebis mier
kavkasiaSi zoroastrizmis iZulebiT gavrcelebis winaaRmdeg vardan mamikonianis meTaurobiT 451 wels momxdarma brZolam,” - wers daRestneli mecnieri a.Sixsaidovi, - “saerTokavkasiuri xasiaTi miiRo” (20). amJamad
Crdilo oseTSi, digorelebis garda, qristianuli marTlmadidebloba yvela osis religiaa. am religiis mimdevrebad rCeba q. mozdokSi mcxovrebi yabardoelebis
nawilic.
amasTan erTad, jer daRestanSi (VII saukuneSi), Semdeg ki (XII-XIX ss.) mTel Crdilo kavkasiaSi islammac daiwyo gavrceleba.
samxreT kavkasias ukavSirdeba qarTuli, somxuri
da albanuri, damwerlobis Seqmna. sainteresoa, rom
qarTuli damwerloba, arabulTan erTad, farTod iyo
gavrcelebuli Sua saukuneebis Crdilo kavkasiis xalxebSi, rac dRemde Semonaxulia am periodis materialu35
ri kulturis ZeglebSi. qarTuli warwerebia tyoba-erdis (inguSeTi), SoanTas (yaraCai-CerqezeTi), daTunas
(daRestani) da sxva eklesiebze.
Tanamedrove kavkasiis erTian kulturul sivrces, misi mravalferovnebis miuxedavad, Rrma istoriuli mexsiereba axasiaTebs, rasac xazs usvamen mecnierebi d.lengi, g.gaCevi, v.dmitrievi da sxvebi. magaliTad, rogorc v.dmitrievi wers, istoriuli mexsierebis
“xangrZlivoba aixsneba mtkice naTesauri kavSirebiT,
romelSic igulisxmeba VII-XII Taobebic ki da maTi winaprebis cxovrebis mniSvnelovani momentebi…. aq dResac
sakmao xSir movlenas warmoadgens warsul gmirTa gaxseneba…” (21).
aRsaniSnavia, rom kavkasiaSi xalxis mexsiereba
dResac, gardamaval periodSi, regionis xalxis kulturuli identobis SenarCunebis mniSvnelovan faqtorad
gvevlineba.
dasasruls, xazi unda gavusvaT, rom kavkasiis agrarul civilizaciaSi saukuneebis manZilze tradiciuli kultura Camoyalibda, romlis damaxasiaTebeli
Tvisebebia: a)adamianis cxovrebis rainduli wesi;
b)stumarTmoyvareoba; g)ufrosi asakis adamianisadmi
pativiscema; d)saojaxo kulturuli kompleqsi (xelovnuri danaTesavebis formebis CaTvliT).
kavkasiaSi adgilobrivi mcxovrebis (kavkasielis)
azrovnebis ZiriTad dominantur matricas dResac tradiciuli kulturis es faseulobebi warmoadgenen. erTi SexedviT, TiTqosda eTnikur (tradiciul) da modernul (Tanamedrove) kulturebs Soris balansia darRveuli, magram maT Soris dapirispireba ar aris. piriqiT - aris urTierTSexamebis, TanamSromlobisa da integraciis SesaZlebloba.
36
Tavi III
kavkasiuri idea drois WrilSi
dasmuli problema gansakuTrebul aqtualobas
Cvens droSi iZens. postsabWouri kavkasia dezintegrirebulia, moculia konfliqtebiT, Sesustebulia Sidakavkasiuri TanamSromloba da a.S. saqme iqamdec ki mivida, rom saqarTvelos cxinvalis regionSi arsebuli
lokaluri konfliqti 2008 wlis agvistoSi ruseT-saqarTvelos omSic ki gadaizarda. am omis Sewyvetas, rogorc cnobilia, xeli Seuwyo sagareo faqtorma (aSS-is,
safrangeTis Carevam da sxva). samwuxarod, omis dReebSi
naTlad gamoCnda, Tu raoden “davSordiT” kavkasiis
xalxebi erTmaneTs am bolo oci wlis manZilze. Cveni
Sidakavkasiuri problemebis mogvarebas Cven TviTon
ver uzrunvelvyofT, rac kidev ufro sxvaze damokidebuls gvxdis. aseTi viTareba sazianoa Cveni usafrTxoebisaTvis, xels uSlis modernizacias da kavkasiaSi demokratiuli sazogadoebebis formirebis process.
ssrk da `carizmis~ pirobebSi kavkasiologiaSi kavkasiuri idea, anu kavkasiis damoukidebel xalxTa erTobis, regionis mTlianobis xedva SeuZlebuli iyo.
formaciuli meTodologiis TvalsazrisiT, kavkasiis
xalxTa istoriaze evropuli masStabis konceptualuri sqemebis eqstrapolireba (misadageba) xdeboda. rogorc wesi, aq “aRmoCenil” sazogadoebaTa politikuri
TviTorganizaciis mravali da sakmaod ganviTarebuli
formebi feodalur-gvarovnuli wyobis gadmonaSTebad
inaTleboda, xolo romel xalxsac saxelmwifoebrioba
gaaCnda, evropisagan gansxvavebebs masSic “poulobdnen”. …
kavkasielebs Soris arsebuli eTnokulturuli
gansxvavebebi maTi “kulturulebad” da “arakulturulebad” dayofis safuZveli xdeboda, sadac, ra Tqma unda, kavkasiur ideas adgili Znelad Tu moeZebneboda.
37
gaerTianebuli kavkasia XI-XII saukuneebSi:
naTesauri Tu ZaldatanebiTi kavSiri?
kavkasiaSi, XI-XII saukuneebSi, evropis msgavsad, agraruli civilizaciis sociokulturulma ganviTarebam im dones miaRwia, romelSic SesaZlebeli gaxda es
sakiTxi konceptualur doneze (leonti mroveli) dasmuliyo da gadawyvetiliyo kidec. cnobili somexi istorikosi s. eremiani xazs usvams, rom l. mrovelis koncefcia kavkasiis xalxTa saerTo eTnogenetikur warmomavlobaze imaze mowmobs, rom im dros kavkasielebs
Segnebuli hqondaT odiTganve arsebuli urTierTkavSirebi, erT bedqveS yofna da izolirebulad arsebobis
SeuZlebloba.
Cven pirvel TavSi ukve ganvixileT paleokavkasiuri eTnokulturuli erTobis sakiTxi. Zveli droidan
gamoyolili sulieri da kulturuli siaxlove kavkasielTa istoriis Semdgom periodebsac Tan sdevs. amis
kargi dasturia arqeologiuri kulturebi, folkloruli masalebi da a.S.
ra socialur-kulturulma da fsiqologiurma
faqtorebma ganapiroba saerTokavkasiuri erTobis
miRweva?
pirvel rigSi, aRsaniSnavia kavkasielis istoriuli mexsiereba. aq, konkretul istoriul-geografiul
sivrceSi, adamianis usafrTxoebis uzrunvelyofa mxolod adgilobriv xalxebs Soris TanamSromlobas SeeZlo, ramac erTiani, kavkasiuri tradiciis Camoyalibeba
ganapiroba.
antikuri xanis dasasruls (Zv. w. aR-is VIII - ax. w.
aR-is IV saukune) samxreT kavkasiaSi qristianobis gavrceleba da misi saxelmwifo religiad gamocxadeba
TiTqmis erTdroulad xdeba. es gadawyvetileba, miuxedavad ambiciuri garemocvisa (romis imperia, irani),
qarTvelebma, somxebma da kavkasiis albanelebma (dRevandeli azerbaijanis teritoriaze) damoukideblad
miiRes. paralelurad, qristianoba saqarTvelodan
Crdilo kavkasiaSic vrceldeba. Semonaxulia cnobebi,
38
romlebic saSualebas gvaZlevs davaskvnaT, rom daRestanSi “qarTuli marTlmadidebluri eklesiis metropoliebi” arsebobda. ase magaliTad, sinas mTis sinodikaSi moxseniebulia “xunZaxis kaTalikosi oqropiri”,
aqve iyo ramdenime eparqia - “anwuxis, waxurisa da xunZaxisa”. cxadia, rom am dros daRestnis mTel rig dasaxlebul punqtebSi iyo skolebi, sadac swavla qarTulad
mimdinareobda (1). CrdiloeT kavkasiaSi dRemde Semonaxulia qristianuli religiis Zeglebi - tyoba-erdisa
(inguSeTi) da daTunas (daRestani) eklesiebi, yaraCaiCerqezeTSia X saukunis sami samonastro taZari - zelenCuki, SoanTa, sentini (2).
kavkasiaSi qristianobis gavrcelebam xeli Seuwyo
kavkasiis xalxTa konsolidacias, damoukidebel sasoflo TemTa kavSirebis (anu “Tavisufali sazogadoebebis” _ mTian daRestanSi, CeCneTSi, inguSeTSi, dasavleT CerqezeTSi) Camoyalibebas da saxelmwifoebriv
ganviTarebas. rac Seexeba sasoflo Temebs, kavkasiolog l.lavrovis azriT, maTi buneba dRemde naTeli ar
aris. rogorc is aRniSnavs, “imis miuxedavad, rom kavkasiis zogierT xalxs saxelmwifoebrivi mowyoba ar gaaCnia, isini pirvelyofilebi ar yofilan, radgan isini gare samyarodan izolirebulad ar cxovrobdnen: maTi
ekonomika, kultura da yofa iseT mezobel xalxebTan
urTierTobebis pirobebSi yalibdeboda, romlebsac
ganviTarebuli socialur-politikuri organizacia
hqondaT”. “am kontaqtebis Sedegad”, - agrZelebs l.
lavrovi, “kavkasiis xalxebs, miuxedavad maTi socialuri mowyobisa, soflis meurneobaSi, saxlis mSeneblobaSi, meTuneobaSi msgavsi teqnikuri unar-Cvevebi hqondaT, atarebdnen msgavs tansacmelsa da iaraRs, xSirad
iyenebdnen saerTo ornamentebs, folklorul siuJetebsa da damwerlobas (upiratesad arabulsa da qarTuls), misdevdnen TiTqmis erTnair saojaxo tradiciebs da Cveulebebs, sazogadoebrivi qcevis normebs da
metwilad erTsa da imave religiur sarwmunoebas _
qristianobas an islams icavdnen (3). faqtobrivad, saxezea agraruli civilizaciis mqone kavkasiis tradiciu39
li kulturis saerTokavkasiuri elementebi, romlebzec meore TavSi ukve gvqonda miniSneba.
amrigad, XII saukunesa da XIII saukunis dasawyisSi
kavkasieli xalxebi, saerTo interesebidan gamomdinare, kavkasiis geografiul centrSi daviT aRmaSeneblis
mier gaerTianebuli saqarTvelos irgvliv dairazmnen.
samxreT kavkasiaSi ganaTlebisa da kulturis didi
moRvaweebis - mesrop maStocis, nizami ganjelisa da SoTa rusTavelis qveynebma im dros msoflios auwyes, Tu
rogor SeiZleba xalxTa erTobisa da TanamSromlobis
Camoyalibeba Zaldautaneblad, diplomatiuri gzebiT.
akademikosi roin metreveli xazs usvams, rom “daviT
aRmaSenebelisa da Tamar mefis droindeli saqarTvelos pirveli rigis amocana kavkasiis qveynebSi politikuri da diplomatiuri urTierTobebis Sidakavkasiuri
mSvidobis damyareba iyo” (4).
saerTokavkasiur politikur erTobasTan dakavSirebiT dRemde ZiriTadad ori mosazreba arsebobs: pirvelis Tanaxmad, qarTul saxelmwifoSi gaerTianebuli
xalxebi saqarTvelosTan “vasalur damokidebulebaSi”
iyvnen da meore - saqarTvelos am xalxebTan mSvidobiani samxedro-politikuri, Tanasworuflebiani urTierTobebi gaaCnda.
ra Tqma unda, orive mosazreba calke analizs iTxovs, Tumca es Cveni kvlevis sagani amJamad ar gaxlavT.
rac Seexeba kavkasiuri ideis praqtikaSi ganxorcielebis Cveneul Sefasebas, migvaCnia, rom es iyo kavkasiis
xalxTa agraruli civilizaciis warmatebuli ganviTarebis Sedegi.
kavkasiaSi TaTar-monRolTa Semosevebamde saqarTvelos mefis titulaturaSi asaxulia saerTokavkasiuri erTiani saxelmwifos Camoyalibebis etapebi:
“RmerTis nebasurviliT, mefe afxazTa, qarTvelTa,
ranTa, kaxTa da somexTa, SanSe da SarvanSa, nikopsiidan
darubandamde”.
aRsaniSnavia, rom kavkasiis erTiani didi saxelmwifos warmoqmnaSi “aqtiurad monawileobdnen, Cerqezebi,
osebi , xunZebi da sxva Crdiloeli mezoblebi” (5). spar40
sebisa da Turq-selCukebis gavlenisagan gaTavisufldnen da gaerTianebul kavkasiaSi TavianTi saxelmwifoebrioba Sirvanma da CrdiloeT somxeTma saukuneze
metxans SeinarCunes. s.eremiani xazs usvams, rom periodma, rodesac somxuri miwebi saqarTvelos feodaluri monarqiis SemadgenlobaSi Sediodnen, Semdegi Taobebis (XVIII s.) gonierebazec zemoqmedeba moaxdines. misi
azriT, somxur politikur wreebSi somxuri saxelmwifos aRdgena marto qarTul-somxuri gaerTianebuli
saxelmwifos - saqarTvelos farglebSi moiazreboda
(6).
feodaluri saerTokavkasiuri saxelmwifos Sefasebisas bevri mecnieri xSirad apelirebs “vasalitetis”
cnebaze - argumentad moaqvT is, rom viTomcda am saxelmwifoSi qarTvelebis “vasalebad” da “ymadnaficebad” yvela danarCeni xalxi iyo da amiT maT uTanasworo
mdgomareobaze mianiSneben.
sainteresoa g.TogoSvilis alternatiuli mosazreba, romelic “qarTlis cxovrebis” monacems efuZneba: daviT aRmaSeneblis istorikosi wers, rom “daviT
aRmaSeneblis Crdilsa Sekrebil iyvnes erni, tomni da
enani, mefeni da xelmwifeni, ovseTisa da yivCayeTisani,
somxeTisa da frangeTisani, Sarvanisa da sparseTisani”.
rogorc g.TogoSvili aRniSnavs, am monacemTagan gamomdinare, rigi avtorebi mcdar daskvnas akeTeben, rom
TiTqosda osebi da yivCaRebi saqarTvelos vasalebi iyvnen. arada, misi TqmiT, savsebiT bunebrivi kiTxva ibadeba: “xom SeiZleba vivaraudoT, rom isini daviTisgan
iseTive “damokidebuli” iyvnen, rogorebic iyvnen misgan “frangeTisa” da sparseTis mefeebi da xelmwifeebi?” (7). kavkasiis xalxTa istoriis am da sxva sakiTxebze
pasuxi jer-jerobiT gasacemia.
iyo Tu ara kavkasiuri civilizacia “daviT-Tamariseuli” gaerTianebuli kavkasiis ideologiuri baza?
xom ar iyo kavkasiuri idea safuZveli saerTokavkasiuri Zlieri saxelmwifoebrivi instituciuri struqturis Seqmnisa, romlis drosac, SesaZloa, regionis defeodalizacia dawyebuliyo? marTlacda, kavkasiisaTvis
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am procesis dawyeba mniSvnelovani iqneboda: sazogadoeba unda gawmendiliyo im dabrkolebisagan, romelic
saufliswulo-memamulur sistemaSi gamoixateboda da
romelic perspeqtivaSi ganviTarebis damabrkolebeli
faqtori iqneboda. defeodalizacia xels Seuwyobda
sabazro-kerZomesakuTreobrivi urTierTobebis ganviTarebas, samoqalaqo samarTalsa da Tavisuflebis xarisxis zrdas (gavixsenoT yuTlu-arslanis gamosvlebi,
pirovnuli Tavisuflebisken mimarTuli humanuri ideebis sayovelTao gavrceleba., Tavisufal moqalaqeTa
institutebi, kerZo sakuTreba, saTemo TviTmmarTveluri sazogadoebebis, savaWro, xelosnobis, saqalaqo
kulturis ganviTarebuli tradicia, kavkasiuri sakomunikacio kulturis da a. S. tradiciebi). yovelive es
is argumentebia, romlebic, SesaZloa, axali socialur-kulturuli realobis Camoyalibebis safuZveli
gamxdariyo aramarto sakuTriv saqarTveloSi, aramed
mTlianad regionSi.
XIII saukunis dasawyisis, anu rogorc zogjer uwodeben xolme am periods - “oqros xanis” droindel saqarTveloSi sazogadoebrivi urTierTobebisa da ekonomikis ganviTarebam ukve im dones miaRwia, rom Seiqmna
wanamZRvrebi niderlandis burJuaziuli revoluciis
(XVI s.) msgavsi movlena momxdariyo. Tumca, samwuxarod,
saqarTvelos sazogadoebriv-politikuri da socialuri cxovrebis Semdgomi ganviTarebis procesi garkveul
problemebs waawyda, Semdeg ki amas daemata monRol-TaTarTa Semoseva.
yovel SemTxvevaSi, gvaqvs safuZveli davaskvnaT:
XII saukunesa da XIII saukunis dasawyisSi ganxorcielebuli kavkasiuri idea dafuZnebuli iyo kavkasiis xalxTa kulturul-civilizaciur erTobaze, romelsac,
Tavis mxriv, safuZveli paleokavkasiuri eTnokulturuli erTobis dros Caeyara. gaerTianebuli kavkasiis
centraluri xelisufleba Zalas ikrebda, raTa feodaluri TviTneboba aRekveTa da didgvarovanTa samemkvidreo sistema meore planze gadaewia.
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1817-1864 wlebis kavkasiis omebi
da kavkasiuri idea
XIX s.-mde saqarTveloSi da, saerTod, kavkasiaSi,
tradiciuli kultura - agraruli civilizacia Tavis
poziciebs inarCunebda, Tumca msoflioSi, kerZod, evropaSi mimdinare modernizacia kavkasiis samyarozec
Tavis gavlenas axdenda. SegviZlia vTqvaT, rom zogadad amgvari procesi kavkasiaSi met-naklebad ukve XVIII
s.-Si iyo dawyebuli. saqarTveloSi is gamoixateboda
ioane batoniSvilis “sjuldeba”-is anu saxelmwifos
socialur-ekonomikuri axleburi mowyobis proeqtSi,
xolo CrdiloeT kavkasiaSi - “demokratiuli xalxebis”
anu adiRuri tomebis - SafsuRebis, bJeduRebis, ubixebis, natuxaelebis Tavisufal TemTa kavSirebSi. amis miuxedavad, tradiciuli kulturis kavkasiis institutebi mainc moiTxovdnen axal drosTan Sesabamis transformacias. TumcaRa, arsebobda sakmaod Zlieri xelisSemSleli faqtorebi - adgilobrivi feodalebi da
regionSi Semosuli caristuli ruseTi, romlebic adiRuri sazogadoebis demokratizaciis winaaRmdeg gamodiodnen. rogorc adiReli istorikosi ali biJevi miiCnevs, ruseTsa da adiRe glexebs Soris 1796 wels bziukovosTan momxdari brZola swored amis gamovlenaa - es
iyo “demokratiuli gadatrialebis mwvervali”, romelic, Tavisi arsiT, antifeodaluric iyo. mkvlevris
azriT, SafsuRebma da sxva adiRe glexebma ruseTis armiis saxiT maT mier brZolebiT mopovebuli Tavisuflebis, miwis sakuTrebaze uflebis, TviTmmarTvelobaze da a.S. dakargvis safrTxe dainaxes (8). ase rom, garkveuli winaaRmdegobis miuxedavad, axali socialurkulturuli sazogadoebis Camoyalibebisa da misi ganviTarebis procesi aramarto saqarTveloSi, aramed
Crdilo kavkasiis mTielebSic SeimCneoda.
imavdroulad, msoflioSi Seqmnilma geopolitikurma realobam aRmosavluri krizisis morigi faza
warmoqmna. kavkasiaSi gavlenis mosapoveblad erTmaneTs ruseTi, osmaleTi (TurqeTi), sparseTi (irani) da
43
evropis qveynebi (inglisi, safrangeTi) eqiSpebodnen.
maT Soris XVIII saukunis bolo meoTxedSi dawyebuli
brZola XIX saukuneSic gagrZelda da sabolood ruseTis gamarjvebiT damTavrda.
pirobiTad, es procesi SeiZleba or etapad davyoT:
pirveli - kuCuk-kainarjis(1774) zavidan TurqmanCais (1828) da andrianopolis (1829) xelSekrulebamde.
am dros ruseTma osmaleTze da sparseTze gamarjvebebis Sedegad, faqtobrivad daasrula samxreT kavkasiis
qveynebis - saqarTvelos, somxeTisa da azerbaijanis
samxedro-politikuri dapyroba.
meore - Crdilo kavkasiaSi pirveli islamuri saxelmwifos Camoyalibebis dawyeba (1828 w.), romlis pirveli imamebi yazi-mola da hamzaT-beki iyvnen. mogvianebiT, 1834-1859 wlebSi, kavkasiuri Teokratiuli saxelmwifo, romelic daRestnisa da CeCneTis teritoriebis
umetes nawils aerTianebda da Crdilo-dasavleT adiRelebTanac dakavSirebuli iyo, Samilis imamatis saxeliT gaxdeba cnobili.
ruseT-kavkasiis omSi es saxelmwifo, erTi mxriv,
rusuli kolonializmis winaaRmdeg da, meore mxriv, antifeodaluri sazogadoebis modernizaciisaTvis mebrZoli mTavari Zala xdeba, romlis liderebic kavkasiuri ideiT iyvnen Sepyrobilni. albaT, Samils kargad
esmoda, rom saerTokavkasiuri modernizaciuli, kapitalisturi transformaciis gareSe calke aRebul daRestan-CeCneTSi modernizacia SeuZlebeli iyo. kavkasiis xalxTa antikoloniuri, erovnul-ganmaTavisuflebeli brZola, romelic farTod gavrcelda danarCen
kavkasiaSi (9), integracias iTxovda.
oriode sityviT SevexoT Samilis imamats. rusul
da sabWoTa samecniero literaturaSi imamati nagulisxmevia CrdiloeT kavkasiis xalxebis regresad,
ukangadadgmul nabijad, romelic islamis droSis qveS
xorcieldeboda. rasakvirvelia, islamis tradiciebze
agebul saxelmwifos aramarto rusuli, aramed evropuli sazogadoebac eWvis TvaliT uyurebda. magram mo44
diT, gavaanalizoT: Samilma, marTalia, islami saxelmwifo religiad gamoacxada, Seqmna Teokratiuli mmarTveloba, magram imamati ar iyo dogmatur muslimur bazisze Seqmnili zednaSeni - is islamis SedarebiT ufro
keTilSobil, e.w.aRmosavluri demokratiis principebs
efuZneboda. sxvagvarad rom vTqvaT, im periodis CrdiloeT kavkasiaSi imamati wingadadgmuli nabiji iyo.
TviTon gansajeT: Samilma gaauqma Zveli tradiciuli,
magram ukve dromoWmuli religiuri Cveulebebi, SemoiRo kanonTa erTiani krebuli (“nizam”), ganaxorciela
sasamarTlo da administraciuli reforma, gaafarTova
TviTmmarTveloba (sanaiboebSi), Camoayaliba saxelmwifo sabWo (divan-xana) da a.S.
SemTxveviTi ar aris, rom kavkasiuri miuridizmi
(10), - xazs usvams mark blievi, - kavkasiuri omis Semadgeneli nawilia. is, pirvel rigSi, mTielTa sazogadoebrivi Sinagani mowyobidan da tradiciuli socialuri
wyobis revoluciuri gardaqmnis saWiroebidan gamomdinareobs. rogorc m.blievi aRniSnavs, zustad amas
ukavSirdeba adaTebis mimarT totaluri brZolis gamocxadeba, romelic, faqtobrivad, mTielTa sazogadoebriv urTierTobebSi erTaderTi samarTlebrivi
regulatori iyo; Cveulebrivi samarTlis akrZalva da
mis magivrad SariaTis SemoReba kavkasiuri miuridizmis mTvari mizandasaxulebaa, rasac kavkasielebi tradiciuli sazogadoebidan axali socialuri organizaciis Camoyalibebamde unda mieyvana (11).
CrdiloeT kavkasiaSi ruseTis dampyrobluri politikis winaaRmdeg mimdinare omebma da adgilobrivi
xalxebis Tavganwirvam mniSvnelovani gamoZaxili hpova
mowinave qarTul sazogadoebaSi: swored im xanebSi,
1860 wels ilia WavWavaZem, ruseTSi gzad mimavalma,
port-petrovskSi (daRestani, dRevandeli mahaCyala)
yofnis dros Seqmna cnobili “qarTvlis deda”, romelSic aseTi striqonebia:
“Cemi mamuli, saqarTvelo, dRes micocxldeba!
xalxi azvirTda, xalxi aRsdga,xalxi moqmedebs,
45
kaspiis zRvidam Sav zRvamdina erTs fiqrsa hfiqrobs, - da eg fiqria mTel kavkasis Tavisufleba”.
yuradReba mivaqcioT: ilia optimisturadaa ganwyobili erTiani kavkasiis ideis mimarT. Sesabamisad,
dadebiTad miiCnevs Samilis liderobiT warmoebul
brZolas. da es; miuxedavad imisa, rom poetma namdvilad icoda Samilis saqarTveloSi SemoWris faqti (12)
da isic, rom ruseTis armiaSi Crdilokavkasielebis winaaRmdeg bevri gavleniani da cnobili qarTveli, maT
Soris grigol orbelianic ibrZoda. Tumca aqve SevniSnavT, rom swored esec iyo mizezi ilia WavWavaZisa da
grigol orbelianis dapirispirebisa, romelic “mamaTa
da SvilTa brZolis” saxeliTaa cnobili.
aRsaniSnavia, rom Samilis antifeodaluri brZolebi ruseT-kavkasiis omis paralelurad mimdinareobda. faqtobrivad, am ori ZiriTadi amocanis misaRwevad
Samils gaerTianebuli kavkasia esaWiroeboda. amisaTvis igi araerTxel (XIX saukunis 30-40-ian wlebSi) Seecada miemxro yabardoelebi, Cerqezebi, osebi, yubanis
miRma mcxovrebi xalxebi da sxva. kavkasiis gaerTianebis
saqmeSi Samils Turqebis daxmarebis imedi hqonda. pirvel xanebSi igi aqtiurad TanamSromlobs osmaleTTan,
magram Semdgom, rogorc amas cnobili kavkasiologi
n.pokrovski aRniSnavs, “Samili TandaTan sul ufro
rwmundeba, rom mTielTa damoukidebloba SeuZlebelia
da rom proteqtoratis imedzec ki ar SeiZleba yofiliyo - ruseTis guberniis magier TurqeTis vilaieTi
iqneba SemoRebuli” (13).
amave dros, kavkasiis sazogadoeba dadebiTad afasebda kavkasiasTan axlo Tu Sors mdebare qveynebis
kulturul-civilizaciur, industriul dones. rogorc n.pokrovski wers, XIX saukunis 30-ian wlebSi Cerqezebi siamovnebiT uRebdnen kars da megobrulad iwvevdnen “inglizebs”, raTa mosuliyvnen maT qveyanaSi
(14). cnobilia inglisis misiebis muSaoba kavkasiis
Crdilo-dasavleTSi - CerqezTa mxareSi (d.urkvartis
da longuoris misiebi). swored maSin iqna ingliselebis
mier TurqeTis CareviT micemuli dapireba, rom Cerqe46
zebs saerToCerqezuli saxelmwifos SeqmnaSi daxmarebodnen. sainteresoa, rom Savi zRvidan kaspiis zRvamde
“didi CerqezeTis” Seqmnis idea Crdilo-kavkasiel nacionalistebSi dResac aRtacebas iwvevs, maSin ki es dapireba ganuxorcielebeli darCa.
aqve aRsaniSnavia, rom ruseTsac hqonda idea Crdilo kavkasiaSi mTielTa sazogadoebis saxelmwifoebrivi gaerTianeba “federaciis” saxiT Seqmniliyo. es idea
ruseTis imperator pavles ekuTvnoda. mTeli rigi Zalisxmevis miuxedavad (adiRTa saxalxo kreba, mTielTa
yriloba giorgievskSi1822 wels da a.S.), es mcdelobac
uSedegod dasrulda. arada, am droisaTvis ruseTi regionSi Tavis konkurentebTan SedarebiT gacilebiT
ufro “fexmokidebulia”. aqve SevniSnavT, rom XIX saukunis 30-ian wlebSi kavkasielebi ruseTTan loialobis
sakiTxSi or nawilad iyvnen gayofilni: momxreebad da
mowinaaRmdegeebad.
ruseTis politika kavkasiaSi XVI-XIX ss.-Si or etapad SeiZleba davyoT:
pirveli - mSvidobiani, samxedro-samokavSireo xasiaTis mqone kursi, romelic XVI saukunidan XVIII s.-is
oTxmocian wlebamde (1774 w. quCuk-kainarjis zavamde)
gagrZelda; meore - ZaldatanebiTi politikis etapi,
romelic 1785-91 wlebSi Seix mansuris saxalxo moZraobasTan (CeCneTSi da inguSeTSi) ruseTis Ria dapirispirebaSi gadaizarda da Semdgom, 1817-64 wlebSi, ruseTkavkasiis omSi gamoixata.
XIX s.-Si ruseTis gavlenis upiratesoba ucxoel
konkurentebTan kavkasiaSi orma momentma ganapiroba.
erTi isaa, rom Crdilo kavkasiaSi Tavisi urTierTobebis pirvel etapze, mSvidobiani “partnioruli” politikis Sedegad, ruseTma SeZlo socialuri eqspansia moexdina. XVI saukunidan moyolebuli, aq permanentulad
mimdinareobda mosaxleobis migracia ruseTis sxva regionebidan: glexebi batonymobas gaurbodnen, gamiznulad xdeboda kazakebis Casaxleba Tergis, yubanis, donis auzebSi. garda amisa, saeklesio ganxeTqilebis Sedegad bevrma “duxoborma” XVIII s.-is meore naxevarSi
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ruseTidan kavkasias moaSura. meore momenti isaa, rom
carizmi Tavis ZaldatanebiT politikas kavkasiaSi
axorcielebda, erTi mxriv, feodalur socialur fenaze dayrdnobiT, TviTonve aniWebda maT uamrav privilegias, meore mxriv - mefisnacvlis (15) Tanamdebobis SemoRebiT da amiT absoluturi monarqis nebis gatarebas
uzrunvelyofda. amgvari politikiT ruseTma kavkasiaSi gabatonebis socialuri baza da dasayrdeni gaiCina.
XIX s.-is dasasruls, 1897 wels Catarebulma ruseTis imperiis mosaxleobis aRweram aCvena, rom am droisTvis kavkasiis 11 guberniaSi 9 mln. 300 aTasi adamiani
cxovrobda. aqedan rusebi Seadgendnen mTliani mosaxleobis 34%-s, qarTvelebi - 14%, somxebi -12%, Turqulenovani mosaxleoba - 19%, osebi - 1,8% da a.S. mkvlevari b. iSxaniani aRniSnavs, rom qarTvelebs wamyvani
mdgomareoba soflis meurneobaSi ekavaT da rom aq
erovnuli cxovrebis normebs glexebi da msxvili Tavad-aznaurebi gansazRvravdnen. misive azriT, somxebi
kavkasiaSi gamoirCeodnen samoqalaqo TviTSegnebiT, meti aqtivobiT mrewvelobasa da vaWrobaSi, riTac maT
somxuri burJuaziis Camoyalibeba SeZles (16). aRsaniSnavia, rom im dros arsebul am kulturul-civilizaciur Taviseburebas _ swrafad mimdinare ekonomikurevoluciur faqtors _ ruseTis imperia xSirad, roca
dasWirdeboda, xalxTa dasapirispireblad iyenebda. Sesabamisad, carizmi safuZvelSive Zirs uTxrida kavkasiur ideas, romelic regionSi mis batonobas safrTxes
uqmnida.
amrigad, rusebi kavkasiaSi XIX s.-is bolos yvelaze
mravalricxovan eTnoss warmoadgenen. arada, XIX s.-is
20-30-iani wlebis mijnaze misi tradiciuli metoqeebis
- TurqeT-iranis damarcxebis Semdeg, kavkasiaSi inglisisa da safrangeTis gamoCenam ruseTi SeaSina. ratom?
imitom, rom ruseTi TurqeTisa da iranis agrarul civilizaciaSi “CarCenil” qveynebTan SedarebiT, kavkasielebs “civilizatorul” rolSi evlineboda (xSirad ambobdnen xolme maSindel kavkasiaSi, kerZod, saqarTveloSi, rom “evropas ruseTze gavliT veziareTo”). ev48
ropaSi ki am droisaTvis civilizaciuri cvla dasrulebulia (17), sazogadoeba aq kulturuli, ekonomikuri, politikuri evoluciis gziT agrarulidan industriul, samoqalaqo sazogadoebaSi gadaizarda. arsebiTia, rom evropaSi es procesebi (civilizaciuri cvla)
“qvemodan zemoT” imarTeboda. amave dros, ruseTSi, piriqiT, sazogadoebis modernizacia “zemodan qvemoT”
xdeboda, ris Sedegadac SenarCunebul iqna absoluturi monarqia, ekonomikuri CamorCena da sazogadoebaSi
mimdinare cvlilebebis fsevdomodernizaciamde dayvana. Sesabamisad, inglisma da safrangeTma ruseTs win gauswres da gaZlierdnen. am droisaTvis naxevradfeodalur ruseTs, evropis saxelmwifoebTan SedarebiT, kavkasiaSi konkurentunariani politikis gatareba uZneldeboda. ai, amis eSinoda carizms _ ufro civilizebuli evropelebi kavkasielebisaTvis xom SedarebiT metad mimzidveli iqnebodnen.
ruseTis kavkasiaSi gabatonebis mowinaaRmdegeebs
Seqmnili mdgomareoba xels aZlevdaT, evropul orientaciaze da evropasTan daaxloebis sxva gzebze efiqraT. SemTxveviTi ar aris, rom ruseTis mier kavkasiaSi
warmoebuli omi aramarto kavkasielebis Tavisuflebis
winaaRmdeg iyo mimarTuli, aramed regionSi misi evropeli konkurentebis “gafrTxilebac” gaxldaT.
kavkasiis omi dasasruls uaxlovdeboda _ ruseTi
imarjvebda, roca didma iliam Tavis poemaSi “aCrdili”
sinanuliT gamoxata Tavis qveyanaSi da, mTlianad, kavkasiaSi Seqmnili mdgomareoba da misi momavali mainc
erTiani kavkasiis ideas daukavSira:
“rodisRa vnaxav mSveniersa am qveyanasa,
TvisTa didebis naSTisa zeda kvlavca aRmdgarsa,
drosTan danTqmulsa sxva-da-sxvaTa kavSirTa
erTis cxovrebis, erTis sulis Zliersa qrolas?
ros ese totni erT cxovrebis, erT-arsebisa,
exla gayrilni, erT mdinared SeerTdebian?
ros igi tomni cad miRweul mZlavr kavkasisa
erTisa azriT, erTis fiqriT gandiddebian?” (18).
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kavkasiis omis damTavrebis Semdeg (1864 w.) ruseTis imperiaSi modernizaciul procesebze “moTxovnileba” swrafad gaizarda. imis miuxedavad, rom carizmi,
Tavisi bunebidan gamomdinare, kapitalizacias gzas bolomde ar uxsnida, XX s.-is dasawyisisaTvis kavkasiaSi
mainc bevri ram “gakeTda”. am droisTvis regionis kulturul-civilizaciuri saxe mniSvnelovnad Seicvala.
Tu kavkasiis omis dros gansxvavebuli socialur-kulturuli sistemebis erT saxelmwifo organizmSi SeTavsebis problema idga, misi damTavrebis Semdeg ZiriTad
motivad erToblivi ganviTarebis problema iqca, anu
kavkasiis aqtiuri CarTva ruseTis modernizaciis procesebSi.
samwuxarod, xazs usvamen Crdilokavkasieli mecnierebi, modernizaciis (60-70-iani wlebis imperiulliberaluri reformebis) masStaburi da siRrmiseuli
gavlena adgilobrivi sazogadoebis Sinagan wyobaze, sameurneo da religiur cxovrebaze umniSvnelo iyo. maTi
azriT, ufro metad moxda tradiciuli kulturis Ziris gamoTxra, vidre misi gardaqmna. mdgomareoba imiTac rTuldeboda, rom adgilobriv sazogadoebaTa
privilegirebulma fenebma ver miiRes iseTive uflebebi, romlebic ruseTis memamuleebs gaaCndaT. garda amisa, mosaxleobas mTlianobaSi “inorodcebis” (“sxvagvarebis”) statusi hqonda (19). amasTan erTad, aRniSnuli
reformebis Sedegad, regionSi gaiyvanes rkinigza, aSenda fabrika-qarxnebi, ganviTareba-gamsxvileba daiwyes
qalaqebma, adgilobrivi mosaxleoba TandaTan CaerTo
sabazro urTierTobebSi.
ra Tqma unda, yovelive es mimarTuli iyo imperiuli saxelmwifos gamagrebisken da kavkasielebis zogadimperiul kulturul sivrceSi integrirebisaken. kavkasiologi i. babiCi samarTlianad usvams xazs, rom XIX
s.-is meore naxevarSi ruseTis saxelmwifoebrivi mSeneblobis ideologebma kavkasiaSi SemoiRes cneba xalxTa “integracia”, romlis mizani “erTiani” saxelmwifos Camoyalibebis fundamentis, erTiani xalxis - “rosianin”-is Seqmna iyo. swored amitom, Tvlis i. babiCi,
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XIX s.-is meore naxevarSi ruseTis politikuri yuradReba imperiis kulturuli unifikaciisken iqna aqcentirebuli (20).
cxadia, iseT mravaleTnikur imperiaSi, rogoric
ruseTi iyo, “saxelmwifoebrivi erTobis” praqtikaSi
ganxorcielebas ar SeeZlo, kavkasiaSi winaaRmdegoba
ar gamoewvia. magaliTad, qarTvelebma 1905 wels moiTxoves aramarto wodebrivi privilegiebis gauqmeba,
aramed qarTuli saxelmwifoebriobis aRdgena (avtonomiuri respublikis formiT). amave periodSi, rogorc
a.bendianiSvili wers, qarTvelebis mier yvela mazraSi
rusuli xelisuflebis damxobis Semdeg revoluciuri
TviTmmarTvelobis organoebi Seiqmna. carizmma, - ganagrZobs avtori, - sisxlSi CaaxSo saerTo-demokratiuli revolucia, xolo qarTveli xalxis mtrebma 1907 w.
