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- AHK Korea
www.kgcci.com www.ahk.de
Korea
Unternehmen
Märkte
Nr. 56 I April 2015
Freihandelsabkommen
Schwerpunkt
Recht
Wirtschaft und Branchen
South Korea and China conclude
“historic” trade deal
Origin verification under the
Korea-EU FTA
South Korea sees big potential in
the Internet of Things
Kommentar
Freihandelsabkommen
Liebe Leserinnen und Leser,
Dear Readers,
die globale Verbreitung von Freihandelsabkommen (FHA) gehört zu den prägenden
wirtschaftlichen Phänomenen dieser Zeit
und zu einer der entscheidenden Grundlagen
für Wachstum und Wohlstand. Während
der sich oft über Jahre ziehenden Verhandlungen sorgen die Abkommen immer wieder für Schlagzeilen. Wir nehmen dies zum
Anlass, nicht nur dem Abkommen zwischen
der EU und Korea (welches natürlich auch
bedacht wird), sondern auch weiteren wichtigen Abkommen für Deutschland und Korea
eine KORUM-Ausgabe zu widmen.
The ongoing global proliferation of Free
Trade Agreements (FTAs) is among the major
economic phenomena of this time and a
vital contributor to growth and prosperity.
During FTA negotiations which often last for
years, the agreements are regularly making
headlines. We take this as a reason to
dedicate this issue of KORUM not only to the
EU-Korea FTA but also to further important
agreements for Germany and Korea.
In Korea wurde in rasanter Folge eine Vielzahl neuer Freihandelsabkommen abgeschlossen, nicht zuletzt das mittlerweile
paraphierte Abkommen mit China, dem von
koreanischer Seite große Bedeutung beigemessen wird. In Deutschland und der EU
wird derzeit das Transatlantische Freihandelsabkommen TTIP kontrovers diskutiert,
das auch eine Chance sein könnte, sich wirtschaftlich gegenüber dem „Jahrhundert der
Asiaten“ zu wappnen.
In Bezug auf die Handelsbeziehung zwischen
Korea und Deutschland lässt sich im vierten
Jahr der Anwendung des Freihandelsabkommens von deutscher Seite aus positives
berichten: Während Koreanische Importe
deutscher Produkte 2013 um 9,6 und 2014
um 10,1% gewachsen sind, haben traditionell starke Sektoren wie Automobilindustrie
und Maschinenbau gute Ergebnisse erzielen
können. Zudem konnten zahlreiche zuvor
weniger bedeutsame Produktklassen starkes
Wachstum verzeichnen - nicht zuletzt auch
im Lebensmittelbereich.
Aus koreanischer Sicht zeigt sich eine
gemischte Bilanz, auch wenn bilaterale
Handelszahlen nur einen Teil der Geschichte
erzählen - der Beitrag auf Seite 11 bietet
einen Überblick.
Letztlich bietet diese Ausgabe auch zahlreiche praktische Informationen für eine
optimale Anwendung der Abkommen durch
deutsche Unternehmen.
Barbara Zollmann
Geschäftsführerin
Deutsch-Koreanische
Industrie- und Handelskammer
[email protected]
Korea has negotiated and concluded a variety
of new FTAs in a relatively short period of
time. Among them is also its recently initialed
agreement with China, which Korea views as
hugely important. In Germany and the EU,
TTIP, the Transatlantic Trade and Investment
Partnership which some view as a means for
the EU to prepare for the “Asian Century”,
frequently sparks controversial discussions.
From a German viewpoint, the four years
since the EU-Korea FTA has first been applied
allow a very positive evaluation: Korean
imports of German products soared by
9.6% in 2013 and 10.1% in 2014, while
traditionally strong German sectors such as
the automotive industry and the mechanical
industry recorded good growth rates. In
addition, numerous previously less significant
sectors also strongly increased their export
volumes - among them for example the
German food industry.
For Korea, bilateral trade with the EU has
seen somewhat mixed results over the past
years. While trade numbers only tell a part
of the story, the article on page 11 offers an
insight in the Korean view on the agreement.
Lastly, this KORUM issue also provides
practical information for German companies
on how to make the most efficient use of
FTAs.
KORUM Nr. 56 | April 2015 3
Auf der Suche nach einem
attraktiven Standort in Korea?
Wir bieten Ihnen mehr als nur
ein Dach über dem Kopf!
Das German Office in den Räumlichkeiten der AHK Korea bietet die perfekte
Umgebung für Ihre ersten Schritte in Korea:
- Zentrale Lage mit einfachem Zugang zu wichtigen Geschäftsbezirken
- Nur eine Monatsmiete als Kaution
- Deutschsprachiger Mietvertrag
- Unterstützung durch unsere bilingualen Korea-Experten
Kontakt:
Andreas Schäfer
Tel.: +82 (0)2 37804-680
E-mail: [email protected]
KORUM
Freihandelsabkommen
Korea I Unternehmen I Märkte
8 Schwerpunkt
Kommentar
Freihandelsabkommen
3
Schwerpunkt Südkorea und China schließen "historisches" Freihandelsabkommen
8
Mehr Transparenz für TTIP
10
Lessons from the Korea-EU FTA
11
The impact of the EU-Korea FTA after 3 years: A win-win story
14
Warenverkehr zwischen der Europäischen Union und Südkorea
16
South Korea and China on February 25, 2015 initialed a bilateral Free
Trade Agreement (FTA) which is likely to provide new momentum to the
mutual trade relationship. Hopes are high that the agreement will help
Korea to boost its economy. Especially the chemical sector and consumer goods could benefit from the FTA.
18 Wirtschaft und Branchen
Wirtschaft und Branchen Korea-EU "mutual equivalence" for organic products 18
Südkorea setzt auf das „Internet der Dinge"
18
Kooperation An example of the Korean model of “Working & Learning” – C&M Robotics
21
The Korean IT sector, due to increasing saturation of the domestic
market, is constantly looking for new growth engines. Among the most
promising ones is the “Internet of Things”. Large companies such as
Samsung and LG adapt their products to the new possibilities the interlinking of electronic devices with the digital world offers.
Recht Gründung des FAU Campus Busan
22
Origin Verification under the Korea-EU FTA
24
24 Recht
Kontakte News and People
26
New Members 26
Upcoming 27
Contacts
27
Innovation Awards
29
The Korea-EU FTA adopts an “indirect verification method” as its basic
principle of origin verification. This expert article provides an overview
of issues and solutions within the verification process.
KORUM Nr.
Nr. 56
56 || April
April 2015
2015 77
KORUM
Schwerpunkt
Südkorea und China schließen „historisches“
Freihandelsabkommen
„Meilenstein“ im regionalen Warenaustausch / Seoul erhofft mehr Chemieund Konsumgüterexporte
Alexander Hirschle
South Korea and China on February 25, 2015 initialed a bilateral Free Trade Agreement
(FTA) which is likely to provide new momentum to the mutual trade relationship. Hopes
are high that the agreement will help Korea to boost its economy. Especially the chemical sector and consumer goods could benefit from the FTA. Large parts of both the agricultural and the automotive sector have been excluded from the agreement.
Südkorea und die VR China haben am 25.
Februar 2015 die Paraphierung eines bilateralen Freihandelsabkommens (FHA) bekanntgegeben. Nach dem im November 2014
bekanntgegebenen vorläufigen Abschluss der
Verhandlungen stellt die Paraphierung einen
weiteren Schritt in Richtung der Anwendung des Abkommens dar. Noch muss das
FHA allerdings offiziell unterzeichnet und
von den jeweiligen Parlamenten ratifiziert
werden.
Bei dem Abkommen wird es sich aller
Voraussicht nach um das 14. FHA Südkoreas mit anderen Ländern oder Staatengemeinschaften handeln. Offizielle Stimmen
stufen dieses Abkommen als wichtigsten
wirtschaftlichen Meilenstein im bilateralen
Verhältnis seit Aufnahme der diplomatischen
Beziehungen zur VR China im Jahr 1992 ein.
Lokale Institute gehen gar davon aus, dass
eine neue Ära der Handelsbeziehungen zwischen den beiden Ländern anbrechen und
sich die regionalen Warenströme in Ostasien
damit verschieben könnten.
Der Vertrag umfasst 22 Kapitel und nahezu
sämtliche Bereiche, wie Produkte, Dienstleistungen, Investitionen, Finanzen und Kommunikation. Ausgenommen sind Kraftfahrzeuge und etwa 30% der landwirtschaftlichen Erzeugnisse, darunter Reis, Rind- und
Schweinfleisch sowie Äpfel. Die VR China
wird demzufolge für 91% der gesamten
Warenpalette ihre Zölle innerhalb von 20
Jahren eliminieren, Südkorea für 92% beziehungsweise für 85% des bilateralen Import-
8
KORUM Nr. 56 | April 2015
werts. Presseinformationen zufolge wird
Südkorea für 9.600 seiner insgesamt 12.000
Importwaren aus China innerhalb von zehn
Jahren die Zölle auf "0" setzen.
Anders als die Abkommen mit den USA oder
der EU wird das FHA mit China außerdem
die zollfreie Einfuhr von im Kaesong-Industriekomplex gefertigten Produkten ermöglichen. Mehr als 300 in Kaesong hergestellte
Produkte sollen nach Medienberichten vom
Zollabbau profitieren. Der in Nordkorea liegende Industriekomplex ist das letzte verbleibende große Kooperationsprojekt zwischen Süd- und Nordkorea.
Korea baut weltweiten präferentiellen
Zugang aus
Lokale Beobachter überschlagen sich bei
der Einordnung des Abkommens mit Superlativen wie "monumental" oder "beispiellos". Die Bedeutung des FHA gehe weit über
wirtschaftliche Impulse hinaus und könne auch einen positiven Einfluss auf die
geopolitische Lage und sicherheitsrelevante
Außenhandel von Südkorea mit der VR China
Jahr
2009
2010
2011
2012
2013
2014
Ausfuhr
86,7
116,8
134,2
134,3
145,9
145,3
Veränderung
-5,1
34,8
14,8
0,1
8,6
-0,4
Aspekte ausüben. Ökonomen messen dem
Abkommen eine erhebliche Bedeutung für
die wirtschaftliche Entwicklung bei, zumal
die Außenhandelsquote der ostasiatischen
Halbinsel bei mehr als 80% liegt. Mit dem
China-Abkommen hat Südkorea nun zu 72%
des globalen Bruttoinlandsprodukts einen
präferenziellen Zugang über Freihandelsvereinbarungen. Gleichzeitig ist es neben Chile
und Peru das einzige Land weltweit, das FHA
mit den drei großen Wirtschaftsmächten
USA, EU und VR China aufweisen kann.
Die VR China ist mit Abstand der wichtigste
bilaterale Handelspartner Südkoreas mit
einem Warenaustausch im Wert von umgerechnet 235,4 Mrd. USD im Jahr 2014 - entsprechend rund 21,4% des gesamten südkoreanischen Handelsvolumens oder 25,4%
aller südkoreanischen Exporte. Die Ausfuhren
Südkoreas nach China erreichen in etwa die
Höhe der Exporte in die EU-Länder, die USA
und Japan zusammengenommen.
Das Handelsministerium in Seoul geht davon
aus, dass der bilaterale Handel durch das
neue Abkommen schon 2015 den Gesamtwert von 300 Mrd. USD übersteigen wird.
Die Zollersparnis für die Firmen soll sich
Schätzungen zu Folge jährlich auf 5,4 Mrd.
USD summieren. Finanzinstitute rechnen
mit einem positiven Effekt auf das BIP von
in Mrd. USD, Veränderung gegenüber dem Vorjahr in %
Einfuhr
54,3
71,6
86,4
80,8
83,1
90,1
Veränderung
-29,5
31,9
20,8
-6,5
2,8
8,5
Saldo
32,4
45,2
47,8
53,5
62,8
55,2
Quelle: Koreanische Außenhandelsstatistik, Kotis
Schwerpunkt
Einfuhren aus EU-Ländern in den ersten drei
Quartalen 2014 um fast 30% im Vergleich
mit derselben Vorjahresperiode gestiegen.
Einige Ökonomen sehen deshalb die Gefahr,
dass sich der sektorale Handelsbilanzüberschuss der VR China mit Südkorea, der 2013
fast 4 Mrd. USD erreichte, weiter erhöhen
könnte. Ebenfalls wird darauf hingewiesen,
dass Qualität und Sicherheit der aus China
eingeführten Lebensmittel künftig genauer
geprüft werden müssten.
1,25% innerhalb von fünf Jahren, nach zehn
Jahren sogar in Höhe von mehr als 3%.
Die koreanische Seite betont, dass der Vertrag vor allem kleine und mittelständische
Exporteure fördern solle, weniger die großen
Kfz- und Elektronikunternehmen, die ohnehin bereits Teile ihrer Produktionsbasis ins
"Reich der Mitte" verlagert haben. Aus diesem Grund gehen Regierungsvertreter davon
aus, dass weder Hyundai Motor noch Kia
Motors allzu negativ von der Ausgliederung der Kfz-Industrie aus dem Abkommen
betroffen sein werden. Zur Unterstützung
vor allem kleinerer und mittlerer Unternehmen hat die Korea International Trade Association bereits ein FHA „Help Desk“ eingerichtet und plant die Eröffnung weiterer
Support-Center in Beijing, Qingdao, Shanghai und Chengdu.
Kein Import preisgünstiger Kfz aus China
Auch wird es keine Möglichkeit für deutsche
Hersteller geben, ihre Kfz aus der VR China
zu günstigeren Tarifen nach Südkorea zu liefern. Etwaige Nachverhandlungen zur Integration des Kfz-Sektors in das Abkommen
können frühestens zwei Jahre nach Inkrafttreten gestartet werden. Die Zollsätze für
Kfz-Einfuhren in der VR China belaufen sich
auf 22,5%, für Lieferungen in die Gegenrichtung auf 8%. Auf koreanischer Seite zeigten
sich einige Experten erleichtert, dass man
künftig nicht eine verstärkte Konkurrenz
preisgünstiger Pkw aus der VR China im Binnenmarkt zu befürchten habe.
Nach Einschätzung von Beobachtern dürften
vor allem die Branchen Chemie/Petrochemie
und Maschinenbau von dem FHA profitieren.
Derzeit gehen rund 40% der PetrochemieAusfuhren ins "Reich der Mitte" zu Zollsätzen von durchschnittlich 5 bis 6%. Auch
koreanische Kosmetikerzeugnisse genießen
in Asien und der VR China einen sehr guten
Ruf und werden nach Wegfall des Zolltarifs
von 6,5% preislich noch attraktiver für die
Konsumenten. Das gleiche gilt für hochwertige Modeerzeugnisse, die sich auf zunehmende Absatzmöglichkeiten freuen. Auch
der Schifffahrts- und Luftfahrtverkehrssektor dürfte Vorteile aus dem Abkommen über
höhere Fracht- und Personenaufkommen
ziehen. So zeichnen bei der größten Fluggesellschaft des Landes, Korean Air, die Flüge nach China bereits heute für 12% der
Ticketverkäufe verantwortlich.
Im Agrarsektor zeigten sich die Regierungsverantwortlichen zufrieden, dass es Südkorea zum ersten Mal gelungen sei, im Rahmen eines FHA-Vertrages 30% der Produkte
von Zollsenkungen auszunehmen. Insgesamt umfasst die Liste der als "hochsensibel"
eingestuften und damit nicht aufgenommenen landwirtschaftlichen Produkte 852
Positionen. Kritiker sehen dennoch negative
Effekte für die lokalen Agrarunternehmen
am Horizont. Nach Berechnungen des Korea
Institute for International Economic Policy
wird die Produktion heimischer Landwirte
und Fischereibetriebe bis 2020 aufgrund
verstärkter Konkurrenz durch Importe aus
der VR China um rund 20% zurückgehen.
Kritiker sehen größere FHA-Vorteile für
chinesische Seite
Andere Branchenvertreter erwarten kurzfristig eher geringe Auswirkungen des Abkommens, befürchten aber auf mittlere Frist eine
Schädigung der Agroindustrie. Als warnende
Beispiele verweisen sie auf die bereits implementierten Abkommen mit den USA und
der EU. So seien die landwirtschaftlichen
Kritiker des Abkommens gehen davon aus,
dass es nur eine Frage der Zeit sei, bis Südkorea in nahezu sämtlichen Wirtschaftssektoren bis auf Kfz, Halbleiter und Maschinen hinter die VR China zurückfallen werde.
Besonders hart würden dabei kleine und
mittlere Firmen, die Stahlindustrie, der
Schiffbau und Hersteller günstiger Haushaltswaren, Bekleidung und Stoffe sowie
elektronischer Komponenten oder IT-Erzeugnisse wie Smartphones getroffen, so die
kritischen Stimmen.
Die Exportdynamik Südkoreas nach China
ließ 2014 im Vergleich mit den Vorjahren
bereits nach. Als Gründe werden das geringe
Wachstum im "Reich der Mitte", aber auch
die zunehmend geringere Abhängigkeit
Chinas von Importen und steigende Produktqualität im Vergleich mit koreanischen
Erzeugnissen angeführt. Moderatere Analysen weisen darauf hin, dass die chinesische
Wirtschaft im Hinblick auf das Qualitätsniveau ihrer Erzeugnisse zwar stark aufgeholt
habe. Die südkoreanischen Unternehmen
müssten aber unabhängig von dem neuen
FHA Wettbewerbsfähigkeit und Innovationskraft auf einen erhöhten Stand anheben:
"Alles hängt von unserer Wettbewerbsfähigkeit ab", so ein Kommentator. Südkorea habe
es selbst in der Hand, ob das Abkommen
mit der VR China sich als Erfolg herauskristallisieren oder eine Bedrohung für die heimische Wirtschaft darstellen werde.
Alexander Hirschle
Korrespondent von Germany Trade &
Invest in Korea.
KORUM Nr. 56 | April 2015 9
Schwerpunkt
Mehr Transparenz für TTIP
Freya Lemcke
While Korea is anticipated to sign an FTA with China in the first half of 2015 which will
likely have a big effect on its economy, the EU is getting closer to concluding its negotiations with the USA regarding another major agreement: The Transatlantic Trade and
Investment Partnership (TTIP). Within TTIP negotiations, there have been concerns about
lacking transparency and co-determination. This article answers some of the points frequently brought forward.
„Intransparent“ ist das Wort, das in der
öffentlichen Diskussion am häufigsten
genutzt wird, um die Verhandlungen zur
Freihandelsabkommen zwischen der EU und
den USA (TTIP) zu beschreiben. Doch wie
sieht es tatsächlich aus mit Transparenz
und Mitbestimmung bei den TTIP-Verhandlungen? Hier der Faktencheck:
Trifft die Europäische Kommission die
Entscheidung über die Inhalte von TTIP?
Die Entscheidung, Freihandelsverhandlungen
mit den USA zu beginnen, wurde von den
Regierungen der EU-Staaten im Rat der
Europäischen Union getroffen. Sie haben der
Europäischen Kommission durch ein einstimmig erteiltes Mandat den Auftrag zur Aufnahme von Verhandlungen erteilt und darin
deren Inhalte bestimmt. Die Europäische
Kommission darf nur die Inhalte verhandeln,
die in diesem Mandat festgelegt wurden.