30 agvistos mokles ilia WavWavaZec, romelic qarTuli
saxelmwifos aRdgenisTvis ibrZoda (21).
amrigad, ruseTi imperiul-modernizaciuli politikas Zveleburi naxevradfeodaluri meTodebiT anxorcielebda. sxvagvarad rom vTqvaT, carizmma kavkasiaSi civilizaciuri eqspansia da sazogadoebis modernizeba tradiciuli kulturisagan mowyvetiTa da rusuli mmarTvelobis CanacvlebiT ganaxorciela, daarRvia erTiani eTnokulturuli kavkasiuri sivrce, romelic erTmaneTTan aTasi ZafiT iyo dakavSirebuli.
kavkasiis xalxebis “modernizacia-asimilirebis” politikam, rac XIX saukunis meore naxevris reformebSi (administraciuli, agraruli, sasamarTlo, saganmanaTleblo da a.S.) gamoixata, bevrad ganapiroba kavkasielebis erTmaneTisgan daSoreba da imperiul centrze
maTi “mibma”. yovelive amis Sedegad, XX saukunis dasawyisSi erovnuli sakiTxi imperiaSi imdenad gamwvavda,
rom ruseTs xSirad “xalxTa sapyrobiles” (“tiurma narodov”) uwodebdnen.
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kavkasiuri idea 1917-1921 wlebSi
erovnuli sakiTxis simwvave kidev ufro gaaRrmava
1914 wels pirveli msoflio omis dawyebamac, romelSic
ruseTis imperia antantis mxareze gamodioda “samTa
kavSiris” - germaniis, osmaleTisa da avstria-ungreTis
winaaRmdeg. omma udidesi materialuri da cocxali Zalis resursebis mobilizeba moiTxova, romelsac ruseTis politikur-ekonomikurma sistemam ver gauZlo.
1914-1916 wlebSi qveynis meurneoba ukiduresad gaCanagda, katastrofulad imata socialurma daZabulobam.
amgvarma wanamZRvrebma 1917 wlis TebervalSi sayovelTao saxalxo revolucia gamoiwvia, rasac imperator nikoloz meoris damxoba mohyva. xelisuflebis saTaveSi burJuaziul-demokratiuli droebiTi mTavroba movida, romlis Zalaufleba imperiis adrindel periferiaze mxolod formalurad vrceldeboda. nelnela ruseTis saxelmwifos daSla daiwyo. cxadia,
msgavsi procesebi kavkasiasac Seexo.
ruseTis sazogadoeba da politikuri elita ramdenime samxedro banakad gaiyo, mogvianebiT ki maT Soris arsebuli dapirispireba, mTeli qveynis masStabiT,
samoqalaqo omSi (1918-1920 wlebi) gadaizarda.
omis mTavari gamomwvevi faqtori iyo 1917 wlis
oqtomberSi momxdari e.w.socialisturi revolucia,
ris Sedegadac bolSeviki komunistebi vladimer ulianovis (leninis) liderobiT xelisuflebis saTaveSi movidnen, marTva-gamgebloba daiwyes da uari Tqves pirvel msoflio omSi monawileobaze. maT, sxva partiebTan
erTad, 1917 wlis dekemberSi monawileoba miiRes “damfuZnebeli krebis” arCevnebSic, romelSic damarcxdnen
(22).
roca 1918 wlis 5 ianvars mowveulma “damfuZnebelma krebam” (parlamentma) bolSevikebis pirveli dekretebi baTilad scno da sxdomaze maT mier gamotanili
rezolucia uaryo, meore dRes bolSevikebma maTive nebiT mowveuli sakanonmdeblo organo TviTneburad ga52
rekes. es qmedeba, rogorc movlenebma aCvena, faqtobrivad, samoqalaqo omis dasawyisi gaxda. cnobili
frangi sovetologi n.verti zustad aRniSnavs Seqmnil
viTarebas: “xelisufleba sazogadoebidan saxelmwifos
xelSi gadavida, romelmac aRmasrulebeli da sakanonmdeblo xelisuflebis monopolizeba moaxdina” (23).
centrSi momxdari movlenebis fonze, kavkasiaSi
socialur-politikuri procesebi avtonomiurad, gansxvavebuli saxiT, specifikurad ganviTarda. rogorc
Crdilo, aseve samxreT kavkasiaSi (amierkavkasiaSi) integracias aq arsebuli kulturul-civilizaciuri
kuTvnilebis faqtorebi da kavkasielebis politikuri
aqtivobis tradicia ganapirobebda. radgan aq bolSevikebs mtkice dasayrdeni ar gaaCndaT, sakmaod didi gavleniT sargeblobdnen adgilobrivi politikuri Zalebi _ qarTveli social-demokratebi, romlebic ruseTis social-demokratiuli muSaTa partiis “menSevikur” frTas warmoadgendnen, azerbaijaneli musavatelebi da somexi daSnakebi (daSnakciutunebi).
1917 wlis Semodgoma samxreT kavkasiaSi mZafri
movlenebiT aRiniSna: kavkasiis frontis rRvevam da osmaleT-iranidan bolSevikurad ganwyobili rusuli samxedro nawilebis evakuaciam isedac arastabiluri viTareba kidev ufro gaaRrmava. Sesabamisad, regionSi viTareba mkveTrad daiZaba. aucilebeli gaxda sxvadasxva
politikuri partiebis erToblivi moqmedeba, raTa raime met-naklebad mtkice saxelisuflo organo Seqmniliyo da aRkveTiliyo anarqia. am mizniT, 1917 wlis noemberSi aq Camoyalibda adgilobrivi mTavroba - amierkavkasiis komisariati qarTveli social-demokratebis, somexi daSnakebisa da azerbaijaneli musavatelebis SemadgenlobiT. mogvianebiT ki, 1918 wlis TebervalSi, imave politikuri organizaciebis mier TbilisSi mowveul iqna amiekavkasiis seimi - regionis sakanonmdeblo organo. es mowmobs, rom amierkavkasiaSi erTiani regionuli administraciul-saxelmwifoebrivi organizmi jerjerobiT SenarCunebul iqna.
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mokled SevexoT CrdiloeT kavkasiaSi arsebul
mdgomareobas.
rogorc Crdilo kavkasieli mecnierebi aRniSnaven, 1917 wlidan realuri politikuri SinaarsiT daitvirTa iseTi cnebebi, rogoricaa yabardo, balyareTi,
oseTi, CeCneTi, inguSeTi da sxv. isini gadaiqcnen damoukidebel eTnopolitikur erTeulebad, gaxdnen socialur-politikuri procesebis realuri subieqtebi (24).
Crdilo kavkasiaSi avtonomiuri erovnul-teritoriuli administraciuli erTeulis saxiT moqmedebda “kavkasiis gaerTianebul mTielTa kavSiri”, romelic
1917 wlis pirvel maiss qalaq vladikavkazSi Catarebul
yrilobaze Seiqmna (25). Tavdapirvelad “mTielTa kavSiri” mxars uWerda ruseTis droebiT mTavrobas, magram
petrogradSi momxdari bolSevikuri gadatrialebis
Semdeg, imave wlis 21 dekembers, Crdilo kavkasiel mTielTa kavSiris mTavrobam ruseTisgan am kavSirSi Semaval xalxTa damoukidebloba gamoacxada.
sainteresoa, rom Crdilo kavkasiaSi integraciis
ideis gatarebas, rac aucilebeli iyo mopovebuli Tavisuflebis SesanarCuneblad, xeli ver SeuSala religiurma faqtormac ki. rogorc kavkasiis gaerTianebul
mTielTa kavSiris yrilobaze raSidxan kaplanovi aRniSnavda, kavSiris organizaciis wevrebi SeiZleboda
yofiliyvnen aramarto muslimebi, aramed qristianebic
(osi marTlmadideblebi). “aseTma midgomam, - aRniSnavs
im periodis cnobili sazogado moRvawe a.taxo-godi, yrilobis delegatTa mxurvale aplodismentebi daimsaxura” (26). Tumca mogvianebiT movlenebi rTulad ganviTarda. ruseTis samxreTSi dawyebulma destabilizaciam Tavis morevSi CrdiloeT kavkasiac CaiTria. 1918
wlisaTvis CrdiloeT kavkasiaSi erTimeoris miyolebiT
iqmnebodnen sxvadasxva juris “wiTeli” da TeTri”
mTavrobebi, romlebTac erTmaneTTan samkvdro-sasicocxlo brZola hqondaT gaCaRebuli. faqtobrivad,
mTielTa liderebi CrdiloeT kavkasiis teritorias
mTlianobaSi veRar akontrolebdnen.
54
1918 wlis 11 maiss baTumSi myofma “CrdiloeT kavkasiis gaerTianebulma mTielTa kavSiris” xelmZRvanelobam im imediT, rom wesrigis aRdgenaSi osmaleTi daexmareboda, damoukidebloba gamoacxada da Sesabamisi
deklaraciac gamoaqveyna. 13 maiss ruseTis mTavrobas
gaegzavna nota misgan gamoyofis Sesaxeb, razec ruseTma uariT upasuxa (27). imave xanebSi Camoyalibda mTavrobac premier-ministr a.Cermoevis xelmZRvanelobiT.
1918 wlis Semodgomaze mTielTa mTavroba daRestanSi, Tavis axal dedaqalaq Temir-xan-SuraSi gadavida, romelsac imxanad ukve osmaleTis armia akontrolebda. aqve moxda mTavrobis cvlilebac, romlis axali
premieri f.kocevi gaxda.
rogorc istorikosebi m.baxtaZe da g.mamulia
Tvlian, “Crdilo kavkasielebis mier damoukideblobis
gamocxadebam, rogorc mosalodneli iyo, adgilobrivi
rusul-kazakuri mosaxleobis mkveTri uaryofiTi reaqcia gamoiwvia, rac myisve sisxlian dapirispirebaSi
gadaizarda, daiwyo samoqalaqo, faqtobrivad ki morigi rusul-kavkasiuri omi, romelSic, rogorc “wiTel”,
ise “TeTr” ruseTs miznad kavkasiis xalxTa axali dapyroba hqonda dasaxuli” (28).
“samxreT ruseTis mTavrobam” da moxaliseTa
(“TeTrma”) armiam general anton denikinis sardlobiT
ruseTis kvlav gaerTianeba da monarqiis aRdgena ganizraxa. Sesabamisad, man kazakebis daxmarebiT 1919 wlis
gazafxulze jer donsa da yubanSi, Semdeg ki Tergis
olqsa da daRestanSi samxedro Seteva ganaviTara. mTielTa respublika daeca, xelisuflebis warmomadgenlebi ki baqos gavliT saqarTveloSi, TbilisSi iqnen
evakuirebuli, emigrantuli mTavrobis statusiT.
ratom saqarTveloSi? imitom, rom mTielTa respublikas Tavisi arsebobis dros samxreT kavkasiis saxelmwifoebTan, kerZod ki saqarTvelosTan sakmaod
mtkice integraciuli kavSirebi gaaCnda, rasac qvemoT
ufro dawvrilebiT SevexebiT.
axla kvlav samxreT kavkasiaSi mimdinare politikur procesebs davubrundeT.
55
Cven ukve aRvniSneT, rom 1917 wlis bolosaTvis
kavkasiis fronti, faqtobrivad, dairRva, riTac dauyovnebliv isargebla osmaleTma - daibruna ruseTis
armiis mier dakavebuli qalaqebi arzrumi, erzinjani,
trapizoni, vani, biTlisi,… ufro metic, osmalebma daipyres baTumi, axalqalaqi da yarsi… amierkavkasielma politikurma liderebma, romlebmac brestis samSvidobo
molaparakebaSi (29) rus bolSevikebTan erTad monawileobaze uari ganacxades, amjerad iZulebulni gaxdnen
osmaleTTan molaparakeba daewyoT. magram movlenebi
ise ar ganviTarda, rogorc maT hqondaT dagegmili _
radgan osmaleTi amierkavkasias kvlav ruseTis SemadgenlobaSi ganixilavda, molaparakeba rom dawyebuliyo, konstantinopolma am regionis ruseTisagan gamoyofis winapirobis Sesruleba moiTxova.
qarTveli social-demokratebi, somexi daSnakebi
da azerbaijaneli musavatelebi am winadadebas daTanxmdnen. 1918 wlis 22 aprils TbilisSi gamocxadda damoukidebeli saxelmwifo _ amierkavkasiis federaciuli demokratiuli respublika, Seiqmna koaliciuri
mTavroba qarTveli social-demokratis akaki Cxenkelis meTaurobiT. maisis dasawyisSi ukve Turqebis mier
okupirebul baTumSi germaniis warmomadgenlebis monawileobiT TurqeT-amierkavkasiis respublikis molaparakeba daiwyo, magram sakmaod mZimed _ amierkavkasiis
delegaciaSi Tavi iCina ganxeTqilebam: somxebi da qarTvelebi TurqeTisadmi siZulviliT iyvnen gamsWvalulni, azerbaijanelebi ki _ simpaTiiT.
sainteresoa, rom baTumis sazavo konferenciaze
kavkasiis integraciis sakiTxmac gaiJRera. rogorc
m.baxtaZe da g.mamulia miiCneven, “mocemul periodSi
germaniis xelisuflebas, molaparakebaSi CarTuli samxedroebis saxiT, dasaSvebad miaCnda samxreT da CrdiloeT kavkasiis gaerTianeba (30). Tumca, samwuxarod, es
idea, iseve rogorc mogvianebiT, 1920 wlis ivnisSi daRestneli xunZebis Txovna saqarTvelosTan SeerTebis
Sesaxeb ar ganxorcielebula (31).
56
ukve maisis SuaxanebSi aSkara gaxda, rom baTumis
sazavo konferencia, faqtobrivad, CaiSala. sxva gza
aRar iyo: qarTvelebma moqmedeba separatiulad daiwyes da daxmarebisaTvis germanias mimarTes _ aucilebeli iyo Turqebis SeCereba, romlebmac am droisaTvis
ozurgeTi daikaves da borjoms mouaxlovdnen. 1918
wlis 26 maiss saqarTvelom damoukidebloba gamoacxada da msoflios demokratiuli respublikis Seqmna amcno. did dros ar gauvlia da qarTul teritoriebze
madaaRZrulma TurqeTmac, germaniis zewolis Sedegad,
agresia SeaCera. Tumca aqve SevniSnavT, rom 1918 wlis 4
ivniss dadebuli saqarTvelo_TurqeTis xelSekrulebis pirobebi metad mZime iyo (32).
kavkasiuri ideis
praqtikuli realizebis mcdelobebi
axla ki, roca kavkasiaSi Seqmnil saerTo situaciaSi gaverkvieT da adgilobrivi xalxebis politikuri
urTierTobis zogadi suraTic vnaxeT, modiT, ufro
detalurad mimovixiloT da gavaanalizoT erTiani kavkasiuri ideis praqtikuli ganxorcielebis konkretuli formebi da etapebi 1918-20 wlebSi.
winaswarve unda vTqvaT, rom erTi saxelmwifos
konkretul regionSi mcxovrebi xalxebis WeSmariti integrireba mxolod metropoliisagan maTi ganTavisuflebis Semdeg SeiZleba ganxorcieldes. sxvagvarad rom
vTqvaT, kavkasiuri ideis realizeba SesaZlebeli xdeba
mxolod saxelmwifoTa damoukideblobis pirobebSi da
samoqalaqo_demokratiuli sazogadoebis arsebobis
dros, roca adamianebs Tavisuflad da racionalurad
azrovnebis pirobebi eqmnebaT. es principi aqsiomad
migvaCnia.
zemoT ukve vaxseneT, rom ruseTis imperiis dros,
1917 wlisaTvis kavkasia erT did, uprecedento administraciul erTeulSi _ samefisnacvloSi iyo gaerTianebuli. marTalia, samefisnacvlo garkveuli avtono57
miuri uflebebiT sargeblobda, magram misi marTva mainc rusuli kanonebiT xdeboda da, Sesabamisad, adgilobrivi erovnuli iniciativebis ganxorcieleba imperiul barierebs awydeboda. sxvagvarad rom vTqvaT,
centris mier kavkasiis erT muWSi moqcevis mizani qarTveli, somexi da azerbaijaneli xalxebis integraciisaTvis ki ar xdeboda, aramed centralizebuli monarqiuli saxelmwifos ganmtkicebas emsaxureboda.
1917 wlis Semodgomidan amierkavkasia ruseTis
centraluri xelisuflebidan faqtobrivad damoukidebelia, iqmneba adgilobrivi komisariati, seimi, damoukidebeli erTiani kavkasiuri saxelmwifo, magram
erovnuli saxelmwifoebriobis aRdgenis mizani jer
realizebuli ar aris. es mxolod 1918 wlis maisis bolos ganxorcielda, roca kavkasiis samive satitulo
erma saxelmwifoebrivi damoukidebloba gamoacxada.
ra memkvidreoba miiRes saqarTvelos, somxeTisa
da azerbaijanis demokratiulma respublikebma?
a) ukiduresad arastabiluri politikuri situacia, eTnikuri konfliqtebi da maTi gaRrmavebis saSiSroeba;
b) daudgeneli saxelmwifo sazRvrebi;
g) realuri sagareo safrTxeebi;
d)moSlili erovnuli ekonomika da meurneoba;
e)Sidaregionuli komunikaciebis sruli kolafsi.
aseTi iyo problemebis “Taiguli”, romelTa gadaWra titanur Zalisxmevas saWiroebda. yofna Tu aryofna? riT unda daewyoT TanamSromloba kavkasiis saxelmwifoebs?
da ai, am dros iniciativa isev Tbilisma aiRo _
1918 wlis oqtomberSi saqarTvelos mTavrobam saerTokavkasiuri konferenciis mowvevis winadadeba wamoayena, romlis miznebi zemoT CamoTvlili problemebis gadawyveta da aw ukve damoukidebeli, Tavisufali erebis
urTierTTanamSromlobis gzebis gamoZebna iqneboda.
marTalia, pirvel konferencias, romelic imave wlis
noemberSi saqarTvelos, azerbaijanisa da mTielTa
respublikis delegaciaTa monawileobiT Catarda, rai58
me mniSvnelovani Sedegi ar moutania _ somxeTma, saqarTvelosTan sazRvrebis sakiTxSi daZabuli urTierTobis gamo, TbilisSi Camosvlaze uari ganacxada. mxareebi mxolod konsultaciebiT Semoifarglnen. erevnis uars male omis dawyebac mohyva. somxeT-saqarTvelos samxedro konfliqtis Sedegad miyenebulma didma
materialurma zaralma da, rac mTavaria, kavkasiis monaTesave erebs Soris daRvrilma sisxlma kidev ufro
aSkara gaxada, rom yvela sadavo problema molaparakebiT, mSvidobiani meTodebiT unda gadaWriliyo (33).
TbilisSi, isev saqarTvelos winadadebiT, 1919 wlis
zafxulSi kvlav gaimarTa morigi, meore konferencia, romelzec ganixiles rogorc sadavo sazRvrebis, aseve ekonomikuri integrirebis sakiTxebi. nu dagvaviwydeba, rom am
droisaTvis kavkasiaSi erTiani satransporto komunikaciebi arsebobda - transkavkasiuri rkinigza (erevnis ganStoebiT) da baqo-baTumis saeqsporto navTobsadeni, romelTa
normaluri movla-patronobiT amierkavkasiis yvela subieqti iyo dainteresebuli. rac Seexeba Crdilokavkasiel
mTielebs, isini samxreTel mezoblebTan ufro metad politikuri da samxedro integrirebiT (urTierTTanamSromlobiT) iyvnen dainteresebulni. samwuxarod, mTielTa respublikam ver gauZlo jer “TeTri”, Semdeg ki “wiTeli” armiis Tavdasxmas, saboloo jamSi ki CrdiloeT kavkasia sabWoTa ruseTis SemadgenlobaSi aRmoCnda.
meore konferenciis dadebiTi Sedegebi gamoixata:
a)Sereuli (erToblivi) ekonomikuri komisiebis
SeqmnaSi;
b)droebiTi respublikaTaSorisi arbitraJis CamoyalibebaSi;
g)mravalmxrivi ekonomikuri xelSekrulebebis dadebaSi da, rac mTavaria _
d) koleqtiuri usafrTxoebisa da urTierTdaxmarebis paqtis SemuSavebasa da xelmoweraSi (somxeTis garda).
am dokumentis safuZvelze azerbaijanma da, gansakuTrebiT, saqarTvelom mTielTa respublikas qmediTi
samxedro daxmareba gauwies denikinis TeTri armiis winaaRmdeg brZolaSi - samxedro saWurvlis garda, da59
RestanSi qarTuli saeqspedicio korpusic gaigzavna
general leo kereseliZis sardlobiT (34).
mesame konferenciis (1920 wlis aprili) umTavresi Sedegi is iyo, rom Camoyalibda regionuli saerTaSoriso
organizacia “amierkavkasiis sabWos” saxelwodebiT, SemuSavda da xeli moewera mis wesdebas (35). garda amisa, saqarTvelos iniciativiT, koleqtiuri usafrTxoebis paqtis
safuZvelze, Seiqmna paritetuli komisia, romelsac somxeT-azerbaijans Soris mTiani yarabaRis gamo mimdinare
konfliqtis Sewyvetis gzebi unda gamoenaxa.
niSandoblivia, rom kavkasiis saxelmwifoTa samitebi sakmaod maRal doneze mimdinareobda: TiTqmis yvela
konferencias saqarTvelos, somxeTisa da azerbaijanis
mTavrobis wevrebi eswrebodnen, rac sakiTxebis gadawyvetas aiolebda.
kidev erTi damaxasiaTebeli simptomi imdroindeli mSvidobiani urTierTTanamSromlobisa: saqarTvelos demokratiulma respublikam 1920 wlis maisis dasawyisSi xeli moawera xelSekrulebas regionis politikur arenaze (CrdiloeT kavkasiaSi) gamoCenil axal
saxelmwifosTan - ruseTis sabWoTa federaciul-socialistur respublikasTan.
amrigad, kavkasiis saxelmwifoebs Soris arsebuli
garkveuli uTanxmoebis miuxedavad, saerTokavkasiuri
mSvidobiani Tanacxovrebis idea permanentulad Zalas
ikrebda da xorcieldeboda. yovel SemTxvevaSi, misi
politikuri da iuridiul-samarTlebrivi formebi, ZiriTadi debulebebi ukve SemuSavda, SeTanxmda da praqtikuli realizeba daiwyo.
SeiZleba iTqvas, rom 1920 wlisaTvis kavkasiaSi arsebul Tavisufal, suverenul demokratiul saxelmwifoebs Soris mimdinare integraciulma procesebma aRmavali
xaziT iwyes ganviTareba, magram axlac, iseve rogorc adre, maT urTierTobaSi kvlav mesame, destabilizaciis gamomwvevi Zala Caeria, amjerad sabWoTa ruseTis saxiT: wiTelma armiam jer azerbaijanis okupireba da gasabWoeba
moaxdina, Semdeg somxeTis, bolos ki saqarTveloc bolSevikebis xelSi aRmoCnda.
60
sabWoTa politika erovnul sakiTxSi
bolSevikebis politika erovnul sakiTxSi, sabWoTa politikur-administraciuli mSenebloba, gansakuTrebiT kavkasiaSi, calke analizs moiTxovs, magram
misi mimoxilva mokled mainc mogviwevs.
saintereso damTxvevaa, rom komunistebis azriTac, kavkasiis regioni yvelaze ukeT Seesabameboda im
dros arsebul sabWoTa avtonomizaciisa da federalizaciis ideebs. amitomac gasakviri ar unda iyos, rom
maT 1922 wels saqarTvelos, azerbaijanisa da somxeTis
sabWoTa socialisturi respublikebi amierkavkasiis
sabWoTa socialisturi federaciul respublikis saxiT gaaerTianes, romelmac 1936 wlamde iarseba. 1920iani wlebis dasawyisSi analogiuri saxelmwifoebrivi
warmonaqmnebi Camoyalibda CrdiloeT kavkasiaSic: daRestnis xalxebi gaerTiandnen daRestnis assr-Si (1920
wlis 20 ianvars), xolo 1921 wlis 20 ianvars yvela sxva
kavkasieli xalxebi - mTielTa avtonomiur sabWoTa socialistur respublikaSi, romelic moicavda yabardos, yaraCais, balyareTis, CeCneTis, inguSeTis, Crdilo oseTis olqebs, agreTve rusebiT dasaxlebul sunJis kazakTa raions. am respublikam 1924 wlamde iarseba.
sabWoTa kavSiris arsebobis periodSi sxvadasxva
regionis xalxTa Tanacxovreba socialisturi internacionalizmis principebiT xorcieldeboda, rac, Tavisi arsiT, konkretuli eTnosis tradiciebis gaTvaliswinebas, faqtobrivad, gamoricxavda. magram, obieqturoba moiTxovs isic aRvniSnoT, rom amierkavkasiis
respublikebSi iyo garkveuli midgomebi, romlebic,
marTalia, principulad ar ewinaaRmdegeboda mmarTveli partiis kurss, magram mainc met-naklebad mxedvelobaSi iRebda adgilobriv specifikas. amis dasadastureblad Zalian bevri magaliTis CamoTvla SeiZleba
rogorc politikis, aseve ekonomikisa da kulturis
sferodan, Tumca erT-erT maTganze cota vrclad unda
SevCerdeT: 1970-80-ian wlebSi saqarTvelos imdroinde61
li xelisuflebis iniciativiT, safuZveli Caeyara sruliad axal, sabWoTa sinamdvilisaTvis sakmaod araordinalur tradicias - amierkavkasiis respublikebis liderTa (eduard SevardnaZe, karen demirWiani da heidar
alievi) tradiciul Sexvedrebs TbilisSi. amgvar samitebze, sakmaod bevri sakiTxi wydeboda ekonomikisa da
kulturis sferodan. paralelurad, sami respublikis
teritoriis urTierTSexebis adgilze - wiTel xidze qarTveli- somexi da azerbaijaneli axalgazrdobis megobrobis didi RonisZiebebi imarTeboda xolme (36). ra
Tqma unda, es yvelaferi centrs SeumCneveli ar rCeboda, magram, rogorc Cans, moskovi iTvaliswinebda sami
lideris avtoritets da mkveTri kritikisagan Tavs ikavebda. aqve imasac davamatebT, rom sakmaod bevri saerTokavkasiuri mniSvnelobis mqone sakiTxis gadawyvetis
dros kremlis winaSe saqarTvelos, azerbaijanisa da
somxeTis liderebi sinqronulad moqmedebdnen.
Tumca aqve xazgasmiT avRniSnavT, rom amgvari “kavkasiuri integracia” sabWoTa sinamdvilis erTgvari Selamazebisa da gakeTilSobilebis mcdeloba iyo, rac,
sabolood, arsebul situacias radikalurad ver
cvlida. aqsiomad unda miviCnioT is, rom sabWoTa epoqaSi socialisturi mSenebloba, rogorc modernizaciis gza, CixSi iqna moqceuli. es 1980-iani wlebis bolos
da 90-iani wlebis dasawyisSi, sabWoTa kavSiris daSlis
Jams ganviTarebulma movlenebmac daadastura: adgilobriv xalxTa eTnokulturuli specifikis ignorirebam (rac kavkasiaSic mZafrad SeiniSneboda) da “sabWoTa xalxis” xelovnurad CamoyalibebisaTvis gaweulma praqtikam xalxebs Soris undoblobisa da konfliqtebis gaCena gamoiwvia (igulisxmeba teritoriebiT manipulaciebi, xalxebis kulturulebad da “arakulturulebad” dayofa, politikur-saxelmwifoebrivi mowyobis sxvadasxva statusi da sxv.).
62
kavkasiuri civilizacia —
kavkasiuri ideis safuZveli
1990-ian wlebSi kavkasiaSi dawyebulma demokratiulma reformebma, filosofos merab mamardaSvilis
sityviT rom vTqvaT, “sakuTari Tavi gverdidan dagvanaxa”. mainc ras vxedavT am periodSi? samwuxarod, aSkarad Cans sazogadoebis sulier-zneobrivi, kulturulcivilizaciuri da ekonomikuri krizisi. tradiciuli
kultura “miZinebulia”, Tanamedrove ki sazogadoebaSi
gadamwyvet rols ver asrulebs. sazogadoeba, azrovnebis inerciis gamo, xSirad Semrigeblur damokidebulebas amJRavnebs im fsevdodemokratiuli reformebisadmi, romelsac gza ara demokratiisa da TviTmmarTvelobisken, aramed piriqiT - “vertikalis”, avtokratiuli
marTvis gaZlierebisaken mihyavs.
ruseTis saxelisuflebo sistemis amgvar gamovlinebas, Crdilo kavkasiaSi arsebuli viTarebis analizis
safuZvelze rusi profesori dimitri furmani “feodalurs” uwodebs. statiaSi is askvnis, rom “am da sxva
bevr SemTxvevaSi, postsabWouri sistema aris gviansabWouris uSualo gagrZeleba” (37).
Seqmnil viTarebaSi kavkasiuri idea kvlav aqtualuri xdeba. amasTan dakavSirebiT sainteresoa 1994
wels saqarTvelos inteligenciis warmomadgenlebis
(r.metreveli, m.lorTqifaniZe, T.gamyreliZe, g.facacia, v. Sengelia, am striqonebis avtori da sxvebi) mimarTva yabardo-balyareTis kolegebisadmi. masSi xazgasmulia, rom “kavkasiis xalxebs Soris mravalsaukunovani TanamSromlobis tradicia, genealogiuri naTesaoba dRes Cven, kavkasielebs, gvavaldebulebs wyenasa
da gabrazebaze maRla davdgeT da xeli SevuwyoT qarTul-afxazuri konfliqtis daregulirebas~ (38). mimarTvis teqsti gamoqveynda ruseTis samxreTis (CrdiloeT kavkasiis) erT-erT yvelaze popularul da gavlenian gamocemaSi “gazeta iuga”. qarTvelTa mimarTvam
yabardo-balyareTSi Tbili reaqcia gamoiwvia, magram,
samwuxarod, amgvar samoqalaqo aqtivobas, sxvadasxva
63
obieqturi Tu subieqturi mizezebis gamo, gagrZeleba
ar mohyolia….
amave periodSi aqtiuroben politikosebic: saqarTvelosa da azerbaijanis liderebma e.SevardnaZem da
h.alievma TiTqmis erTdroulad wamoayenes “mSvidobiani kavkasiis” idea, rasac ruseTis prezidenti boris
elcinic eTanxmeba. 1996 w. 3 ivniss q. kislovodskSi
(stavropolis mxare) azerbaijanis, somxeTis, saqarTvelosa da ruseTis federaciis prezidentebma, Crdilo
kavkasiis respublikebis, mxareebisa da olqebis warmomadgenlebTan erTad, xeli moaweres kavkasiaSi erovnebaTSoriso Taxmobis, mSvidobis, ekonomikuri da kulturuli TanamSromlobis deklaracias. masSi aRiarebulia, rom kavkasia aris “erTiani, mTliani organizmi,
geopolitikuri realoba” da rom regionSi Seqmnili
xalxTa gaucxoebis, konfliqtebis, problemebis gadaWris mizniT, xeli unda Seewyos saukuneebis manZilze arsebul tradiciul megobrobasa da TanamSromlobas.
amisaTvis, naTqvamia deklaraciaSi, konfliqtebis daregulirebis paralelurad, aucilebeli xdeba saerTo
ekonomikuri sivrcis Seqmnis, savaWro, ekonomikuri, samecniero-teqnikuri TanamSromlobis ganviTareba. saWiroa erToblivi telekomunikaciebis, transportis,
mSeneblobis, energetikuli, garemos, sainvesticio
proeqtebis ganxorcieleba da a.S. (39).
ram SeuSala xeli xsenebuli deklaraciis amocanebis praqtikaSi gatarebas?
mimaCnia, rom amis mTavari mizezi, postsabWouri
transformaciisa da demokratizaciuli ganviTarebis
problemebTan erTad, isaa, rom ver uzrunvelvyaviT
kavkasiuri ideis Tanamedrove ideologiuri bazis Camoyalibeba. 1990-ian wlebSi mecnierTa mier SemoTavazebuli kavkasiuri civilizaciis arsebobis ideas saerTokavkasiuri aRiareba ar moupovebia (40).
socialur-ekonomikuri, politikuri krizisis pirobebSi, kavkasiaSi kavkasielebi erTmaneTisgan imdenad “gaTiSulebi” arian, rom aq stabilurobis SenarCunebis garantad ara Sida, aramed sagareo faqtori gvev64
lineba. es kargad dainaxa msofliom 2008 wlis agvistoSi momxdar ruseT-saqarTvelos omSi, roca moskovsa da
Tbiliss Soris Suamavlis roli safrangeTma itvirTa.
es kidev erTi dadasturebaa imisa, Tu ra did safrTxes
uqmnis regionis demokratiul ganviTarebas Sidakavkasiuri dezintegracia, “gayinuli” konfliqtebi da sxva
problemebi.
xazi unda gavusvaT, rom kavkasiur ideas yovel
konkretul-istoriul etapze Tavis droisa da sivrcis
maxasiaTebeli faqtorebi gaaCnia, romlebic adamianis
azrovnebis dominantur matricas qmnian. azrovnebis
integraciuli matrica dRes damaxasiaTebelia ekonomikurad ganviTarebul qveynebSi mcxovrebi adamianebisaTvis, rac informaciuli sazogadoebis Camoyalibebis Sedegia. Cven ki, samwuxarod, kargad ver gagvirkvevia, rogor unda aRviqvaT Cveni erovnuli identoba eTnikuri Tu samoqalaqo niSniT. arada, swored Cveni
identobis samoqalaqo niSniT aRqmis prioriteti da Sesabamisi azrovneba migviyvans kavkasiuri civilizaciis
sayovelTao aRiarebamde, radgan kavkasielobis kulturuli gansxvaveba sxva regionebisgan XX-XXI saukuneebis mijnaze mkveTrad ikveTeba.
amrigad, kavkasiaSi tradiciulisa da Tanamedrove
kulturaTa Tanaarseboba bevrad ganapirobebs tradiciuli kulturis adaptacias, misi faseulobebis transformacias Tanamedrove pirobebis gaTvaliswinebiT.
amgvari movlenebi sxva qveynebis sinamdvileSic gvxvdeba, magaliTad, inglisSi, sadac Suasaukuneebis raindis
saxe mogvianebiT jentlmenSi transformirda.
istoriul-socialuri kriticizmis safuZvelze
tradiciuli kulturis axleburad SeswavliT ganxorcieldeba istoriuli warsulis rekonstruqcia, Sesabamisad, TandaTan kavkasiuri civilizaciis aSkarad gamoxatvac moxdeba. am procesis ganviTarebas xels Seuwyobs ara kavkasiis calkeuli regionebis civilizaciebad gamocxadeba, aramed mTliani da erTiani kavkasiis
civilizaciad aRiareba, rus-kazakebis masSi moazrebiT. realobaa, rom isini bolo xuTi saukunis manZilze
65
aq cxovroben da sakuTar Tavs kavkasielebad miiCneven
(kavkasiis respublikebSi, Tergis, yubanisa da donis auzebSi - stavropolis, krasnodaris mxareebsa da rostovis olqSi 20 mln. rus-kazaki cxovrobs). maTze kavkasiuri civilizaciis gavlena aSkaraa da isini rogorc
Crdilo kavkasiaSi, aseve ruseTis federaciis centrSi
kavkasielebad moiazrebian.
realobaa isic, rom CrdiloeT kavkasiaSi kulturul-civilizaciuri urTierTmimarTebis Sedegad,
rus-kazakTa mosaxleobisagan Seiqmna “buferuli zona”, romelic kavkasiis civilizacias rusul-marTlmadideblur civilizaciasTan akavSirebs. vfiqrob, dasmuli sakiTxi mecnierul Seswavlasa da am WrilSi politikur gaazrebas saWiroebs.
dasasruls, xazgasasmelia, rom Tanamedrove kavkasiaSi xalxTa konsolidaciis roli unda Seasrulos
kavkasiurma ideam, romelic globalizaciis pirobebSi
kavkasiis Tanasazogadoebebs, erTi mxriv, arc kosmopolitur universalizmSi CaZirvis saSualebas miscems da,
meore mxriv, daamuxruWebs “eTnocentrizmis” an nacionalizmis gaRvivebas. aqedan gamomdinare, vfiqrob, rom
kavkasiuri civilizaciis arsebobis aRiareba kavkasiis
integraciis ideologiuri baza iqneboda.
66
Tavi IV
Tanamedrove kavkasia:
zogadi saxelmwifoebriv-politikuri
daxasiaTeba
kavkasia XXI saukunis 10-iani wlebis miwuruls
kvlav msoflios yuradRebis centrSi rCeba. regions,
Tavisi geopolitikuri, kulturul-civilizaciuri SesaZleblobidan gamomdinare, SeuZlia arsebiTi gavlena
moaxdinos msoflios wamyvani qveynebis politikaze
kavkasiaSi da, zogadad, qveynebs Soris kulturaTa dialogze.
samwuxarod, bevrad imis gamo, rom postsabWour
kavkasiaSi globalizaciis daCqarebul process saxelmwifoebi da sazogadoeba alRos jer ver uReben, regionalizaciis, Sidakavkasiuri dialogisa da integraciis ganviTareba-gaRrmaveba kvlav problemuri rCeba.
regionSi, erTi mxriv, aqtualuria axalgazrda, damoukidebeli saxelmwifoebis mSeneblobis amocanebi, meore mxriv, es procesi msoflioSi erovnuli saxelmwifos krizisis, misi dakninebis, zeerovnuli sazogadoebis Camoyalibebisa da transnacionaluri moRvaweobis
ganviTarebis fonze mimdinareobs. mecnierebisgan sul
ufro xSirad gaismis kiTxvebi: ramdenad mizanSewonilia “erTi eri, erTi saxelmwifo”; “nuTu ar SeuZliaT
am qveynebis samsaxurSi Cadgnen sxva politikuri
struqturebi”? aRniSnaven, rom “am struqturebis konkretuli forma jer kidev aravis warmoudgenia” (1).
amJamad aqtualuri xdeba, rom saqarTvelom da
kavkasiis sxva qveynebma swrafad gaviazroT Cveni sazogadoebrivi, regionuli da globaluri integraciis
problemebi. amisTvis gasaTvaliswinebelia, rom dasavleTSi axali sazogadoeba funqcionirebda ara Zveli
sazogadoebis memkvidreobis masobrivi rRvevis xarjze, aramed Zveli memkvidreobisaTvis Seguebis, SerCeviTobis wyalobiT. erik hobsbaumi aRniSnavs, rom “ar
aris araviTari “sociologiuri gamocana” burJuaziu67
li sazogadoebis mzaobisa “ekonomikaSi radikaluri
individualizmis danergvisa da am procesSi yvela tradiciuli socialuri urTierTobebis gawyvetisa (anu
iq, sadac es mas xels uSlida). amave dros, is Tavs aridebs “radikalur eqsperimentatorul individualizms” kulturaSi (da, agreTve, yofaqcevisa da moralis sferoSi)” (2).
amrigad, kavkasiaSi axali saxelmwifoebriv-politikuri da eTnolingvisturi realobis Seswavla saSualebas mogvcems, gaviazroT demokratizaciisa da regionalizaciis problemebi.
kavkasiis eTnikuri ruka
ssrk-is daSlamde (1991 wlis 1 ianvari), kavkasiis
mosaxleobis erovnul-politikuri, socialur-ekonomikuri mdgomareobis zogadi suraTia (3):
68
CrdiloeT kavkasiaSi 1991 wlis 1 ianvrisTvis ruseTis
federaciaSi Semavali oTxi avtonomiuri respublika,
ori mxare da erTi olqia (4):
rogorc pirvel cxrilSi vxedavT, sabWoTa kavSiris daSlamde samxreT kavkasiis samive respublika sakmaod urbanizebulia. yvela respublikaSi qalaqis mosaxleobis ricxvi soflis mosaxleobas sakmaod Warbobs. rsfsr-is Crdilo kavkasiis respublikebTan SedarebiT, aq maRalia erT kvadratul kilometrze mcxovreb adamianTa raodenoba. magaliTad, somxeTSi - 113, 3
mcxovrebi, azerbaijanSi - 82, 4 da saqarTveloSi - 78, 4.
1989 wlis aRweriT, qarTvelebis 33,1%, azerbaijanelebis 34,4% da somxebis 47,1% rusul enas Tavisuflad
flobdnen. Crdilo kavkasiaSi rusuli enis codna gacilebiT maRal procents Seadgenda: CeCnebSi - 74%, xunmebSi- 60,8%, osebSi - 68,9%, yabardoelebSi - 77,8%, inguSebSi - 80% da a.S. (5)
erTi SexedviT, 1989 wels ssrk-is CrdiloeT kavkasiis respublikebSi, mosaxleobis sayovelTao aRweris
Sedegebs Tu gaviTvaliswinebT, “socialisturi” mSeneblobis warmateba aSkaraa. samwuxarod, am fasadis
ukan, rogorc es sabWoTa kavSiris daSlis Semdeg gamoC69
nda, Tavi iCina uamravma problemam, rac adamianis cxovrebis yovel dargSi iyo dagrovili. zogierTi maTgani
ise gamwvavda, rom eTnokonfliqtebis saxec ki miiRo. am
konfliqtebis mogvarebasa da sxva socialur-ekonomikuri, kulturisa da ganaTlebis problemebis gadaWraze bevradaa damokidebuli regionis stabiluroba da
demokratiuli aRmSenebloba. amasTan dakavSirebiT,
kavkasiisa da kavkasielTa problemebis Seswavla aqtualurad migvaCnia.
azerbaijani
azerbaijanis respublikam (6) (dedaqalaqi baqo)
damoukidebloba 1991 wels, ssrk-is daSlis Semdeg gamoacxada. azerbaijanis pirvel prezidentad aiaz muTalibovi airCies, romelic male erovnuli saxalxo
frontis liderma abulfaz elCibeim Secvala. 1993
wlidan 2003 wlamde qveynis prezidenti heidar alievi
iyo, romelic arCevnebis Sedegad am Tanamdebobaze misma vaJma - ilham alievma Secvala. azerbaijani saprezidento respublikaa. prezidenti irCeva 5 wliT, igi Tanamdebobaze yvela samTavrobo Cinovniks TviTon niSnavs.
azerbaijanis sakanonmdeblo organoa erTpalatiani erovnuli kreba (azerbaijanis mili-mejlisi 125 deputatiT), romlebic erTmandatian olqebSi sayovelTao saxalxo kenWisyriT 5 wliT airCevian. azerbaijanis istoriaSi pirveli saparlamento arCevnebi 1995
wels Catarda. parlamentis amJamindeli Semadgenloba
arCeulia 2005 wlis noemberSi. parlamentis umravlesobas warmoadgens saprezidento partia “axali azerbaijani” (“eni azerbaijan”), parlamentSi warmodgenilia
opoziciuri partiebic. sul respublikaSi funqcionirebs 30-ze meti partia da moZraoba, maT Sorisaa “axali
azerbaijani”, erovnuli damoukideblobis partia, partia “musavati”, azerbaijanis saxalxo fronti, libera70
luri partia, social-demokratiuli partia, demokratiuli partia.
azerbaijanSi, 2006 wlis monacemebiT, 8 mln. 436
aTasi adamiani cxovrobs, aqedan 8 mln. 152,5 aTasi, anu
95% eTnikuri azerbaijanelebi arian. ase rom, ukanaskneli aTi wlis manZilze, azerbaijanelebis ricxvi qveyanaSi sagrZnoblad gaizarda. meore adgilze arian
lezgebi (182 aTasi, anu 2,2%), mesameze - rusebi (151, 7
aTasi, rac qveynis mosaxleobis 1,8%-s Seadgens), Semdeg
TaliSebi (75, 8 aTasi), xunZebi (42 aTasi), qarTvelebi
(14,9 aTasi), ebraelebi (8 aTasi) da sxv.
cnobilia, rom azerbaijanSi, yarabaRis konfliqtis dawyebamde, somxebi erT-erT yvelaze mravalricxovan (azerbaijanelebisa da rusebis Semdeg) eTnikuri
erTobas miekuTvnebodnen (1989 wlis aRweriT, maTi raodenoba milion 487 aTass Seadgenda). aTi wlis Semdeg
ki, rogorc azerbaijaneli mecnieri arif iunusovi aRniSnavs, somxebis ricxvma azerbaijanSi mkveTrad iklo.
amJamad isini ZiriTadad cxovroben mTian yarabaRSi,
romlis mosaxleoba, 2003 wlis 1 ivlisis monacemebiT,
145,6 aTass Seadgens. Tumca, imave avtoris azriT, es
cifri falsificirebulia da, misi azriT, iq daaxloebiT 80 000 somexi cxovrobs (7).
amrigad, Tu azerbaijanis mosaxleobis 1989 wlis
aRweris monacemebs 2006 wlisas SevadarebT, aSkarad
Cans, rom qveyanaSi mosaxleobis eTnikuri Semadgenloba sagrZnoblad Seicvala. Tu adre respublikaSi azerbaijanelebis Semdeg rusebi da somxebi dominirebdnen,
amJamad maTi adgili lezgebma da TaliSebma daikaves.
mkveTrad Seicvala mosaxleobis religiuri Semadgenloba: 95%-ze meti muslimia da mxolod 4% - qristiani.
somxurma diasporam, praqtikulad, arseboba Sewyvita.
azerbaijanis mier gatarebul regionul politikaSi udidesi mniSvneloba eniWeba saqarTvelosTan kavSirebs, radgan kaspiis energoresursebis saeqsporto
magistraluri milsadenebis umetesoba saqarTvelos
teritoriaze gadis. garda amisa, saqarTveloSi bevri
azerbaijaneli cxovrobs (amaze qvemoT). aqve xazi unda
71
gavusvaT azerbaijan-TurqeTis urTierTobis specifikas, romelic gamoixateba formuliT “erTi eri - ori
saxelmwifo”. Sesabamisad, TurqeTi, 1990-iani wlebidan
dawyebuli, saerTaSoriso da regionuli problemebis
ganxilva-gadaWris dros yovelTvis azerbaijanis mxareze gamodis.
saqarTvelo
saqarTvelos (8) teritoria Seadgens 69,7 aTas
kvadratul kilometrs (afxazeTisa da e.w samxreT oseTis CaTvliT). mosaxleobis raodenoba, 2008 wlis monacemebiT, Seadgens 4 milion 630 aTas adamians, dedaqalaqia Tbilisi. saqarTvelo saprezidento respublikaa, saxelmwifo ena qarTulia. amasTan, afxazeTSi oficialuri statusi gaaCnia afxazur enasac.
saqarTveloSi eTnikuri qarTvelebis raodenoba,
2006 wlis ivlisis monacemebiT, qveynis saerTo mosaxleobis 83,8% Seadgens. meore adgilze arian azerbaijanelebi (6,5%), Semdeg somxebi (5,7%), rusebi (1,5%),
afxazebi da osebi.
saqarTvelos konstituciis me-9 muxlSi aRniSnulia, rom “saxelmwifo cnobs qarTuli marTlmadidebluri eklesiis gansakuTrebul rols saqarTvelos istoriaSi da, amasTan erTad, acxadebs religiuri rwmenisa da aRmsareblobis srul Tavisuflebas, eklesiis
damoukideblobas saxelmwifosagan”.
qarTuli saxelmwifos politikuri mowyobis forma demokratiuli respublikaa, saqarTvelos prezidenti, konstituciis me-4 muxlis Tanaxmad, qarTuli saxelmwifosa da misi aRmasrulebeli xelisuflebis meTauria. igi sagareo urTierTobebSi saqarTvelos uzenaesi warmomadgeneli da qveynis SeiaraRebuli Zalebis
umaRlesi mTavarsardalia.
saqarTvelos parlamenti airCeva 4 wliT, 150 deputatis SemadgenlobiT. amJamad 2008 wlis mowvevis
parlamenti warmodgenilia “erTiani nacionaluri moZ72
raobiT” (aqvs konstituciuri umravlesoba) eqvsi opoziciuri partiiT (qristianul-demokratiuli moZraoba, “qarTuli dasi”, “Cven TviTon” da sxva).
amJamad qarTul politikur speqtrs ZiriTadad
20-mde politikuri partia warmoadgens, romelTa Sorisaa leiboristuli partia, “axali memarjveneebi”,
respublikuri partia, “saqarTvelos gza”, “Tavisufleba”, konservatiuli partia, “erovnuli forumi”, demokratiuli moZraoba “erTiani saqarTvelo” da sxva.
rogorc saqarTvelos eTnikuri Semadgelobis analizi gviCvenebs, 1989 wlisa da 2002 wlebis aRwerebis
monacemebiT, qveynis mosaxleobis raodenoba 800 aTasi
adamianiT Semcirda. amasTan, mosaxleobis Semcireba ZiriTadad moxda ara qarTvelebis (3 mln.725 aTasi), aramed sxva erebis warmomadgenlebis xarjze: rusebis - 341
aTasidan (1989 wels) 100 aTasamde (2002 wels), somxebis 437 aTasidan (1989 wels) 281 aTasamde (2002 wels), ebraelebis - 25 aTasidan 4 aTasamde da ase Semdeg. Sesabamisad, sxva erovnebis moqalaqeTa emigraciis Sedegad saqarTveloSi qarTvelebis procentuli Semadgenloba
mniSvnelovnad gaizarda - 70-dan 81%-mde.
amasTan, rogorc iunusovi aRniSnavs, saqarTveloSi TiTqmis orjer Semcirda danarCen eTnosTa raodenoba (2005 wlis monacemebiT): osebis - 85 aTasamde, qurTebis - 21 aTasamde, berZnebis - 15 aTasamde da sxva. amJamad saqarTveloSi (afxazeTis gamoklebiT), 877 aTasi
araqarTveli adamiani cxovrobs (anu respublikis mosaxleobis 19%), maSin roca 1989 wlamde arasatitulo
xalxTa 28% cxovrobda (9).
a. cucievis azriT, qarTveli teritoriuli ideologemis dominantur istoriul retrospeqcias misi
saxelmwifoebrivi sazRvrebi warmoadgens (Zv.w.aR.-is VI
- IV saukuneebidan Tamar mefis dromde), rogorc qarTuli erovnuli eTnikuri sivrcis aRqma. am sivrcul
kompleqsSi aqtualuria ramdenime fragmenti, romelic Tanamedrove eTnopolitikur winaaRmdegobebTanaa dakavSirebuli. wamyvan Temad rCeba urTierToba
ruseTTan, romelic “patronobas” uwevs afxazeTisa da
73
samxreT oseTis separatizms. misive azriT, qarTuli
teritoriebis mierTeba ruseTis imperiasTan 1801-1829
wlebSi (faqtobrivad, maTi erT saxelmwifoSi Sekreba),
zogadad qarTul istoriografiaSi negatiurad fasdeba. TviT “Sekreba” CrdilSi rCeba, yuradReba ki maxvildeba ruseTis rolze qarTuli erovnuli teritoriebis zogad SemcirebaSi. xazi esmeba, rom Sida rusuli
(Sida sabWouri) saqarTvelos sazRvrebi moxazuli aRmoCnda ara Zveli qarTuli istoriuli saxelmwifoebis
kalkiT, aramed, Zalze mokrZalebulad, ris Sedegadac
saqarTvelos ssr farglebs gareT darCa saingilo
(azerbaijanis sasargeblod), lore (somxeTis SemadgenlobaSi), jiqeT-dvaleTi ki - ruseTis SemadgenlobaSi.
moskovis bralia agreTve rogorc 1921 wels artaanis
(ardaganis) da arTvinis olqebis TurqeTis sasargeblod daTmoba, aseve saqarTvelos teritoriaze afxazeTisa da samxreT oseTis avtonomiebis Seqmna (ix. Цуциев
А. 2004).
somxeTi
somxeTis teritoria Seadgens 29,8 aTas kvadratul kilometrs, mosaxleoba 3241 aTas adamians (2009
wlis pirveli ianvris monacemebiT), dedaqalaqi - erevani. somxeTi, faqtobrivad, erTad erTi postsabWouri
qveyanaa monoeTnikuri mosaxleobiT (98% somxebi). amJamad respublikaSi arasatitulo mosaxleobis raodenoba mxolod 70 000-s Seadgens, romelTa Soris yvelaze
mravalricxovani eTnikuri umciresobebia iezidebi,
rusebi, aisorebi, ukrainelebi, qurTebi, berZnebi, qarTvelebi. zogi TvalsazrisiT, somxebi kavkasiis aborigenul mosaxleobas warmoadgenen.
mkvlevarTa nawilis azriT,somxeTi pirveli qveyanaa, romelmac qristianoba saxelmwifo religiad gamoacxada (301 wels). Seiqmna somxuri anbani (mesrop maStocis
mier), saeklesio arqiteqtura, ganviTarda kultura da
istoriografia (10). dRes somxeTSi 14 umaRlesi saswav74
lo dawesebulebaa (maT Soris 1920-21 wlebSi daarsebuli
erevnis saxelmwifo universiteti da konservatoria, donis rostovis universitetis filiali erevanSi (ekonomikuri, iuridiuli da ucxo enebis fakultetebiT); ruseTsomxuri (slavuri) saxelmwifo universiteti da sxvebi.
somxeTi dRes industriul-agraruli qveyanaa.
sakmaod farTodaa ganviTarebuli samTo-metalurgiuli mrewveloba (mag.alaverdis spilenZis qarxana, romelic polimetalebis - spilenZ-molibdenis sabados bazaze muSaobs), qimiuri mrewveloba (erevnis qimkombinati “nairiti”), manqanaTmSenebloba, energetika (mewamoris atomuri eleqtrosadguri da sxva hesebi), samSeneblo masalebis warmoeba. soflis meurneoba warmodgenilia mevenaxeobiT, mexileobiT, mecxoveleobiT. saerTod, mTiani reliefis gamo somxeTSi sasoflo-sameurneo miwebi Zalian cotaa.
somxeTis pirveli prezidenti iyo levon ter-petrosiani (1991-1998 wlebi). meore - robert qoCariani
(1998-2008 wlebi), amJamad ki respublikis xelmZRvanelia serJ sargsiani (2008 wlidan). somxeTSi prezidenti
5 wliT airCeva. konstituciiT mas farTo uflebebi
aqvs miniWebuli. umaRlesi sakanonmdeblo organoa
erovnuli kreba (anu parlamenti, 131 deputatiT), romelic sayovelTao-saxalxo arCevnebis gziT 5 wliT
airCeva. bolo saparlamento arCevnebi 2007 wlis 12 maiss Catarda, romlis Sedegad xmebis umravlesoba kvlav
mmarTvelma politikurma Zalam - somxeTis respublikurma partiam moipova. parlamentSi warmodgenilia agreTve sxva politikuri organizaciebic: partia “ayvavebuli somxeTi”, “daSnakcutiuni” (monawileoben samTavrobo koaliciaSi), liberaluri partia “orinac erkiri” (“kanonierebis qveyana”) da erovnul-demokratiuli
partia “memkvidreoba” (orive opoziciuri organizaciaa).
kavkasiisTvis udidesi mniSvneloba aqvs TurqeTsomxeTis da somxeT-azerbaijanis urTierTobis mogvarebas. TurqeTi aris pirveli saxelmwifo, romelmac
sabWoTa kavSiris daSlis Semdeg oficialurad scno
somxeTis damoukidebloba (1991 wels), magram maT So75
ris urTierTobebis ganviTarebas Turqebis mier 1915
wels somxebis genocidis uaryofa arTulebs. garda
amisa, ankara miiCnevs, rom somxeTs brali miuZRvis mTiani yarabaRis konfliqtis dawyebaSic, romlis drosac
azerbaijanis winaaRmdeg mimarTul sabrZolo kampaniaSi somxeTis samxedro qvedanayofebic monawileobdnen.
Sesabamisad, TurqeT-somxeTs Soris diplomatiuri urTierToba ar damyarebula, sazRvrebi ki Caketilia.
am fonze Zalze mniSvnelovan movlenad aRiqmeba
erevan-ankaris politikuri daaxloebis procesi, romelic 2008 wels daiwyo “safexburTo diplomatiis” saxiT (11). misi logikuri gagrZelebaa 2009 wlis 10 oqtombers Sveicariis qalaq JenevaSi gaformebuli oqmebi, romlebic diplomatiuri urTierTobis aRdgenasa
da saxelmwifo sazRvrebis gaxsnas iTvaliswinebs. ganxorcieldeba Tu ara xsenebuli diplomatiuri dokumentebis miznebi, amas momavali gviCvenebs. zogadad ki
SeiZleba vTqvaT, rom TurqeT-somxeT-azerbaijanis
urTierTobebis mogvareba kavkasiis regions dadebiTad waadgeba.
samxreT ruseTis
(CrdiloeT kavkasiis) subieqtebi
samxreT ruseTis (CrdiloeT kavkasiis) federaluri olqi sxva eqvs olqTan erTad Seiqmna ruseTis prezidentis brZanebulebiT, 2000 wlis 13 maiss. regions
didi raodenobiT aqvs organuli da araorganuli nedleulis resursebi (2003 wlis monacemebiT, ruseTis
navTobmopovebis 3%, qvanaxSiris amoRebis 2,5% energowarmoebis 7%). garda amisa, am federaluri olqis
klimaturi pirobebi (zomieri havidan subtropikulis
CaTvliT) karg safuZvels qmnis soflis meurneobis
ganviTarebisaTvis - ruseTis samxreTi samarTlianad
miiCneva qveynis xorblis beRlad, sakurorto-gamajansaRebel da rekreaciul zonad (masze modis ruseTis
sanatoriul-turistuli kompleqsebis meoTxedi, aqe76
dan 70% ganlagebulia krasnodarisa da stavropolis
mxareebSi).
amasTan erTad, samxreT ruseTs erT sul mosaxleze sayovelTao produqtis warmoebis yvelaze dabali
maCvenebli aqvs. isic aRsaniSnavia, rom aq mrewvelobis
moculoba zogadad ruseTis mrewvelobis mxolod 6%-s
Seadgens.
2000 wlisaTvis samxreT ruseTis (CrdiloeT kavkasiis) ekonomikuri raioni aerTianebda aT subieqts Svid respublikas (adiRes, yaraCai-CerqezeTs, yabardobalyareTs, CrdiloeT oseT-alanias, inguSeTs, CeCneTs, daRestans), or mxares (stavropolis da krasnodaris) da erT olqs (rostovis). 2003 wlis Semdeg mas
daemata sami subieqti: erTi respublika (yalmuxeTi) da
ori olqi (astraxanisa da volgogradis). Tu ruseTis
federaciaSi 21 respublikaa, aqedan rva CrdileT kavkasiaze modis. respublikebi, mxareebisa da olqebisagan
gansxvavebiT, Seqmnilia ara teritoriuli, aramed
erovnul-teritoriuli principiT. aq, ruseTis federaciis am yvelaze mWidrod dasaxlebul da polieTnikur regionSi, respublikuri, samxareo da saolqo administraciuli sazRvrebi araerTxel iqna gadasinjuli,
rac Zalze xSirad eTnokrizisebisa da konfliqtebis
niadags qmnida. sabWoTa periodSi miRebuli amgvari gadawyvetilebebis gamoZaxilia is, rom CrdiloeT kavkasiaSi sasazRvro davebis niadagze momxdari eTnikuri
dapirispirebebi dResac grZeldeba.
unda iTqvas, rom ruseTis samxreT federaluri
olqis subieqtebi sxvadasxva parametrebiT erTmaneTisagan mkveTrad gansxvavdebian. magaliTad, teritoriis
mixedviT inguSeTi yvelaze minimaluri farTobis mqonea (4,3 kvadratuli kilometri), yvelaze didi ki volgogradis olqia (113,9 kv.km.). mosaxleobis mixedviT Tu
SevadarebT, yvelaze meti mcxovrebia krasnodaris mxareSi (5,125 aTasi), yvelaze mcire - yalmuxeTis respublikaSi (292 aTasi).
aqve SevniSnavT, rom bolo xanebSi ruseTis xelmZRvaneloba gansakuTrebul yuradRebas uTmobs Crdi77
loeT kavkasiis erovnuli respublikebis ganviTarebas.
vfiqrobT, swored amis gamoxatulebaa is faqti, rom
ruseTis prezidentis brZanebulebiT (2010 wlis ianvari), ruseTis samxreTis federaluri olqi gaiyo or nawilad, Seiqmna axali federaluri erTeuli - CrdiloeT kavkasiis federaluri olqi, romelSic gaerTiandnen daRestani, CeCneTi, inguSeTi, CrdiloeT oseTi alania, yabardo-balyareTi, yaraCai-CerqezeTi da stavropolis mxare, centriT qalaq piatigorskSi.
ruseTis samxreT federaluri olqidan CrdiloeT
kavkasiis respublikebis gamoyofa da maTi axal federalur olqSi gaerTianeba saboloo jamSi ar cvlis regionis socialur da kulturul mTlianobas, amitomac
Cven mas tradiciuli xedviT ganvixilavT.
saxelmwifoebriobis formebis
ganviTareba CrdiloeT kavkasiaSi
zemoT ukve vTqviT, rom Tanamedrove ruseTSi federaciis subieqtebis gamsxvilebis procesi SeiniSneba.
magaliTad, mimdinareobs diskusia adiRes respublikis
krasnodaris mxaris SemadgenlobaSi dabrunebis sakiTxze. garda amisa, CeCneTis dRevandeli xelmZRvaneloba
miiCnevs, rom upriani iqneboda kvlav aRdges sabWoTa
periodSi arsebuli vainaxi xalxis saxelmwifoebrivi
warmonaqmni - CeCneT-inguSeTis respublika. ufro metic - aris azri CeCneTisa da daRestnis gaerTianebis
Sesaxeb. sxvadasxva politikur wreebSi ganixileba mosazreba gasuli saukunis 20-ian wlebSi arsebul mTielTa respublikis xelaxla Seqmnis Taobaze… modiT, sanam
sazRvrebis gadasinjvis sakiTxi isev ar dasmula, CrdiloeT kavkasiaSi saxelmwifoebrivi formebis ganviTarebis gamocdileba gavixsenoT.
ruseTis imperiis SemadgenlobaSi myofi kavkasiis
administraciul-teritoriuli dayofa samxedro-politikuri, geografiuli da erovnul-teritoriuli
faqtorebis gavleniT mimdinareobda. Cven zemoT ukve
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vTqviT, rom 1917 wlamde mTeli kavkasia erT administraciul erTeulSi - kavkasiis samefisnacvloSi iyo
gaerTianebuli, 1917 wlis Semdeg ki regionis administraciuli dayofa politikuri xelisuflebis cvlilebebiT iqna ganpirobebuli.
erovnuli avtonomiebis Seqmnas, rogorc erTa
TviTgamorkvevis uflebis realizebis formas, sabWoTa
xelisuflebis pirvel wlebSi iZulebiTi xasiaTi hqonda da, Sesabamisad, Tan sdevda eTnosTa politizaciis
zrda. adgilobrivi xelisuflebis erovnulma “Seferilobam”, miwis ganawilebis problemis simwvavem myisierad warmoqmna sadao teritoriebis problema da eTnosTa Soris winaaRmdegobis gaRrmaveba.
1924 wels Seiqmna CrdiloeT kavkasiis mxare, romelic regions TiTqmis mTlianad aerTianebda (daRestnisa da yalmuxeTis gareSe). rogorc situaciam aCvena,
amgvari administraciuli erTeuli araefeqturi aRmoCnda da gauqmda. sul male, erovnuli okrugebisa da
avtonomiuri olqebis (maT Soris bilingvisturi subieqtebis) SeqmniT bevri eTnoteritoriuli problema
TviT am avtonomiebis “mxrebze” iqna gadatanili.
sabWoTa kavSiris daSlis Semdeg aRniSnulma sadao
teritoriulma problemebma, sxvebTan erTad, Tavi ufro mwvaved iCina da kavkasiis TiTqmis yvela avtonomiuri eTnosis ukmayofileba gazarda: yaraCaelebma, Cerqezebma, yabardoelebma da balyarelebma bilingvisturi respublikebidan calke gamoyofa moiTxoves, raTa
axali saxelmwifoebrivi gaerTianebebi Camoyalibebuliyo; amjerad ukve erTiani erovnuli niSniT (yaraCaibalyareTis, yabardo-CerqezeTis respublikebi, an “erTiani CerqezeTi”, romelSic Sevidoda CerqezeTis, yabardos, adiResa da krasnodaris SavizRvispira raionebis teritoriebi).
aqve SevniSnavT, rom arsebuli polieTnikuri respublikebis mcire federaciebad gardaqmnas ewinaaRmdegebian rusuli administraciul-teritoriuli subieqtebi.
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daRestani
samxreT ruseTSi daRestani yvelaze did da mravalricxovan, mravalerovnul respublikas warmoadgens. kaspiis zRvis napirebze mdebare ruseTis federaciis am subieqts sakmaod specifikuri istoria da geografiuli pirobebi aqvs (12).
ruseTis imperiisa da sabWoTa kavSiris SemadgenlobaSi yofnisas daRestans administraciuli statusis cvlilebebi yvelaze naklebad Seexo. daRestnis
olqi 1860 wels Seiqmna. im xanebSi War-belaqnis samxedro olqi (30 225 xunZi anu mosaxleobis 20,6%) daRestnis olqSi ar Sesula. lezgebis mniSvnelovani nawili
(26,5%) baqosa da elisavetpolis guberniebSi darCa.
TiTqmis aseTive viTareba SenarCunda sabWoTa periodSi, xolo ssrk daSlis Semdeg isini ruseTsa da azerbaijans Soris aRmoCndnen (13).
amgvari “gafantuli” saxiT arsebuli gansaxlebis
problemis gadaWras lezguri saxalxo moZraoba “sadvali” lezgistanis respublikis SeqmnaSi xedavs, romelic “lezgistanis istoriul teritoriaze” unda Camoyalibdes. am Tvalsazriss iuridiul safuZvlad edeba
1921 wlis 20 ianvris sakavSiro cak-isa da daRestnis
sabWoebis damfuZnebeli yrilobis rezolucia, romlebSic aRniSnulia lezgi xalxis dayofis faqti da teritoriuli sakiTxis mogvarebis aucilebloba.
daRestnis teritoriis gegmazomierad gafarToebam (CrdiloeTiT mdebare dablobi miwebis xarjze)
mTieli da baris xalxebi erT avtonomiaSi gaerTianebamde miiyvana. bolo asi wlis manZilze daRestnis mosaxleobis eTnikuri Semadgenloba ar Secvlila, magram
Seicvala maTi gansaxlebis geografia. Sida migraciebis
Sedegad, gansakuTrebiT monoeTnikuri raionebidan da
qalaqebidan, daRestani kidev ufro “aWrelda”. respublikaSi raionebis araproporciulad didi raodenoba
gamowveulia calkeuli eTnikuri jgufebisTvis uflebaTa garantirebis uzrunvelyofiT, rac mononaciona80
luri administraciuli erTeulebis CarCoebSi xorcieldeba, magram es meqanizmi arasakmarisi aRmoCnda.
daRestanSi problemad rCeba yumuxebis problema.
aq miwebis sakiTxi, ZiriTadad, yumuxebis baris miwebis
xarjze wydeboda. SemTxveviTi ar aris, rom maT 1990
wlis noemberSi, yumuxi xalxis meore yrilobaze, yumuxeTis respublikis Seqmna gamoacxades TavianT “istoriul teritoriaze” - daRestnis Temir-xan-Suris, xasaviurtisa da maxaCkalas raionebi, kaspiis sanapiro da
sxva adgilebi, sadac 1921 wels, daRestnis assr warmoqmnamde, yumuxebi mosaxleobis umravlesobas warmoadgendnen. 1989 wels Camoyalibebuli yumuxTa erovnuli
moZraoba “Tengliki” daRestanSi yvelaze organizebuli erovnuli organizaciaa, romelic teritoriuli
gansaxlebis problemas kvlav aqtualurad miiCnevs,
magram am sakiTxSi ukve kategoriuli aRar aris.
msgavsi problema aqvT noRaelebsac, romlebic
1990 wlis yurulTais (yrilobis) dadgenilebis Tanaxmad, daRestnis, stavropolis mxarisa da CeCneTis teritoriebis nawilebze noRais respublikis Seqmnas moiTxoven (ruseTis SemadgenlobaSi).
daRestanSi kidev erT eTnoteritoriul problemas warmoadgens auxovis raionis aRdgena, romelic CeCen-akinTa gadasaxlebamde (1944 wlamde) arsebobda.
sabWoTa kavSir-germaniis omis dros CeCen-akinTa mimarT ganxorcielebuli represiebis (iZulebiTi migraciis) Semdeg aq mTiani raionebidan lekebi daasaxles da
novolakis raioni Seqmnes. miuxedavad imisa, rom daRestnis xelisufleba represirebul xalxTa reabilitaciis programis ganxorcielebas cdilobs, radikalurad
ganwyobil CeCnebs misi tempebi ar akmayofilebT.
aRsaniSnavia, rom daRestnelebi mniSvnelovnad
afaseben qarTvel xalxTan megobruli urTierTobis
tradiciebs, gansakuTrebiT kulturis sferoSi. sabWoTa periodSi, 1970-ian wlebSi qarTvelma arqeologebma
didi wvlili Seitanes daRestanSi arsebuli qristianuli Zeglebis Seswavla-gamokvlevaSi (magaliTad, sofel
daTunaSi). es daRestanSi dRemde ar daviwyebiaT. swo81
red amitomac iyo, rom 2009 wlis ivnisSi cnobil qarTvel arqeologs, restavrators, istoriis doqtors,
CrdiloeT kavkasiaSi mravali eqspediciis xelmZRvanels givi RambaSiZes qalaq xunZaxis sapatio moqalaqis
wodeba mieniWa.
CrdiloeT oseTi-alania,
inguSeTi da CeCneTi
CrdiloeT oseTi-alania (14), SeiZleba iTqvas, sxva
erovnul respublikebTan SedarebiT, CrdiloeT kavkasiaSi ruseTis federaluri xelisuflebis yvelaze saimedo dasayrdenia. amasTan, ruseTis samxreT federalur olqis SemadgenlobaSi myof respublikebs Soris
arsebul urTierTobebSi yvelaze daZabuli xasiaTi
CrdiloeT oseTisa da inguSeTis urTierTobebs (15)
aqvs. teritoriul davas osebsa da inguSebs Soris (prigorodnis raionis gamo, romelic vladikavkazs esazRvreba) sakmaod xangrZlivi istoria aqvs. 1924 wels
kremlSi mTielTa avtonomiuri respublikis gauqmebis
Semdeg, misi teritoria erovnuli niSniT or olqad gaiyo - CrdiloeT oseTisa da inguSeTis avtonomiur olqebad (inguSeTis SemadgenlobaSi sunJis kazakebic iTvlebodnen). rac Seexeba qalaq vladikavkazsa da groznos, isini calke administraciul erTeulebad gardaiqmnen. amasTan, vladikavkazi oseTisa da inguSeTis saerTo administraciul centrad darCa.
1934 wlis ianvarSi ssrk xelisuflebam CeCneTisa
(16) da inguSeTis avtonomiuri olqebi gaaerTiana da
CeCneT-inguSeTis avtonomiuri olqi Camoayaliba. 1936
wlis konstituciiT, aRniSnuli olqi CeCneT-inguSeTis
avtonomiur sabWoTa socialistur respublikad gardaiqmna. unda iTqvas, rom am ori olqis gaerTianeba ganpirobebuli iyo ara mxolod aq mcxovrebis vainaxi xalxebis - CeCnebisa da inguSebis msgavsebiT, aramed ekonomikuri TvalsazrisiTac.
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vainaxi xalxebis - CeCnebisa da inguSebis istoriaSi 1944 wlis 31 ianvari, 24 Tebervali da 7 marti sayovelTao ubedurebis TariRebia: 31 ianvars ssrk Tavdacvis saxelmwifo komitetma miiRo dadgenileba CeCneTinguSeTis assr gauqmebisa da mosaxleobis CrdiloeT
kavkasiidan sabWoTa kavSiris Soreul adgilebSi deportaciis Sesaxeb. dadgenilebaSi Cawerili iyo, rom
CeCnebi da inguSebi sabWoTa kavSir-germaniis omis
dros TiTqosda kavkasionis qeds moaxloebul germanel faSistebs exmarebodnen.
sabWoTa uSiSroebis organoebis mier SemuSavda specialuri operacia koduri saxelwodebiT “CeCevica (ospi)”, romlis realizebis Sedegad or kviraSi - 24 Tebervlidan 7 martis CaTvliT CrdiloeT kavkasiidan sarkinigzo eSelonebiT naxevar milionze meti CeCeni da inguSi samSoblosgan Sors, yazaxeTSi da yirgizeTSi gadaasaxles.