Während der Verhandlungen informiert die
Kommission das Europäische Parlament und
den Rat fortlaufend über die Umsetzung
des Mandats. Die Kommission sucht auch
strukturiert von Stakeholdern Input: Neben
öffentlichen Konsultationen zum Investitionsschutz und Handels¬hemmnissen für
kleine und mittlere Unternehmen (KMU)
wurde Anfang 2014 eine sogenannte Advisory Group einberufen, die sich aus Experten
verschiedener Wirtschaftsbranchen, Verbraucherschützern, Umweltverbänden und
Gewerkschaften zusammensetzt und sich
regelmäßig mit dem EU-Verhandlungsteam
austauscht. Zudem findet bei jeder Verhandlungsrunde ein „Stakeholder-Treffen“ statt,
bei dem interessierte Organisationen ihre
Sicht der Verhandlungen präsentieren können und über deren Fortgang informiert
werden.
Kam die Aufnahme von Verhandlungen
überraschend?
Die erste Idee zu einem Freihandelsabkommen hatte der deutsche Außenminister Klaus
Kinkel bereits in den 1990er Jahren. Seitdem
wurde die Idee einer verstärkten Wirtschaftskooperation mit den USA wiederholt diskutiert – insbesondere seit der Gründung
des transatlantischen Wirtschaftsrates 2007.
Im Rahmen des EU-US Gipfels 2011 wurde
dann die “Hochrangige Arbeitsgruppe für
Wachstum und Arbeitsplätze“ gegründet, die
bereits in ihrem Zwischenbericht 2012 die
Aufnahme von Freihandelsverhandlungen
empfohlen hat, ehe dann der Abschlussbericht mit der endgültigen Empfehlung im
Februar 2013 publiziert wurde. Die Aufnahme der Verhandlungen war also das Ergebnis eines langen Prozesses, in den auch die
Öffentlichkeit und das Parlament eingebunden waren: Die Europäische Kommission
10
KORUM Nr. 56 | April 2015
hat 2012 zwei offene Konsultation zu den
Ergebnissen der Arbeitsgruppe durchgeführt.
Die Abgeordneten im Europäischen Parlament haben die vorgeschlagene Aufnahme
von Verhandlungen mit zwei Beschlüssen im
Oktober 2012 und Mai 2013 unterstützt.
Kann die Europäische Kommission das
Abkommen alleine abschließen?
Nein. Die europäische Kommission ist lediglich Verhandlungsführerin im Auftrag der
Mitgliedstaaten. Das verhandelte Abkommen
muss von den Mitgliedstaaten im Rat der
Europäischen Union sowie vom Europäischen
Parlament angenommen werden. Berührt
es auch Themengebiete, die im Verantwortungsbereich der EU-Mitgliedstaaten liegen,
so muss es als sogenanntes „gemischtes
Abkommen“ auch von den Parlamenten aller
EU-Mitgliedstaaten ratifiziert werden.
Was steckt hinter der neuen
Transparenzinitiative der
EU-Handelskommissarin?
Bereits jetzt hat die EU-Kommission viele
Dokumente, wie z.B. einige Verhandlungspositionen zum TTIP, auf ihrer Webseite öffentlich gemacht. Nun möchte die neue EUHandelskommissarin Cecilia Malmström die
TTIP-Verhandlungen durch drei Maßnahmen
noch transparenter machen: Erstens werden
nun auch EU-Verhandlungsdokumente veröffentlicht, in die bisher nur die Regierungen
der EU-Mitgliedstaaten und das EU-Parlament Einsicht nehmen konnten. Zweitens
können nun alle EU-Parlamentarier in einem
Leseraum die TTIP-Texte der EU einsehen.
Zusätzlich sollen weniger Dokumente zu
den TTIP-Verhandlungen als „EU restricted“
klassifiziert werden, damit sie für EU-Parlamentarier auch außerhalb des Leseraums
zugänglich sind.
Freya Lemcke
Referatsleiterin Handelspolitik,
EU-Zollfragen und transatlantische
Beziehungen, DIHK Brüssel.
Schwerpunkt
Lessons from the Korea-EU FTA
A Korean perspective on the Free Trade Agreement with the European Union
Chang woo Lee
Almost four years have passed since the
entry into force of the Free Trade Agreement
(FTA) between Korea and the EU (KOR-EU
FTA). Bilateral trade after three years of FTA
application has grown by 10.3% compared
to the same period in the prior year. From
the Korean viewpoint, however, the last
three years have seen a fourfold increase in
its trade deficit with the EU from 1.8 billion
USD to 7.4 billion USD with Korean imports
from the EU growing by 12.5% while exports
only grew 7.8%. The Korean government has
explained this outcome by pointing at three
main factors: Economic difficulties in the EU
in the aftermath of the European debt crisis,
the weak Euro, and a European change of
sourcing destinations. Also in view of the
agreements yet to be concluded, this poses
the question what lessons Korea can learn
from the FTA.
Given the rapid proliferation of FTAs - according to WTO data, a total of 395 FTAs were
in effect globally in January 2015 and the
agreements reach every corner of the planet.
Including the agreements currently under
negotiation, there are more than 600 agreements and it is estimated that at the end of
2015, FTAs will account for 60% of global
trade. FTAs have thus become the “new normal” in international commerce.
Given their rapid spread, FTA contents as
well as coverage has developed in many
ways. FTA contents, at first merely providing preferential tariffs for the exchange of
goods, have soon started including further
areas like services, agriculture, knowledge
exchange, investment, and government
procurement. Recent agreements frequently also include regulations regarding state
enterprises or small and medium enterprises
(SMEs).
Coming to their different forms, there are
of course bilateral and plurilateral FTAs.
However, agreements with an even broader coverage such as the Trade in Services
Agreement (TISA) or the Environmental
Goods Agreement (EGA) are also increasing.
Especially due to the increase in large plurilateral agreements such as TPP (Trans-Pacific
Partnership), FTAAP (Free Trade Area of the
Asia Pacific). RCEP (Regional Comprehensive
Economic Partnership), or TTIP (Transatlantic
Trade and Investment Partnership), the new
paradigm of “FTA network” appears. In the
face of competition between large FTA networks, i.e., large common economic areas,
competition between single nation states
seems to be waning.
Within the fierce global competition
among FTAs, trade-dependent Korea has
also actively embraced and sought for the
conclusion of FTAs with its trade partners.
Presently, Korea has concluded negotiations
on 16 FTAs with 54 countries. 11 agreements have already entered into effect, while the already concluded agreements with
Colombia, China, Vietnam, New Zealand,
and Turkey (Service/Investment Agreement)
are awaiting application. Korea currently has
concluded FTAs with countries that produce
73.2% of global GDP. This puts it in the 3rd
place globally regarding the scope of its
FTAs - up from 5th place with 60.9%. Furthermore, 62.4% of its total trade is covered
through FTAs. After conclusion of all FTAs
currently being negotiated, Korea’s FTAs will
surpass 83% of global GDP, making Korea
one of the global FTA hubs.
The KOR-EU FTA was concluded in the midst
of this “FTA Tsunami“. For the EU which was
already experienced in negotiating and concluding similar FTAs, this agreement must
have been not more and not less than an
agreement with the world’s ninth largest
trading nation. For the, until then, relatively
inexperienced Korea, however, the agreement was very important for a number of
reasons: First, since the FTA constituted
Korea’s first major agreement with a developed partner, Korea could learn much from
the negotiating process. The KOR-EU FTA,
which had been concluded while the KoreaUS FTA was still being negotiated, taught
Korea valuable lessons regarding, among
others, the bargaining power of developed
countries, standards, institutions, and FTA
application. Second, the agreement also
was Korea’s first FTA with a large market.
Hence, the FTA also provided many export
opportunities for Korean enterprises as well
as opportunities to discover new business
models in the 28 countries of the common
European market. Third, Korea gained additional confidence through the experience.
Until then, Korea followed its FTA plans in
a rather passive way and was internally
confronted with a vague fear and hostility
towards FTAs. Conclusion of a major FTA
with a large developed market such as the
EU initiated an acceleration of Korea’s FTA
plans with other countries. This effect can
be directly traced back to the positive impetus from the KOR-EU FTA.
However, it cannot be denied that the agreement also caused some negative outcomes some areas have suffered greatly from the
conclusion: The comparatively weak Korean
agricultural sector has suffered from cheap
imports of European agricultural goods; the
complex environmental regulations of the
EU have been a big burden for Korean enterprises; and strong inflow of cosmetics, medical devices, fashion goods, and furniture, etc.
from the EU has negatively affected Korean
companies within these sectors. While this is
only partially relevant, the approach of some
European companies to set their prices in
Korea higher than in other countries despite
the FTA has hurt the pride of many Koreans.
Further, starting with conclusion of the FTA,
the Korean trade deficit has constantly worsened and Korean exports to the EU have
KORUM Nr. 56 | April 2015 11
Schwerpunkt
actually declined right after entry into effect
of the FTA due to a number of unfavorable
factors, among them the financial and economic difficulties in the Eurozone. This, of
course, was a disappointing development for
Korea which had expected a sizeable increase in exports. While main factors surely
are the economic slump in the EU as well
as the Korean export structure, gradually
increasing non-tariff barriers to trade (NTBs)
on the European side have also been quoted
as one factor.
To provide some examples of unfair NTBs
against Korean companies: Export of Korean
flatfish which is among the top five marine
export products and a strategical Korean
export item to the EU has for example been
extremely difficult. While import for human
consumption should be possible in accordance with EC NO 1250/2008 (amending a
regulation on certification requirements for
fishery products), England’s insistence on
Viral Hemorrhagic Septicemia (VHS) inspections, preliminary testing obligations, and
complex quarantine requirements have gravely inhibited exports. Further, although this
issue has already been resolved through a
summit, Korea has been unfairly audited on
an annual basis through the Foreign Trade
Association’s Business Social Compliance
Initiative for the last ten years. Due to this
treatment, Korea has suffered unnecessary
expenses as well as a loss of image that may
also have affected the success of Korean
good by being put in relation to countries
with poor labor standards.
Thirdly, the recent strengthening of various
regulations in areas such as health, energy,
and environment, etc. is creating burdensome NTBs. The EU will for example extend
the Classification, Labelling and Packaging
Regulation for chemical goods to mixtures
and finished products starting from June
2015. Also, starting from this year, obligatory application of energy labels is expanded
to electrical and electronic devices such as
household ovens, heaters, and water heaters
and the European emission standard Euro
6 will be introduced in September 2015.
Despite tariff abolition through the FTA,
hidden barriers to trade such as new regula-
12
KORUM Nr. 56 | April 2015
tions, procedures, and testing requirements
or rules are frequently being added. For the
purpose of mutual benefit, the EU should
work on easing NTBs against Korean products. This would lead to a correction of the
one-sided trade deficit and create better
opportunities for mutual trade growth.
Korea has learned a number of valuable
lessons during the now four years since the KOR-EU FTA came into effect. First,
the development of the global trade landscape should be observed closely. FTAs are
constantly evolving in content as well as
coverage - politics and business associations
need to catch up with these developments in
order to help businesses make the best use
of the agreements. Second, the know-how
gained from the KOR-EU FTA should be shared. Despite some difficulties and an increase in Korean trade deficit, the agreement
is a success and bilateral trade is increasing.
Third, European companies should participate in the Korean FTA network which already is the third largest in the world. Korea
has emerged as a unique FTA hub, connecting North America, Europe, North-East Asia,
South-West Asia, and Oceania.
Also due to this global network, German,
Hungarian, Chinese companies among
others have recently attended a lecture by
the author of this article. After the lecture,
an Indian firm requested market entry consultation. Furthermore, the Chinese government has invited the author to China to hold
a lecture and to educate Chinese businesses
in Free Economic Trade Zones and public
officials about FTA issues. This interest in the
Korean FTA network is understandable since
foreign companies could benefit from access
to some of the largest global markets by
participating in the network.
European companies have further reason to
join the Korean FTA network: First, with FTA
competition becoming increasingly fierce on
a global scale, many countries seek to conclude agreements with a large number of
countries at once, meaning that the complexity of FTA ties is intensifying dramatically.
A point in case is the phenomenon that one
country concludes numerous FTAs with ano-
ther single country through bilateral, plurilateral and multilateral agreements. Korea for
example is expected to share six FTAs with
China, five agreements each with Singapore
and Vietnam, and three with Costa Rica,
Canada, and the USA. Under these circumstances, businesses with each transaction
have to check minutely what agreements
exist between the two countries and which
one is the most advantageous. Because the
foreign business partner will choose the
FTA which is most beneficial to him, those
companies which do not know the existing
agreements sufficiently will likely suffer
losses. Companies hence must familiarize
themselves with FTA rules in order to pursue
global business including import/export, services and plant engineering.
Korea has anticipated this development in
the FTA field and prepared its businesses
well for the past ten years - it is thus well
equipped to counter this increasing complexity. With increasing complexity, foreign
businesses will seek to treat Korean companies increasingly unfavorably. In the future,
Korean enterprises will be among the most
experienced ones in FTA value chain optimization. This term describes the harmonization of trade processes according to existing
FTA conditions by each enterprise. Such FTA
optimization thus leads to lower transaction
costs, improved competitiveness and profitability. The Korea Free Trade Agreement
Industry Association has already established
15 different standards to help businesses
with such optimization and further provides
education and consulting services which
could also be beneficial for European companies. It is exactly this experience with the
complexity of the current FTA landscape
and value chain optimization-ability which
attracts foreign companies to the Korean
FTA network and leads foreign governments
to want to adapt Korean FTAs’ contents,
application know-how and FTA education
systems.
Korea has developed from novice to expert
in FTAs within a very short time. It is true
that the FTA with the EU has helped Korea
a lot in this process. And it would be wise
to make use of the lessons won throughout
Schwerpunkt
the past three years in planning for the next
30 years to come. For this purpose, some
suggestions can be made to governments
and businesses of both countries: First, it is
important to jointly work on easing market entry conditions. Mutual cooperation
and increased correspondence is for example necessary when it comes to mandatory
requirements such as marks, registration,
certification, and evaluation and examination schemes. Mutual cooperation would be
especially beneficial with regard to requirements touching upon sustainability such as
the EU’s REACH or Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR) standards. Second, a cooperative system for businesses of both countries
is needed. Mutual participation in big-scale
projects such as the EU Horizon Project or
information exchange regarding FTAs to be
concluded with third territories should also
be increased. Third, cooperation between
Korea and the EU is needed regarding trade
agreements with broader coverage. Korea is
currently in negotiations on multiple such
FTAs: the Korea-China-Japan FTA, RCEP,
TPP, and FTAAP. Similarly, Korean businesses
could benefit hugely from increased cooperation on the EU’s agreements such as OCTs
(Overseas Countries and Territories), its FTA
with the ACP (African, Caribbean and Pacific
Group of States), and TTIP (Transatlantic
Trade and Investment Partnership) which is
currently being negotiated. Additionally, also
with regard to current negotiations on the
TISA (Trade in Services Agreement) closer
exchange between Korea and the EU would
be beneficial for both sides.
At the end of this short piece, the author
would like to also suggest establishing a
common FTA forum between businesses
from the EU and Korea as an additional
channel for mutual cooperation. Korea in
fact has already established a similar format
with Chinese businesses and meets once a
year in Seoul or Beijing for an exchange on
trade issues. Such a forum can build a platform for exchange between businesses from
both countries, help them to make better
use of the agreement and support the further development of the FTA.
Chang woo Lee
Chairman of the Korea Free Trade
Agreement Industry Association
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KORUM Nr. 56 | April 2015 13
Schwerpunkt
The impact of the EU-Korea FTA after 3 years:
A win-win story
Tomasz Kozlowski
When I started preparing for this article, my
first instinct was to look at trade figures in
the last years and in particular at the comparison between the year immediately prior
to the FTA (July 2010- June 2011) and the
three following years. I was also tempted to
start the paper quoting and analysing such
figures. However, after reflection, I have
decided to start this assessment by asking
myself, first, what makes an FTA a good FTA
and, second, how one can assess if there is
a winner and a loser in such an agreement.
Many replies could be given to the first question but in my view they all boil down to a
couple of elements: the FTA's contribution
to growth and jobs and the benefits for consumers in terms of choice and prices. The
second question is more complex since one
can look at winners and losers in absolute
terms, by comparing the trade evolution of
the FTA parties or by comparing the trade
evolution of parties to an FTA with other
countries not having a an FTA with either
of the two partners. I will try to look at all
these elements.
In order to be able to assess the impact
of the EU-Korea FTA, I will try to reply to
two questions: whether trade liberalisation
following the EU-Korea FTA has substantially contributed to the economic growth,
job creation and consumer welfare on
both sides; and whether participation to
this comprehensive and high-quality trade
arrangement caused asymmetry of gains
between parties.
To reply to the first question, before looking
at actual figures I would like to recall that
there is consensus among economists that,
irrespective of the results in terms of trade
flows, there are two compelling reasons why
openness to trade is good for the economy.
First, the exposure to foreign competition
forces domestic industry to become more
14
KORUM Nr. 56 | April 2015
efficient since without free trade, domestic companies may enjoy monopolies or
oligopolies that enable them to keep high
prices and to pass them on to consumers.
Free trade also increases competitiveness
by reducing the cost of key foreign inputs
and by enabling access to quality-enhancing
new technologies. Such elements are particularly strong for FTA partners that are relatively small economies, such as Korea, where
domestic competition is naturally more limited and where key technologies might not
be available in all production areas.
Second, openness to imports reduces costs
for consumers. It is obvious that free trade,
by reducing trade barriers, brings a greater
variety of products, but also lower prices.
This welfare effect for consumers is often
the strongest element in the impact of liberalisation, particularly in highly protected
sectors, like agriculture (which, incidentally,
is not fully liberalised under the EU-Korea
FTA). The positive effect of liberalisation
for consumers in Korea may not be so visible yet, mainly because of what some have
argued to be an oligopolistic, multi-layered
and inefficient distribution system that
allows importers, distributors and retailers to
cash most of the FTA benefits without redu-
cing consumer prices much. The FTA had a
very limited impact yet on the distribution
system but it is hoped that foreign investments in retail and distribution services will
also improve the competitiveness of this
part of the Korean economy and allow greater benefits for final consumers.
Looking at trade figures, based on an analysis of the evolution of trade between the EU
and Korea over the three years after the FTA
took effect (i.e. July 2011 to June 2014), it is
clear that the FTA has worked very well for
the EU. However, a deeper analysis shows
that it has been a good deal also for Korea
which, thanks to the FTA, has reinforced
its position in the EU market compared to
countries that do not have any trade agreement in force with the EU. Moreover Korean
exports of goods liberalised under the FTA
did better than average exports not covered
by the agreement.
EU exports to Korea increased by 35%, from
30.6 billion EUR in the 12-month period
before the FTA took effect to 41.4 billion
EUR in the third year of the FTA implementation. During the same period, EU exports
to Korea of products that were fully or partially liberalised by the FTA grew more than
Schwerpunkt
the overall exports, i.e. by 46% and 37%
respectively.
In the third year of FTA implementation, EU
imports from Korea totalled 37.9 billion EUR,
which is roughly equal to the 12-month
period before the FTA took effect. However,
in the third year imports increased by 6%
compared to the previous year. In contrast
to the development of overall imports to
the EU from Korea, imports of products that
were fully or partially liberalised by the FTA
grew by 21% and 26% respectively, whereas
EU imports from Korea of products subject
to zero MFN tariff decreased by 23%.