1944 wlis 22 marts miRebul iqna dadgenileba
groznos olqis Seqmnis Sesaxeb. yofili CeCneT-inguSeTis dasavleTis, aRmosavleTisa da samxreTis raionebi
gadacemul iqna oseTis, daRestnisa da saqarTvelos SemadgenlobaSi (17). danarCenma teritoriam, yizlaris
olqTan erTad, groznos olqi Seadgina. dacarielebuli respublikis teritoriaze mezobeli respublikebis
mosaxleoba daasaxles.
stalinis pirovnebis kultis dagmobis Semdeg,
1956 wlis dasasruls, ssrk centraluri xelisuflebis
gadawyvetilebis Sedegad, daiwyo represirebul xalxTa reabilitaciis procesi. kvlav aRdga CeCneT-inguseTis assr. rac Seexeba TviT inguSebisa da CeCnebis reabilitaciis process, is unda ganxorcielebuliyo
etapobrivad, oTxi wlis manZilze, magram movlenebi
ufro swrafad ganviTarda: marto 1957 wlis ganmavlobaSi respublikaSi gadasaxlebulTa TiTqmis naxevari
dabrunda. amis Sedegad respublikaSi mkveTrad gaizarda Zaladoba, ramac rusi mosaxleobis saprotesto gamosvlebis provocireba gamoiwvia (1957 wlis 26-27 agvistos, groznoSi). yovelive amis Sedegad, erTi wlis
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ganmavlobaSi, respublika datova 113 000-ma rusma, osma, xunZma, ukrainelma da sxva erovnebis moqalaqem.
aRsaniSnavia, rom prigorodnis raioni CeCneT-inguSeTis respublikis SemadgenlobaSi ar iqna dabrunebuli, is CrdiloeT oseTis xelisuflebis mmarTvelobis qveS darCa. amis kompensaciis saxiT, CeCneT-inguSeTs miuerTda respublikis CrdiloeTiT mimdebare kazakuri raionebi (nauri, Selkovskoe da sxv.). Tumca,
amis miuxedavad, inguSebi prigorodnis raions yovelTvis Tavisad ganixilavdnen da, Sesabamisad, es sadao
problema “miyuCebuli” konfliqtis keras warmoadgenda. 1992 wels inguSeTsa da Crdilo oseTs Soris prigorodnos raionTan dakavSirebiT gamwvavebulma uTanxmoebam (18) mxareebi sisxlian konfliqtamde miiyvana.
mSvidobis aRdgenis mizniT saqmeSi ruseTis armiac ki
Caeria.
samwuxarod, dRemde prigorodnis problema mogvarebuli ar aris. amJamad daZabulobis es kera or
xalxs Soris keTilmezoblur urTierTobebs aferxebs.
amitomac gasakviri ar unda iyos, rom inguSeTs, CeCneTinguSeTis respublikis gayofis Semdeg, ar aqvs zustad, iuridiulad dadgenili sazRvari arc oseTTan da
arc CeCneTis respublikasTan.
inguSebisa da maTi mezobeli xalxebis urTierTdamokidebulebis ganxilvisas aucilebelia iTqvas,
rom vainaxebs yvelaze kargi urTierToba mosazRvre
qarTvelebTan aqvT. marTalia, sabWoTa kavSiris daSlis Semdgom saqarTvelosa da ruseTis samxreTs Soris
saxelmwifo sazRvarma gaiara, magram inguSebisa da qarTvelebis megobroba mainc grZeldeba. amis dadasturebaa 2009 wlis 23 oqtombers TbilisSi gamarTuli saRamo, romelic cnobil inguS poets iisa koZois 70 wlisTavs mieZRvna (19).
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Cerqezebi
miuxedavad imisa, rom CerqezeTis “istoriul miwebi” ukve didi xania warsuls Cabarda, mexsierebaSi maTze Semonaxuli monacemebi Tanamedrove politikur
procesebze dRemde sakmao gavlenas axdens.
zogierTi mosazrebiT, istoriulad CerqezeTis
teritoria moicavda Savi zRvis sanapiros dasavleTiT
da mdinare Tergis SesarTavamde arsebul miwa-wyals
aRmosavleTiT (inguSeTis CaTvliT). kavkasiaSi ruseTis eqspansiis Sedegad me-19 saukunis dasawyisSi, yubanSi kazakebis Casaxleba da kordonis xazebis mSenebloba daiwyo. amis Sedegad moxda abazebis dasaxlebebis
SavizRvispireTidan, yubanidan da dasavleT kavkasiis
mTiswineTidan gamodevna. kavkasiis omis (1817-1864) Sedegad adiRur-afxazuri mosaxleoba sxvadasxva monacemiT, TiTqmis 10-jer Semcirda. amJamad CerqezeTis
teritoria dayvanilia oTx arcTu ise did anklavad _
yabardo-balyareTis respublikad (20), yaraCai-CerqezeTis respublikad (21) da adiRes respublikad (22), agreTve SafsuRTa gafantul aulebad soWisa da tuafses
raionebSi. sabWoTa xelisuflebis pirvel wlebSi am anklavebma miiRes avtonomiuri warmonaqmnebis statusi,
1990-ian wlebSi ki _ respublikebis statusi ruseTis
federaciis SemadgenlobaSi. SafsuRebis erovnuli
olqi, romelic 1924 w. Seiqmna, 1940 wels gaauqmes.
1999 wels erovnebaTSorisi urTierTobebis gamwvavebis pirobebSi yaraCai-CerqezeTSi gaCnda idea “didi CerqezeTis Seqmnis” Sesaxeb. marTalia, eTnopolitikuri situaciis stabilizaciasTan erTad proeqti “didi CerqezeTi” Tavis aqtualobas kargavs xolme, periodulad mainc xdeba misi win wamoweva. saerTod, adiRel
da afxaz xalxTa saerTo saxelmwifoSi gaerTianebis
ideiT Zalze xSirad spekulireben erovnuli elitebi,
romelTa mizans sakuTari xelisuflebis SenarCuneba
warmoadgens. amgvari agitacia-propagandiT iZabeba politikuri viTareba, “mRvrie wyalSi” ki, rogorc cnobilia, “Tevzis daWera” advilia.
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proeqtebi “CerqezeTi”, “didi CerqezeTi”, “kavkasiuri saxli” da sxvebi erovnul-teritoriuli niSniT
Tanamedrove ruseTis subieqtebis sazRvrebis Secvlas
gulisxmoben. aseT miznebSi safrTxe imaleba: teritoriebis axali gadanawileba erovnulobis mixedviT respublikebidan arasatitulo eTnosTa warmomadgenlebis masobriv migracias gamoiwvevs, rac erovnebaTSorisi konfliqtebis safuZvels qmnis. amas SeuZlia situacia SeiaraRebul dapirispirebamdec miiyvanos (magaliTad, kazakebTan). Sesabamisad, moxdeba mdgomareobis
destabilizacia mTlianad kavkasiaSi.
kazakoba
ruseTis istoriaSi kazakoba seriozul samxedropolitikur rols asrulebda, gansakuTrebiT es SesamCnevi iyo CrdiloeT kavkasiaSi. misi ukeTesad gacnobierebis mizniT aucilebelia istoriaს gadavxedoT.
Tanamedrove gagebiT, kazakebi warmoadgenen aRmosavleT slavebis subeTnikur jgufs, romlebic gansaxlebulni arian aRmosavleT evropis samxreTSi mdebare
stepebSi (ruseTსა da ukrainaSi - mdinareebis dneprisa
da donis auzSi), agreTve yazaxeTis CrdiloeT nawilSi
(mdinare uralis auzSi). termini “kazaki” ZveliTurquli warmoSobisaa da “Tavisufal”, “Tavisuflebismoyvare mamac” adamians niSnavs. es saxelwodeba farTod gavrcelda XVI saukuneSi, roca moskovisa da litvis samTavrodan emigrirebuli aRmosavleTslavuri mosaxleoba samxreTiT, SavizRvispira stepebsa da mdinareebis dneprisa da donis auzSi mdebare teritoriebze dasaxlda. XVII saukunisaTvis am regionSi Tavisufali kazakebis mravali dasaxleba gaCnda, romlebic mudam mzad iyvnen TavdacvisaTvis, gareSe mtrebisa da momxduris mosagerieblad. permanentuli safrTxe kazakebs aiZulebda gasamxedroebuli qvedanayofebi SeeqmnaT, romelic
“kazakTa jaris” (“kazaC’e voisko”) saxeliTaa cnobili.
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XVIII saukuneSi SavizRvispira miwebis gamo poloneTsa da ruseTs Soris dapirispireba daiwyo. am regionSi mcxovrebma kazakebma ruseTis imperiaSi yofna arCies, Sesabamisad, donisa da dnepris auzis teritoria
ruseTma SeierTa. rusuli saxelmwifo kazakobisagan
erTgul samsaxurs moiTxovda, samagierod, kazakebs rigi SeRavaTebi da upiratesobebi dauwesa. mogvianebiT
kazakTa dasaxlebebi gavrcelda CrdiloeT kavkasiis
sxva raionebSic - mdinare yubanis auzSi, Tergispira
teritoriebze da a.S. Sesabamisad, Camoyalibda agreTve
kazakTa gansaxlebis samxedro-teritoriul-administraciuli TviTmmarTvelobis sistemac (magaliTad,
“terskii kazaCi krug”-is, “terskoe kazaCe voisko”-s da
“oblast voiska donskogo”-s saxiT).
kazakebi aqtiurad monawileobdnen ruseT-safrangeTis omSi (1812-1815 wlebi), kavkasiis omebSi (1817-1864
wlebi), ruseT-TurqeTis omSi (1877-1878 wlebi), pirveli msoflio omis (1914-1918) frontebze. ruseTis armiaSi Seqmnili iyo kazakTa calke samxedro qvedanayofebi - cxenosani (sakavalerio) diviziebi, polkebi, aseulebi da sxva.
1917 wlisaTvis CrdiloeT kavkasiaSi mcxovrebi
yubanis kazakebis (daaxloebiT milion 130 aTasi) gansaxlebis areals Seadgenda “maikopis otdelis” teritoria (dRevandeli adiRes respublika), “batalpaSinis
otdeli” (yaraCai-CerqezeTi da stavropolis mxaris
nawili). rac Seexeba Tergis kazakobas (raodenoba - 251
aTasi), isini gansaxlebulni iyvnen dRevandeli daRestnis, yabardo-balyareTisa da stavropolis mxares Soris mdebare miwebze. donis kazakoba ki ZiriTadad mdinare donis qvemo da Sua welSi arsebul teritoriaze
cxovrobda.
donisa da yuban-Tergis kazakoba mniSvnelovan
rols asrulebda samoqalaqo omis periodSi (1918-1920
wlebi), romlis drosac isini ZiriTadad monarqiis momxreTa (anton denikinis “TeTri gvardiis”) mxareze ibrZodnen. sabWoTa xelisuflebis gamarjvebis Semdeg
ruseTis samxreTSi adminitraciul-teritoriuli da87
yofis Secvlis kvalobaze (“oblast voiska donskogo”-s
nawilis taganrogis mazrisaTvis mierTeba, donis rostovis olqis daarseba), aq mcxovrebi kazakebi rsfsr-sa
da ukrainis ssr SemadgenlobaSi aRmoCndnen.
sabWoTa periodSi, 1930-ian wlebSi kazakobis sakmaod didi nawili represirebul iqna, Tumca mogvianebiT, sabWoTa kavSir-germaniis omis dawyebis dros, maTi
nawilobrivi reabilitacia moxda. aSkaraa, stalinma da
misma garemocvam mxedvelobaSi miiRo kazakTa sabrZolo tradiciebi da gamocdileba, swored amitomac Camoyalibda yubanisa da donis kazakTa gvardiuli cxenosani korpusebi, meqanizebuli SenaerTebi. obieqturobis principi moiTxovs aRvniSnoT, rom sabWoTa xelisuflebis damyarebis Semdeg sazRvargareT emigrirebuli kazakebi ibrZodnen germaniis vermaxtis SemadgenlobaSic sabWoTa kavSiris winaaRmdeg.
kazakobis aRorZineba CrdiloeT kavkasiaSi 1990iani wlebidan daiwyo. am procesis ganviTarebas xeli
ruseTis mTavrobamac Seuwyo - gamoica dadgenileba
“represirebul kazakTa reabilitaciis Sesaxeb”, “saxelmwifo politikis koncefcia kazakobasTan mimarTebiT” da sxva. amgvarma samarTlebrivma aqtebma uzrunvelyo kazakTa statusi, maT mier saxelmwifo samsaxuris gavlis wesi, administraciul-teritoriuli marTvis principebi da ase Semdeg.
2002 wlis aRweris monacemebiT, ruseTis samxreTis federalur olqSi kazakebad sakuTar Tavs mosaxleobis sakmaod didi nawili aRiqvamda. amJamad kazakTa
struqturebi am regionis yvela cametive subieqtSi arsebobs (magaliTad, “terskoe kazaC’e voisko”, “kubanskoe kazaC’e voisko”, “donskoe kazaC’e voisko”…). aqve
SevniSnavT, rom gasuli saukunis 90-ian wlebSi dawyebuli kazakTa aRorZinebis procesi dRemde ar dasrulebula.
samwuxarod, CrdiloeT kavkasiis kazakoba garkveuli politikuri Zalebis mier xSirad gamoiyeneba iseTi madestabilizebeli miznebisaTvis, rogoricaa separatistuli moZraobis xelSewyoba, separatizmis pro88
paganda, eTnikuri konfliqtebis provocireba da sxva.
sxvadasxva dros gaismoda moTxovnebi Seqmniliyo kazakTa saxelmwifoebrivi warmonaqmnebi - yubanis kazakTa respublika (krasnodaris mxareSi), Tergisa da donis
kazakTa respublikebi (stavropolis mxaris, daRestnis, CeCneTis, rostovisa da volgogradis olqebis
teritoriebze), abazTa kazakuri respublika (yaraCaiCerqezeTSi).
samwuxarod, Crdilokavkasielma kazakebma negatiuri roli Seasrules qarTul-afxazuri da qarTulosuri konfliqtis procesSic. 1992 wlidan dRemde donis, yubanisa da Tergis kazakTa garkveuli nawili, iaraRiT xelSi, permanentulad gamodis afxazi da osi separatistebis mxareze, ukanonod Semodis saqarTvelos
teritoriaze, rac konfliqtur regionebSi isedac arsebul arastabilur mdgomareobas kidev ufro amwvavebs. aSkaraa, rom yovelive es ruseTis centraluri xelisuflebis xelSewyobiT Tu wayruebiT xdeba, amitomac pasuxismgebloba am sakiTxSi mTlianad moskovs
ekisreba.
amgvari destruqciuli moqmedebebisa da tendenciebis gasaneitraleblad da aRsakveTad aucilebelia,
rom kazakTa aRorZinebis procesi kavkasiis xalxebisaTvis sasargeblo mimarTulebiT ganviTardes: kazakebma xeli unda Seuwyon regionis xalxebs Soris mSvidobis dacvas, eTnosebisadmi pativiscemas, im tradiciebis axleburad gaazrebas, romlebiTac kazakoba yovelTvis amayobda. kazakTa renesanss axali impulsi da
mecnieruli uzrunvelyofa esaWiroeba, rac sazogadoebas destruqciisa da eqstremizmisagan daicavs.
89
Tavi V
Crdilo kavkasia (samxreT ruseTi):
eTnikuri, konfesiuri mozaika da
migraciuli procesebi
kavkasiis xalxTa eTnikuri da enobrivi naTesaoba,
kulturuli da civilizaciuri erToba samxreT ruseTis federaluri olqis teritoriaze xSirad vlindeba
rogorc politikuri konsolidaciis baza sxvadasxva
sazogadoebrivi gaerTianebebisaTvis. eTnikuri TviTSegnebis zrda, gamravlebuli religiur aRorZinebaze,
mudmivad qmnis eTnikuri faqtoris politikuri miznebisaTvis gamoyenebis safrTxes.
CrdiloeT kavkasiiს erovnuli moZraobebis mier
SemuSavebuli is proeqtebi, romlebic saxelmwifoebriv mowyobasa da ruseTis federaciis subieqtebis sazRvrebis cvlilebebs exeba, ZiriTadad, eTnolingvisturi sazRvrebis administraciul da saxelmwifo sazRvrebTan damTxvevis principebs efuZneba (magaliTad,
yaraCai-balyareლთა, vainaxTa, CerqezTa, kazakTa respublikebis Seqmnis proeqtebi, ruseTis SemadgenlobaSi lezgebiT, osebiT da abazebiT dasaxlebuli teritoriebis dabruneba). amasTan erTad, xsenebuli proeqtebi naklebad iTvaliswinebs socialur-ekonomikur
ganviTarebas, ukve Camoyalibebul sameurneo kavSirebs
da Sromis ganawilebas, xalxebis teritoriul daqucmacebas, saTanado sakomunikacio saSualebebis arqonasa
da sxva obieqtur faqtorebs. rogorc wesi, aseT proeqtebSi ar aris gaTvaliswinebuli sxva eTnikuri jgufebis interesebi, romlebic CrdiloeT kavkasiis yvela
regionSi cxovroben. aseTma situaciam bevrad Seuwyo
xeli 2008 wlis agvistoSi ruseT-saqarTvelos omis
dawyebas, rasac Sedegad e.w. “samxreT oseTis” da `afxazeTis~ respublikebis ruseTis federaciisa da naurus
mier damoukideblobis aRiareba da 50 aTasi eTnikurad
qarTuli mosaxleobis am regionidan gandevna mohyva.
90
Crdilo kavkasiaSi amJamad rva “erovnuli” respublikaa. Crdilo kavkasiis xalxebis mosaxleoba 2002
wlis ruseTis sayovelTao aRweris Sedegad 5 milion
285 aTas adamians Seadgenda. slavebi (rusebi, ukrainelebi, belorusebi) - 15 milion 300 aTass. imave aRweris
monacemebiT, CrdiloeT kavkasiaSi samxreT kavkasiis
saxelmwifoebidan migrirebuli 826 aTasi kaci cxovrobda (somxebi, azerbaijanelebi da qarTvelebi). aqve
unda aRvniSnoT, rom dRemde ar gamqrala Crdilokavkasieli xalxebis survili sakuTari saxelmwifoebriobis
Seqmnisa, Tumca amgvari miznebi xSirad erTmaneTisadmi
eTnopolitikuri da eTnoteritoriuli pretenziebis
safuZveli xdeba. amasTan erTad, aq mcxovreb TiTqmis
milionamde somexs, qarTvels da azerbaijanels arasodes gamouTqvamT raime politikuri pretenzia da maT
interesebs eTnopolitikuri xasiaTi ar miuRia. isini
sakmaod warmatebulad Tanaarseboben CrdiloeT kavkasiaSi mcxovreb yvela xalxis warmomadgenlebTan.
miuxedavad amisa, unda gvaxsovdes, rom samxreT ruseTSi ekonomikuri situaciis mkveTr gauaresebas SesaZloa socialur-politikuri klimatis gamwvaveba mohyves,
rac seriozulad gaarTulebs xalxebs Soris urTierTobebs da aq mcxovreb samxreT kavkasieli xalxebis jgufebs
eTnosTaSoris politikur konfliqtebSi CaiTrevs.
2002 wlis ruseTis mosaxleobis sayovelTao aRweris monacemebiT, samxreT ruseTis olqis enaTa ojaxebis mcirericxovani jgufebis Sefardeba Semdegnairad
gamoiyureba: yvelaze mravalricxovania indoevropul
enaTa ojaxi - 16, 6 mln. adamiani (slavuri, somxuri, iranuli, osuri, berZnuli da sxva jgufebi), iberiul-kavkasiur enaTa ojaxi (adiRur-afxazuri, naxur-daRestnuri) - 4,4 mln. adamiani, es ojaxi ricxobrivad SeiZleba SevadaroT alaTaur ojaxs (1,7 mln.) da somxur,
iranul, berZnul jgufebs (1,2 mln.).
91
qarTvelebi CrdiloeT kavkasiaSi
kavkasionis qedis samxreTiT da CrdiloeTiT
mcxovrebi xalxebis migraciebi saukuneebis manZilze
SeiniSneboda. Crdilo kavkasiaSi ZiriTadad qarTvelebi da somxebi midiodnen. saqarTvelosTan momijnave
Crdilokavkasiur aulebSi qarTuli ojaxebi cxovrobdnen, qarTul soflebSi ki - daRestnelebi, CeCnebi, inguSebi, osebi, adiRebi. xSirad iyo maT Soris danaTesaveba, aTaliyoba, dinastiuri qorwinebebi. cnobilia,
rom amgvari procesebis Sedegad saqarTveloSi gaCnda
qarTvel didebulTa (TavadTa) gvarebi - lekiSvilebi,
CerqeziSvilebi da sxva. aseve cnobilia, rom CeCneTSi
sam Teips (sagvareulos) - Zumsois, yeloisa da varandois - qarTuli warmomavloba aqvT.
qarTvelebis migracia Crdilo kavkasiaSi or ZiriTad periodad SeiZleba davyoT: pirveli - XVII saukunis
Suaxanebidan XIX saukunis dasawyisis CaTvliT da meore
_ XIX saukunis pirveli naxevari _ XX saukunis dasawyisi.
qarTvelebis nawili, romelic 1725 wels mefe vaxtang meeqvses ruseTSi gamgzavrebis dros axlda, kaspiis sanapiro raionebSi darCa. XVIII saukuneSi qarTvelebi upiratesad saxldebodnen yizlarSi (daRestanSi, 1735 wels) da
mozdokSi (Crd. oseTSi, 1762-63 wlebSi).
CrdiloeT kavkasiaSi qarTuli saqoneli _ abreSumi, oqrosa da vercxlis nakeTobebi da sxva _ didi
moTxovnilebiT sargeblobda. qarTveli mefeebi, CrdilokavkasielebTan savaWro-ekonomikuri urTierTobebis ganmtkicebis mizniT, maT mier warmoebul saqonels,
winaprebis mier dawesebuli tradiciis Sesabamisad, sabaJo gadasaxadebisgan aTavisuflebdnen. CrdiloeT
kavkasiaSi mcxovrebi qarTvelebi XVIII saukunis meore
naxevarSi saqarTvelosa da ruseTis ekonomikur daaxloebaSi did rols asrulebdnen. am process xels uwyobda or saxelmwifos Soris dadebuli xelSekrulebis (1783 wlis giorgievskis traqtatis) erT-erTi punqti, romelic qarTvel da rus vaWrebs ruseTisa da saqarTvelos teritoriaze uflebebSi aTanabrebda.
92
Crdilo kavkasiaSi qarTvelebis migraciis meore
etapi im dros xdeba, rodesac saqarTvelo ruseTis imperiam miierTa da kavkasiis omi dasrulda. 1863-64
wlebSi, adiRebis masobrivi gadasaxlebis (muxajirobis) Sedegad, md.bzifidan (afxazeTSi) novorosiiskamde
didi teritoriebi Tavisufldeboda. am teritoriebze
carizmis politika mizanmimarTul migracias axorcielebda da im imediT, rom am mxaris imperiasTan mierTeba
eTnografiuladac momxdariyo, xels upiratesad rusebis dasaxlebas uwyobda. Tumca aRsaniSnavia isic, rom
carizmi ar krZalavda qarTvelebisa da somxebisaTvis
miwebis gadacemasa da iq maT dafuZnebas. sainteresoa,
rom bevri qarTveli gakazakda, rasac mefis moxeleebic
xels uwyobdnen. gakazakeba niSnavda, rom maT garkveuli statusi eniWebodaT, privilegiebsa da socialuri
daxmarebis CaTvliT. arsebobda mefis specialuri cirkularebi rusi moxeleebisaTvis, romelTa Tanaxmad,
qarTvelebs araviTari dabrkoleba ar unda SeqmnodaT
kazakis wodebis misaRebad. swored am droisaTvis Cndeba yubanSi Semdegi stanicebi (kazakTa dasaxlebebi): mingrelskaia, gruzinskaia, tiflisskaia. unda miviCnioT,
rom am stanicebis mosaxleobis didi nawili qarTvelebi iyvnen. axali qarTuli dasaxlebebi Cndeba Savi zRvis
guberniaSi - soWis midamoebSi (plastunka, mamaika, novaia zaria) da Tergis olqSi (alagiri, dRevandeli
CrdiloeT oseTi). aRsaniSnavia, rom 1879-82 wlebSi
alagirSi 120 qarTuli ojaxi cxovrobda, xolo 1897 wels
soWTan axlos mdebare sofel plastunkaSi - 97 qarTuli
ojaxi, romlebic ZiriTadad dasavleT saqarTvelodan imereTidan, samegrelodan da raWidan iyvnen migrirebulni. XIX saukunis bolos qarTvelTa dasaxlebis procesi iwyeba yabardo-balyareTSi (nalCikSi).
1888 wels vladikavkazSi gaixsna qarTuli skola,
romlis damaarsebeli iyo qarTveli sazogado moRvawe
mixeil yifiani. igi cnobil os poetTan da prozaikosTan kosta xeTagurovTan megobrobda. XX saukunis dasawyisSi vladikavkazSi aSenda wminda ninos saxelobis
eklesiac, romelic dResac moqmedia. sainteresoa, rom
93
am taZarSi moinaTla sruliad saqarTvelos kaTolikos-patriarqi, uwmindesi da unetaresi ilia meore.
qarTuli skolebi daarsda soWSi (1921 wels) da
nalCikSi (1932 wels). Seiqmna qarTuli saxalxo Teatrebic - magaliTad soWSi, olRa wiTlaZis mier, romelic
pirveli iyo am mxareSi. es Teatri axlo kavSirSi iyo
Tbilisis SoTa rusTavelis saxelobis saxelmwifo TeatrTan. samwuxarod, aseTi kavSirebi dRes ukve Sewyvetilia. sabWoTa periodSi nalCikis axlos ilia gobejiSvilis uSualo iniciativiT daarsebul iqna qarTuli kolmeurneoba, romelic erT-erTi mowinave iyo yabardo-balyareTSi. saintereso faqtia, rom ilia gobejiSvili orjer (1937-1938 da 1943-44 wlebSi) iqna arCeuli nalCikis saqalaqo aRmasrulebeli komitetis Tavmjdomared (dRevandeli gagebiT, nalCikis merad).
1950-ian wlebSi ssrk saxelmwifo premiis laureatis, ialbuzis eqspediciis xelmZRvanelis, Tbiliseli
profesoris giorgi sulaqveliZis didi xelSewyobiT,
nalCikSi daarsda geofizikis instituti, romelic
dRes msoflioSi cnobili samecniero dawesebulebaa (1).
1990-iani wlebis dasawyisSi afxazeTis konfliqtis Sedegebma da saqarTveloSi Seqmnilma mZime ekonomikurma viTarebam CrdiloeT kavkasiaSi qarTvelebis
axali migracia ganapiroba.
qarTvelebi CrdiloeT kavkasiaSi (ruseTis samxreT federalur olqSi) arcTu ise bevria - 2002 wlis
monacemebiT, maTi raodenoba 60, 6 aTas adamians Seadgenda. aqedan rostovis olqSi cxovrobda10,6 aTasi,
krasnodaris mxareSi - 20 aTasi, stavropolis mxareSi 8,7 aTasi, CrdiloeT oseTSi - 10,8 aTasi. aRsaniSnavia,
rom CrdiloeT kavkasiaSi (umetesad yubanSi) cxovroben e.w. “Turqi-mesxebic” (2), romelTa raodenoba 75
aTass aRwevs.
postsabWour CrdiloeT kavkasiaSi mimdinare demokratizaciis procesebs ukavSirdeba regionSi qarTuli kulturul-saganmanaTleblo centrebis Seqmnac: “varZia” - rostovis olqSi, “erToba” - Crdilo
oseTSi, “iveria” - soWSi, “rioni” - nalCikSi.
94
somxebi CrdiloeT kavkasiaSi
sabWoTa kavSiris daSlis Semdeg somexTa raodenoba samxreT ruseTis federalur olqSi gaormagda, gansakuTrebiT - stavropolis mxareSi. aqtiurad matulobs somxebis raodenoba krasnodaris mxareSic. am regionebSi somxebi mravali saukunis win sakmaod kompaqturad iyvnen dasaxlebulni (3), arsebobda somxuri toponimikac. oficialuri monacemebiT (2002 wlis 1 ianvris mdgomareobiT), somexi mosaxleobis raodenoba
Crdilo kavkasiaSi Seadgenda 615 aTas adamians. somxebi
mosaxleobis ricxobrivi raodenobiT stavropolis
mxareSi meore adgilze arian, krasnodaris mxareSi da
rostovis olqSi ki - mesameze.
Crdilo kavkasiaSi gamoyofen somexTa ramdenime
jgufs - Cerqezebs (armaviris, maikopis, krasnodaris
raionebSi), amSenebs (maikopSi, krasnodarSi, tuapsesa
da soWSi), donelebs (nor-naxWevanSi, romelsac mogvianebiT saxeli donis naxWevniT Seecvala; proletarskis
raionSi).
mefis ruseTi xels uwyobda Crdilo kavkasiaSi
somxebis, berZnebis, ukrainelebis, qarTvelebisa da
sxva qristiani xalxebis Casaxlebasa da im mxaris aTvisebas. ruseTis imperiis xelisufleba cdilobda am regionSi iseTi socialur-ekonomikuri pirobebi Seeqmna,
romlis drosac miwaTmoqmedebiT, xelosnobiT dakavebuli mosaxleoba xelisuflebis mimarT loialurad
ganwyobili iqneboda.
sabWoTa periodis CrdiloeT kavkasiaSi (dasavleT
nawilSi) arsebobdnen iseTi administraciuli raionebi, romelTa mosaxleobis umetesobas somxebi Seadgendnen. magaliTad, 1926-1953 wlebSi maikopis olqis SemadgenlobaSi Sedioda stanica elisavetpoli (daba Saumiani - 1938 wels); qalaq donis rostovis axlos dResac arsebobs miasnikovis raioni (centriT sofel CaltirSi).
gasuli saukunis 90-ian wlebSi yubanisa da stavropolis mxareebSi da rostovis olqSi samxreT kavkasii95
dan somex ltolvilTa nakadebis Semodineba Zlierdeba. Crdilo kavkasiis yvela regionSi Seqmnilia da funqcionirebs somxuri kulturul-saganmanaTleblo sazogadoebebi. aRsaniSnavia, rom amJamad eTnokulturuli TviTmyofadobis SenarCunebis sakiTxebi swored
kulturul-saganmanaTleblo sazogadoebebSi wydeba
da ara erovnul raionebSi.
dRes somexTa migraciis veqtori rusuli migraciis veqtors imeorebs - samxreT-aRmosavleTidan Crdilo-dasavleTis mimarTulebiT. garkveuli koreqtireba amaSi Seaqvs aqtiur imigracias somxeTidan da azerbaijanidan (somxur-azerbaijanuli konfliqtis Sedegad). somxuri mosaxleobis yovelwliuri zrda am regionSi eTnosTaSorisi daZabulobis garkveul safuZvels
warmoadgens, radgan ekonomikis sferoSi interesTa
konfliqti warmoiqmneba (pirvel rigSi, es exeba vaWrobisa da momsaxurebis sferoebs).
azerbaijanelebi CrdiloeT kavkasiaSi
CrdiloeT kavkasiaSi azerbaijanelebis ricxvis
intensiuri zrda, sxva periodebisagan gansxvavebiT,
ukanaskneli oci wlis manZilze SeiniSneba. am regionSi
maTi raodenoba daaxloebiT 186 aTass Seadgens.
azerbaijanuli ena miekuTvneba alTauri ojaxis
Turqul enaTa jgufs, xolo anTropologiurad azerbaijanelebi samxreTevropeiduli rasis kaspiur tips
warmoadgenen. azerbaijanelTa eTnogenezSi monawileobas iRebda manas, kavkasiuri albaneTis (Zv.welTaRricxvis I aTaswleuli), midiis, atropatenis (Zv.welTaRricxvis IV da ax.welTaRricxvis VII saukune) mosaxleoba, agreTve iranulenovani da Turqulenovani momTabareebi, skviTebi, hunebi, bulgarebi, paWanikebi,
Turq-seljukebi da TaTar-monRolebi. Tanamedrove
azerbaijanis teritoriaze arsebul kavkasiis albaneTSi qristianoba saxelmwifo religiad iyo gamocxadebuli. mogvianebiT, aq mcxovrebma xalxebma islamuri re96
ligia miiRes, rac kavkasiaSi arabTa laSqrobebma da
dapyrobebma ganapiroba. paralelurad, SemoRebul iqna arabuli damwerloba da arabuli kulturis sxva
tradiciebi. azerbaijanelebi Sediodnen hulagidebis
(XIII saukune) saxelmwifoSi, xolo XVI-XVIII saukuneebSi
_ jer osmaleTis imperiis, Semdeg ki iranis (sparseTis)
SemadgenlobaSi.
azerbaijanelTa tradiciuli saqmianoba CrdiloeT kavkasiaSi miwaTmoqmedeba da mesaqonleobaa. garda
amisa, ganviTarebulia Sina xelosnoba, matylisa da
tyavis warmoeba, abreSumis damuSaveba. azerbaijanelebi dakavebulni arian meqanizebuli soflis meurneobiT, mrewvelobiT, inteleqtualuri SromiT.
Crdilokavkasieli azerbaijanelebidan cnobili
arian mecnierebisa da kulturis ganTqmuli moRvaweebi: poeti faTali velikenteli (XVIII s.), mecnieri yazembeki (XIX saukunis 60-70-iani wlebi) da sxvebi.
amJamad SeiniSneba Crdilokavkasieli azerbaijanelebis erovnuli TviTSegnebis zrda. regionis mTel
rig qalaqebSi Seiqmna da moqmedebs azerbaijanuli
kulturuli sazogadoebebi.
azerbaijanuli folklori axloa kavkasiis xalxur zepirsityvier SemoqmedebasTan: farTodaa gavrcelebuli zRaprebi, Tqmulebebi (“qor-oRli, “asli
da qerimi”, “aSik-Raribi” da sxva). azerbaijanelebis
cxovrebaSi didi adgili ukavia saxalxo momRerlebs aSuRebs, poetebs, musikosebs. popularulia mola nasredinTan dakavSirebuli anegdotebi, sazeimod aRiniSneba muslimuri dResaswaulebi - “novruz-bairami” (axali wlis dadgoma), “uraza-bairami” da “yurban-bairami”.
amJamad CrdiloeT kavkasiaSi azerbaijanelTa gansaxlebis arealia daRestani (75,5 aTasi), krasnodaris
mxare (10,3 aTasi), stavropolis mxare (10,2 aTasi), rostovis olqi (10,2 aTasi).
azerbaijanelTa intensiuri migracia da maTi gansaxleba tradiciuli sacxovrebeli raionebis (kaspiis
zRvis sanapiro da samxreT daRestani) miRma SesamCnevad zrdis ararusi xalxebis saerTo raodenobas ruse97
Tis federaciis samxreT subieqtebSi, Sesabamisad, icvleba adgilobrivi da mosuli mosaxleobis Tanafardobac. migrantebis damkvidreba socialurad da ekonomikurad mimzidvel teritoriebze, maT Soris sazRvrispirazec, adgilobriv mosaxleobasTan dapirispirebis riskebs zrdis, xels uwyobs Crdilovani ekonomikis matebas, xelisuflebis korumpirebas, sazogadoebis garkveuli nawilis kriminalizebas, fuladi saxsrebis sazRvargareT ukontrolo gadinebas.
rusebi kavkasiaSi
rusebis kavkasiaSi aqtiuri Casaxleba XVIII saukuneSi daiwyo. 1795 wels CrdiloeT kavkasiaSi 111,4 aTasi
rusi cxovrobda, romlebic regionis mosaxleobis 8,8%
Seadgendnen.
rac Seexeba samxreT kavkasias, aq XIX saukunis 50iani wlebis bolos rusebis ricxvi 32 aTas adamians aRwevda. maTi ZiriTadi raodenoba saqarTveloSi cxovrobda. 1875 wels samxreT kavkasiaSi 73 aTasi rusi iyo,
1897 wlisaTvis ki maTi raodenoba ukve 243 aTas adamians Seadgenda.
1926 wlis monacemebiT, rusuli mosaxleobis raodenobam samxreT kavkasiaSi 337 aTasamde moimata. 1939
wlisaTvis maTma ricxvma 888 aTasi adamiani Seadgina.
maTi ZiriTadi nawili wina kavkasiaSi - baris nawilSi
cxovrobda. faqtobrivad, rusebiT samxreT kavkasia
ufro metad iyo dasaxlebuli, vidre CrdiloeTi kavkasia, sadac erovnul-teritoriul warmonaqmnebSi mxolod 876,5 aTasi rusi cxovrobda.