It is also worth noting that in the third year
of the FTA implementation, EU imports from
the world decreased by 4% compared to the
previous year. Moreover, EU imports from
its 14 main suppliers decreased, with the
exception of Korea, Turkey (6% increase
each) and China (1% increase). This is confirmed by a report by the Korea International Trade Association (KITA) , showing that
Korea’s export growth rate of the items that
benefited from the FTA was higher than that
of rival countries such as China, Japan and
Taiwan since the FTA went in effect in July
2011.
Actually, the effects of the FTA on Korean
exports were prominent during the economic crisis. According to KITA's analysis and
figures, in the first year of Korea-EU FTA
(July 2011- June 2012) the exports to the
EU of the items that benefited from the
accord increased by 18.4 percent year on
year while Japan (-1.0%), China (0.0%) and
Taiwan (-4.0%) had difficulties exporting
the same goods due to the financial crisis.
In the second year (July, 2012 – June 2013),
for the same goods, the deepening financial
crisis affected Korea’s exports to the EU by
lowering to 0.4% the growth rate. However
this was insignificant when compared to the
results of Japan (-10.1%), China (-1.3%) and
Taiwan (-4.7%). In the third year (July 2013
– June 2014), as recovery from the financial
crisis started to take hold Korea’s exports of
liberalised goods gained 4.1% which was
a better performance than that of Japan
(-6.5%), China (2.1) and Taiwan (3.8%).
The FTA has also had a positive impact on
foreign direct investments that should not
be overlooked. In the last few years, the
EU has consolidated its position as the largest source of FDI into Korea and has been
instrumental in providing high-quality job
opportunities and economic growth but also
introducing innovative and efficient technologies and products.
Then, let me reply to the second question as
mentioned above, regarding whether either
of the two FTA partners benefitted more
from trade liberalisation. One could argue
that the EU-Korea FTA was not a good deal
for Korea, simply because the overall trade balance has turned into the EU’s favour
and this has been quite a popular argument
in Korean media. However, let me underline that this is a very simplistic and shortsighted view. As seen above, Korean companies did much better in the depressed EU
market than they would have done without
the FTA both in absolute terms and compared with their main competitors. Moreover
one should bear in mind that trade is not a
zero sum game and a few other elements
should be taken into account.
The assessment of the benefit of an FTA
should be done over a sufficiently long period of time to take into account the impact
of the economic cycle in the partner's economy. Moreover, tariffs are removed over
transitional periods, and not all tariff-cuts
have kicked in yet. It is therefore too early
to say if the FTA caused a permanent change in trade flows and balance between the
EU and Korea or if the present situation is
mainly due to the temporary low demand
in the EU caused by the economic crisis.
Furthermore, the exchange rate fluctuation
played a certain role in trade figures since,
over the three years after the entry into
force of the FTA, the Korean Won became
much stronger vis-à-vis the Euro compared
to the 12-month period before the FTA went
into effect.
It should also be noted that the impact of
the FTA on some specific sectors may be only
of a temporary nature. For instance, exports
of petroleum oils from the EU accounted
for 5% of total EU exports to Korea in the
third year of the FTA, whereas there were no
imports in the 12-month period before the
FTA's entry into force. The surge can be seen
not only as a result of trade liberalisation
but also as part of Korea’s strategy of energy supply diversification. Another example
are the imports of Korean cruise ships and
other boats into the EU (10% of the total EU
imports from Korea) that decreased by over
34% since the FTA went into effect due to
considerable over-supply in the global shipping industry.
Another element to be taken into account is
that, while EU manufacturers started moving
production outside the EU long ago, the big
Korean companies took such steps only in
the last few years. As a consequence, products of Korean companies coming to Europe are increasingly likely to be produced in
global value chains outside Korea, reducing
the statistical value of Korean exports benefiting from the FTA but benefiting Korean
companies globally.
Finally I have noted that EU products are
very popular in Korea mainly because of the
growing sophistication of both domestic
consumers and industries that are looking
for high-end final and intermediary goods
that are an area of strong competitiveness of the EU industry in sectors ranging
from machinery, automotive, aerospace and
healthcare to fashion, food and beverages.
This implies that Korea's FTA with the EU has
unlocked a latent demand for more sophisticated goods satisfying Korean people's
and companies’ high-end needs at cheaper
prices.
A good concrete example of a win-win situation is represented by the automotive sector where both the EU and Korea increased substantially both imports and exports
and where Korean and European consumers
could benefit from a wider choice and cheaper prices. EU exports of motor vehicles have
increased by 90% from 2bn (74 600 vehicles) to €3.8bn (141 800 vehicles) during the
third year of the FTA being in force. Over the
same period, EU imports from Korea have
increased by 53% in value from €2.6bn to
€4bn. This equates to a roughly 25% incre-
KORUM Nr. 56 | April 2015 15
Schwerpunkt
ase from 300 000 vehicles to 375 000 in
volume terms in spite of Hyundai-KIA having
two plants in the EU. Motor vehicles represent 11% of total EU imports from Korea, a
sector in which EU imports from the rest of
the world fell by 7% over the same threeyear period. EU exports of car parts to Korea
have increased by 6% to €1.1bn, whereas EU
imports of car parts from Korea have increased by over 20% from €2.2bn to €2.6bn.
In conclusion, even based on the relatively
short timeframe of three years, it is clear
that the FTA has worked well for both sides
and can be considered a win-win agreement. It is true that while EU exports of
goods to Korea increased by 35% in the first
three years, imports from Korea were roughly equal to the 12-month period before the
FTA. However, Korean exports increased by
6% in the third year of FTA implementation
and the relatively weaker performance of
Korean exports should be seen in the context
of the decreased demand in the EU following the financial crisis. EU imports from its
14 main suppliers have decreased and Korea
is one of the only three trade partners, along
with Turkey and China, whose exports to
the EU increased in the third year of FTA
implementation. It seems, therefore, that the
FTA has mitigated the impact of the crisis on
Korean exports and that, without the FTA,
the Korean exports to the EU would have
been hit much harder. Furthermore, when
looking at the development of bilateral trade
of goods which have been fully or partially liberalised by the FTA, which is a much
better indicator of how well the FTA has
worked, on both sides exports of fully and
partially liberalised goods increased more
than exports overall. It is difficult to forecast the evolution of trade but, with the EU
economic recovery on its way, it seems likely
that Korean exports will grow further in the
next years rebalancing trade figures.
Finally, it might be true that the benefits
for consumers in terms of variety and lower
prices of imported goods are not fully visible
yet. However one can hope that the ongoing
deregulation process in Korea and the reduction of the regulatory obstacles to trade,
together with liberalisation of the services
sectors under the FTAs, will reduce inefficiencies and galvanise competition in the
distribution and retail sectors, unlocking the
full FTA potential for Korean consumers.
Tomasz Kozlowski
Ambassador of the European Union to the
Republic of Korea.
Warenverkehr zwischen der Europäischen Union
und Südkorea
Die unterschiedlichen Voraussetzungen des "Ermächtigten Ausführers"
Oliver Falk
The Free Trade Agreement between EU and South Korea has been applied since July 1,
2011. In order to make use of the preferential tariffs, a number of requirements must be
fulfilled - not the least of them, the exporting company needs to be granted “approved
exporter” status. The article below describes necessary steps within the process of becoming an “approved exporter” in both the EU and South Korea.
Das Freihandelsabkommen zwischen der EU
und Südkorea ist seit dem 1. Juli 2011 in
Kraft. Um im gegenseitigen Warenverkehr
Präferenzen in Anspruch nehmen zu können,
ist es zunächst erforderlich, dass die Waren
unter die vereinbarten Ursprungsregeln fallen. Eine Prüfung der Ursprungsregeln kann in
der von der deutschen Zollverwaltung unter
www.wup.zoll.de zur Verfügung gestellten
Datenbank unter Eingabe der Warentarifnummer erfolgen.
Wenn die Waren die Ursprungseigenschaft
16
KORUM Nr. 54
56 | Dezember
April 2015 2014
erfüllt, ist es zudem notwendig, die Präferenz
durch ein entsprechendes Papier nachzuweisen. Das Südkoreaabkommen war das
erste Abkommen seitens der EU, welches als
Nachweisdokument nur die Ursprungserklärung auf einem Handelspapier, üblicherweise
die Handelsrechnung, vorgesehen hat. Bis zu
einem Warenwert von 6.000 Euro geht dies
ohne weiteres, bei Warenwerten oberhalb
von 6.000 Euro ist es erforderlich, den Status
des Ermächtigten Ausführers zu haben. In
anderen Abkommen ist ansonsten auch die
Warenverkehrsbescheinigung EUR-1 bei Wer-
ten über 6.000 Euro vorgesehen. Für Südkorea bedeutete die Einführung der Ursprungserklärung und des Ermächtigten Ausführers
(Approved Exporter) etwas Neues und eine
Abkehr der bisherigen Nachweisführung mit
anderen Abkommenspartnern. Dort wurde
überwiegend ein formeller Nachweis, entsprechend der Warenverkehrsbescheinigung
EUR-1, gefordert.
Welche unterschiedlichen Voraussetzungen
knüpfen nun die Zollverwaltung beider Staaten an den Erhalt des Status des
Ermächtigten Ausführers? Ass. Oliver Falk,
Leiter Bereich Recht International der IHK
Rhein-Neckar konnte dies bei einem Besuch
des koreanischen Zolls näher in Erfahrung
bringen.
Schwerpunkt
Voraussetzung in Deutschland (EU) ist eine
Antragstellung gegenüber dem zuständigen
Hauptzollamt. Mit dem Antrag verbunden ist
die Vorlage einer Arbeits- und Organisationsanweisung (A&O). In dieser muss erläutert
werden, wie das Unternehmen Präferenzen
kalkuliert, wie Vornachweise (insbesondere
Lieferantenerklärungen) von Vorlieferanten
angefordert werden und wer dafür zuständig
ist. Wie erfolgt die systemtechnische Pflege
der Daten, die Ablage der Unterlagen usw.