1959 wels kavkasiis respublikebsa da avtonomiur
warmonaqmnebSi cxovrobda 2,2 mln. rusi. kavkasiaSi, wina kavkasiis baris CaTvliT, cxovrobda 9 milion 864
aTasi rusi adamiani, maT Soris samxreT kavkasiaSi - 965
aTasi adamiani. aqve unda aRvniSnoT: rusi mecnieri v.belozerovi xazs usvams, rom Tu 1897 wels ruseTis sazRvrebs gareT mxolod 8,1% rusi cxovrobda, 1959 wels
98
marto kavkasiaze ruseTis mTliani mosaxleobis 10,1%
(eTnikuri rusi) modioda (4).
ruseTis demografiuli eqspansia kavkasiaSi Semdgom wlebSic grZeldeba: XX saukunis 60-70-iani wlebis
mijnaze mTavrdeba rusebis socialuri eqspansia samxreT kavkasiaSi: jer saqarTveloSi, Semdgom azerbaijansa da somxeTSi. 80-iani wlebis bolos, samxreT kavkasiaSi cxovrobda 785 aTasi rusi. am periodSi daiwyo
rusi mosaxleobis Semcirebis procesi. oficialuri
monacemebiT, 1979-1989 wlebSi rusebis raodenoba samxreT kavkasiaSi 187 aTasi adamianiT Semcirda, ZiriTadad migraciis Sedegad. es iyo rusi mosaxleobis kavkasiis mTiani regionebidan neli, magram mdgradi Semcirebis tendencia.
rac Seexeba CrdiloeT kavkasias: aq rusebis demografiuli eqspansiis dasrulebis niSnebi pirvelad daRestanSi gaCnda (1960-ian wlebSi), Semdgom - CeCneT-inguSeTsa da Crdilo oseTSi (1970-1980 wlebSi), mogvianebiT, 1990-ian wlebSi, am tendenciam Tavi iCina yabardo-balyareTSi, yaraCai-CerqezeTsa da adiReSi. rusi
mosaxleobis saerTo raodenoba respublikebSi yovelwliurad 10-11 aTasi adamianiT mcirdeboda. amasTan
erTad, rusi mosaxleobis Semcirebis tempi am etapze
garkveulwilad ukavSirdeba yvela respublikaSi rusebis bunebriv zrdas da migraciul matebas sam erovnulteritoriul warmonaqmnSi (yabardo-balyareTi, yaraCai-CerqezeTi da adiRe).
amJamad rusebi CrdiloeT kavkasiaSi yvelaze mravalricxovani xalxia. isini moicaven Semdeg subeTnosebs: donis, yubanisa da Tergis kazakebs. 1989 wlis aRweriT, CrdiloeT kavkasiaSi cxovrobda 11 milion 232
aTasi adamiani (68,9%), magram federaciis subieqtebSi
isini araTanabrad arian gansaxlebuli: adiReSi - 293,6
aTasi (68%), daRestanSi - 165,9 aTasi (9,2%), yabardobalyareTSi - 240,7 aTasi (32%), yaraCai-CerqezeTSi 175,9 aTasi (42,4%), krasnodaris mxareSi - 3 milion 906,8
aTasi (84,6%), rostovis olqSi - 3 milion 844,3 aTasi
(89,6%), CrdiloeT oseTSi - 189,2 aTasi (29,9%), stavro99
polis mxareSi - 2 milion 24 aTasi (83,9%), CeCneTsa da
inguSeTSi - 293,8 aTasi (23,1%), yalmuxeTSi - 121,5 aTasi
(37,7%) adamiani.
aRsaniSnavia, rom CrdiloeT kavkasiis rig respublikebSi, iseve rogorc samxreT kavkasiis qveynebSi
(azerbaijani, somxeTi, saqarTvelo), derusifikaciis
procesi SeiniSneba, kerZod, CeCneTsa da inguSeTSi,
romlebic rusi mosaxleobisgan TiTqmis mTlianad daicala. 1989-2005 wlebSi kavkasiaSi rusi mosaxleoba 1
mln. meti adamianiT Semcirda. es procesi jer samxreT
kavkasiaSi, kerZod, azerbaijanSi daiwyo, Semdeg gagrZelda Crdilo kavkasiaSi - daRestanSi, CeCneT-inguSeTSi da a.S. am procesis Semdgomi etapia sazRvrispira
da kompaqturad dasaxlebuli slavuri raionebidan
rusuli mosaxleobis gadineba da maT adgilze migrantebis Casaxleba (krasnodarisa da stavropolis mxareebSi, rostovis, volgogradisa da astraxanis olqebSi).
garda amisa, sazRvrispira mcxovrebi rusebis migraciuli ganwyoba ganpirobebulia vahabizmis gavrcelebis riskiTa da CeCneTidan dabrunebul arakanonier
SeiaraRebul formirebaTa monawileebTan arsebuli
dapirispirebiTac.
CeCneTSi mimdinare samxedro moqmedebebma, araCeCnuri mosaxleobis uuflebobam, dausrulebelma terorizmma, olqebisa da mxareebis ekonomikuri da socialuri sferoebis rRvevam am regionebis (CeCneTi, inguSeTi) rusebisa da rusulenovani mosaxleobisagan dacla gamoiwvia. minimumamdea Semcirebuli rusuli mosaxleobis raodenoba daRestanSic.
rusi mosaxleobis gadinebis zogadi mizezebia
sabWoTa kavSiris daSla, ekonomikuri krizisi, umuSevroba, SeiaraRebuli konfliqtebi, kavkasiel xalxTa
Soris winaaRmdegobebi, mosaxleobis diferenciacia
eTnikuri da ekonomikuri niSniT. rusebis migracia
CrdiloeT kavkasiis respublikebidan ruseTis saxelmwifoebriobisTvis safrTxis Semcveli faqtoria.
ruseTis mecnierebaTa akademiis samxreT samecniero centrSi gamocemul “atlasSi” xazi aqvs gasmuli,
100
rom “samxreT ruseTSi erTbaSad rusi mosaxleobis Semcireba safrTxes uqmnis qveynis mTlianobas da saxelmwifos erTianobas. dRes kavkasiis respublikebSi vxedavT monoeTnikuri da monokulturuli sazogadoebebis formirebis process. amas, Tavis mxriv, mivyavarT
rogorc adgilobrivi liderebis gaZlierebis, aseve
ruseTis sazogadoebisagan adgilobrivi mosaxleobis
izolaciisaken. gardauvali xdeba ruseTis federaciis
am subieqtebis centridan marTvis xarisxis dacema” (5).
eTnikur-migraciuli procesebis
tendenciebi samxreT ruseTSi
samxreT ruseTis teritoriaze migraciul procesebs, ZiriTadad, erTi veqtori aqvs - samxreTidan da
samxreT-aRmosavleTidan CrdiloeTiT da Crdilo-dasavleTiT. migraciuli nakadis ZiriTadi mimarTulebaa
krasnodarisa da rostovis olqebis samxreTi da dasavleTi raionebi, mosaxleobis simWidrove obieqtur winapirobebs qmnis eTnosTaSoris daZabulobis da lokaluri konfliqtebis kerebis gaCenisaTvis.
amJamad eTnikur imigracias Sua aziidan da yazaxeTidan Crdilo kavkasiaSi (“Turqi mesxebi”) didi masStabebi ar aqvs, magram centraluri aziis qveynebSi jer kidev rCeba kavkasiuri diasporebi, romlebic, socialur-politikuri situaciis gauaresebis SemTxvevaSi,
Crdilo kavkasiis respublikebSi, anda, rac ufro SesaZlebelia, “rusul” olqebSi dabrundebian. yvelaze
didi problemebi Crdilo kavkasiaSi “Turqi mesxebis”
binadrobasTanaa dakavSirebuli - krasnodaris mxareSi,
magaliTad, “Turqi mesxebis” kompaqturad Casaxleba
mudmivi eTnosTaSorisi daZabulobis faqtori gaxda .
amasTan, unda SevniSnoT, rom 1990-2003 wlebSi migraciuli mateba-klebis geografiam ori mniSvnelovani
tendencia gamokveTa.
pirveli _ 1990-iani wlebis dasawyisSi migraciuli procesebis gaaqtiureba da 1994-2002 wlebSi misi
101
TandaTanobiT TiTqmis nulamde dayvana. Semdgom periodSi kvlav SeiniSneba garkveuli raodenobiT misi
zrda. daRestneli mecnieri m.S. rizaxanova aRniSnavs,
rom 1996 wlidan rusebis daRestanSi dabrunebis faqtebi SeiniSneba, radgan “daRestnelma rusebma Tavisi
socialur-eTnikuri mentaliteti ukve Camoayalibes
da Znelad eguebian cxovrebas rusebiT dasaxlebul
ZirZvel regionebSi” (6).
meore _ migraciuli procesebis uTanabroba
Crdilo kavkasiaSi. stavropolsa da krasnodaris mxareebSi, adiResTan erTad, migracia SedarebiT naklebad SeiniSneba, rostovis olqsa da inguSeTSi ki umniSvnelo matebaa. migraciuli procesebis Semcireba xdeba
Crdilo kavkasiis sxva respublikebSi (yalmuxeTi, CeCneTi, daRestani), astraxanisa da volgogradis olqebSi. gamoikveTa tendencia migraciis klebis zonis gafarToebisa Crdilo kavkasiis samxreTiTa da aRmosavleTiT.
amasTan erTad, SeimCneva negatiuri kanonzomiereba, romelic gamoixateba CrdiloeT kavkasiis aRmosavleTis raionebis mosaxleobis Semcirebasa da regionis
dasavleT teritoriebze migraciuli procesis zrdaSi.
migraciis amgvarad Camoyalibebuli veqtori, erTi
mxriv, qmnis aRmosavleT raionebis sameurneo aTvisebis, ruseTis saxelmwifoebriobis poziciebis Semcirebis, xolo meore mxriv, regionis dasavlur nawilSi socialur da eTnosTaSoriso daZabulobas zrdis risks.
aRsaniSnavia isic, rom Sidamigraciuli procesebi
mimdinareobs TviT CrdiloeT kavkasiis respublikebSic. maTTvis damaxasiaTebelia erTi veqtori _ mTiani
raionebidan barSi gadaadgileba. magaliTad, bolo
wlebSi daRestanSi aqtiurad mimdinareobs mTis mosaxleobis mier respublikis baris raionebis sameurneo
aTviseba, rac aq mcxovrebi adgilobrivi mosaxleobis
garkveul ukmayofilebas iwvevs. gavixsenoT, rom daRestanSi 30-ze meti eTnosi cxovrobs. am respublikis
baris raionebSi daregistrirebulia mTidan Camosuli
47 aTasi adamiani. miwa xom kavkasielisTvis aramarto
102
ekonomikur Rirebulebas, aramed arsebobis, eTnikuri
da kulturuli TviTmyofadobis SenarCunebis safuZvelsac warmoadgens, amgvari teritoriuli eqspansia ki
kavkasielebSi eTnosis arsebobis safuZvlebis pirdapir xelyofad miiCneva.
amrigad, CrdiloeT kavkasiaSi, mosaxleobis bunebrivi klebis dros, migracia mcxovrebTa raodenobis
Sevsebisa da bazris muSaxeliT gajerebis erTaderT
wyarod iqca. Tumca, rogorc ukve vTqviT, regionSi
migraciam piks 1994-95 wlebSi miaRwia, ris Sedegadac
yvela subieqtSi misi klebis procesi daiwyo. dRes regionis mosaxleobis demografiuli Semcireba migraciiTac ki ver gadaifareba.
cnobilia, rom CrdiloeT kavkasiis migraciul nakadebSi didi adgili uWiravs SromiT migracias. amgvari migrantebis dasaqmebis ZiriTadi sfero mrewvelobis, soflisa da mSeneblobis dargebia. magaliTad,
rostovis olqSi migrantebis 77% mrewvelobis, soflis meurneobisa da mSeneblobis sferoebSi dasaqmebuli, gacilebiT naklebad (13%) arian isini CarTulebi
vaWrobisa da sazogadoebrivi kvebis dargebSi. samwuxarod, sazogadoebaSi Seiqmna stereotipi, rom migranti,
ZiriTadad, mxolod vaWaria. es SeiZleba dakavSirebuli iyos oficialuri statistikis arasrul monacemebTan, radgan cnobilia, rom bevri migranti ruseTSi aralegalurad cxovrobs. amgvari stereotipis kidev erTi
mizezi isaa, rom warmoebaSi dasaqmebuli migrantebi imdenad TvalSi sacemni ar arian, rogorc, magaliTad,
vaWrobaSi, biznessa da momsaxurebis sferoSi (7).
unda aRvniSnoT, rom aralegaluri migracia qmnis
mTel rig socialur problemebs, xels uwyobs kriminalizacias, zrdis korufcias regionSi, axdens zewolas
Sromisa da binis bazarze. aralegaluri migrantebi
iZulebulni arian, daTanmxdnen Sromis dabal anazRaurebas, muSaoben socialuri garantiebis gareSe. yovelive amis Sedegad, adgilobrivi muSaxelisaTvis Sromis bazarze araTanabari pirobebi iqmneba: damsaqmebels uCndeba SesaZlebloba, Seumciros xelfasebi yve103
la momuSaves, anda isini iafi muSaxeliT Secvalos. ra
Tqma unda, amgvari politika socialuri da erovnebaTSoriso Tanxmobisa da mSvidobis SenarCunebas xels ar
uwyobs.
mdgomareobis gamosworeba SeuZlia marTvad SromiT migracias, rac ekonomikis ganviTarebis mniSvnelovani faqtoria. amisaTvis unda SemuSavdes rogorc regionuli (kavkasiuri), aseve yvela calke qveynis (saqarTvelo, somxeTi, azerbaijani, ruseTis federacia) migraciuli politika. aucilebloba moiTxovs Seicvalos
migraciuli aqtivobis veqtoric. Tu SromiT migracias
organizebuli (marTvadi) xasiaTis miecema da migrantebisTvis cxovrebisa da muSaobis normaluri pirobebi Seiqmneba, aseTi politika kavkasiis mWidrod dasaxlebul regionebSi socialur daZabulobas Seamcirebs,
ganaviTarebs mcirericxovan raionebs da Tavidan agvacilebs eTnosTaSoris daZabulobis zrdas migrantebiT dasaxlebul raionebSi.
CrdiloeT kavkasiis xalxTa
religiuri aRmsarebloba
CrdiloeTi kavkasia istoriulad yvela msoflio
religiis Tanaarsebobis tradiciiT gamoirCeva (8). ruseTis federaciis mTlianobis SenarCunebas saxelmwifos moqnili politika da sxvadasxva aRmsareblobis
xalxTa Semwynarebloba uzrunvelyofs. ruseTis usafrTxoebis uzrunvelyofis TvalsazrisiT, am regionSi
mosaxleobis religiur struqturas principuli mniSvneloba aqvs. es gansakuTrebiT igrZnoba bolo wlebSi,
rodesac religiuri faqtori eqstremistuli moZraobis ganuyofeli nawili gaxda.
ruseTis samxreT federalur olqSi ori msxvili
konfesiaa - qristianuli da muslimuri (zogadad, konfesiebisadmi mikuTvnebis gasagebad eTnikuri kuTvnilebis principi gamoiyeneba). arian agreTve budistebic
(yalmuxeTSi). Crdilokavkasiel marTlmadideblebsa
104
da budistebs Soris WeSmaritad morwmuneTa raodenoba
araumetes 10-15%-ia, xolo muslimuri mosaxleobis
umetesi nawili (60%) morwmuneni arian. yabardo-balyareTis, yaraCai-CerqezeTis, adiRes mosaxleoba naklebi
religiurobiT gamoirCeva (20-30%). CrdiloeT kavkasiis aRmosavleT nawilSi gamoikveTa daRestnis, CeCneTis, inguSeTis xalxTa kulturul-civilizaciuri gancalkevebis tendencia, sadac mosaxleobis mkveTri islamizacia rusi da rusulenovani qristiani mosaxleobis gadinebis fonze mimdinareobs.
amJamad ruseTis samxreT federalur olqSi TiTqmis 3,5 aTasi religiuri organizacia funqcionirebs.
maT Soris metad gavlenians miekuTvnebian ruseTis
marTlmadidebluri eklesiis 8 eparqia, 11 muslimuri
sasuliero sammarTvelo da 3 muslimTa centralizebuli religiuri organizacia.
mxedvelobaSi unda viqonioT, rom daregistrirebuli religiuri organizaciebis ricxvi ama Tu im konfesiis Zalisa da gavlenis maCvenebeli ar aris. registracia dakavSirebulia xelisuflebis damokidebulebasTan daregistrirebuli struqturebisadmi. rusuli
marTlmadidebluri eklesiis samwyso (mrevli) registraciasTan dakavSirebiT siZneleebs ar ganicdis. aRsaniSnavia, rom 1997 wlis Semdeg religiuri organizaciebis registraciaze uaris Tqmis praqtika gavrcelda. am mxriv sirTuleebs ganicdian sazRvargareTuli
protestantuli organizaciebi. staroverTa religiuri Temi da muslimTa sasoflo Temebi (jamaaTebi) registracias saWirod ar Tvlian.
2005 wlis pirveli ivlisisTvis daRestanSi daregistrirebuli iyo rusuli marTlmadidebluri eklesiis 5 organizacia, islamis - 1786, protestantebis - 11,
sul - 1806; yabardo-balyareTSi: rusuli marTlmadidebluri eklesiis 20 organizacia, islamis -115, protestantebis - 23, sul - 152; stavropolis mxareSi: rusuli marTlmadidebluri eklesiis 284 organizacia,
islamis - 8, protestantebis - 136, budisturi - 2, sul 430; rostovis olqSi: rusuli marTlmadidebluri ek105
lesiis 257 organizacia, islamis - 17, protestantebis 121, sul - 395.
bolo wlebSi ukve arsebuli religiuri organizaciebidan axali damoukidebeli eparqiebisa da muftiatebis gamoyofis tendencia SeimCneva. kerZod, ramdenimejer iyo mcdeloba calke Seqmniliyo stavropolis
mxaris muslimTa sasuliero mmarTveloba.
oficialuri islamis saorganizacio struqturebi Tavis gavlenas aqtiurad avrceleben tradiciul
rusul mxareebsa da olqebSi.
Tu rusulma marTlmadideblurma konfesiam SemdgomSic ganagrZo Tavisi moRvaweoba “zemodan qvemoT”,
maSin, SeiZleba, man regionSi Tavisi poziciebi dakargos. Sesabamisad, gaZlierdebian sxva konfesiebi da seqtebi. aseTi tendencia naTlad gamoCnda stavropolis
mxaris krasnogvardeiskis raionis religiuri mosaxleobis magaliTze, sadac zogierTi religiuri moZraoba
(mag. “ieRovas mowmeebi”) aqtiurad aris dakavebuli sazogadoebrivi da misioneruli moRvaweobiT. regionSi
aratradiciuli konfesiuri moZraobebis (magaliTad,
protestantizmis) aqtiuri misioneruli moRvaweoba
rusuli marTlmadidebluri eklesiis winaaRmdegobas
awydeba da socialur-kulturuli sferos daZabulobis kidev erTi wyaro xdeba.
Crdilo kavkasiis xalxTa ZiriTadi raodenoba,
iseve rogorc mTeli axlo aRmosavleTi, iranisa da
erayis nawilis gamoklebiT, sunituri islamis mimdevrebi arian. Siitebi, romelTa sasuliero centri irania, SedarebiT mcirericxovania da isini samxreT ruseTSi azerbaijanelebiT arian warmodgenilni.
sabWoTa kavSiris daSlis Semdeg muslimTa marTvis
centraluri organoebi dairRva. 1990-iani wlebis meore naxevarSi jamaaTebis Sekreba respublikuri muftiaTebis xelisuflebis qveS daiwyo. oficialuri islami
dRes warmodgenilia muslimTa sasuliero mmarTvelobiT (msm) da maTi kontrolis qveS myofi organizaciebiT. msm-is politikaSi gamoikveTa miswrafeba religiur moRvaweobaze mkacri kontrolis dawesebisken . um106
ravles SemTxvevaSi imams mufti niSnavs da igi mrevlis
mier ar airCeva. sagareo warmomadgenlobac, saerTaSoriso kontaqtebis CaTvliT, sasuliero mmarTvelobis
prerogativas Seadgens. am bolo dros gavrcelda imamTa atestaciis praqtika - ara imdenad maTi kompetenciis gamoyenebis, aramed sasuliero da saero xelisuflebisadmi maTi loialurobis donis gamovlenis mizniT.
aseTi politika morwmuneTa ukmayofilebas iwvevs da
xels uwyobs islamuri opoziciis formirebas.
daRestanSi meCeTebis swrafi tempiT mSenebloba
noyier niadags qmnis mosaxleobis religiurobis Semdgomi zrdisTvis. magaliTad, Tu aq 1986 wels mxolod
27 meCeTi iyo, 2000 wels ukve 1585, xolo 2006 wlisaTvis
maTma raodenobam 1800 Seadgina. 2005 wels daRestanSi
islams 14 aTasi adamiani swavlobda, maT Soris 1,2 aTasi
adamiani codnas sazRvargareTis islamur saswavlo dawesebulebebSi iZenda. aRsaniSnavia, rom maTgan samSoblos Teologiur codnamiRebuli religiuri moRvawis
saxiT 500-mde adamiani daubrunda. faqtobrivad, amJamindel daRestanSi erT sul mosaxleze meCeTebis raodenobam igive dones miaRwia, rac XX saukunis dasawyisSi iyo. TavisTavad, daRestanSi meCeTebis zrdas politikuri mniSvneloba ar aqvs, magram, saero xelisuflebisadmi sayovelTao undoblobis pirobebSi, amgvari situacia regionis avRanuri variantiT islamizaciis
risks qmnis, anu SesaZloa xelisuflebaSi radikalurad
ganwyobili islamistebi movidnen. amitom aq saWiroa
socialur-ekonomikuri mdgomareobis gajansaReba da
oficialuri xelisuflebis mier swori religiuri politikis gatareba.
ruseTis samxreT federaluri olqis respublikebSi tradiciuli (saxalxo) islami dogmatur islams
ar emTxveva. “tradicionalistebi” arasakmarisad kompetenturni arian normatiuli islamis sakiTxebSi, magram, samagierod, isini mkveTrad akritikeben opoziciur axalgazrdobasa da e.w. “axal muslimebs”. tradiciul islamsa da oficialur struqturebs Soris mkveTri dapirispireba ar aRiniSneba, magram aseve ar SeimCne107
va maTi erTobac. daRestanSi religiuri Temebis umetesi nawili respublikis muslimTa sasuliero mmarTvelobas ar cnobs, magram isini erTad zRudaven politikurad aqtiur muslimebs, ar aZleven maT eqstremistul saqmianobaSi CarTvis saSualebas. tradiciuli
islami sazogadoebrivi urTierTobebis primitiuli
formebis konservacias axdens, gamodis socialuri
gardaqmnebis Semakavebel faqtorad, rac gamoixateba
SariaTis sasamarTloebis amoqmedebasa da muslim liderTa arCevnebis procesSi CarevaSi.
tradiciuli islamis sunituri moZRvrebis qanafituri mimarTulebisani arian adiRelebi, SafsuRebi,
yabardoelebi, Cerqezebi, balyarelebi, yaraCaelebi,
noRaelebi, yumuxTa nawili, yirimis TaTrebi, digorieli osebi.
Crdilo kavkasiaSi sunituri islamis Safiituri
mimarTulebis xalxebi (daRestnis mosaxleoba, noRaelebisa da yumuxTa nawilis garda, agreTve CeCnebi da
inguSebi) sufisturi ordenebis formiT - TarikatebiTaa warmodgenili.
108
Tavi VI
kavkasia: eTnopolitikuri da
geopolitikuri problemebi
postsabWour kavkasiaSi, rogorc mTlianad msoflioSi, eTnopolitikuri procesebis ori urTierTsawinaaRmdego tendencia SeiniSneba. pirveli gamoixateba
kavkasielebis miswrafebaSi _ Seqmnan axali erovnuli
saxelmwifoebi, meore ki, rac msoflios wamyvani tendenciaa, piriqiT _ globalizaciis imperativebidan
gamomdinare, gamoixateba erovnul-saxelmwifoebrivi
suverenitetis TviTSezRudvaSi (mag.evrokavSiris integraciuli gaerTianeba), polieTnikuri erTobebis integraciuli formebiT CanacvlebaSi.
dasaxelebulma tendenciebma Tavis asaxva hpova
saerTaSoriso samarTlis cnobil principebSi: erebis
TviTgamorkvevis uflebaSi (saxelmwifos Seqmnis CaTvliT) da saxelmwifoTa teritoriuli mTlianobis
dacvaSi (1).
aRniSnuli tendenciebidan pirveli kavkasiaSi
metwilad eTnocentristul xasiaTs atarebs. ufro metic, zogierTi mecnieris azriT, Crdilo kavkasiaSi is
eTnoetatizmSi gadadis (2). eTnoetatizmi kavkasiaSi avtokratiuli reJimebis eTnomaprovocirebeli faqtoria, romelic amwvavebs eTnopolitikur procesebs da
warmoSobs separatizms, terorizms da eTnopolitikur
konfliqtebs.
yovelive zemoTqmulTan mWidrodaa dakavSirebuli kavkasiis geopolitikuri problematika. kavkasiaze
gavlenis mopovebisaTvis tradiciul metoqeebs (ruseTi, TurqeTi, irani) dRes daemata evrokavSiri, amerikis
SeerTebuli Statebi. eqspertebi xSirad saubroben,
rom Sidapolitikuri arastabiluroba kavkasiaSi metwilad awyobs zogierT saxelmwifos, romelTac, erTmniSvnelovnad, mxolod sakuTari erovnuli (politikuri da ekonomikuri) interesebi amoZravebs. saqarTveloSi 2008 wlis agvistos movlenebma gvaCvena, Tu ro109
gor SeuZlia transformacia lokalur eTnopolitikur konfliqts saxelmwifoTaSoriso konfliqtad,
rac, samwuxarod, didi saxelmwifoebis mier TavianTi
geopolitikuri miznebis misaRwevad gamoiyeneba.
bolo wlebis movlenebma kavkasiaSi isic gvaCvena,
rom Sidapolitikuri problemebis mogvarebaSi Sidakavkasiuri resursi, rbilad rom vTqvaT, saTanadod ar
gamoiyeneba da rom es TiTqmis mTlianad ucxo qveynebzea mindobili. aleqsandre kuxianiZe, demokratiis kavkasiacentristuli koncefciis avtori (3), samarTlianad miiCnevs, rom kavkasielis miswrafebaSi kavkasiuri
idea “kavkasiuri saxlis” aSenebaSi gamoixateba. misive
azriT, “aseTi midgoma ar ganapirobebs kavkasiuri erTiani saxelmwifoebriobis mSeneblobas regionis romelime oTxi saxelmwifos mTlianobis darRvevis xarjze”. “kavkasiis masStabiT, suverenul-centristuli
politikuri institutebis (“kavkasiuri parlamenti”,
“kavkasiuri sasamarTlo” da sxva struqturebi) Seqmna
saWiroa imdenad, ramdenadac es xels Seuwyobs kavkasiis eTnopolitikuri problemebis demokratiul daregulirebas” (4). aseTi meqanizmebis Seqmnamde ki saWiroa
kavkasiis yovel konkretul regionSi arsebuli konfliqtebisa da separatizmis TaviseburebaTa saTanado
Seswavla.
lokaluri eTnosTaSorisi konfliqtebi
CrdiloeT kavkasiaSi
zogadad, 90-iani wlebis dasawyisSi kavkasiaSi dawyebuli eTnoteritoriuli da eTnostatusTan dakavSirebuli winaaRmdegobebidan SeiZleba Semdegi problemebi gamovyoT:
“SafsuRebis sakiTxi”, romelic dakavSirebulia
1924-45 wlebSi arsebuli SafsuRebis erovnuli raionis
aRdgenis moTxovnasTan, centriT daba lazarevskaiaSi krasnodaris mxare (5). 1990-ian wlebSi Sedgenili proeqtiT, SafsuReTi teritoriulad moicavs iseT far110
glebs, romelzec dRes isini umniSvnelo umciresobas
warmoadgenen. es garemoeba aris erT-erTi ZiriTadi Semaferxebeli mizezi SafsuRebis erovnul-teritoriuli avtonomiis Seqmnis gzaze, Tumca ara mTavari. saqme
isaa, rom SafsuReTi ganlagebulia federaluri mniSvnelobis sakurorto zonaSi. garda amisa, amgvari “aRdgeniTi” precendentis gavrcelebisa da ganviTarebis
SiSi zRudavs adgilobriv samxareo xelisuflebas, daakmayofilos SafsuRebis moTxovna.
SafsuRTa teritoriis irgvliv Seqmnili problemis gamo, 1991 wels adiRes avtonomiuri olqi krasnodaris mxares gamoeyo da erovnuli respublikis statusi miiRo. aq respublikis saerTo mosaxleobis raodenobidan TiTqmis 68% rusia, adiRelebi ki - sul 22,5 %.
im raionebSi, romlebic ZiriTadad rusebiTaa dasaxlebuli, xSirad dgeba moTxovnebi krasnodaris mxaris
farglebSi maTi dabrunebis Taobaze.
konfliqturi situaciaa yaraCai-CerqezeTSi politikur-samarTlebriv statusTan (warmomadgenlobasTan) dakavSirebiT, rac respublikaSi arsebuli xuTi ZiriTadi eTnikuri jgufis _ yaraCaelebis, Cerqezebis, rusebis, abazebisa da noRaelebis pretenziebSi
gamoixateba. gaismis statusTan dakavSirebuli mTeli
rigi urTierTgamomricxavi moTxovnebi. magaliTad,
1990-iani wlebis dasawyisidan yaraCaelebi moiTxoven
calke yaraCauli respublikis Seqmnas (1943 wels arsebulis farglebSi), romelic kazakebiT dasaxlebul miwebsac moicavs. kazakTa organizaciebi moiTxoven TavianT “teritoriul TviTgamorkvevas”, romelic rusuli
avtonomiebis Seqmnas iTvaliswinebs (baTalpaSinisa da
zelenCuk-urupis respublikebis saxiT), an rusebiT dasaxlebuli raionebis mierTebas krasnodarisa da stavropolis mxareebTan. Cerqezebi, Tavis mxriv, moiTxoven
yaraCaelebisagan gamoyofas da calke avtonomiis Seqmnas. Tavis mxriv, abazebi da noRaelebi, romlebic ar
arian avtonomiis satitulo statusis mqoneni, ayeneben
moTxovnebs TavianTi erovnul-tertoriuli warmonaqmnebis CamoyalibebisaTvis. yovelive amasTan dakavSi111
rebiT, 1992 wels Catarda respublikuri referendumi,
ris Sedegadac kenWisyraSi monawileTagan 76%-ma xma
erTiani yaraCai-CerqezeTis respublikis SenarCunebas
misca. miuxedavad amisa, teritoriuli problemebi
dResac, 2010 wels, isev aqtualuri rCeba.
roca1990-92 wlebis yabardo-balyareTSi eTnikuri principiT, TiTqos, misi dayofis SesaZlo perpeqtiva Seiqmna, respublikaSi kristalizebas iwyebs yabardo-balyaruli teritoriuli winaaRmdegobebi. yabardoelebsa da balyarelebs Soris arsebuli pirobiTi
sazRvrebi TandaTan xdeba sazogadoebriv-politikuri
organizaciebis (erTi mxriv, yabardoeli xalxis kongresis da, meore mxriv, balyareli xalxis erovnuli
sabWosi) “istoriul-ideologiuri” metoqeobis obieqti. respublikis gayofis provocirebas axdenen proxladnisa da maiskis raionebis kazakebic, romlebic, situaciidan gamomdinare, ayeneben moTxovnebs am raionebis stavropolis mxaresTan mierTebis Sesaxeb.
rac Seexeba ori bilingvisturi respublikis (yabardo-balyareTisa da yaraCai-CerqezeTis) momavals,
isini 1990-iani wlebis revizionistuli proeqtebiT eTnolingvistur kriteriumTan arian dakavSirebulni,
rac gulisxmobs yaraCaul-balyaruli da adiRuri respublikebis Seqmnas - yabardos, CerqezeTisa da adiRes
SemadgenlobiT, SafsuRebis raionis mierTebiT.
cnobilia eTnoteritoriuli konfliqti inguSebsa da osebs Soris, romelic 1992 wlis Semodgomaze SeiaraRebul SetakebaSi gadaizarda. am dros inguSebi gamodiodnen calke erovnuli avtonomiis (respublikis)
Seqmnis moTxovniT. inguSebis sazogadoebriv-politikuri moZraoba, amave dros, iTxovda, rom inguSeTis
respublikas gadacemoda CrdiloeT oseTis SemadgenlobaSi myofi prigorodnisa da mozdokis raionebis nawilebi, romlebic adre, 1924-44 wlebSi, jer inguSeTis
avtonomiur olqSi, Semdeg ki CeCneT-inguSeTis assr-Si
Sedioda. inguSebis SeiaraRebuli dajgufebebis mcdelobas, Zalismieri meTodiT daekavebinaT prigorodnis
raioni, CrdiloeT oseTis miliciasTan da osur mosax112
leobasTan Setakeba mohyva, rac konfliqtis zonaSi federaluri armiis SeyvaniT dasrulda. “erTkviriani
omis” Sedegi, - wers a. cucievi, - gaxldaT 600 daRupuli
da 40 aTasze meti ltolvili, romelTa absolutur
umravlesobas CrdiloeT oseTSi mcxovrebi inguSebi
warmoadgendnen (6).
omi CeCneTSi. 1990-iani wlebis Rrma sistemurma
krizisma samxreT ruseTi federaluri xelisuflebis
dasustebamde da separatizmis zrdamde, eTnosTaSorisi urTierTobebis daZabvamde, SeiaraRebul konfliqtebamde da islamis droSas amofarebuli teroristuli moZraobebis gaaqtiurebamde miiyvana.
ruseTis saxelmwifo sistemis demokratizaciis
pirobebSi, roca mniSvnelovnad Sesustda federaluri
marTvis vertikali, zogierT Crdilokavkasiur respublikaSi, gansakuTrebiT ki CeCneTSi Tavi iCina separatizmma. aq movlenebi elviseburi siswrafiT ganviTarda: 1991 wels CeCneT-inguSeTis respublika inguSeTisa
da iCqeriis respublikebad daiSala, romelTa xelmZRvanelebad erovnuli moZraobis liderebi (joxar
dudaevi, ruslan auSevi) iqnen arCeuli. gawyda urTierTobebi federalur centrTan, erovnuli liderebi yvela sakiTxs adgilebze, sakuTari SexedulebiT wyvetdnen, xSirad ruseTis saxelmwifos interesebis sazianod. rasakvirvelia, moskovi Seecdeboda Tavisi kontrolis aRdgenas urC respublikebze da asec moxda:
daiwyo “ruseT-CeCneTis” pirveli omi (1994-96 wlebi).
kremli am oms “konstituciuri wesrigis aRdgenas”, xolo CeCnebi - “TavisuflebisaTvis brZolas” uwodebdnen. konfliqtma piks 1995 wlis zafxulSi miaRwia, roca saomarma moqmedebebma CeCneTis mTiani raionebic
moicva. samxedro eqspertebis azriT, federalur armias mkafio strategia da taqtika ar gaaCnda. ruseTis xelisuflebis araTanmimdevrulma moqmedebam, aseve budionovskis, yizlarisa da pervomaiskis teraqtebma
(1995-96 wlebSi) da maTma farTo saerTaSoriso rezonansma situacia mkveTrad Secvala - Sewyda “omi mTaSi”,
ramac amboxebul CeCen meomrebs saSualeba misca, barSi
113
gadajgufebisa da groznos aRebis operacia ganexorcielebinaT. yovelive amis Sedegad, 1996-97 wlebSi, jer
xasaviurtSi da Semdeg moskovSi, mebrZol mxareebs Soris xeli moewera sazavo SeTanxmebebs, rasac CeCneTidan ruseTis jarebis gasvla moyva.
1996 wlis agvistodan 1999 wlis agvistomde CeCneTis (iCqeriis) respublika damoukidebel, magram araaRiarebul saxelmwifos warmoadgenda. samwuxarod, iCqeriis sazogadoeba SidaCeCnuri konfliqtis gamo, dapirispirebul mxareebad daiSala - erTi mxriv, nacionalist-tradicionalistebad (aslan masxadovi, iCqeriis
meore prezidenti) da meore mxriv, neovahabitebad (zelimxan iandarbievi, Samil basaevi). CeCneTi, faqtobrivad, saerTaSoriso terorizmis poligonad gadaiqca,
sadac TavSesafars poulobdnen “cocxali saqonliT”,
narkotikebiTa da iaraRiT movaWreni, sxva juris saerTaSoriso avantiuristebi.
1999 wlis agvistoSi CeCneTis calkeuli savele meTaurebis mier, Crdilokavkasiuri vahabisturi droSiT, daRestnis respublikis winaaRmdeg SeiaraRebuli
agresia daiwyo. bunebrivia, federaluri centri iCqerieli nacionalist-vahabitebis amgvar antisaxelmwifoebriv gamoxdomas upasuxod ar datovebda - kremls
isedac gulze ar exateboda CeCneTis de-faqto damoukidebloba da Sesaferis moments eloda samagieros gadasaxdelad. Sesabamisad, CeCneTidan daRestanSi SeiaraRebuli razmebis SeWram ruseTis armiisaTvis meore
CeCnuri kampaniis dawyeba gamoiwvia, romelic, pirvelTan SedarebiT, federaluri jarebisTvis ufro Sedegiani aRmoCnda. saomari moqmedebebi, 1995 wlisagan gansxvavebiT, erTdroulad mravalveqtoruli Setevis xasiaTs atarebda. amgvar taqtikas CeCeni boevikebis erTmaneTisagan gaTiSva da ZiriTadi Zalebis damarcxeba
mohyva. ruseTis armiam grozno kvlav daikava da amboxebul CeCen meomarTa razmebi mTiani raionebisaken Seaviwrova. 2001 wels daiwyo CeCneTis ekonomikis, socialuri urTierTobebisa da politikuri sistemis ruseTis federaciaSi aRdgenis gzebis Zieba.