Kurzum, es ist die Beschreibung der innerbetrieblichen Abläufe, wie Präferenzen kalkuliert bzw. die Nachweisführung erfolgt. Die
deutsche Zollverwaltung stellt Unternehmen
ein Merkblatt zum Ermächtigten Ausführer,
welches im Januar 2015 erneuert wurde,
zur Verfügung. Zudem gibt es ein Muster
für Arbeits- und Organisationsanweisungen.
Das Muster sollte aber keineswegs eins zu
eins übernommen werden, sondern muss
natürlich auf die tatsächlichen innerbetrieblichen Abläufe angepasst sein. Beides findet
sich auf der Seite www.rhein-neckar.ihk24.
de unter der Dokumentennummer 15126.
Die Bewilligung bezieht sich dann immer auf
Warenpositionsebene und ein Zielland und
gilt bis zum Wiederruf. Da die EU das System
des Ermächtigten Ausführers auch schon mit
anderen Abkommenspartnern praktiziert hat,
konnten viele Unternehmen Ihre bisherigen
Bewilligungen als Ermächtigte Ausführer
einfach um das Land Südkorea erweitern.
Denn die Systematik der Ursprungsprüfung
in der A&O galt grundsätzlich automatisch
auch für Südkorea. Um im Geschäft mit Südkorea wettbewerbsfähig zu bleiben, bedeute-
te es für einige Unternehmen aber auch den
Mehraufwand der Bewilligung auf sich zu
nehmen, welches gerade klein- und mittelständische Unternehmen vor große Herausforderungen stellte.
Welche Voraussetzungen sind nun in Südkorea zu erfüllen? Auch hier ist zunächst
ein Antrag bei der zuständigen Zollstelle zu
stellen. In Südkorea gibt es zwei Arten von
Ermächtigen Ausführern. Entweder beantragt
man den Status für das gesamte Unternehmen oder auf Warenpositionsebene. Weitere Voraussetzung ist die Nennung eines
Verantwortlichen im Unternehmen. Dieser
muss Fachkenntnisse haben und diese in
Form von Schulungsnachweisen belegen
können. Schulungen bietet der Zoll zudem
einmal wöchentlich an, es gibt aber auch private Anbieter. Weiterhin muss der Nachweis
erbracht werden, dass das Unternehmen über
ein Kalkulationsprogramm verfügt, mit dem
die Präferenzen kalkuliert werden. Unternehmen können hier z.B. das FTA Information
& Business Support Center nutzen, welche
gerade kleinere und mittelständischen Unternehmen dabei behilflich ist, Freihandelsabkommen zu nutzen, gerade auch durch das
Bereitstellen eines kostenlosen Kalkulationsprogramms. Zudem muss das Unternehmen
den Nachweis der Zuverlässigkeit erbringen
(bspw. das keine Bußgeldverfahren laufen
usw.). Bei fehlerfreiem Antrag dauert die
Bewilligung drei bis vier Wochen. Die Bewilligungen zum Approved Exporter haben zudem
auf Warenpositionsebene eine Gültigkeit von
zwei Jahren, anderenfalls drei Jahre und
müssen dementsprechend immer wieder neu
beantragt bzw. verlängert werden. Gleich im
Jahr 2011 erhielten knapp über 4000 Unternehmen den Status. In den folgenden Jahren
waren es nicht mehr ganz so viele und insgesamt gibt es jetzt knapp 6.000 Approved
Exporter in Südkorea. Die koreanische Zollverwaltung bietet Unternehmen die Möglichkeit, die Nummer des Approved Exporters
auf einer Datenbank auf der Seite des koreanischen Zolls zu verifizieren (http://www.
customs.go.kr/kcshome/exporter/ApprovedExporterView.do?layoutMenuNo=21028).
Diese Möglichkeit gibt es in der EU nicht.
Bei Gesprächen mit Unternehmen vor Ort
bestätigten diese Ass. Oliver Falk eine identische Handhabung der Anerkennung von
Nachweisen wie in der EU. So werden formal unrichtig ausgestellte Nachweise nicht
anerkannt, z.B. bei Fehlen der EA-Nummer
oder bei Fehlen der Unterschrift unter die
Ursprungserklärung. Die Zollverwaltung
gewährt dem Einführer aber die Möglichkeit, auch im Nachhinein den Nachweis zu
erbringen. In dem Abkommen ist geregelt,
dass Präferenzen bis zu einem Jahr nach der
Einfuhr noch gewährt werden können. Dies
gilt auch, wenn der Ausführer erst nach der
Ausfuhr bzw. Einfuhr in Korea den Status des
Ermächtigten Ausführers erhält. Auch hier
können für die Sendung von bis zu einem
Jahr zurück noch Ursprungserklärungen ausgestellt werden, soweit die Ware tatsächlich
auch im Zeitpunkt der Einfuhr präferenzberechtigt gewesen ist.
Wie viele große Handelsnationen sieht auch
Südkorea die Chance für weiteres Wachstum
im Abschluss weiterer Freihandelsabkommen.
So wurde mit den wichtigsten Handelspartnern EU (2011), USA (2012) und nun auch
China (2015) bereits Abkommen geschlossen. "We must export to survive" waren die
abschließenden Worte der Mitarbeiterin des
FTA Centers - eine Bestätigung genau dieses
Verständnisses der Koreaner
Oliver Falk
Bereichsleiter Recht International
IHK Rhein-Neckar.
KORUM Nr. 56 | April 2015 17
Wirtschaft und Branchen
Korea-EU “mutual equivalence“ for organic products
Eunmi Kim
A “mutual equivalence” agreement between
the EU and Korea has taken effect on February 1, 2015. The agreement recognizes the
equivalence of the respective system of production and control measures for processed
organic foods.
Due to the agreement, German and Korean
companies which are issued an organic food
mark in their home country can now also
apply the mark when selling the product in
the respective other territory. Rendering the
certification of such products in both countries unnecessary, the agreement will decrease costs and bureaucratic burden when
exporting processed organic foods.
origin of ingredients - the agreement applies
as long as the final processing of the food is
conducted either in Korea or the EU. Both
the EU and Korea have prohibited the use of
Genetically Modified Organisms (GMOs) as
well as products which make use of banned
Specifically, food products which have been pesticides, fungicides etc. The rules of the
certified either in the EU or Korea and con- importing country apply in case subsequent
tain more than 95% of organic ingredients inspection is required.
will also be certified as organic foods in the
other country. There is no limitation on the A similar agreement between Korea and the
US has already been applied since July 1,
2014.
The agreement is valid until January 31,
2018 and can be extended if necessary.
Eunmi Kim
Deputy Director at the Korean-German
Chamber of Commerce and Industry.
Südkorea setzt auf das „Internet der Dinge"
Regierung unterstützt neue Technologien / Samsung weitet Aktivitäten aus
Alexander Hirschle
The Korean IT sector, due to increasing saturation of the domestic market, is constantly
looking for new growth engines. Among the most promising ones is the “Internet of
Things”. Large companies such as Samsung and LG adapt their products to the new possibilities which the interlinking of electronic devices with the digital world offers. Also
the Korean government sees big opportunities within the sector and, for example, plans
setting up 10.000 smart factories until 2020.
Die koreanische IT-Branche ist angesichts
eines zunehmend gesättigten Inlandsmarkts
auf der Suche nach neuen Wachstumsmotoren. Als einer der vielversprechendsten
Felder gilt das "Internet der Dinge". Große
Firmen wie Samsung und LG passen ihre
Produktpalette an die neuen Möglichkeiten
im Rahmen der Vernetzung von digitaler
18
KORUM Nr. 56 | April 2015
Welt und elektronischen Geräten an. Auch
die Regierung setzt große Hoffnungen auf
den Sektor wie zum Beispiel auf den Aufbau
von 10.000 intelligenten Fabriken bis 2020.
Der koreanische Elektronikgigant Samsung
will sich in Zukunft verstärkt auf das sogenannte "Internet der Dinge" (Internet of
Things, IoT) konzentrieren. Bereits im Rahmen der Neujahrsansprache Anfang 2015
schwor Samsung-Vizepräsident Kwon Ohhyun die Mitarbeiterinnen und Mitarbeiter
des Unternehmens darauf ein, neue Wachstumsmotoren zu erschließen. Presseangaben
zufolge soll auf diese Weise die Wettbewerbsfähigkeit der Samsung-Produkte wieder erhöht werden, die zuletzt vor allem im
Smartphone-Sektor im internationalen Vergleich gelitten hatte. Dem Internet der Dinge
- sprich der Konvergenz zwischen Informationstechnologie und physischen Objekten
oder Prozessen - soll in diesem Zusammenhang eine Schlüsselrolle zukommen.
Wirtschaft und Branchen
Samsung passt Produktpalette an
Im Rahmen der Elektronikmesse "International Consumer Electronics Show" (CES) in
Las Vegas wiederum kündigte Samsung im
Januar 2015 an, seine komplette Produktpalette bis 2020 über das Internet der Dinge miteinander verknüpfen zu können. Wie
lokale Medien berichten, soll dies bereits
2017 für Fernsehgeräte umgesetzt werden.
Im Segment Haushaltsgeräte soll jedes neue
Produkt, das 2015 auf den Markt kommt,
schon im Rahmen des IoT betriebsfähig
sein. Auf diese Weise strebt Samsung eine
Abgrenzung zu den günstigeren chinesischen
Erzeugnissen an.
Allein 2015 will Samsung 100 Mio. USD
bereitstellen, um Konferenzen für Entwickler zu organisieren sowie Förderprogramme
und Apps in diesem Bereich voranzutreiben. Internationale Kooperationen sollen
Samsung helfen, den Markt umfassend zu
erschließen. Bereits Mitte 2014 hatte Samsung die auf Heimautomatisierung spezialisierte Start-up-Firma SmartThings übernommen. Diese verfügt über Know-how, wie
über drahtlose Sensoren und Apps, über die
Haushaltsgeräte gesteuert und kontrolliert
werden können.
LG verbindet seine Elektrogeräte per
App
etwa den Medizintechnikhersteller NanoEnTek.
Auch Konkurrent LG möchte nicht hinten
anstehen und stellte seinen Service "Home
Chat" in den USA im Januar 2015 vor. Bei
der Messe CES präsentierte LG verschiedene
Anwendungen in diesem Bereich, die über
Home Chat mobil bedient werden können.
Nach Angaben von LG kann der Konsument
mit Hilfe des bereits Mitte 2014 in Südkorea
angekündigten Systems die mit "smarter"
Technologie ausgestatte Hausgeräte überwachen und kontrollieren - wie etwa Kühlschränke, Waschmaschinen oder Backöfen.
Im Oktober 2014 wurde zudem ein Abkommen zwischen SK und einem Krankenhaus
in der Provinz Jeolla abgeschlossen, um ein
mobilfunkbasiertes Informationssystem zu
implementieren. Mittels eines "Building
Energy Management Systems" (BEMS) sollen
medizinische Behandlungen, Telekommunikation und Energieeffizienz integriert werden. Ziel des Pilotprojekts im Donggunsan
Hospital ist, den Energieverbrauch zu senken
und gleichzeitig einen effizienteren Informationsfluss - wie unter anderem den Einblick
in Krankenakten durch das Pflegepersonal zu gewährleisten.
Telekommunikationsfirmen dringen in
neue Bereiche vor
Auch die drei großen koreanischen Mobilfunkgesellschaften SK Telecom, KT und LG
UPlus orientieren sich angesichts eines
zunehmend gesättigten Marktes und sinkender Margen in andere Geschäftsbereiche um.
Auf diese Weise sollen die Einnahmequellen
künftig diversifiziert werden. Dabei soll auch
das Internet der Dinge eine bedeutende Rolle spielen und Bereiche wie Gesundheit oder
smarte Energie mit umfassen. SK Telecom
hat zu diesem Zweck mehrere Firmen aus
diesen Segmenten übernommen, darunter
Die Firma KT wird die Rolle seiner internen
Think Tanks ausbauen, um neue Wachstumsmotoren in diesen Feldern zu eruieren. Darüber hinaus gab das Unternehmen
Anfang Februar 2015 bekannt, dass es eine
Absichtserklärung mit der chinesischen
Hangdian Group abgeschlossen hat mit dem
Ziel, einen Freizeitpark in der Provinz Jieyang
mit einer digitalen Infrastruktur auszustatten. In diesem Zusammenhang sollen auch
Aspekte des Internets der Dinge einfließen.
LG UPlus wiederum wird sich unter anderem
in Richtung Navigationssysteme und Über-
KORUM Nr. 56 | April 2015 19
Wirtschaft und Branchen
wachungssysteme für Häuser bewegen.
IoT-Markt vor starker Expansion
Die koreanische Regierung will den IoT-Sektor fördern und das Marktvolumen von derzeit rund 2,5 Mrd. USD bis 2020 auf 13 Mrd.
USD ausbauen. Gleichzeitig soll die Anzahl
der Arbeitsplätze von 26.000 auf 136.000
erhöht werden, wie das Wissenschaftsministerium MSIP (Ministry of Science, ICT and
Future Planning) im Oktober 2014 im Rahmen einer Branchenveranstaltung verlauten
ließ. Das MSIP will bis 2020 knapp 200 Mio.
USD für Fördermaßnahmen in diese Richtung ausgeben.
Bereits Mitte 2014 hatte das Ministerium
Motie (Ministry of Trade, Industry and Energy) das Programm "Manufacturing Innovation Plan 3.0" vorgestellt, das die Verknüp-
fung von Informationstechnologie (IT) und
industriellen Prozessen vorantreiben möchte.
Übergreifendes Ziel ist, bis 2020 etwa 10.000
intelligente Fabriken ("Smart Factories") in
Südkorea aufzubauen. Bereits 2015 sollen
1.000 dieser neuen Produktionsprozesse
und -anlagen entstehen. Das Ministerium
identifizierte dabei mehrere Kernbereiche
im Bereich 3D-Druck, dabei unter anderem
für zahnmedizinische Geräte, Energieerzeugungskomponenten und Gießerei.
Datensicherheit als Achillesferse
Als ein Problem für die Umsetzung des
IoT in Südkorea könnte sich das Segment
Datensicherheit erweisen. Nach Angaben der
Behörde Korea Internet and Security Agency
(KISA) in der lokalen Presse geben nur 2,7%
der koreanischen Firmen mehr als 5% ihres
IT-Budgets für Daten- und Informationssi-
cherheit aus. In den USA und dem Vereinigten Königreich liegen die Vergleichszahlen
bei über 40%.
Die Behörde warnt davor, dass im Rahmen der zunehmenden Integration von
Transport-, Haushalts- und medizinischen
Anwendungen in Informationssysteme in
den kommenden Jahren auch die Gefahr von
Cyberattacken und Sicherheitslücken exponentiell zunehmen wird. Dies würde auch
durch die Tatsache verschärft, dass in Südkorea die Zahl der Unternehmen mit einem
Verantwortlichen für Datensicherheit sogar
abnimmt. Während 2013 noch 20% einen
Experten in diesem Bereich beschäftigten,
sank der Prozentsatz 2014 auf 17%. Ebenso
ging die Zahl der Firmen mit einer entsprechenden Abteilung für Datensicherheit im
selben Zeitraum von 10 auf 7% zurück.
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20
KORUM Nr. 56 | April 2015
Kooperation
An example of the Korean model of “Working &
Learning” – C&M Robotics System
Myo-hee Joo
C&M Robotics is an innovative young technology company located in Geumcheon-gu,
Seoul, which develops and sells manufacturing machinery for automated production of
precision parts, using specialized press-fitting technology. This article will summarize
C&M Robotics’ experience with training and
educating new employees as well as employees of other companies through setting up
the “T-Plus Academy”, a dual-joint-training
center.
C&M Robotics is a family business - as
the CEO, I am responsible for the general
management. My brother, Sang-wan Joo
who majored in mechanical engineering
and robotic engineering at Osaka University,
Japan, takes care of the technical field as
CTO.
The company was established in 2000, and
specializes on the production of integrated
converged devices, which involves multiple
fields such as mechanics, electrics & electronics, IT, and software. Thus, C&M Robotics has always been in need of engineers.
However, due to the small size of the company and since it is comparably little known;
it has always been a challenge to find competent personnel.
Furthermore, since in many cases theoretical
education provided in colleges is not greatly
relevant to the knowledge and skills required
in the actual working field, even when we
hired employees with a degree in engineering, they often faced difficulties adapting
to the work. Hiring experienced workers also
required a lot of time and effort to teach
them everything from the beginning, and
yet this rarely paid off.
so-called “Meister High School” and “Specialized Vocational High School” (특성화고)
programs. The first students graduated from
these programs in February 2013.
C&M Robotics, after struggling with the
lack of engineers for a long time, decided to
employ graduates from these technical high
schools and take on their further training
by itself. Each student at the beginning was
trained in at least one technical skill which
they had learned in school. However, their
basic academic skills were rather weak.
cess was supervised by an advanced technician.
Hence, for a year after the start of their
employment, students received further education to improve their English, math, physics and mechanical skills. They were also
trained in general subjects, including gymnastics and music (there even was a concert
at the end of the year in which students
could showcase their musical skills!) as well
as in specialized subjects that are related to
the work at C&M Robotics.
One year later, the students even displayed
better working ability than workers with
three years of experience. Encouraged by
these results, C&M Robotics decided to
employ a second group of employees and
continue with the education. This time, the
Korean government implemented the “Combined Working and Learning System” (일학
습병행제), and C&M Robotics participated
as a model company.
While the process of educating the young
employees was extremely gratifying, it was
still uncertain, whether this method would
prove effective at first. However, within less
than a year, first results started to show: To
name one example, the students took charge of the entire production of an automated
machine which had been ordered by a Chinese company and managed to smoothly
complete the task; of course, the whole pro-
After development of a specialized training
course and nine months of education, the
first trainees graduated from the training
program in November, 2014. Moreover, the
company was certified as a dual-joint-training center, and founded the “T-Plus Academy”, where employees of other companies
can receive training as well, in September,
2014. Since January 2015, the training center has opened its doors to new employees
Most of Korean small and medium-sized
businesses experience similar difficulties.
Hence, in order to resolve this situation, the
Korean government started promoting the
KORUM Nr. 56 | April 2015 21
Recht
of its partner companies.
In Germany, depending on the occupation,
the training process can take up to 2.5 or
3 years. In our training center, however,
as the system is still at an early stage in
Korea, 1-year training programs (average
800-1,000 hours) have been formed. Out of
this, a total of around 300 hours of training
in specialized and common subjects take
place in a dual-joint-training center.
Matching the respective occupational clusters, specialized subjects are divided into
CAD design (2D/3D), mechanics, mechatronics, electrics & electronics, and ICT (computer, language, database, and network).
Common subjects include Korean history
and “STEAM”1) education, through which
not only job performance, but also creativity,
team spirit, and problem solving ability is
strengthened.
During the STEAM educational process, trainees form groups and carry out a task of
creating and operating a structure within
five days (40hrs). During this process, the
astonishing potential of the Korean youth
became especially obvious.
Due to the limited time, the specialized subjects mainly focused on teaching through
practical training, so that trainees can
acquire general technical skills within a
short time.
Korea has only just introduced the Combined Working and Learning System. Hence,
1) STEAM stands for a type of education which connectedly teaches Science, Technology, Engineering, Art, and
Math in an interesting and easy to understand-way.
there is yet a lot to improve on. Nevertheless, it can be regarded as an important
step towards changing from an academiccentered into an ability-centered society.