114
samwuxarod, dRes teroristuli omi met-naklebad
mTel CrdiloeT kavkasiaSia gavrcelebuli. am mxriv
gansakuTrebiT mZime mdgomareobaa daRestansa da inguSeTSi. sxvadasxva monacemebiT, teroristuli aqtebis
raodenoba organizebul danaSauls 40-50%-iT aRemateba. Zalze Semzaravi aRmoCnda 2005 wlis 13-14 oqtombers SeiaraRebuli teroristebis mier ganxorcielebuli masiur Tavdasxma yabardo-balyareTis dedaqalaq
nalCikze, romlis drosac asobiT adamiani daiRupa rogorc samarTaldamcavi da Zalovani struqturebis,
aseve Tavdamsxmelebis mxridan. ruseTis adamianTa uflebebis damcveli organizaciis “memorialis” SefasebiT kavkasiaSi terorizmTan brZolam terorizmi gaZlierebamde miiyvana”. es Sefaseba gakeTda 2009 wlis 20
oqtombers, parizSi, am organizaciis warmomadgenlebis Sexvedraze TavianT kolegebTan evrokavSirisa da
adamianis uflebaTa damcavi wamyvani saerTaSoriso
organizaciebidan. magaliTad, “memorialis” 2008 wlis
martis monacemebiT, inguSeTSi, zafxulis sami Tvis
ganmavlobaSi moklulia 29, daWrilia 75 `boeviki~;
TiTqmis igive mdgomareobaa CeCneTSi. amave dros, imata
inguSeTisa da CeCneTis Zalovani struqturebis danakargma, romelmac wina ori wlis erTad aRebuli raodenoba Seadgina. “memorialis” lideris aleqsandre Cerkasovis azriT, inguSeTSi 2009 wlis Semodgomaze arsebuli situacia Zalze axlo idga samoqalaqo omTan - erTi mxriv, respublikis Zalovan struqturebs da meore
mxriv, mosisxle SurismaZieblebs Soris (7).
ismis kiTxva: ratom aris mimarTuli teroristuli aqtebi CrdiloeT kavkasiaSi ZiriTadad Zalovani
struqturebis winaaRmdeg? raze keTdeba gaTvla - ukmayofilebaze xelisuflebis, gansakuTrebiT ki samarTaldamcavi organoebis qmedebebiT Tu raime sxvaze?
rasakvirvelia, am azvavebuli terorizmis mizezebis
Ziebisas ar SeiZleba ar miviRoT mxedvelobaSi klanebs
Soris mimdinare korufciuli konfliqtebis mniSvnelovani wilic, romelic sakuTrebis gadanawilebasTan,
mis kontrolTan da gavlenis sferoebis zonebTanaa
115
dakavSirebuli. jerjerobiT is politikuri faqtorebi, romlebic xels uwyoben teroristul aqtivobas, SenarCunebulia. samwuxarod, teroristuli safrTxis
Semcirebis imedi ar Cans.
amave dros, aRsaniSnavia is mciredi, magram mainc
dadebiTi faqti, rom adamianis uflebebis evropis sasamarTlos mier dRemde ganxilulia CeCneTisa da inguSeTis mosaxleobis ocdaCvidmeti saCivari, romlebic antiteroristuli operaciis dros dazaraldnen. yvela
saCivari, erTis garda, ganacxadis Semtanis, anu adgilobrivi mcxovrebis sasargeblodaa gadawyvetili….
konfliqtebi samxreT kavkasiaSi
mTiani yarabaRi. mTiani yarabaRi iuridiulad azerbaijanis saxelmwifos miekuTvneba, Tumca ZiriTadad somxebiTaa dasaxlebuli. Sesabamisad, aq mimdinare konfliqti eTnikuri kuTvnilebis niSniTaa ganpirobebuli.
somxebic da azerbaijanelebic mTian yarabaRs TavianTi erovnuli kulturis umniSvnelovanes kerad miiCneven: somexTa mtkicebiT, yarabaRis teritoria uZvelesi periodidan Sua saukuneebis CaTvliT arcaxis (xaCenis) provinciaSi - somxuri feodaluri samTavros
SemadgenlobaSi Sedioda, rac materialuri kulturis
uamravi ZegliT dasturdeba. amave dros, azerbaijanelebisaTvis mTiani yarabaRi erovnuli kulturisa da
mecnierebis samSoblod iTvleba. rac Seexeba qalaq SuSas, is azerbaijanuli samusiko kulturis ganviTarebis centrad miiCneva.
sabWoTa xelisuflebis pirvel wlebSi (1921-23)
mTiani yarabaRi azerbaijanis ssr sazRvrebSi moeqca,
rac somexi komunistebis azriT, didi Secdoma iyo. sainteresoa, rom mTiani yarabaRi sabWoTa xelisuflebis
wlebSic ki eTnikuri gansaxlebis sakmaod mkveTri geografiiT gamoirCeoda: mis CrdiloeT da dasavleT nawilSi (stefanakerti, Saumiani) ZiriTadad somxebi War116
bobdnen, samxreTsa da aRmosavleT nawilSi (SuSa, martini, gadruTi) - azerbaijanelebi.
sabWoTa kavSiris periodSi, roca sazogadoebrivi
procesebi xalxTa megobrobisa da internacionaluri
lozungebis qveS mimdinareobda, somxebsa da azerbaijanelebs ar SeeZloT Riad gamoexataT erTmaneTis mimarT mTian yarabaRTan dakavSirebuli pretenziebi.
arada, am sakiTxTan mimarTebiT maT Soris daZabuloba
Zveleburad rCeboda da ssrk arsebobis miwuruls
(1987-1991 wlebSi) igi azerbaijanelebsa da somxebs Soris dawyebul jer politikur dapirispirebaSi, Semdeg
ki SeiaraRebul konfliqtSi gamovlinda.
mTian yarabaRSi situacia kavkasiis sxva separatistuli regionebis msgavsad ganviTarda: 1988 wlidan
iwyeba erovnuli moZraoba, romelsac Tan axlavs somxebsa da azerbaijanelebs Soris mzardi dapirispireba.
ZiriTadad somxebiT dakompleqtebulma adgilobrivma
xelisuflebam 1988 wlis TebervalSi avtonomiuri olqis azerbaijanidan gamoyofisa da somxeTTan mierTebis survili gamoacxada. somxeTis ssr xelisufleba yarabaRelebis survils daTanxmda. amave periodSi mwvavdeba dapirispireba azerbaijanis sxva regionebSi - sumgaiTSi, baqoSi mcxovreb somxebTan mimarTebiT, rasac
darbevebi da didi msxverpli mohyva. imata devnilebis
nakadma orive mxares. situacia ver daaregulira moskovis mier SemoRebulma sagangebo mdgomareobam… madestabilizebeli procesebi 1990 wlisaTvis kidev ufro
gaRrmavda, daiwyo SeiaRarebuli dapirispireba, xolo
1991 wlis bolos, sabWoTa kavSiris daSlis Jams, viTareba sruliad umarTavi gaxda. somxeTma da azerbaijanma, faqtobrivad, mTiani yarabaRis gamo, erTmaneTTan
omi daiwyes, romelSic azerbaijani damarcxda. somxeTis daxmarebiT, mTiani yarabaRis SeiaraRebulma qvedanayofebma damatebiT kidev azerbaijanis Svidi raionis
- qelbajaris, laCinis, zangelanis, jebrailis, yubatlinis, agdamis, fizulis teritoria daikaves, romelic
dRemde okupirebuli aqvT. am raionebidan 350 aTasma
azerbaijanelma iZulebiT datova Tavisi saxl-kari.
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1994 wlis 12 maiss, saerTaSoriso Tanamegobrobis
CareviT, xeli moewera SeTanxmebas mxareebs Soris cecxlis Sewyvetis Sesaxeb. am droidan moyolebuli konfliqtis mxareebi, praqtikulad, erTmaneTisgan izolirebulni arian, Tu ar CavTvliT epizodur Sexvedrebs umaRles saxelisuflo doneze, “minskis procesis”
farglebSi.
1992 wels saerTaSoriso formatSi euTos e.w. “minskis jgufi” (TanaTavmjdomareebi - ruseTi, aSS) Suamdgomlobs konfliqtebis daregulirebis procesSi.
konfliqtSi mxareebis poziciebi exeba urTierTdakavSirebul problemebs. pirvel rigSi, esa okupirebuli
teritoriebis ganTavisufleba, mTiani yarabaRis statusis gansazRvra, komunikaciebis gaxsna, devnilebis
dabruneba da konfliqtis zonis socialur-ekonomikuri reabilitacia. samwuxarod, am drois manZilze, cecxlis Sewyvetis SeTanxmebis garda, am konfliqtTan dakavSirebuli arcerTi problema mogvarebuli ar aris.
2008 wlis 14 marts gaeros 62-e sesiaze miRebul
iqna deklaracia “azerbaijanis okupirebul teritoriebze mdgomareobis” Sesaxeb, romelSic dagmobilia
azerbaijanis teritoriebis okupacia da aRiarebulia
misi teritoriuli mTlianoba. 2008 wlis pirvel agvistos euTos `minskis jgufis” TanaTavmjdomarem gaaxmovana mTiani yarabaRis daregulirebis konfidencialuri dokumentis detalebi. rogorc meTiu braiza aRniSnavs, “Catardeba referendumi, romlis drosac TviTon
yarabaRelebi Camoyalibdebian da TviTon mTiani yarabaRis mosaxleoba gadawyvets - Seva Tu ara respublika
azerbaijanis iurisdiqciis qveS, an miiRebs damoukideblobas”. oficialuri baqo am proceduras ar uaryofs, magram acxadebs, rom yarabaRSi referendumi SesaZlebelia Catardes mxolod 15 an 20 wlis Semdeg.
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konfliqtebi saqarTveloSi
sabWoTa kavSiris daSlasTan erTad saqarTveloSi
- afxazeTsa da e.w. “samxreT oseTSi” (cxinvalis regionSi) 1990-iani wlebis dasawyisSi gaCaRebuli politikuri konfliqtebi Ria SeiaraRebul dapirispirebaSi gadaizarda.
konfliqti afxazeTSi. afxazeTis konfliqts mkafio eTnikuri gamoxatuleba aqvs. sabWoTa kavSiris
dros qarTuli da afxazuri politikuri elitebis sastatuso metoqeoba eTnikur argumentebs ukavSirdeboda: Tu rogor unda mowyobiliyo avtonomiuri xelisufleba, rogor unda ganawilebuliyo prestiJuli Tanamdebobebi, resursebi, rogori unda yofiliyo prioritetebi respublikis kulturisa da saganmanaTleblo sferoebSi. mxareebs Soris konfliqtis dawyebis win
samobilizacio resursi swored eTnikuroba gaxda. zemoT CamoTvlilma uTanxmoebam qarTvelebi da afxazebi
1992 wlis agvistoSi Seiararebul dapirispirebamde miiyvana. afxazeTis gakontrolebam qarTuli SearaRebuli formirebebis mier (regularuli armia mxolod yalibdeboda), rasac adgilobriv afxazTa SeiaraRebul
jgufebTan samxedro konfliqti da, Sesabamisad, cocxali Zalis didi msxverpli mohyva, afxaz-qarTvelTa
Soris didi ufskruli gaaCina. omma kidev erTi dramatuli Sedegi gamoiRo: 1993 wlis seqtemberSi, qarTuli
SeiaraRebuli Zalebis damarcxebis Sedegad, afxazeTi
TiTqmis 300 aTasma qarTvelma datova, romlebic iZulebiT gadaadgilebul, devnil mosaxleobad iqcnen.
afxazeTSi saomari moqmedebebi 1993 wlis 30 seqtembers dasrulda. afxazebma da ruseTis federaciis
Crdilokavkasielma “moxaliseebma” mTlianad daikaves
mdinare fsoudan enguramde arsebuli teritoria. faqtobrivad, saqarTvelos centraluri xelisuflebis
daqvemdebarebaSi mxolod mcire nawili - kodoris (dalis) xeoba darCa. 1994 wlis aprilidan 2008 wlis agvistomde aq ganlagebuli iyvnen damoukidebel saxelmwifoTa Tanamegobrobis egidiT Seqmnili samSvidobo Za119
lebi, romlebic mxolod ruseTis federaciis SeiaraRebuli Zalebis qvedanayofebiT iyo dakompleqtebuli. am drois manZilze rusi mSvidobismyoflebi, gaeros warmomadgenlebis monitoringis meSveobiT, maTze
dakisrebul samSvidobo funqcias asrulebdnen, Tumca
dapirispirebul qarTul da afxazur mxareebs Soris
undoblobis barieri ar gamqrala, piriqiT _ viTareba
sakmaod daZabuli iyo, xSirad xdeboda provokaciebi,
srolebi, adamianTa gatacebebi da sxv. magaliTad, 1998
wels galis raionSi ltolvilTa dabrunebis dros
mdgomareoba imdenad gamwvavda, rom kinaRam samxedro
moqmedebebi ganaxlda. situacia kidev erTxel gamwvavda 2003 wels, roca afxazeTSi pankisis xeobidan gadasuli CeCeni savele meTauri ruslan gilaevi da misi SearaRebuli razmi gamoCnda. afxaz separatistTa mtkicebiT, saqarTvelos xelisuflebam CeCenTa razmi afxazeTSi partizanuli omis gasaCaReblad gadaisrola. ra
Tqma unda, aseTi mwvave faqtebi mxareebs erTmaneTisagan kidev ufro aSorebda.
rac Seexeba konfliqtis mogvarebas: samwuxarod,
afxazuri da qarTuli mxareebis poziciebi erTmaneTisagan mkveTrad gansxvavdeboda. kerZod, es Seexeboda
rogorc afxazeTis saxelmwifoebriobis politikursamarTlebriv samomavlo statuss, aseve TviT konfliqtis mogvarebis prioritetebs: teritoriis statuss, devnilebis dabrunebas da maTi usafrTxoebis
gansazRvras. afxazebis moTxovnis Tanaxmad, jer respublikis statusi unda gansazRvruliyo saerTaSoriso doneze, Semdeg ki devnilebis dabruneba moxdeboda.
amgvari moTxovna ganpirobebuli iyo afxazeTSi qarTuli mosaxleobis dominirebis aRdgenis SiSiT, rac, separatistTa azriT, afxazeTis saxelmwifoebriobas daemuqreboda.
qarTuli mxaris pozicia aseTi iyo: devnili mosaxleobis mSobliur adgilebSi upirobod dabruneba, statusis problema ki SeiZleboda maTi dabrunebis procesis paralelurad an mis Semdeg ganxiluliyo. Tbilisi
am procesis gaWianurebas ruseTis mxares abralebda da
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rusi mSvidobismyoflebis saerTaSoriso samSvidobo
kontingentiT Canacvlebas iTxovda. am drois manZilze
konfliqtis mogvarebis bevri proeqti Seiqmna , romlebic, samwuxarod, ver ganxorcielda, maT Soris isic,
romelic saerTaSoriso Suamavlebis (“gaeros generaluri mdivnis megobarTa jgufis” da euTos) mier iqna
SemuSavebuli - e.w. “diter bodenis proeqti”. euTos
warmomadgenlis, erovnebiT germaneli diplomatis diter bodenis mier SemuSavebuli modeli kompromisuli
iyo da Semdeg CarCo-maxasiaTeblebs Seicavda: saqarTvelos teritoriuli mTlianobis aRiareba 1989 wlis
mdgomareobiT, afxazeTis aRiareba suverenul subieqtad saqarTvelos SemadgenlobaSi, gansakuTrebuli
statusiT, romelic federalur SeTanxmebaze iqneboda
damyarebuli. amave SeTanxmebiT ganisazRvreboda uflebebis gamijvna Tbilissa da soxums Soris, xolo
TviT SeTanxmebas sakonstitucio kanonis Zala eqneboda. garda amisa, iyo rusuli proeqti “saerTo saxelmwifos” Sesaxeb, konfederaciuli proeqti da ase Semdeg.
situaciam afxazeTSi Seurigebeli xasiaTi miiRo
imis gamoc, rom dapirispirebulma mxareebma geopolitikuri veqtorebis sxvadasxva mimarTulebebi airCies:
afxazebma qarTuli saxelmwifosagan distancirebisaTvis dasaxmareblad ruseTs mimarTes da masTan ekonomikur da politikur integracias Seecadnen. Tavis mxriv,
ruseTma afxazeTSi pasportizacia ganaxorciela da
“ruseTis moqalaqeebad” gadaqceuli afxazebi uvizo
reJimiT uzrunvelyo. es maSin, roca moskovma saqarTvelosTan 2001 wels mkacri savizo reJimi SemoiRo.
cxadia, valSi arc saqarTvelo darCa: Tbilisma natosa
da evrokavSirisaken integraciis gza airCia im imediT,
rom ruseTis poziciebi dasustdeboda da saqarTvelos
teritoriuli mTlianobis aRsadgenad xelsayreli pirobebi Seiqmneboda, afxazebs iZulebiT mSvidobis damyarebaze daiTanxmebdnen da devnilebi mSobliur adgilebSi dabrundebodnen.
konfliqti cxinvalis regionSi. pirveli e.w.qarTul-osuri konfliqti (1918-1920 wlebSi) saqarTvelos
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demokratiuli respublikis winaaRmdeg osebis mier
mowyobil ajanyebebs ukavSirdeba. maSin, roca axalgazrda damoukidebeli respublika saxelmwifoebrivi
struqturebis ganmtkicebas cdilobda, bolSevikebis
mier waqezebuli osi glexoba sabWoTa xelisuflebis
damyarebasa da ruseTis sabWoTa socialistur-federaciul respublikasTan (rsfsr) mierTebas moiTxovda.
1918 wlis ajanyeba SedarebiT naklebi danakargebiT iqna CaxSobili. gansakuTrebiT Zlieri da saSiSi iyo 1920
wlis ajanyeba, romlis drosac bolSevikebma cxinvalSi
revoluciuri komiteti (revkomi) Seqmnes da sabWoTa
xelisufleba gamoacxades. noe Jordanias mTavrobam
os glexobas brali bolSevikebTan TanamSromlobaSi
dasdo da 1920 wlis ivnis-ivlisSi sadamsjelo operacia Caatara. osuri wyaroebis Tanaxmad, daixoca da SimSiliTa da epidemiiT daiRupa xuTi aTasi osi, gawyda saqonlis 70% .
saqarTveloSi sabWoTa xelisuflebis damyarebis
Semdeg, 1922 wlis aprilSi Seiqmna samxreT oseTis avtonomiuri olqi, romelsac Sida qarTlis CrdiloeTi
nawili ekava. es teritoriul-administraciuli erTeuli bolSevikebma sruliad xelovnurad Camoayalibes,
qarTuli soflebis mosaxleobis mis SemadgenlobaSi
SeyvaniT.
qarTul-osuri dapirispirebis meore periodi iwyeba sabWoTa kavSiris arsebobis miwuruls, 1989-1990
wlebSi. 1988 wels Seiqmna osuri organizacia “adamon
nixasi” - erovnuli fronti, romlis iniciativiT cxinvalSi antiqarTuli gamosvlebi daiwyo. “adamon nixasis” waqezebiT, 1989 wlis 10 noembers samxreT oseTis
avtonomiuri olqis saxalxo deputatebis sabWom saqarTvelos ssr umaRles sabWos TxovniT mimarTa olqisaTvis avtonomiuri respublikis statusis miniWebis
Sesaxeb. am faqtma saqarTvelos xelisuflebis mwvave
reaqcia gamoiwvia. 1989 wlis 23 noembers qarTuli
erovnuli moZraobis mier mobilizebuli 15 aTasi qarTveli cxinvalisaken daiZra. qalaqis misadgomebTan
maT gza gadauRobes osma SeiaraRebulma pirebma da
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cxinvalSi dislocirebulma sabWoTa armiis qvedanayofebis jariskacebma. moxda sisxliani Setakeba: daiRupa
6 adamiani, 27-ma ki cecxlsasroli iaraRis gamoyenebis
Sedegad Wrilobebi miiRo.
1989 wlis 20 seqtembers, “samxreT oseTis” avtonomiuri olqis saxalxo deputatTa sabWom miiRo dadgenileba olqis “samxreT oseTis sabWoTa demokratiul
respublikad” gardaqmnis Sesaxeb. es gadawyvetileba
saqarTvelos ssr uzenaesi sabWos prezidiumma 21 seqtembers gaauqma.
amis miuxedavad, olqis saxalxo deputatTa sabWos
sesiam ZalaSi datova Tavisi gadawyvetileba, airCia e.w
“samxreT oseTis sabWoTa demokratiuli respublikis
aRmasrulebeli komiteti” da miiRo droebiTi debuleba uzenaesi sabWosa da adgilobrivi sabWoebis arCevnebis Sesaxeb. arCevnebi dainiSna 1990 wlis 2 dekembers.
amis sapasuxod, saqarTvelos uzenaesma sabWom 22 noembers miiRo dadgenileba olqis saxalxo deputatTa
sabWos gadawyvetilebis gauqmebis Taobaze. imave xanebSi saqarTveloSi Catarebul saparlamento arCevnebs
osebma boikoti gamoucxades da 9 dekembers sakuTari
saparlamento arCevnebi Caatares.
“dadgenilebaTa omma” kulminacias 1990 wlis 11
dekembers miaRwia - saqarTvelos axladarCeulma uzenaesma sabWom, zviad gamsaxurdias xelmZRvanelobiT,
ara marto gaauqma samxreT oseTSi Catarebuli saparlamento arCevnebis Sedegebi, aramed TviT avtonomiuri olqic da misi teritoria sxvadasxva raionebs Soris
gadaanawila. regionSi SemoRebul iqna sagangebo mdgomareoba.
konfliqtis SeaiarRebuli faza daiwyo 1991 wlis
ianvarSi, rodesac cxinvalSi ramdenime aTasiani qarTuli policia da naxevrad gasamxedroebuli molaSqreebi iqnen Seyvanili. quCis epizoduri brZolebi ramdenime Tve grZeldeboda, romelSic rusuli qvedanayofebic monawileobdnen.
1992 wlis dasawyisSi saqarTveloSi inspirirebuli samoqalaqo omi daiwyo, ramac, Tavis mxriv, Zlier
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daasusta centraluri xelisufleba da amiT xeli Seewyo osuri separatizmis gaZlierebas. sabolood konfliqtis SeiaraRebuli faza 1992 wlis 24 ivniss soWSi
(dagomisSi) ruseT-saqarTvelos Soris xelmowerili
SeTanxmebiT dasrulda. es dokumenti cecxlis Sewyvetasa da konfliqtis mogvarebas iTvaliswinebda. samSvidobo procesis ganviTarebis mizniT, Camoyalibda
Sereuli sakontrolo komisia saqarTvelos, ruseTis,
samxreT da CrdiloeT oseTis warmomadgenelTa SemadgenlobiT. regionSi Semoyvanil iqna agreTve rusuli
samSvidobo Zalebic.
sxvaTa Soris, am komisiis saqmianoba efeqturi gamodga. 2004 wlisaTvis cxinvalis regionSi wina periodSi arsebuli eTnosTaSorisi daZabuloba TiTqmis damcxrali iyo. aRdgenili iyo saavtomobilo moZraoba
cxinvals, gorsa da Tbiliss Soris, aqtiurad funqcionirebda msxvili sasaqonlo bazroba sofel ergneTSi,
romliTac osebic da qarTvelebic warmatebiT sargeblobdnen. Tumca aqve unda iTqvas, rom ergneTis bazroba aralegalur xasiaTs atarebda, maragdeboda kontrabandiT, Semosuli da gayiduli saqonlis aRricxva ar
xdeboda da saqarTvelos biujeti mniSvnelovnad zaraldeboda. konfliqtis sabolood daregulirebas xeli SeuSala ruseTis mier cxinvalis regionSi Catarebulma “pasportizaciam”, romlis Semdeg osi mosaxleobis absoluturi raodenoba ruseTis moqalaqe gaxda.
iseve, rogorc afxazeTTan mimarTebiT, 2001 wels ruseTis mier saqarTvelosTan SemoRebuli savizo reJimi”
samxreT oseTis” mosaxleobaze ar vrceldeboda, isini
rokis saavatomobilo gvirabis meSveobiT ruseTSi dabrkolebis gareSe miemgzavrebodnen.
amrigad, saerTaSorisod aRiarebuli saqarTvelos sazRvrebisa da teritoriis SemadgenlobaSi arsebuli “samxreT oseTi”, faqtobrivad, ruseTis proteqtoratad iqca.
miuxedavad imisa, rom daZabulobis done SesamCnevad iyo daweuli, konfliqtis mxareebis pozicia regionis statusTan dakavSirebiT kompromisuli modelisagan
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mainc Sors iyo. saqarTvelos xelisuflebis poziciis Tanaxmad, cxinvalis regionSi araviTari erovnul-administraciuli erTeuli aRar arsebobda. osebs ki miaCndaT,
rom maTi saxelmwifoebrioba ukve faqtia da samxreT oseTis respublikis arsebobas saqarTvelom angariSi unda
gauwios. garda amisa, cxinvaleli separatistebi, imis SiSiT, rom maT damoukideblobas safrTxe emuqreboda, ar
gamoricxavdnen ruseTTan integracias da egreT wodebuli “ori oseTis” - CrdiloeTisa da samxreTis gaerTianebas, ruseTis federaciis SemadgenlobaSi, rac saqarTvelos teritoriul mTlianobas safrTxes Seuqmnida.
amrigad, yovelive zemoTqmuli afxazeTisa da
cxinvalis regionTan dakavSirebiT, saqarTveloSi 2008
wlis agvistomde Seqmnil eTnopolitikur situacias
asaxavs. saqarTvelo-ruseTs Soris 2008 wlis agvistoSi
momxdar xuTdRian omSi saqarTvelo damarcxda. samwuxarod, omis Sedegad saqarTvelom afxazeTisa da cxinvalis is regionebic dakarga, romelsac akontrolebda
(afxazeTSi - kodoris xeoba, cxinvalis regionSi - axalgoris raioni). 2008 wlis agvistoSive ruseTis federaciam afxazeTisa da “samxreT oseTis” damoukidebloba
de-iured aRiara, mogvianebiT ki igive gaakeTa nikaraguam, venesuelam da wynari okeanis kunZulovanma jujasaxelmwifo naurum. ramdenad warmatebuli aRmoCndeba
afxazi da osi separatistebis mcdelobebi saerTaSoriso arenaze (ra Tqma unda, ruseTis daxmarebiT), amas
dro gviCvenebs, magram, samwuxarod, cxadia, rom saqarTvelos kavkasiur politikas ziani miadga.
kavkasiis geopolitika
2008 wlis agvistos ruseT-saqarTvelos omma gviCvena, rom destabilizaciis gamomwvev faqtorebs Soris
yvelaze mniSvnelovani sagareo politikuri sakiTxia.
kavkasia gasuli saukuneebidan moyolebuli, dResac geopolitikuri TamaSis obieqtia. daZabuli da
arastabiluri kavkasia, romelsac Tavisi sakuTari Si125
da teritoriuli da socialur-ekonomikuri problemebi gaaCnia, gare Zalebis CarevisaTvis friad noyier
regions warmoadgens. zbignev bJezinskis gegma-prognozi ara marto winaswarmetyvelebs arastabulirobas
ruseTis samxreTi sazRvrebis perimetrze, aramed es
prognozi, faqtobrivad, gamarTlda.
aleqsandre dugini da sxva rusi eqspertebi Tvlian, rom amerikuli finansuri eqspansiis veqtori zustad isea mimarTuli regionSi, rogorc z.bJezinskim
gansazRvra _ “Zaladobis gavrcelebis msoflio zona”.
es investiciebi, maTi azriT, mimarTulia proamerikulad ganwyobili saxelmwifoebis sartyelis Sesaqmnelad da postsabWoTa sivrcidan ruseTis gasadevnad (8).
situacia rTuldeba imiTac, rom amJamad ruseTisa
da aSS garda, kavkasiis geopolitikis uSualo moTamaSeebad gvevlinebian TurqeTi, irani, saqarTvelo, somxeTi, azerbaijani da evrokavSiri. TiToeul maTgans
regionSi Tavisi interesebi amoZravebs.
amave dros, sagulisxmoa amerikis SeerTebuli
Statebis axali prezidentis barak obamas 2009 wlis
moskovuri vizitis dros gakeTebuli gancxadeba ruseTTan urTierTobis gaumjobesebis mizniT vaSingtonis mzaobis Taobaze (“erTad vaSenoT axali msoflio”).
TeTr saxlsa da kremls Soris dawyebuli, msoflioSi
popularulad qceuli “gadatvirTvis” politika yvela
sferoSi urTierTTanamSromlobas iTvaliswinebs, maT
Soris, Tanamedrove problemebisa da gamowvevebis mimarTac. am kurss amerikeli eqspertebic eTanxmebian:
cnobili politologi rebert legvoldi aRniSnavs,
rom prezident barak obamas administraciam “ruseTTan
sayovelTao strategiuli dialogi unda daamyaros”
(9).
am mxriv sainteresoa zbignev bJezinskis mier 2009
wlis oqtomberSi gamoqveynebuli werilic (10), romelSic igi natos, koleqtiuri usafrTxoebis xelSekrulebis organizacias (“odkb”) (11) da Sanxais TanamSromlobis organizacias (“Sos”) (12) Soris TanamSromlobis
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xelSekrulebis dadebis aucileblobaze mianiSnebs.
garda amisa, amerikeli politologi iqve aRniSnavs,
rom nato dausruleblad ver iqneba gafarToebuli: misi azriT, “msoflio natos Camoyalibeba imis maniSnebeli iqneba, rom amerikul-evropul mTavar RerZs Ziri
eTxreba”.
TurqeTisa da iranis faqtorebi
panTurqizmis (13) idea (ganmarteba da misi warmoSobis istoria mokled sqolioSi) obieqtur safuZvels
eyrdnoba. kavkasiaSi mravali Turqulenovani xalxi
cxovrobs: azerbaijanelebi, yumuxebi, noRaelebi, balyarelebi da sxvebi. maTgan, praqtikulad, yvelas aqvs
erovnuli saxelmwifoebrioba, Tumca, samwuxarod, aseve yvela maTgans mezoblebTan - somxebTan, yabardoelebTan, CerqezebTan _ eTnoteritoriuli problemebi
aqvT. noRaelebisaTvis mtkivneul sakiTxad rCeba erTiani administraciul-teritoriuli warmonaqmnis arqona (isini daRestnis SemadgenlobaSi Sedian), romelic
Tu Seiqmneboda CrdiloeT kavkasiaSi “gafantulad”
mcxovreb Tanamemamuleebs gaaerTianebda. yumuxebisaTvis eTno-teritoriuli sakiTxi gansakuTrebiT
mwvavea, radgan, rogorc zemoT vTqviT, maT istoriul
miwebze daRestnis mTebidan migrirebuli mosaxleobaa
Casaxlebuli.
CrdiloeT kavkasiaSi panTurqizmi, tradiciulad,
TurqeTze orientirebul Cerqez (adiRe) nacionalistebs eyrdnoba, miT umetes, rom TviT TurqeTSi erT milionze meti Cerqezi “muhajiri” cxovrobs. isini XIX saukuneSi ruseTis mier warmoebuli kavkasiuri omebis
Sedegad iZulebuli gaxdnen, samSoblo daetovebinaT.
dRes TurqeTSi adiRebi TiTqmis orjer metia, vidre
CrdiloeT kavkasiaSi.
gasaTvaliswinebelia isic, rom astraxanis olqSi,
romelic samxreT ruseTis federaluri olqis (CrdiloeT kavkasiis) SemadgenlobaSi 2000 wels Sevida da sa127
sazRvro teritorias warmoadgens, Turqulenovani
jgufis xalxebi (yazaxebi, TaTrebi, azerbaijanelebi)
raodenobrivad meore adgilze myof enobriv jgufs
(slavebis Semdeg) warmoadgens.
TurqeTis faqtori postsabWour kavkasiaSi araerTgvarovnad vlindeba. erTi mxriv, ruseTsa da TurqeTs Soris urTierTsasargeblo TanamSromloba viTardeba (energoSemcvelebis ruseTidan TurqeTSi eqsporti gazsaden “cisferi nakadis” meSveobiT, turizmi
da ase Semdeg). meore mxriv, 1990-iani wlebis dasawyisSi
TurqeTis politikuri elita cdilobda, postsabWoTa
kavkasiaSi e.w. “Turquli sivrce” Seeqmna. im dros iqna
reaminirebuli “didi Turanis” ideac (centraluri
aziis xalxebze TurqeTis politikur-ekonomikuri da
kulturuli gavlenis gaZliereba), magram ankaras amisaTvis Zalebi aSkarad ar eyo.
rac Seexeba iranis faqtors kavkasiaSi, SeiZleba
iTqvas, rom Teiranis interesebi erTmniSvnelovnad
ruseTis interesebs pasuxobs. dRes irani dasavleTis
qveynebisagan damoukidebel politikas atarebs. irani
somxeTis mezobelia da, Sesabamisad, samxreT kavkasiaSi
ruseTis strategiul partnior somxeTs Teirani aqtiurad amaragebs mza saqonliT da energoresursebiT.
amasTan erTad, iranis samxedro Zliereba da xelisuflebis agresiuli ritorika kavkasiis regions garkveul
safrTxes uqmnis. amasTan, unda gaviTvaliswinoT, rom
Tu iranis winaaRmdeg dasavleTi ekonomikur sanqciebs
SemoiRebs da, ufro uaresi, samxedro moqmedebebs daiwyebs, amgvar nabijebs regionis usafrTxoebis sistemis ueWveli ngreva mohyveba.
geopolitikuri prognozirebisas didi mniSvenloba aqvs kavkasiis regionTan axlos mdebare qurTistanis problemas, romelsac Zalian xSirad iyeneben TavianTi interesebisaTvis rogorc dasavleTis saxelmwifoebi, aseve axlo da Sua aRmosavleTis qveynebi. istoriuli qurTistani dRes teritoriulad irans,
erays da TurqeTs Sorisaa danawilebuli, qurTebis saerTo raodenoba ki daaxloebiT 20 milions Seadgens
128
(TurqeTSi - 10 mln., eraySi - 3 mln., iranSi - 5 mln.). am
qveynebSi qurTTa saxelmwifoebriobis (politikur-administraciuli avtonomiis) problema jerjerobiT sabolood gadaWrili ar aris. amJamad rogorc axlo da
Sua aRmosavleTis qveynebSi, aseve dasavleT evropis
saxelmwifoebSi, moqmedebs qurTTa 40-mde politikuri
organizacia, romelTa Soris calkeuli partiebi politikur brZolaSi teroristul meTodebsac mimarTaven.
qurTebis mier sakuTari saxelmwifos Seqmnis mcdelobas didi xnis istoria aqvs. adre maT brZolas mxars
sabWoTa kavSiri uWerda, dRes ki amgvari mxardaWera ruseTis federaciis interesebSi ar Sedis. moskovma rom
qurTebTan TanamSromloba daiwyos, amiT situacias mis
samxreT sazRvrebTan axlos mkveTrad gaamwvavebs.
saqarTvelo-ruseTis urTierTobis
problemebi
saqarTvelo _ ruseTis urTierTobebi postsabWoTa periodSi ucvlelad daZabuli xasiaTs atarebs.
saqarTvelo orientirebulia dasavleTze da cdilobs
Crdiloatlantikur aliansSi (natoSi) gawevriandes,
mWidro kavSirebi hqondes evrokavSirTan. am mizniT
Tbilisi ganamtkicebs samxedro _ politikur kavSirebs amerikis SeerTebul StatebTan. garda amisa, miaRwia imas, rom ruseTma saqarTvelodan Tavisi samxedro
bazebi gaiyvana.
oficialurma Tbilisma 2008 wlis agvistos dasawyisSi gadadga radikaluri nabiji _ Seecada, rom osi
separatistebis kontrolqveS arsebuli cxinvalis regioni samxedro Zalis meSveobiT daeqvemdebarebina da
konstituciuri wesrigi aRedgina. rogorc cnobilia,
cxinvalSi rusuli samSvidobo kontingenti iyo ganlagebuli, xolo mosaxleobas rusul pasportebi aqvs, anu
isini “ruseTis moqalaqeebi” arian. es faqti ruseTis
xelmZRvanelobam Tavis sasargeblod gamoiyena, qarTuli armiis qvedanayofebis cxinvalze Seteva “ruseTis
129
moqalaqeebis” uflebebis xelyofad monaTla da saqarTveloSi, rokis gvirabis gavliT, CrdiloeT kavkasiis
samxedro olqis qvedanayofebi, mZime teqnika da aviacia
Semoiyvana. msofliom dainaxa, rom ruseTi Tavis forpostebs samxreT kavkasiaSi ase advilad ar daTmobs.
msofliom isic dainaxa, rom saqarTvelos mosaxleoba,
miuxedavad gansxvavebuli poziciebisa , erTiani iyo
ruseTis winaaRmdeg.
xuTdRianma sisxlismRvrelma omma orive mxares
mniSvnelovani danakargebi moutana, gansakuTrebiT ki
saqarTvelos: daiRupa da daiWra asobiT samxedro mosamsaxure da mSvidobiani mosaxleoba, ganadgurda materialuri dovlaTi, samxedro qoneba da SeiaraReba.
rac mTavaria, saqarTvelos xelisuflebam dakarga kontroli axalgoris raionze (cxinvalis regionSi) da kodoris xeobaze (afxazeTi). moxda ufro uaresi: ruseTis
federaciam afxazeTisa da samxreT oseTis damoukidebloba iuridiulad aRiara, riTac daarRvia saerTaSoriso samarTlis normebi.
am droidan kavkasiaSi Seqmnili viTareba, eqspertTa azriT, “axal geopolitikur situacias” warmoadgens. somxeTis respublikis erovnuli krebis (parlamentis) yofili Tavmjdomare (2006-2008 wlebSi), politologi tigran torosiani Tvlis, rom ruseT _ saqarTvelos omis Sedegebi, rogori paradoqsulic ar unda
iyos, am movlenis yvela monawiles akmayofilebs, kerZod, a)saqarTvelo “ganTavisuflda” afxazeTisa da samxreT oseTisagan _ maTTan konfliqtebis mogvarebis
Cixuri mdgomareba Tbiliss xels uSlida natoSi gawevrianebisaTvis; b)ruseTma “miiRo” afxazeTi da samxreT
oseTi, amiT gaakeTa ganacxadi Tavis axal rolze saerTaSoriso procesebSi; g) amerikis SeerTebulma Statebma, kavkasiaSi Tavis srulfasovani damkvidrebisaTvis, “miiRo” axali saqarTvelo, romelic aRar aris “gayinuli konfliqtebiT damZimebuli” (14).
qarTuli mxare da, masTan erTad, saerTaSoriso
Tanamegobroba axal geopolitikur status-qvos ar
cnobs da miiCnevs, rom Tavis teritoriul mTlianobas
130
aRidgens. Tu rogori iqneba es gza, amas dro gviCvenebs,
magram manamde kavkasiaSi “moTamaSe” Zalebma kompromisi unda gamonaxon maT mierve aRiarebul urTierTwinaaRmdegobriv principebs _ qveynis teritoriuli
mTlianobis dacvisa da erTa TviTgamorkvevis uflebebs Soris.
sanam es problema gadaiWreba, msoflioSi dRes
Seqmnili geopolitikuri mdgomareobidan gamomdinare
(mxedvelobaSi gvaqvs aSS _ ruseTis urTierTobis
daTboba), aucilebelia ruseT _ saqarTvelos Soris
gawyvetili diplomatiuri urTierTobebis aRdgena da
TanamSromlobis ganaxleba. es saSualebas miscems qarTul mxares, awarmoos pirdapiri dialogi afxazeTisa
da cxinvalis regionis separatistTa liderebTan. saqarTvelo _ ruseTis urTierTobebis aRdgenis SemTxvevaSi, SesaZlebeli gaxdeba moixsnas ruseTis “eWvebi”, TiTqosda saqarTvelo CrdiloeT kavkasiaSi situaciis destabilizebas gegmavs (regionuli mauwyeblobis
mqone axali telearxebis SeqmniTa da masobrivi informaciis sxva saSualebebis gamoyenebiT).
ruseT_saqarTvelos urTierTobebis daTboba da,
paralelurad, aSS-sa da evrokavSiris saxelmwifoebis
TanamSromloba samxreT kavkasiaSi mxolod im SemTxvevaSi SeiZleba iyos efeqturi, Tu moxdeba SeTanxmeba
regionuli ekonomikuri TanamSromlobis sferoSi: ruseTi ki ar unda Camoacilon satransporto _ sakomunikacio proeqtebs (kerZod, navTob- da gazsadenebi), aramed aqtiurad unda CarTon “kavkasiuri derefnis” amocanaTa realizebaSi (igulisxmeba integracia kavkasiur
“aRmosavleT _ dasavleTisa” da “CrdiloeT _ samxreTis” ekonomikur marSrutebSi da saerToregionuli infrastruqturebis SeqmnaSi).
131
daskvna
kavkasiis problematikis Seswavlam kidev erTxel
dagvanaxa, rom am regionSi, uZvelesi droidan dRemde,
faqtobrivad, Tavs iyris rogorc lokaluri, aseve
globaluri mniSvnelobis sakiTxebi. istoriam isic
gviCvena, rom maTi efeqturad gadaWra mxolod mSvidobiani, kulturul _ civilizaciuri dialogiTaa SesaZlebeli.
kavkasia _ “evraziis mzis wnuli” - uZvelesi droidan acvifrebda ucxoel mkvlevrebsa da mogzaurebs
Tavisi bunebis silamaziTa da mravalferovnebiT, polieTnikurobiTa da polikonfesiurobiT. ar iqneba gadaWarbebuli, Tu vityviT, rom Cveni kavkasia “dedamiwaze arsebuli mikromsoflioa”. aq mcxovrebma xalxebma
ganvles gza paleokavkasiuri eTnokulturuli erTobidan kulturul _ civilizaciur mTlianobamde. kavkasiis eTnosebma Seqmnes sakuTari damwerlobebi, msoflio mniSvnelobis kulturuli Sedevrebi, Camoayalibes kavkasiuri Tanacxovrebis modeli, gaaerTianes regioni zogadkavkasiuri saxelmwifos SeqmniT, didi
wvlili Seitanes msoflio civilizaciis ganviTarebaSi
_ rogorc materialur-teqnikur da sasoflo-sameurneo, aseve inteleqtualur sferoSi.
kavkasiis xalxTa tradiciuli socialur _ ekonomikuri kavSirebiT iqmneboda urTierTdakavSirebuli
da urTierTdamokidebuli regionuli ekonomika da saerTo zeerovnuli Rirebulebebi. swored amgvari faseulobebis gaziareba da maTi Semdgomi gaTaviseba qmnida
kavkasiur identobas. kavkasiuri civilizaciis qvakuTxeds unikaluri kavkasiuri sakomunikacio kultura
warmoadgenda, romelic dResac muSaobs da Tanamedrove kavkasielis “mobilizebuli” tipis adamianSi gamoixateba: igi mudmivad mzadaa “moqmedebisaTvis”, imavdroulad, “diplomatiurobasac” amJRavnebs. kavkasielis sakomunikacio kultura dafuZnebulia informaciis gacvlaze, dialogze, rac dRes, globalizaciis
pirobebSi, qmediT Zalad miiCneva.
132
uwin, Zvel saqarTveloSi (da saerTod, mTlianad
kavkasiaSi), stumarTmoyvareobis wesTan dakavSirebiT
ityodnen xolme - “stumari RvTisaao”. stumarsa da maspinZels Soris informaciis gacvlis Sedegad, Tu isini
siaxleebs TavianTi cxovrebis praqtikaSi danergavdnen, maTi yofa sikeTisaken icvleboda….
dRes kavkasielis tradiciuli moralur _ eTikuri, zneobrivi faseulobebis axleburi Seswavla, meTodologiuri pluralizmis safuZvelze, axal SesaZleblobebs Seqmnis sazogadoebis remoralizaciis TvalsazrisiT. kavkasielebi didxans iyvnen mowyvetilni
cxovrebis sakuTar niadags. warsulSi ganxorcielebuli da dResac mimdinare kavkasiuri sazogadoebis modernizaciis iseTi procesi, roca is sakuTar fesvebsa
da niadagsaa mowyvetili, regionis ganviTarebisTvis
zianis momtanic SeiZleba iyos. amgvari situacia xels
uSlis kavkasielis bunebriv mdgomareobas, romelic
Tavisuflebisa da demokratiisaken swrafvaSi gamoixateba.
133
SeniSvnebi da wyaroebi
Tavi I
1. Руткевич М.Н. Общество как система. СПБ. 2001
2. Studgartis universitetis profesorma h.hakenma (Herman Haken) sinergetikis problemebs ramdenime
fundamenturi naSromi miuZRvna, maT Soris ori wigni
saxelwodebiT „sinergetika” (gamoica moskovSi 1980 da
1985 wels, gamomcemloba “mir”-is mier). meore wignSi avtori xazs usvams sinergetikis disciplinaTaSoris xasiaTs, mis kavSirs sabunebismetyvelo mecnierebebTan.
herman hakenis azriT, yoveli maTgani erToblivad swavlobs sistemebis droebiT evolucias.
3. bifurkacia (bifurkus – laT. gaorebuli): bifurkaciis faqtebs zRaprebSic vxvdebiT: magaliTad, roca
raindi gzajvaredinze, qvasTan Cafiqrebuli dgas, radgan qvaze arsebuli warwera, arCevanis SemTxvevaSi, mis
Semdgom beds ganapirobebs. bifurkaciuli movlenebi
adamianTa cxovrebaSi SeumCnevelia, magram realuri.
4. ix. Тоффлер О. Наука и изменение (предисловие) //
Пригожин И. Стенгерс И. Порядок из хаоса. Изд-во «Прогресс»,
М.1986, с.18. am wignSi erT-erTi avtori ilia prigoJini
(warmoSobiT rusi belgieli, 1977 wlis nobelis premiis
laureati naSromisaTvis “arawonasworobadi sistemebis Termodinamika”) ganmartavs TviTorganizaciis Teoriis istoriul wanamZRvrebs da msoflmxedvelobiT
safuZvlebs.
5. Пригожин И., Стенгерс И. Время. Хаос. Изд-во «Квант»,
М.2000. с.52-53.
6. Пригожин И., Стенгерс И. Порядок из хаоса. с.28. avtorebis azriT, bifurkaciidan gamosvla moxdeba axali bazisuri struqturebis, faseulobebis da qcevis
normebis safuZvelze.
7. Бранский В.П., Пожарский С.Д. Глобализация и
синергетическая философия истории. «Общественные науки и
современность», 2006, №1, с.109-112.
134
8. ufro vrclad socialuri sinergetikis ideebis
Sesaxeb Tanamedrove kavkasiis modernizaciis pirobebSi ix. naSromSi: j.kviciani. socialuri sinergetika da
kavkasiis transformacia // kavkasiis eTnografiuli
krebuli, X, Tb.2007.
9. Введение в философию. М.2004, с.498-499.
10. am Teoriis mimdevrebi miiCneven, rom kacobriobis civilizaciuri ganviTarebis safexurebis periodizacias ganapirobebs mniSvnelovani teqnologiuri
ganviTarebis epoqebi da, Sesabamisad, adamianis gonebis
ganviTareba, romlebic erTmaneTisagan teqnologiuri
revoluciebiT gamoiyofa. esenia:
- arqauli epoqa, sadac gavrcelebuli iyo nadiroba, meTevzeoba da Semgrovebloba, xdeboda mza produqciis miTviseba. am epoqaSi adamianis azrovnebis dominanturi matricaa arqaul-miTiuri;
- agraruli epoqa Camoyalibda neoliTuri revoluciis Semdeg, me-7 - me-3 aTaswleulSi. nadiroba da
Semgrovebloba Secvala mesaqonleobam da miwaTmoqmedebam, ramac mosaxleobis swrafi zrda gamoiwvia. Sesabamisad, mosaxleobis zrdam sursaTis dagroveba da
pirveli saxelmwifoebis warmoqmna uzrunvelyo. am
dros adamianis gonebaSi mkvidrdeba religiuri dominanturi matrica;
- industriuli epoqa daiwyo XVII - XVIII s.s. samrewvelo revoluciis Sedegad, rac sxvadasxva manqanebis
gamogonebas niSnavda. es, Tavis mxriv, adamianis Sromis
nayofierebas zrdida, Sesabamisad, kvlav matulobda
mosaxleobis raodenoba da amiT safuZveli eyreboda
masobriv urbanizms. adamianis azrovnebaSi religiebis
dominireba racionalizmiT icvleba;
- postindustriuli sazogadoeba industriulis
logikuri gagrZelebaa. am dros warmoebaSi udides
rols da adgils ikavebs adamianis codna, inteleqti da
mis gonebaSi prioriteti integralur azrovnebas eniWeba.
135
11. Розов Н.С. Структура социальной антологии: по пути к
синтезу макроисторических парадигм // «Вопросы философии»,
№2, 1999.
12. Страда В. Глобализация и история // «Новая и
новейшая история», №6, 2006.
13. Квициани Дж. Вновь о цели истории // “kavkasiis
macne”, #16, 2007, gv.59.
14. Гуревич А.Я. Проблемы средневековой культуры //
«Проблемы эпохи средневековья. Вып.3, М.1998. с.64.
15. Верцель К., Ингельхарт Р. Развитие ведет к демократии
// «Россия в глобальной политике», №3, 2009.
16. iqve.
136
Tavi II
1. ix. Гаджиев К.С. Геополитика Кавказа. М.,2001, с.11
2. l.maruaSvili. kavkasiis fizikuri geografia.
Tb., 1981.
3. Народы Кавказа. Т.1, М.,1960, с.10.
4. История народов Северного Кавказа с древнейших
времен до конца XVIII века. М.,1988, с.21.
5. Народы Кавказа. Т.1, М.,1960, с.10-12.
6. kavkasia, 2001-2003 w.w. monacemebiT, 60 mln. adamianiTaa dasaxlebuli, aqedan Crdilo kavkasiaSi - 43
mln. da samxreT kavkasiaSi - 17 mln. adamiani. dRes aq
mcxovrebi mosaxleoba calkeuli enobrivi ojaxebis mixedviT aris danawilebuli: 1. iberiul-kavkasiuri ojaxi (qarTveluri; afxazur-adiRuri jgufi; naxuri, daRestnuri); 2. indoevropuli ojaxi (slavebi, somxebi,
osebi, qurTebi, TaTebi, TaliSebi, berZnebi); 3. alTauri ojaxi (azebaijanelebi, yumuxebi, noRaelebi, yaraCaelebi, balyarelebi, Turqmenebi, TaTrebi, yalmuxebi);
4. semitur-qamituri ojaxi (asurelebi, ebraelebi).
7. Кантария М.В. Экологические аспекты традиционной
хозяйственной культуры народов Северного Кавказа. Тб., 1989.
8. ix. Гуриев Т. Из жемчужин Востока: Авеста.
Владикавказ, 1993. rogorc avtori aRniSnavs, «особое
место в учении Заратуштры занимает гора Березабти,
отождествляемая с Альбурзом или Эльбрусом наших дней.
Вершина этой горы является, по традиции, центром
мироздания. Это благословенное место, не знающее тьмы,
болезней, даже плохой погоды. И не случайно, что над этой
горой располагается обитель бога Митры. Души безгрешных
попадали в небеса через мост Чинват «Избранный путь».
Одним концом мост упирается в эту гору».
9. Жданов Ю.А. Солнечное сплетение Евразии. Майкоп,
1999. am wignSi avtori kavkasias evraziis “mzis wnulad”
miiCnevs da wers: «У горы Ницир корабль остановился / гора
137
Ницир корабль удержала». Очевидно, что гора Ницир – это
библейский Арарат, к которому пристал Ной. Именно здесь, по
Библии, Ной начал возделывать землю и насадил виноградники.
На Кавказе рождена культура вина как форма общения людей,
сплетенная речью, тостами, песней, танцем. Известное во всем
мире слово «Тамада» переводится только с языков Кавказа.
10. vaxtang SamilaZe. qarTvel da ucxoel mogzaur-mkvlevarTa eTnologiuri cnobebi kavkasiis xalxebis Sesaxeb. Tb., 2001. gv.5.
11. Жданов Ю.А. dasaxelebuli naSromi. gv.9.
12 .Джапаридзе О. На заре этнокультурной истории
Кавказа. Тб., 1989.
13. Федоров Я.А. Историческая этнография Северного
Кавказа. М., 1983, с.27.
14. malxaz abduSeliSvili. daskvniTi sityva.
Tb.,2004. gv.13.
15. gaz.“saqarTvelos respublika”, 16 seqtemberi,
2008
16. Шнирельман В.А. Войны памяти. Мифы, идентичность
и политика в Закавказье. М.,2003, с.35
17. Шанидзе А. Язык и письмо кавказских албанцев
Тбилиси, 1960; История Азербайджана. Баку, 1995, с.144
18. История Дагестана с древнейших времен до наших
дней. Т.1. М., 2004, с.159
19. История Кабардино-Балкарии. Нальчик, 1995, с.42
20. История Дагестана с древнейших времен до наших
дней, т.1, Москва, 2004, с.164
21. Дмитриев В.А. Кавказ как историко-культурный
феномен // Россия и Кавказ. СПБ, 2003, с.88
138
Tavi III
1. История Дагестана с древнейщих времен до наших
дней. Москва, 2004. Т.1, с.278.
2. История народов Северного Кавказа с древнейших
времен до конца XVIII в. Москва, 1988, с..173
3. Лавров Л.И. Историко-этнографические очерки Кавказа.
Ленинград, 1978, с.14
4. r.metreveli. kavkasiuri civilizacia msoflio
globalizaciuri procesebis konteqstSi. Tbilisi,
2007, gv.39
5. r.metreveli. dasaxelebuli naSromi,. gv.20
6. Еремян С.Т. Общность судеб и культурно-политическое
содружество народов Закавказья в IX-XII в. // Кавказ и
Византия. вып.I, Ереван, 1979, с.9
7. Тогошвили Г.Д. К вопросу о характере грузиносеверокавказских взаимоотношений в XI-XIII в.в. // Вопросы
истории народов Кавказа. Тбилиси, 1988, с.198
8. Бижев А.К. Адыги северо-западного Кавказа и кризис
восточного вопроса в конце 20-х - начале 30-х г.г. XIX века.
Майкоп,1994, с.136
9. magaliTad, saqarTveloSi 1832 wels antikoloniurma moZraobam saerToerovnuli xasiaTic ki miiRo.
gansakuTrebuli aqtiurobiT gamoirCeoda aleqsandre
batoniSvili, romelic Crdilo kavkasiel mTielebs ruseTTan brZolaSi amxnevebda.
10. miuridi - am termins arabuli safuZveli aqvs.
miuridi aris is adamiani, romelic islamis swavlisa da
codnisaken, Sinagani Tavisuflebisaken iswrafvis. miuridizmSi ki, sxva niSnebTan erTad, muslimTa wminda gamaTavisuflebel omSi (hazavaTSi) monawileobac igulisxmeba.
11. Блиев М. Россия и горцы Большого Кавказа на пути к
цивилизации. Москва, 2004, с.798-799.
12. ruseT-TurqeTis omis (“yirimis omis”) dros,
samxedro moqmedeba kavkasiaSic daiwyo. 1854 wlis zafxulSi Samilis razmebi saqarTveloSic (kaxeTSi) Semo139
iWrnen, axalcixesTan dabanakebul osmaleTis armiasTan SesaerTeblad. marTalia, maT miznis miRweva ver
moaxerxes, magram gaZarcves kaxeTis soflebi, mZevlad
aiyvanes gavlenian qarTvel TavadTa ojaxebi da gamosasyidi moiTxoves. Samils amiT ruseTis armiis tyveobidan Tavisi Svilis - jamal ed-dinis gaTavisufleba
surda, rac Sesrulda kidec.
13. Покровский Н.И. Имамат перед большой войной //
Научная мысль Кавказа, 1998, №1, с.85
14. iqve, gv.80
15. sxvaTa Soris, mefisnacvlis institutis mxriv
kavkasia erTaderTi precedentia ruseTis imperiaSi.
16. Ишханян Б. Народности Кавказа (статистико-экономическое исследование). Петроград, 1916, с.16; iqve avtors
CamoTvlili aqvs kavkasiis samefisnacvloSi SemadgenlobaSi arsebuli 11 administraciuli erTeuli: baqos,
daRestnis, elisavetpolis, yubanis, quTaisis, stavropolis, tfilisis, Savi zRvis da erivanis guberniebi,
Tergisa da yarsis olqebi.
17. es procesi, romelic me-16 saukuneSi daiwyo,
safrangeTis burJuaziul-demokratiulma revoluciam
daagvirgvina (1789-94 w.w.).
18. ilia WavWavaZe. tomi I, tfilisi, 1925.
19. Карамурзов Б.С., Боров А.Х.. Дзамихов К.Ф., Муратова
Е.Г. Социокультурные механизмы северокавказского исторического процесса // Научная мысль Кавказа, 2006, №3, с.72
20. Бабич И.Л. Деятельность российского государства по
включению горцев Северного Кавказа в общероссийское культурное пространство в конце XVII – нач. XX века // Научная
мысль Кавказа, 2008, №4, с.48.
21. rusuli kolonializmi saqarTveloSi. Tbilisi, 2008, gv.354.
22. 1917 w. dekemberSi 41 mln. amomrCevelidan eserebs (socialist-revolucionerebs) xma misca 16,5 mln.
amomrCevelma, bolSevikebma ki 9 mln. miiRes. arCevnebSi
monawileobdnen agreTve zomieri socialistebi - 9
140
mln. xma, erovnuli umciresobebi - 4, 5 mln., kadetebi
(burJuaziuli partia) - 2 mln.
23. Верт Н. История советского государства – 1900-1991.
М.,1992, с.112.
24. Карамурзов Б.С., Боров А.Х.. Дзамихов К.Ф., Муратова
Е.Г. Социокультурные механизмы северокавказского
исторического процесса // Научная мысль Кавказа, 2006, №4, с.19.
25. ix. Тахо-Годы А.А. Революция и контрреволюция в
Дагестане. Махачкала, 1927, с.165. mTielTa gaerTianebis
mizani iyo daecva mopovebuli Tavisufleba, gaetarebina demokratiuli reformebi, Seeqmna demokratiuli
federaciuli respublika ruseTTan erTad. amisaTvis,
mTielebma, “samxreT-aRmosavleTis kazakTa kavSirTan
da stepebis Tavisufal xalxebTan” 1917 wlis 20 oqtombers samokavSireo xelSekruleba dades. mTielTa avtonomiur saxelmwifoebriv warmonaqmnSi Sediodnen:
daRestnis yvela xalxi (xunZebi, darguelebi, lekebi,
lezgebi), Tergis administraciuli olqidan - yabardoelebi, balyarelebi, osebi, inguSebi, CeCnebi, yumuxebi;
yubanis olqidan - yaraCaelebi, abazinelebi, Cerqezebi,
noRaelebi; dasavleT kavkasiis mTielebidan - afxazebi;
stepebis xalxebidan - Turqmenebi. aqve SevniSnavT, rom
afxazeTi 1917 wlis bolosaTvis mTielTa kavSirSi mxolod formalurad Sedioda da masze CrdilokavkasielTa liderebis gavlena Zalze umniSvnelo iyo, 1918 wlis
zafxulisaTvis ki afxazeTi de-faqtod da de-iured
mTlianad iqna integrirebuli saqarTvelos SemadgenlobaSi.
26. Тахо-Годы А.А. Революция и контрреволюция в
Дагестане. Махачкала, 1927, с.152.
27. История Дона и Северного Кавказа (1917-2000).
Ростов-на-Дону – Нальчик, 2004, с.36
28. mixeil baxtaZe, giorgi mamulia. masalebi saqarTvelosa da CrdiloeT kavkasiis urTierTobis istoriidan, Tbilisi 2005, gv. 11.
29. brestis sazavo konferencia gaimarTa 1918
wlis Teberval-martSi erTi mxriv ruseTs, meore mxriv
141
- germanias, osmaleTs, avstria-ungreTsa da maT mokavSireebs Soris. 3 marts xelmowerili sazavo xelSekrulebiT, ruseTma pirvel msoflio omSi Tavi damarcxebulad scno, dakarga teritoriebi, maT Soris baTumis,
arTvin-artaanisa da yarsis olqebi.
30. mixeil baxtaZe, giorgi mamulia. masalebi saqarTvelosa da CrdiloeT kavkasiis urTierTobis istoriidan, Tbilisi 2005, gv. 19.
31. avarelebi daRestanSi yvelaze mravalricxovan
eTnoss warmoadgenen, rac, faqtobrivad, adre da dResac am qveynis socialur-politikur da kulturul
procesebs bevrad gansazRvravs. m.baxtaZes da g.mamulias zemoTxsenebul naSromSi moxmobili aqvT 1920
wlis 2 ivnisiT daTariRebuli saarqivo dokumenti, romelSic saqarTvelos sagareo saqmeTa ministris saxelze gamogzavnil werilSi k.alixanovi - avariis xelmZRvaneli aRniSnavs: “avareTi (xunZaxi), Temur-lengis
Semosevamde, saqarTvelos nawili iyo da amitom sulierad da sisxliT axlosaa masTano”.
32. 1918 wlis 4 ivnisis xelSekrulebiT, TurqeTma
miisakuTra aWara (baTumisa da arTvinis olqebi), samcxe-javaxeTi (axalcixe-axalqalaqis mazrebi). mogvianebiT, pirvel msoflio omSi TurqeTis damarcxebis
Semdeg, saqarTvelom es teritoriebi ukan daibruna,
magram 1921 wels, moskovisa da yarsis xelSekrulebebis
ZaliT, nawilobriv isev dakarga.
33. simon kilaZe. integraciis formebi da periodebi kavkasiaSi // Jurnali “saqarTvelos parlamenti”,
1997, #33-34, gv.8.
34. simon kilaZe. “gaigzavnos TviTmfrinavebi mTielTa dasaxmareblad”, anu ratom Cavida daRestanSi
qarTuli saeqspedicio razmi // Jurnali “arsenali”, #7,
2007, gv.18.
35. simon kilaZe. integraciis formebi da periodebi kavkasiaSi // Jurnali “saqarTvelos parlamenti”,
1997, #33-34, gv.9-10.
142
36. Симон Киладзе. Единство Кавказа и попытки выхода
из кризиса // журнал «Тбилисский меридиан», №3, сентябрьоктябрь 1997, с.21.
37. Независимая газета, 9 сентября 2009 //
www.ng.ru/ideas/2009-09-09
38. Обращение представителей интеллигенции Грузии к
интеллигенции Кабардино-Балкарии // «Газета Юга», 1 июля
1994 года
39. Декларация. За межнациональное согласие, мир,
экономическое и культурное сотрудничество на Кавказе //
Научная мысль Кавказа. 1996, №2, с.3-5.
40. yovelive es am striqonebis avtoris mier gaanalizebulia wignSi “kavkasiis civilizacia postsabWour
istoriografiaSi” (Tbilisi, 2007 weli)
143
Tavi IV
1. Ван Кревельд Мартин. Расцвет и упадок государства.
М., 2006, с.407.
2. Хобсбаум Эрик. Эпоха крайностей. Короткий
двадцатый век. 1914-1991. М.,2004, с.26.
3. Народное хозяйство СССР в 1990 г. Статистический
ежегодник. М.,1991, с.67-73. (weliwdeulSi saqarTvelos
ssr-is SemadgenlobaSi myofi samxreT oseTis avtonomiuri olqis monacemebi Setanili ar aris).
4. Народное хозяйство СССР в 1990 г. Статистический
ежегодник. М.,1991, с.67-73. (weliwdeulSi rsfsr-is stavropol-krasnodaris mxareebis SemadgenlobaSi myofi
yaraCai-CerqezeTis da adiRes avt. olqebis monacemebi
Setanili ar aris).
5. Народное хозяйство СССР в 1990 г. Статистический
ежегодник. М.,1991, с.77-78.
6. azerbaijanelTa istoriuli warsuli gvaCvenebs, rom isini kavkasiis aborigenul mosaxleobas warmoadgenen, Tumca aris sxva mosazrebac. unda iTqvas,
rom azerbaijanelTa aborigenulobis sakiTxma gansakuTrebiT gaaqtiureba hpova gasuli saukunis 80-iani
wlebis miwuruls, roca mTiani yarabaRis gamo azerbaijanisa da somxeTis dapirispireba daiwyo. rogorc cnobilia, ori mezobeli saxelmwifo erTmaneTs teritoriebs edaveba da, SeiZleba iTqvas, es dava mxolod mTiani
yarabaRiT ar amoiwureba - aris kidev zangezuri, naxWevani, Sarur-daragalebi da sxva.
Tanamedrove azerbaijanuli istoriografia retrospeqtiulad xazs usvams, rom yvela zemoT CamoTvlil teritoriebze azerbaijanelebi avtoqtonurad
cxovroben. azerbaijaneli mecnierebisa da politologebis mtkicebiT, am adgilebSi somxebi XIX saukuneSi,
ruseTis imperiis mmarTvelobis dros momxdari migraciuli procesebis Sedegad dasaxldnen. garda amisa, baqoel mecnierTa kvlevebSi yuradReba gamaxvilebulia
imaze, rom aRniSnuli teritoriebi ruseTis imperiis
144
mier azerbaijanis dapyrobamde (1803-1828) azerbaijanuli saxelmwifoebrivi warmonaqmnebis (yarabaRisa da
kubis saxanoebis) SemadgenlobaSi iyvnen.
azerbaijanelebis enobrivi maxasiaTebeli, romelic Tanamedrove azerbaijanis eTnogenezs amierkavkasiaSi Turquli migraciis istoria miakuTvnebs (XI-XIV
ss.), sulac ar qmnis siZneleebs konceptualurad dasabuTdes kavkasiaSi azerbaijanis avtoxTonuroba.
problema wydeba “albanuri Teoriis” CarCoebSi,
romelic asaxavs Tanamedrove azerbaijanis teritoriaze mcxovreb adgilobrivi albanuri mosaxleobis demografiuli STanTqmis process Turqul tomTa jgufebis mier. es Teoria ganixileba rogorc proazerbaijanuli da, Sesabamisad, azerbaijaneli xalxis formirebaSi erT-erT etapad (elementad) aris warmodgenili. am Teoriis mixedviT, azerbaijanuli eTnikuri erToba albanelebis Turquli da sxva araTurquli jgufebis asimilaciis procesSi Camoyalibda. Sesabamisad,
am istoriul-kulturul Taviseburebis gaTvaliswinebiT, maTi gansaxlebis teritoria dRevandeli azerbaijanelebis ZvelisZvel teritorias Seadgens. rogorc
a.cucievi miiCnevs, esenia yofili sparseTis provinciebi (sabeglarbegoebi), aRmosavleT amierkavkasiis Turquli saxano-sasulTnoebi (ruseTis mier 1803-1828 ww.Si dapyrobili erivnis, naxiCevanis, ganjis CaTvliT).
marTalia, zogierTi maTgani, magaliTad - yazaxi da SamSadili - XVIII saukunis meore naxevarSi qarTl-kaxeTis
samefos gavlenis sferoSi Sedioda, magram amis miuxedavad, azerbaijanel mecnierTa azriT, azerbaijanis
saxelmwifos nawilebs warmoadgendnen. maTi ruseTSi
gaerTianeba ganixileba azerbaijanis danawilebas ruseTsa da irans Soris, rac azerbaijanelebs gayofil
xalxad aqcevs. (ix. А.Цуциев. 2004, Атлас этнополитической
истории Кавказа).
rac Seexeba konkretulad mTian yarabaRs: umetesad somxebiT dasaxlebuli mTiani yarabaRis avtonomiuri olqi sabWoTa periodSi azerbaijanis ssr SemadgenlobaSi Sedioda, Tumca, rogorc somexi istoriko145
sebi Tvlian, sabWoTa xelisuflebis gariJraJze, meoce
saukunis 20-iani wlebis dasawyisSi, bolSevikebma es teritoria azerbaijans usafuZvlod gadasces. gasuli
saukunis 80-iani wlebis miwuruls olqis somxurenovanma mosaxleobam, erovnuli TviTgamorkvevis principis Sesabamisad, azerbaijanis Semadgenlobidan gamosvla da damoukideblobis gamocxadeba moiTxova. ra
Tqma unda, am nabijs garkveuli stimuli misca somxeTis
ssr maSindeli xelisuflebis waqezebamac. Tavisi roli
Seasrula azerbaijanis qalaq sumgaiTSi momxdarma antisomxurma gamosvlebmac, rasac didi msxverpli da
mosaxleobis iZulebiTi migracia mohyva (somxeTidan
azerbaijanelebis, azerbaijanidan ki - somxebisa). sabWoTa kavSiris liderebi cdilobdnen dapirispirebis
ganeitralebas, magram uSedegod. situacia kidev ufro
gamwvavda ssrk daSlis Jams - 1992 wels daiwyo sabrZolo moqmedebebi mTiani yarabaRis teritoriaze, romlis Sedegad, SeiZleba iTqvas, azerbaijanis armiam didi danaklisi ganicada. sabolood 1994 wlis maisSi daido cecxlis Sewyvetis SeTanxmeba, romelic “biSkekis
oqmis” saxeliTaa cnobili. amJamad mTiani yarabaRi
TviTgamocxadebuli araRiarebuli respublikis statusiT sargeblobs, konfliqti ki “gayinuli” saxiT
grZeldeba da misi mogvareba, saerTaSoriso Tanamegobrobis Carevis miuxedavad, jer kidev ver xerxdeba.
7. Юнусов А.С. Этнодемографические процессы на
Южном Кавказе постсоветский период // Кавказский сборник.
Том 2(34). М.,2005, с.269
8. winaistoruli saqarTvelos cnobil faqts warmoadgens e.w. Homo georgicus (uZvelesi adamianebi, didi
xnis winaT gadaSenebuli), romelTa neSti 1991 wels
dmanisSi, Tanamedrove saqarTvelos teritoriaze iqna
aRmoCenili. Homo georgicus-is pirveli neStebi daTariRebulia 1 mln. 770 aTasi wlis winandeli droiT. asaki
damowmebulia rogorc stratigrafiuli da paleomagnetikuri kvlevebiT, aseve namarxi faunis SeswavliT.
amrigad, dmaniseli adamiani - es adamianis uZvelesi sa146
xea, romelic evropis teritoriaze binadrobda. 19912007 wlebSi dmanisSi napovnia oTxi adamianis - sami
zrdasulisa da erTi bavSvis neStis fragmenti: rogorc varaudoben, Homo georgieсus-is simaRle iyo 145166 sm. iyo, wona - 40-50 kg.
9. Юнусов А. Этнодемографические процессы на Южном
Кавказе в постсоветский период // Кавказский сборник, том 2,
М.,2005, с.275.
10. sayuradRebo momentia, rom somxebis istoriul mexsierebaSi warsulis gandideba xdeba da tanjuli
eris imiji inergeba. udidesi adgili uWiravs “didi
somxeTis” Temas, romelic, somexi mecnierebis azriT,
mefe tigran meoris dros (Cvens welTaRricxvamde pirvel saukuneSi) arsebobda. xsenebul periodSi somxeTi
palestinidan kaspiis zRvamde gadaWimul vrcel samefos warmoadgenda. faqtobrivad, somxeTi damoukidebeli iyo Zveli welTaRricxvis 189 wlidan 66 wlamde,
Semdeg ki is romaelebis mier iqna dapyrobili. mogvianebiT, somxeTi sxvadasxva mtruli saxelmwifoebis
msxverpli gaxda da xelidan xelSi gadadioda. arabeTis
xalifatis uRlisgan haosis qveyana (ase hqvia sxvagvarad somxeTs) 885 wels gaTavisuflda. am dros odesRac
arsebuli “didi somxeTis” teritoria danawilda anisis
samefod (Crdilo aRmosavleTi nawili), romelic mogvianebiT saqarTvelos erTian kavkasiur saxelmwifoSi gaerTianda da kilikiis samefod, romelic Semdgom, me-14
saukuneSi osmalebis (Turqebis) mier iqna dapyrobili.
kavkasiis da, kerZod, samxreT kavkasiis mierTeba
ruseTTan 1801-1829 wlebSi somxebis istoriografiaSi
zogadad dadebiT faqtad fasdeba, magram sabWoTa xelisuflebis dros somxeTis ssr sazRvrebis dadgena mTiani yarabaRis, naxWevanis, surmalinis, yarsisa da
artaanis (ardahanis) olqebis gareSe - sabWoTa kavSirisa da TurqeTis garigebad miiCneva, romelic somxeTis
istoriuli teritoriebis gayofis xarjze moxda. saerTod, teritoriuli davebis sakiTxi, marTalia, araoficialiurad, magram saqarTvelosTan urTierTobebSic
arsebobs: somexi politikosebisa da mecnierTa azriT,
147
samcxe _ javaxeTi odesRac arsebuli “didi somxeTis
nawilia da, Sesabamisad, uZveles somxur miwa-wyals
warmoadgens. ufro metic, somxebi miiCneven, rom qvemo
qarTlic maTi miwebis nawilia.
aRsaniSnavia, rom swored teritoriuli sakiTxi
iyo im omis mizezi, romelic saqarTvelosa da somxeTis
damoukidebel respublikebs Soris 1918 wlis dekemberSi moxda: imdroindelma somexma politikosebma gadawyvites, rom radgan damoukideblad gamocxadebisas
araratis respublikas Zalian cota teritoria ergo,
saWiro iyo “istoriuli miwebis” samxedro ZaliT dabruneba. Sesabamisad, somxeTis jarebi Setevaze gadavidnen da saqarTvelos samxreTi nawili (Tbilisis yofili
guberniis lorეs raioni da borCalos mazra) daikaves.
marTalia, Tavdasxmas saqarTvelo moumzadebeli Sexvda, magram sakmarisi samxedro Zalebis koncentraciis
Semdeg qarTulma jarebma somxebs ukan daaxevines, Tumca aqve SevniSnavT, rom somxeTis sasargeblod antantis warmomadgenlebis Carevis gamo saqarTvelom
lorეs dabruneba ver SeZlo - es teritoria neitralur
zonad gamocxadda, Sereuli somxur-qarTuli administraciiTa da didi britaneTis warmomadgenlis xelmZRvanelobiT. sabWoTa xelisuflebis damyarebis pirvel wlebSi ki, bolSevikebis gadawyvetilebiT, lore
sabolood somxeTs gadaeca (amis Sesaxeb ufro farTod
ixileT gazeT “axalgazrda iverielSi” 1990 wlis maisSi
gamoqveynebuli vrceli dokumenturi narkvevi “erTi
omis qronika anu ra moxda 1918 wlis dekemberSi”).
somxebi xSirad xazs usvamen, rom arian adamianebi,
romlebic maTi eris faseulobebs ganasaxiereben: mesrop maStoci - enas (361-440 ww.w.), komitasi, igive sogomon sogomiani - musikas (1869-1935 w.w.), vardan mamikoniani - Tavisuflebas (380-441 w.w.).
somxeTisaTvis erTob aqtualuria genocidis sakiTxi. osmaleTis imperiaSi somxebis TavisuflebisTvis brZolam farTo masStabi miiRo jer kidev XIX saukunis 60-70-an wlebSi (1862 wels kilikiaSi “zeiTunis
148
gmirebis” ajanyeba, revoluciuri moZraobis dawyeba,
Tavdacvis jgufebis Seqmna, daSnakebis teroristuli
aqtebis dawyeba, maT Soris 1896 wels osmaleTis bankis
maT mier xelSi Cagdeba), Semdeg ki, meoce saukunis dasawyisSi, osmaleTis imperiaSi mcxovrebi somxebis
mdgomareobis sakiTxis garkvevaSi dasavleT evropis
saxelmwifoebi da ruseTi Caeria: maTi zewoliT Turqebi somxurenovani mosaxleobiT dasaxlebuli olqebis
avtonomias daTanxmdnen. pirveli msoflio omis dros
TurqeTi ruseTis winaaRmdeg mebrZol banakSi aRmoCnda, Sesabamisad, kavkasiis frontze rusuli armiis Setevis kvalobaze ruseTis moimede somxebma antiTurquli gamosvlebi daiwyes. am faqtma osmaleTis xelisuflebis mxridan gaugonari represiebi gamoiwvia: 1915
wlis aprilSi moewyo somex xalxis msoflioSi uprecedento genocidi, ris Sedegadac ramdenime dRe-RameSi
1,5 mln. somexi gaiJlita.
11. TurqeTi bolo xanebSi, gansakuTrebiT ki 2008
wlis agvistoSi momxdari saqarTvelo-ruseTis omis
Semdeg, aqtiurad CaerTo Sidakavkasiuri problemebis
mogvarebis procesSi. ankaram SeimuSava kavkasiis regionis stabilizebis koncefcia, romelic dainteresebul saxelmwifoebs, maT Soris ruseTs, saqarTvelos,
somxeTsa da azerbaijans gaacno. imave wlis oqtomberSi TurqeTis prezidenti daeswro erevanSi gamarTul
safexburTo matCs, xolo erTi wlis Semdeg - 2009 wlis
oqtomberSi igive gaakeTa somxeTis prezidentmac: igi
TurqeTis qalaq bursaSi Cavida da adgilobriv stadionze evropis Cempionatis SesarCev matCs daeswro somxeTisa da TurqeTis nakrebebs Soris.
12. daRestnis dedaqalaqia maxaCkala. mosaxleobis
raodenoba 2,7 mln. (2009 wlis pirveli ianvris monacemebiT). respublikis teritoria Seadgens 50,3 aTas
kvadratul kilometrs. 1989 wlis aRweris Tanaxmad,
respublikis teritoriaze 102 erovnebis warmomadgeneli cxovrobda, romlebic sam enobriv jgufs miekuTvnebian: iberiul-kavkasiuri ojaxis naxur-daRestnuri
ganStoebas, alaTauri ojaxis ierarqiul jgufs da in149
doevropul enobriv jgufs. dRes daRestanSi, konstituciis Tanaxmad, saxelmwifo enebad iTvlebian rusuli da daRestnis xalxTa yvela ena, magram maTgan Tavisi
damwerloba mxolod 14 enas gaaCnia.
daRestnis mTavari mdinareebia Tergi, sulaki, samuri. msxvili qalaqebia: maxaCkala (334,5 aTasi); derbenti (90,1 aTasi), xasaviurti (83,8 aTasi), kaspiiski (67,9
aTasi), buinakski (58,2 aTasi).
Zv.w.aR. pirveli aTaswleulis bolos daRestnis
teritoria Sedioda kavkasiis albaneTis, Semdgom ki sasaniduri iranis SemadgenlobaSi. daRestanma arabTa
Tavdasxmebic gadaitana. XIII saukunis dasawyisSi daRestani TaTar-monRolebma daipyres, momdevno aswleulebSi ki aq mcxovrebi xalxebi osmaleTis imperiisa da
sparseTis gavlenis qveS moeqcnen. ruseT-sparseTis
omis Sedegad 1813 wels dadebuli giulistanis xelSekrulebiT, daRestani ruseTs SeuerTda.
daRestnis assr 1921 wlis 20 ianvars Seiqmna. 1994
wlis 26 ivliss miRebul iqna respublikis konstitucia. daRestanSi mosaxleobis didi nawili (90%-ze meti), tradiciulad, muslimuri aRmsareblobis mimdevaria. 1996 wlis 1 ianvris monacemebiT, daRestanSi funqcionirebda 1670 meCeTi, 7 eklesia, 4 sinagoga, 3 adventistTa “meSvide dRis” Temi, 4 evangelist qristianbaptistTa Temi.
13. 1989 wlis aRweris monacemebiT, lezgebis raodenoba 170 aTass Seadgenda. azerbaijanis kusaris raionis garda, sadac isini mosaxleobis 80%-ze mets Seadgenen, lezgebi gansaxlebuli arian azerbaijanis xaCmasis, gubis, gabalis da zogierT sxva raionSi. imave aRweris mixedviT, azerbaijanSi, lezgebis garda, cxovrobda agreTve 44 000 avareli (ZiriTadad, belaqnisa da zaqaTalas raionebSi).
14. CrdiloeT oseT-alaniis respublikis dedaqalaqia vladikavkazi. teritoria - 8 aTasi kvadratuli
kilometri, mosaxleobis raodenoba — 701,8 aTasi adamiani (2009 wlis monacemebiT). respublika regionSi
150
erT-erT yvelaze urbanizebulad da mWidrod dasaxlebulad iTvleba (1km2 140 adamiani). mosaxleobis umetesoba osebia (60%) da, ZiriTadad, qalaqebis mcxovrebni
arian. CrdiloeT oseTs mniSvnelovani satransporto
adgilmdebareoba aqvs: vladikavkazidan saqarTvelos
sazRvramde gadis gzatkecili, romelic istoriulad
“saqarTvelos samxedro gzis” saxeliTaa cnobili. garda amisa, CrdiloeT oseTze gadis CrdiloeT da samxreT kavkasiis damakavSirebeli avtomagistrali
(“transkam”), romlis mniSvnelovan monakveTs kavkasionis qedze agebuli rokis gvirabi warmoadgens. respublikis teritoriaze gadis agreTve federaluri statusis mqone avtogzebi da rkinigzebi, gazsadenebi da sxva
komunikaciebi. msxvili qalaqebia vladikavkazi (309,8
aTasi mcx.), mozdoki (40 aTasi), beslani (33,6 aTasi).
mokled CrdiloeT oseT-alaniis istoriis Sesaxeb: Cveni welTaRricxvis dasawyisSi respublikis amJamindel teritoriaze alanTa tomebi gamoCndnen, IX-X
saukuneebSi ki alanTa feodaluri saxelmwifoc Seiqmna. meaTe saukuneSi osebSi saqarTvelodan qristianoba vrceldeba da oficialuri religia xdeba. amave periodidan iwyeba alanur-osuri eTnosis Camoyalibeba
da masze saqarTvelos politikuri gavlenis gavrceleba. XIIOI saukuneSi, TaTar-monRolTa Semosevebis gamo,
osuri saxelmwifo ganadgurda da mosaxleobam, TavSesafris Ziebis mizniT, mdinare Tergis zemowelSi, kavkasionis mTavari qedis xeobebisa da kalTebisaken migrireba daiwyo. osebi ruseTis SemadgenlobaSi XVIII saukunis meore naxevarSi Sevidnen, XIX saukuneSi ki administraciulad Tergis olqSi moeqcnen. sabWoTa xelisuflebis pirvel wlebSi osebi jer mTielTa assr SemadgenlobaSi arian, Semdeg ki, 1924 wlis 7 ivliss, osTa gansaxlebis teritoria avtonomiur mxared gardaiqmna
(rsfsr SemadgenlobaSi). 1936 wlis sabWoTa konstituciis Tanaxmad, Seiqmna CrdiloeT oseTis assr, 1990
wlis dekembridan - CrdiloeT oseTis ssr, 1993 wlidan
- CrdiloeT oseT - alaniis respublika. amJamad aq Ziri151
Tadi konfesiebia marTlmadidebluri qristianoba da
islami.
15. inguSeTis respublikis dedaqalaqia magasi, teritoria - 3600 kv.km. mosaxleoba - 532 aTasi adamiani.
respublika Seiqmna 1992 wlis 4 ivniss. msxvili qalaqebia: nazrani (118 aT. adamiani 2000 wlis monacemebiT),
malgobeki (36 aTasi), yarabulaki (19 aTasi). qarTul istoriul wyaroebSi inguSebi ZurZukebis saxeliT arian
cnobilni. ZurZukeTi, romilic inguSebisa da xunZebis
winaprebis saxelmwifoebriv gaerTianebas warmoadgenda, Zveli welTaRricxvis IV-III saukuneebidan axali
welTaRricxvis XIV saukunemde arsebobda. Temur-lengma CrdiloeT kavkasiaSi laSqrobis dros (1395) ZurZukeTi mTlianad gaanadgura, Sesabamisad, Sewyda yovelgvari urTierToba saqarTvelosTan. Temur-lengis
brZanebis Sesabamisad, “amieridan ar unda eswavlaT
qarTuli wignebi”. kulturis donis saerTo dacemasTan
erTad, es ZurZukeTis mTebSi qristianul-marTlmadidebluri religiis miviwyebasac niSnavda… aqve ar SeiZleba ar aRvniSnoT, rom inguSeTSi arsebuli X saukunis
qristianuli eklesia “tyoba-erdi” dResac rCeba qarTveli da inguSi xalxebis materialur da sulier kulturaTa saukunovani siaxlovis gamoxatulebad.
me-16 saukunis bolos inguSeTSi daRestnidan muslimuri religia vrceldeba. XVIII saukuneSi naxCos tomebi CeCnebad da inguSebad gaiyvnen. 1810 wels inguSeTi
nebayoflobiT uerTdeba ruseTis imperias, 1921 wels
ki mTielTa assr SemadgenlobaSia. 1924 wels Seiqmna inguSeTis avtonomiuri olqi, romlis adminitraciuli
centrs vladikavkazi warmoadgenda. 1934 wels inguSeTi CeCneTis avtonomiur olqTan gaerTianda da am gaerTianebas CeCneT-inguSeTis avtonomiuri olqi ewoda,
romelic 1937 wlis ssrk konstituciis Sesabamisad,
CeCneT-inguSeTis ass respublikad gardaiqmna. 1944
wels CeCneT-inguSeTis assr gauqmda, mogvianebiT ki,
1957 wels, isev aRadgines.
16. CeCneTis dedaqalaqi - grozno. teritoria 17,5 kv.km. mosaxleobis raodenoba — 1, 2 milioni adamia152
ni (2009 weli). didi mdinareebia Tergi da sunJa. reliefis mixedviT respublika iyofa or nawilad; bari
(CrdiloeTi) da mTianeTi (samxreTi). msxvili qalaqebia:
grozno, gudermesi, arRuni, urus-martani da Sali.
qveynis ZiriTad bunebriv saresurso potencials warmoadgens navTobis sabadoebi.
VII-XIII ss. naxCoebSi saqarTvelodan vrceldeba
qristianoba da masTan erTad qarTuli damwerlobac.
amave xanebSi xdeba islamis SeRweva, kavkasiaSi arabebis
laSqrobebis Sedegad. XVIII saukunis 80-iani wlebisaTvis TiTqmis yvela CeCnurma sazogadoebam ruseTis qveSevrdomoba aRiara, magram administraciuli kontrolis damyareba maTze ver moxerxda. amgvarma situaciam
XVIII saukunis bolos samxedro moqmedebebis gaxSireba
da Sesabamisad, mosaxleobis protesti gamoiwvia: Seix
mansuris antirusuli moZraoba (1785-1791 wlebi) da
Semdeg omi ruseTsa da kavkasiis xalxebs Soris (18171864 wlebi); ajanyebebi da abragoba (1866-1916 wlebi);
deportacia (1944-1957 wlebi); “konstituciuri wesrigis” aRdgenis kampaniebi (1994-1996, 1999-2003 wlebi).
1991 wlis noembridan joxar dudaevis xelisuflebaSi
mosvlis Semdeg gamocxadda CeCneTis respublikis Seqmna da misi gamosvla CeCneT-inguSeTis Semadgenlobidan.
17. daRestnis assr-s gadaeca oTxi mimdebare raioni, Crdilo oseTis assr-s - vladikavkazis mimdebare
prigorodnis raioni. saqarTvelos ssr SemadgenlobaSi
Sevida kavkasionis qedis CrdiloeTis kalTebze ganlagebul CeCneT-inguSeTis assr xuTi raionis, maT Soris,
iTum-yales, Sarois, galanCeJisa prigorodnis raionebis 30%-dan 40%-mde teritoria.
18. inguSeTSi dgas sakiTxi ara marto prigorodnis
raionis kuTvnilebis, aramed Tavis droze vladikavkazis oseTisTvis gadacemis samarTlianobis Sesaxebac.
19. saiubileo saRamoze misasalmebeli sityviT gamovidnen Tbilisis saxelmwifo universitetis profesorebi merab Cuxua (rogorc qarTul, ise inguSur ena153
ze), rusudan janaSia, cira baramiZe da sxvebi. aRsaniSnavia, rom iisa koZois 25 oqtombers, “Tbilisqalaqobis” dResaswaulze, dedaqalaqis merma sazeimo viTarebaSi gadasca Tbilisis sapatio moqalaqis sigeli.
20. yabardo-balyareTis dedaqalaqia nalCiki. teritoria - 12,5 aTasi kv.km. mosaxleoba - 892,4 aTasi adamiani (2009 wlis monacemebiT). respublika Seiqmna 1921
wlis 1 seqtembers. yabardoelebi Seadgenen saerTo mosaxleobis 55,3%-s, rusebi - 25,1%, balyarelebi 11,6%.
msxvili qalaqebia nalCiki (269,2 aTasi mcx.), proxladni
(60,1 aTasi). aq mdebareobs kavkasiaSi da evropaSi yvelaze maRali mTa ialbuzi (5642 metri). respublikis wiaRi
mdidaria poliliTonuri madnebiT - moipoveba molibdeni, volframi, tyvia da sxva. yabardo-balyareTis
respublika ruseTis fedewraciis erT-erT mniSvnelovan sakurorto-rekreaciul da turistul zonas warmoadgens.
yabardosa da balyareTis teritoria didxans iyo
ruseTis, TurqeTisa da yirimis saxanos dapirispirebis
adgili. 1557 wels yabardos mTavrebma ruseTTan samokavSireo-samxedro xelSekruleba dades, rac ivane meoTxe mrisxanesa da yabardoeli mTavris qaliSvilis maria Temruyis asulis qorwinebiT iqna ganmtkicebuli.
1827 wels dasrulda ruseTTan balyareTis SeerTebis
procesi. 1860 wels yabardo da balyareTis teritoria
administraciulad Tergis olqis SemadgenlobaSi Sevida. me-19 saukunis 70-ian wlebSi, rostov-vladikavkazis
rkinigzis dasrulebiT ganmtkicda ruseTis samxreTis
regionebis, maT Soris, yabardo-balyareTis kavSiri imperiis centrTan. 1936 wels Seiqmna yabardo-balyareTis assr, Tumca 1944 wels, balyarelebis mimarT ganxorcielebuli represiebis gamo, am politikur-administraciul erTeuls saxeli Seecvala da yabardos
respublika ewoda balyarelebi iZulebiT iqnen deportirebulni Sua aziaSi. yabardo-balyareTis teritoria
da saxelwodeba xelaxla aRadgines 1957 wels. 1993
wels gamocxadda yabardo-balyareTis respublika.
154
21. yaraCai-CerqezeTis dedaqalaqia Cerkeski, teritoria - 14, 3 aTasi km. kv. mosaxleobis raodenoba 434,5 aTasi adamiani (2005 w.). yaraCai-CerqezeTi Seiqmna
1922 wlis 12 ianvars. yaraCaelebi Seadgenen saerTo mosaxleobis 38,5%, rusebi - 33,5%, Cerqezebi - 11,3%. aq
cxovroben abazebi - 7,4%, noRaelebi - 3,4%, osebi, ukrainelebi, somxebi da sxv.
Tanamedrove yaraCai-CerqezeTis teritoriaze arsebobda alanTa saxelmwifo, aq X saukuneSi iasebi da kasogebic saxlobdnen. XIII-XIV ss.-Si alanebi TaTar-monRolebma gaanadgures. mogvianebiT ki, XVI-XVII saukuneebSi ukacriel miwebze abazebi da noRaelebi gadmosaxldnen. XIX saukunis dasawyisSi es teritoria ruseTis
imperiaSi gaerTianda (yubanis administraciul olqSi),
daiwyo kazakebis Casaxlebis procesic. sabWoTa periodSi Seiqmna yaraCais avt.olqi. 1944 wels yaraCaelebi
iZulebiT gadaasaxles yazaxeTSi, Sesabamisad, yaraCais
avtonomiuri olqi gauqmda. 1957 wels yaraCaelebi reabilitirebul iqnen, Seiqmna yaraCai-CerqezeTis avtonomiuri respublika, romelic sabWoTa kavSiris dros
stavropolis mxareSi Sedioda.
1992 wlis dekembridan yaraCai-CerqezeTis respublika ruseTis federaciis subieqts warmoadgens. respublikis teritoriaze ganlagebulia qristianuli
kulturis unikaluri arqiteqturuli Zeglebi (me-10
saukunis sentinisa da SoanTis taZrebi sofel qvemo
TeberdaSi da sxva).
bolo wlebSi saerTaSoriso Cerqezuli organizacia “adiRe-xase” axlomonaTesave adiRe, yabardoelebisa da Cerqezi xalxebis gaerTianebis moTxovniT gamodis.
yaraCai-balyareTis moZraobas ki yaraCaelebisa da balyarelebis ruseTis federaciaSi erT subieqtad gaerTianeba surs, yaraCai-balyareTis respublikis saxiT.
22. adiRes respublikis dedaqalaqia maikopi. teritoria - 7,6 aTasi km.kv. mosaxleoba - 445 aTasi (2005 w.).
respublikis 40% dafarulia tyiT, moipoveba navTobi,
bunebrivi gazi, kargi pirobebia turizmis ganviTare155
bisTvis. 2008 wlis monacemebiT, eTnikur umravlesobas
aq rusebi Seadgenen (62,4%), adiRelebis raodenoba 25,9%, somxebi - 3,5%. garda amisa, respublikaSi cxovroben ukrainelebi, qurTebi, TaTrebi, Turqebi da sxva
xalxebis warmomadgenlebi.
sabWoTa xelisuflebis dros adiRebi xelovnurad
ramdenime xalxad daiyo (yabardoelebi, Cerqezebi), saxeli “adiRe” (“Адыгейцы“) ki am xalxis mxolod erT
jgufs uwodes. adiRebi kavkasiis ZirZveli mosaxleobaa, romelTa winaprebi aq paleoliTis droidan cxovroben. isini meotebis saxeliTac iyvnen cnobilni, romlebic aerTianebdnen kerketebis, sindebis, zixebisa da
fsesebis tomebs. Zveli welTaRricxvis IV saukunidan
adiReebi bosforis samefos gavlenis qveS moeqcnen,
momdevno periodSi ki skviTebisa da sarmatebis eTnikur-kulturuli zegavlena ganicades. pirvel saukuneSi gaZlierda zixebis tomi, romelic V-XsaukuneebSi
saTaveSi edga adiRur tomTa kavSirs.
IV-X saukuneebSi adiRebi miwaTmoqmedebasa da mesaqonleobas eweodnen, vaWrobdnen yirimTan, iranTan da
bizantiasTan.
aRsaniSnavia, rom termini “zixi” qarTul wyaroebSi moxseniebuli termin “jiqis” Sesatyvisia. Zveli qarTuli wyaroebis mixedviT, saxelwodeba “jiqeTi” mTel
adiRes gulisxmobda. adiReebi saqarTveloSi “qaSagebis”, “qaSqebis” saxeliTac arian cnobilni. aRsaniSnavia, rom svanebi adiRebs dResac “qaSqebs” uwodeben.
adiRe-saqarTvelos urTierTobas xangrZlivi istoria aqvs. leonti mrovelis cnobiT, mefe armazis
dros qarTlis laSqarSi jiqebic msaxurobdnen. juanSeris cnobiT, 455 wels es mxare vaxtang gorgasals daulaSqravs. saintereso cnobaa, rom 656 wels konstantinopolis meeqvse msoflio saeklesio krebam jiqeTis
eparqia mcxeTis sakaTilokosos dauqvemdebara. XII-XIII
saukuneebSi adiRe saqarTvelos politikur gavlenaSi
moeqca, ramac xeli Seuwyo aq qristianobis gavrcelebas.
156
XIII saukuneSi adiRes teritoriis nawili TaTarmonRolTa saxelmwifos - oqros urdos mflobelobaSi
moeqca, XVI saukunidan ki osmaleTisa da yirimis saxanos politikur eqspansias ganicdida. swored am droidan gavrcelda muslimuri religiac.
kavkasiis omebis dros Cerqezi xalxis warmomadgenlebi, maT Soris adiRebic, ruseTis imperiis represiebis qveS moeqcnen, maTi mniSvnelovani nawili TurqeTsa da axlo aRmosavleTSi gadasaxlda (muhajiroba).
dRes sazRvargareT 3 mln.-ze meti adiReli cxovrobs.
1918 wlis maisidan, ruseTis samxreTSi dawyebuli
samoqalaqo omis dros, adiRebiT dasaxlebuli teritoria Sevida yuban-Savi zRvis sabWoTa respublikaSi.
1922 wlis 22 ivliss Seiqmna CerqezeTis (adiRuri) avtonomiuri olqi, mogvianebiT ki, 1928 wels mas saxeli gadaaerqva da adiRes avtonomiuri olqi ewoda, centriT
q. krasnodarSi, 1936 wels administraciul centrad maikopi gamocxadda. adiRes respublika ruseTis federaciis SemadgenlobaSi Seiqmna 1991 wels. pirveli konstitucia miiRes 1995 wlis 10 marts.
157
Tavi V
1. yabardo-balyareTis geofizikur samecnierokvleviT institutSi bevri qarTveli mecnieri warmatebiT muSaobda. sainteresoa, rom am faqtma Tavisi asaxva
hpova cnobili qarTveli mwerlis guram fanjikiZis romanSi “aqtiuri mzis weliwadi”. es wigni 1970-ian wlebis
bestselerad iqna miCneuli.
2. zogierTi mosazrebiT, termini “Turqi mesxebi” xelovnuria, romelic gasuli saukunis 80-iani wlebis bolos gaCnda sabWoTa publicistikaSi da sinamdviles ar
asaxavs. sakiTxis mokle istoria aseTia: TurqeTTan mosazRvre saqarTvelos rigi raionebis (samcxe-javaxeTSi axalcixis, adigenis, axalqalaqisa da aspinZis) adgilobrivi mcxovrebi, ZiriTadad, gamuslimebul-gaTurqebuli
qarTvelebi (mesxebi), agreTve Turquli warmoSobis mosaxleoba 1944 wlis noemberSi uzbekeTSi - ferganaSi iqnen deportirebulni. gadasaxlebis mizezi is iyo, rom TiTqosda
muslimi mesxebi da Turquli warmoSobis adamianebi ssrkgermaniis omis dros faSistebis mxardamWer TurqeTs exmarebodnen, jaSuSobdnen da, Sesabamisad, arakeTilsaimedo pirebs warmoadgendnen. omis dros, SesaZloa, marTlac
iyo msgavsi faqtebi, magram, ra Tqma unda, sabWoTa marTlmsajulebis mier erTeuli pirebis mier Cadenili danaSaulis aTasobiT adamianze gavrceleba ukanono da usamarTlo qmedeba iyo. aRsaniSnavia, rom 1957 wels, Crdilokavkasieli represirebuli xalxebis reabilitaciis miuxedavad, saqarTvelodan deportirebuli mesxebisa da Turqebis reabilitireba da maTi repatriacia ar momxdara, es
ar ganxorcielebula arc xruSCoviseul “daTbobis” da
arc gorbaCoviseul "prestroikis” wlebSi. 1989 wels ferganaSi uzbekebTan momxdari sisxliani eTnikuri dapirispirebis Sedegad, mesxebi da Turqebi iZulebulni gaxdnen
kavkasiisaken gamoqceuliyvnen. maTi nawili dasaxlda
azerbaijanSi (80 aTasamde), nawili ki - CrdiloeT kavkasiaSi, umetesad krasnodaris mxareSi. amasTan, “Turqi mesxebis” kompaqturad dasaxleba eTnosTaSorisi dapirispire158
bebis maprovocirebeli mudmivi faqtori gaxda, romelic
gansakuTrebiT krasnodaris mxareSi gamZafrda.
migraciuli procesebis eqspertis v.i.nemCinas azriT, situacia garTulebulia imiTac, rom masobriv
SegnebaSi damkvidrda stereotipi - TiTqosda Crdilo
da samxreT kavkasiis respublikebidan Casuli migrantebi floben saTanado materialur resursebs, aqvT gacilebiT meti SesaZleblobebi samxreT ruseTis olqis
rusulenovan teritoriebze dasamkvidreblad, dakavebuli aqvT prestiJuli socialuri niSebi. ukontrolo
migraciulma procesebma saqme iqamde miiyvana, rom 90iani wlebis SuaxanebSi donis, stavropolisa da yubanis
kazakobam araerTxel mimarTa antikonstituciur qmedebebs da gaakeTa gancxadebebi, raTa Zalismieri meTodebiT SeezRudaT araslavuri mosaxleobis migraciebi
ruseTis federaciis subieqtebSi. Seqmnil viTarebaSi,
krasnodaris xelisuflebam SeimuSava samxareo migraciis sakanonmdeblo koncefcia, romelic or poziciazea dafuZnebuli _ migraciis raodenobis SezRudvasa
da migraciuli nakadis erovnuli struqturis optimizaciaze. rostovis olqisa da stavropolis saxelisuflo organoebma mxari dauWires krasnodarelebis mier
SeTavazebul migraciuli nakadebis regulirebis koncefcias, magram iqve TavianTi regionebis Taviseburebebsac iTvaliswineben.
“Turqi mesxebis” krasnodaris mxaridan gamodevnis
politika iqamde mivida, rom problemis gadaWraSi dasavleTis qveynebi Caerivnen. ase, magaliTad, aSS mTavrobam
ramdenime aTeul ojaxs amerikaSi Casaxlebis neba misca.
dResac yubanSi kazakTa organizaciebis mwvave damokidebuleba “Turqi mesxebis” mimarT samarTaldamcavi organizaciebis kritikis mudmivi obieqtia.
rac Seexeba saqarTvelos, oficialurma Tbilisma
jer kidev gasuli saukunis 90-iani wlebis bolos aiRo
valdebuleba evrosabWos winaSe 2011 wlamde e.w.“Turqi
mesxebis” dabrunebis Taobaze, magram imis gamo, rom saqarTvelos zemoT CamoTvlil raionebSi dRes somxuri
mosaxleoba Warbobs da gadasaxlebulTa kompaqturad
159
Casaxleba ver xerxdeba, problemis gadaWra gaWianurda. araa gamoricxuli, rom TviTneburma da daufiqrebelma nabijebma, ukontrolo da stiqiurma dabrunebam
eTnikuri konfliqti gamoiwvios. aqve SevniSnavT, rom
qarTul sazogadoebaSi “Turqi mesxebis” dabrunebasTan mimarTebiT azrTa mkveTri sxvadasxvaoba arsebobs.
3. somxebi Crdilo kavkasiaSi pirvelad IX-XII saukuneebSi gamoCndnen. msxvili somxuri dasaxlebebi am
regionSi iqmneba XVIII saukuneSi, rac ruseTis aRmosavluri politikis gaaqtiurebasTanaa dakavSirebuli.
somxebi mniSvnelovan rols asrulebdnen yizlaris,
mozdokis, stavropolisa da sxva qalaqebis, agreTve
yubanisa da SavizRvispireTis soflis mosaxleobis
cxovrebaSi. 1780-ian wlebSi donze daarsda q. naxWevani
da masTan axlos mdebare 6 sofeli. CrdiloeT kavkasiaSi somxebis axali migracia TurqeTSi 1915 wlis somxebis genocids ukavSirdeba. TurqeTidan iZulebiT emigrirebulma somexma kolonistebma TviTmmarTvelobis
ganviTarebis saqmeSi farTo uflebebi da SesaZleblobebi miiRes. CrdiloeT kavkasiaSi maTi tradiciuli
saqmianoba iyo vaWroba, meRvineoba, mebaReoba da xelosnoba. somxebma mniSvnelovani roli Seasrules am
regionis sameurneo da kulturul ganviTarebaSi. amasTanave, maT sakmaod mtkiced SeinarCunes TavianTi kultura da tradiciebi, TumcaRa, xangrZlivi Tanacxovrebis ganmavlobaSi adgilobrivma eTnosebma gavlena somxebis sayofacxovrebo kulturazec moaxdines. somexTa subeTnikuri jgufi krasnodaris mxaresa da adiReSi
imdenad iqna adaptirebuli, imdenad gaiTavisa adiRuri
tradiciebi da ena, rom Tavis Tavs “Cerqezohaebs” (Cerqez-somxebs) uwodebs. morwmune somexma qristianma monofizitebma CerqezeTSi yirimidan gadmosaxleba XI-XII
saukuneebSi daiwyes. ruseTSi gadmosaxlebulma somxebma 1839 wels yubanSi daaarses somxuri auli - armaviri, romelic dRes erT-erTi samrewvelo da savaWro
centria Crdilo kavkasiaSi. am regionTanaa dakavSirebuli somxuri kulturis gamoCenili moRvaweebis, poet
m.nalbandianis, mxatvar m.sarianis, mweral r.patkonia160
nis, m.Saginianisa da sxvaTa saxelebi.
4. Белозеров В.С. Русские на Кавказе: эволюция
расселения // Русские на Северном Кавказе: вызовы XXI в.
Ростов на-Дону. 2002, c.60.
5. Атлас социально-политических проблем, угроз и рисков
Юга России.Ростов на-Дону, 2006, с.86.
6. Ризаханова М.Ш. Дагестанские русские XIX нач. XX в.
Махачкала, 2001, с.31.
7. ix.Атлас социально-политических проблем, угроз и
рисков Юга России.Ростов на-Дону, 2006, с.87
8. pirveli monoTeisturi religia CrdiloeT kavkasiaSi gaCnda IV-V saukuneebSi, romelic aq saqarTvelodan,
bizantiidan da kavkasiis albaneTidan Semovida, magram mosaxleoba, ZiriTadad, warmarTi rCeboda. VII-VIII saukuneebSi aq gavrcelebas iwyebs islami, romelic arabma dampyroblebma Semoitanes. islams pirvelad daRestnis xalxebi eziarnen, romlebmac arabebidan Safiituri mazhabi
gadaiRes. XIXsaukunis 60-ian wlebSi CrdiloeT kavkasiaSi
gavrceleba daiwyo sufizmmac. sabWoTa xelisuflebis
wlebSi meCeTebi da medreseebi daxures, muslimuri samarTalwarmoeba gauqmda. me-20 saukunis 80-iani wlebis bolos religiurma organizaciebma Ria moqmedebis SesaZlebloba miiRes. amave xanebSi dawyebulma sazogadoebrivi
cxovrebis demokratizaciam religiuri aRorZinebisa da
misioneruli moRvaweobis saSualeba Seqmna.
amJamad CrdiloeT kavkasiis respublikebSi upiratesad islamia gavrcelebuli. adiRelebi, abazebi, Cerqezebi,
osebis nawili, yabardoelebi, yaraCaelebi, balyarelebi,
noRaelebi, ZiriTadad, muslimi-sunitebi arian, xolo CeCnebi, inguSebi, daRestnis xalxTa didi nawili, maT Soris
Turqulenovani yumuxebi - Safiituri mazhabis mimdevrebi. daRestnis samxreTSi Siitebi cxovroben. marTlmadidebluri aRmsareblobisa arian rusebi (kazakebi), osebis
umetesi nawili, mozdokis yabardoelebi, yalmuxebis mcire nawili. budizms (mis lamaistur mimarTulebas) umetesad yalmuxebi aRiareben. daRestanSi TaTebis (“mTieli ebraelebis”) nawili iudaizmis mimdevrebi arian.
161
Tavi VI
1. samwuxarod, bolo wlebSi saerTaSoriso urTierTobebSi vxedavT, rom ramdenime fundamenturi dokumenti _ gaeros mier miRebuli “adamianTa uflebebis
deklaracia”(erTa TviTgamorkvevis ufleba) da 1975
wels helsinkis TaTbiris mier miRebuli “sazRvrebis
urRvevobis principi” erTmaneTs ewinaaRmdegeba. amis
TvalsaCino magaliTia 2008 wlis agvistoSi saqarTveloSi ganviTarebuli tragikuli movlenebi.
2. ix. Тхагапсоев Х.Г. Этноэтатизм как инобытие российского федерализма // Научная мысль Кавказа. 2002, №3, с.25-36.
avtori eTnoetatizmSi gulisxmobs CrdiloeT kavkasiis respublikebSi XXI saukunis dasawyisSi Seqmnil
mdgomareobas, rodesac adamianis uflebebi da Tavisuflebebi ara marto faqtobrivad ar Seesabameba ruseTis federaciis konstituciiTa da kanonmdeblobiT
dadgenil normebs, aramed uxeSad arRvevs qveynis samarTlebriv sivrces. am dros warmoiqmneba saxelmwifos saxeliT adamianis, sociumis daTrgunvis movlena.
3. Кухианидзе А.В. Кавказоцентристская концепция демократии // Научная мысль Кавказа, 1995, 34, с.66-72.
4. iqve
5. SafsuRebi adiRTa erT-erTi subeTnosia, romlebic krasnodaris mxareSi cxovroben. maTi raodenoba
10-12 aTas adamians Seadgens. SafsuRebis ena adiRuris
dialeqtia. sarwmunoebis mixedviT SafsuRebi muslimisunitebi arian, romlebic warmarTul religiur adaTebsac inarCuneben. maT Sesaxeb gvxvdeba cnobebi X saukunisa da mis Semdgom periodSi. SafsuRebis eTnogenezi dakavSirebulia SavizRvispireTis abazebis adiRuri
tomebiT asimilaciis xangrZliv procesTan (l.lavrovi). kavkasiis omis dasawyisSi SafsuRebi raodenobiT
adiRTa yvelaze msxvili subeTnosi iyo (300 aTasi adamiani), cxovrobdnen md. yubanis auzsa da SavizRvispireTSi md. jugbasa da md. Saxes Soris. XVIII saukunis bolos SafsuRebma TavianTi Tavadebi gandevnes da demokratiuli wyobileba daamyares: marTva xorcieldeboda
162
saxalxo krebebis (“xasa”) sxvadasxva doneebis sistemis
meSveobiT. samarTalwarmoeba xorcieldeboda adaTisa
da SariaTis safuZvelze. kavkasiis omSi winaaRmdegobas
uwevdnen rogorc Samilis naibs - mahomed-amins, aseve
rusul jars. epidemiebisa da samxedro moqmedebebis,
agreTve muhajirobis gamo, SafsuRebma gamanadgurebeli danakargi ganicades. XX saukunis 90-ian wlebSi daisva sakiTxi SafsuRebis TviTgamorkvevisa da erovnuli raionis aRdgenis Sesaxeb, magram mogvianebiT es sakiTxi dRis wesrigidan moixsna.
6. Цуциев А. 2004, Атлас… указанное сочинение, с.87.
7. http.//www.newsland.ru
8. Дугин А. Геополитика как эффективный метод современной российской политической теории и практики // Научная
мысль Кавказа. 2008, с.5-13.
9. Легвольд Роберт. Российское досье // Россия в
глобальной политике, 2009, №4
10. Бжезинский З. Второй шанс: три президента и кризис
американской сверхдержавы // Foreign Affairs, 2009, #5
11. koleqtiuri usafrTxoebis xelSekrulebis
organizacia - rus.abreviaturiT “odkb” - “organizacia dogovora kollektivnoi bezopasnosti”. masSi Sedian somxeTi, belorusia, yazaxeTi, yirgizeTi, ruseTi,
tajikeTi, uzbekeTi.
12. Sanxais TanamSromlobis organizacia - rus.abreviaturiT “Sos” - “Sanxaiskaia organizacia sotrudniCestva”. masSi Sedian yaxazeTi, CineTi, ruseTi, yirgizeTi da tajikeTi.
13. panTurqizmi _ ideologia, romlis Tanaxmad,
Turqul enaze molaparake yvela xalxi (upirvelesad
Turqi-muslimebi) TiTqosda erT erad iTvlebian da unda gaerTiandnen TurqeTis egidiT erT saxelmwifoSi.
14. Торосян Т. Возвращение Турции // Россия в глобальной политике. 2009, №4.
163
gamomcemloba `universali~
Tbilisi, 0179, i. WavWavaZis gamz. 19, : 22 36 09, 8(99) 17 22 30
E-mail: [email protected]
164

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