Given the so far very positive experience,
Korean small and medium-sized companies
should try their best to personally contribute
to bringing up talents - this will in the long
term greatly strengthen Korean SMEs.
Interested companies can learn more
about the Combined Working and Learning
System through the website of the Human
Resource Development Service of Korea:
www.hrdkorea.or.kr
Myo-hee Joo
CEO at C&M Robotics.
For further information please visit www.
cnmrobotics.com/tpa or contact the
author directly: jmh[email protected]
Gründung des FAU Campus Busan
Alexander Fischer, Thomas A. H. Schöck
As the first German University, Friedrich-Alexander-Universität Erlangen-Nürnberg in
2010 has opened a branch campus in Korea - the FAU Busan Campus. This article gives an
overview of legal procedures required in order to establish a foreign university in Korea.
Die Friedrich-Alexander-Universität Erlangen-Nürnberg („FAU“) hat als erste deutsche Hochschule in Südkorea in Busan eine
eigene Zweigstelle, den FAU Campus Busan,
gegründet.
Im Jahr 2010 wurde der FAU Campus Busan
eröffnet, an dem die FAU den englischsprachigen Masterstudiengang Chemie- und
Bioingenieurwesen nach deutschem Hochschulrecht und deutschen Qualitätsstandards anbietet. Als Forschungszentrum und
renommierte Ausbildungsstätte bietet der
FAU Campus Busan den Studierenden –
gegenwärtig sind 70 überwiegend koreanische Studentinnen und Studenten eingeschrieben – eine praxisnahe Ausbildung mit
engen Kontakten in die Wirtschaft und zu
Forschungseinrichtungen. Zudem haben die
22
KORUM Nr. 56 | April 2015
FAU Campus Busan auch in der Forschung
zu betätigen.
Zwar definiert das koreanische Recht nicht
den Begriff „Schule“ (unabhängig ob nun
Grundschule, Gymnasium oder Hochschule),
aber das Betreiben einer „Schule“ in Korea
ohne die vorherige Genehmigung seitens
des damaligen Ministry of Education, SciDie Gründung des FAU Busan Branch Cam- ence and Technology (MEST, jetzt Ministry of
pus erforderte nicht nur eine Änderung des Education, MoE) einzuholen, wäre in Korea
Bayerischen Hochschulrechts, sondern mus- strafbar.
ste unter Berücksichtigung dieses Hochschulrechts darüber hinaus den Anforde- Die Genehmigung setzt das Erfüllen von drei
rungen des „Special Act on Establishment gesetzlich normierten Voraussetzungen seiand Management of Foreign Educational tens des Antragstellers voraus:
Institutions in Free Economic Zones“ (im
Weiteren abgekürzt als „SAFE“) der Republik 1. Die Gebäude, die als Schulungsräume
dienen, müssen gesetzlich normierten
Korea entsprechen.
Standards entsprechen, die an Bildungseinrichtungen gestellt werden;
Angedacht von Seiten der FAU war vom
2.
D as Lehrpersonal muss ebenfalls den
ersten Moment an, nicht nur vor Ort in der
gesetzlich normierten Standards entspreRepublik Korea zu lehren, sondern sich am
Studierenden die Gelegenheit, ein Semester
an der FAU in Deutschland zu lernen und
zu arbeiten und dabei interkulturelle Erfahrungen zu sammeln.
Recht
chen, die an vergleichbare Bildungseinrichtungen gestellt werden;
3. Und zuletzt muss der Antragsteller über
Vermögensgüter verfügen, die Gewinne
erzeugen können.
Es steht dem Antragsteller natürlich frei,
Gebäude und Grundstücke in der Republik
Korea zu erwerben, um dieses Kriterium zu
erfüllen, es reicht aber auch bereits aus,
wenn ein Mietvertrag seitens des Antragstellers vorgelegt wird, der entsprechend mit
einer Behörde, einer Privat- oder juristischen
Person über einen Dreijahreszeitraum abgeschlossen wurde.
Das Lehrpersonal muss je nach Umfang des
eingerichteten Branch Campus, der Zahl
seiner Fakultäten, Fachbereiche und Lehrstühle über die entsprechende Anzahl an
wissenschaftlichem Personal, Professoren,
Habilitanden, Post-Docs usw. verfügen.
Ferner soll der Branch Campus nach diesen
gesetzlichen Bestimmungen über Vermögensgüter verfügen, die entsprechende Einnahmen für den Branch Campus erzeugen
können (z. B. über Bankguthaben, die verzinst, oder Gebäude, die vermietet werden
können, usw.). MEST lässt allerdings auch
entsprechende durchsetzbare und einklagbare Bankgarantien seitens der Gründeruniversität oder Versicherungspolicen zu. Ziel
dieser Anforderung ist es, für den Fall einer
Insolvenz oder einer Schließung des Branch
Campus sicherzustellen, dass die Ausbildung
der eingeschriebenen Studenten durch die
finanzielle Absicherung noch beendet wird.
Ferner ist ein abrupter Abbruch ohne Beendigung der Ausbildung der eingeschriebenen
Studierenden unter Umständen auch strafbar.
Für den Genehmigungsantrag ist eine Vielzahl von Dokumenten seitens des Antragstellers vorzubereiten:
(a) Name der zu gründenden Schule
(b) Zweck der Gründung
(c) Lokation
(d) Gesetzlicher Vertreter der zu gründenden
Schule
Ferner müssen die folgenden Dokumente
zusammen mit dem obigen Genehmigungsantrag vorgelegt werden:
(1) Regelungen der Hochschule, Verfassung
der Hochschule (für Deutschland auch
ein Auszug des Landeshochschulgesetzes
als Ersatz möglich)
(2) Vorlesungsplan
(3) Ein auf vier Jahre ausgerichteter Finanzierungsplan (Umsätze und Ausgaben)
(4) Beschreibung der Schulgebäude
(5) Beschreibung der Inneneinrichtungen
Veranschaulichung der Beziehungen zwischen FAU und FAU Busan
Staatsministerien :
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(6) Beschreibung der Vermögensgüter
(7) Liste der Fakultäten
(8) Angestrebtes Eröffnungsdatum
(9) Letter of Intent, die Schule auch eröffnen
zu wollen
(10) Vereinbarungen der Freihandelszone mit
dem Antragsteller
(11) Mietvertrag oder Eigentumsnachweis
über die Schulgebäude
(12) Nachweise über die Gemeinnützigkeit
als Universität nach dem deutschen
Recht
(13) Empfehlungsschreiben der Freihandelszone
Die folgenden Verfahrensschritte sind für die
Beantragung und den Erhalt der Erlaubnis
seitens MEST von dem Antragsteller vorzunehmen:
(1) Zunächst bedarf es eines Abkommens
zwischen der Universität und der koreanischen Freihandelszone über die Gründung und das Betreiben einer Hochschule
innerhalb dieser Freihandelszone
(2) I m nächsten Schritt ist die bereits
genannte Dokumentation seitens des
Antragstellers zu erstellen, dies nimmt in
der Regel ca. drei Monate in Anspruch
(3) Darauf folgend ist diese erstellte Dokumentation der Freihandelszone zur Prüfung zuzuleiten, damit die Freihandelszone auf dieser Grundlage entscheiden
kann, ob sie ein Empfehlungsschreiben
erstellt oder nicht
(4) Erst im vierten Schritt ist die Dokumentation für die Gründung der Hochschule bei
MoE zur Genehmigung einzureichen. Im
MoE selbst übernimmt ein Komitee für
die Gründung von ausländischen Hochschulen die Überprüfung der Dokumentation. Dieses Komitee beschränkt sich
nicht nur auf die Urkundenprüfung, sondern führt auch Anhörungen des Antragstellers durch, besucht den Antragsteller im Ausland und die ihm übergeordneten Behörden und entfaltet weitere
Tätigkeiten, um den vollen Sachverhalt
zu ermitteln. Nach Beendigung dieses
Verfahrens übermittelt das MoE seinen
Bericht dem Ministry of Knowledge &
Economy jetzt MoTIE), welches dann eine
finale Entscheidung über den Antrag
KORUM Nr. 56 | April 2015 23
Recht
trifft. Der gesamte Genehmigungsprozeß dauert ca. ein Jahr, erst nach Erhalt
der Genehmigung ist es der Universität
dann möglich, die formelle Gründung des
Branch Campus zu betreiben, nämlich
seine Registrierung vorzunehmen.
Vorhaben nicht nur gründlicher Vorarbeit,
sondern auch der intensiven Begleitung und
Unterstützung durch möglichst ortsnahe
Berater bedarf, die sowohl in den rechtlichen
Rahmenbedingungen als auch im örtlichen
und landesweiten Netzwerk erfahren sein
müssen.
Die Erfahrung hat gezeigt, daß ein solches
Alexander
Fischer
Thomas A.
H. Schöck
Attorney at Law (Germany),
Partner und Chief
Representative bei Rödl &
Partner, Shanghai
CEO der FAU Busan GmbH
Kanzler der FAU ErlangenNürnberg von 1988 - 2014
Origin Verification under the Korea-EU FTA
Issues and how to address them
Jeung Jun Park
the EU and Korea on taking advantage of the
KOR-EU FTA — for example, the aggregate
amount of Foreign Direct Investments made
in Korea by the investors in the EU increased
from USD 3.840 billion to USD 5.560 billion
and the number of approved exporters to the
EU in Korea increased from 4,021 in 2011 to
5,986 in July 2013.
the authenticity of the proofs of origin and
the correctness of the information provided
therewith (Protocol Article 27). In other
words, the KOR-EU FTA adopts an “indirect
verification method” as its basic principle of
origin verification where such verification
must be conducted by the customs authority
of the exporting country.
Based on the number of trade items, the rate
of tariff elimination or reduction achieved by
the KOR-EU FTA stands at 87.2% for Korea
and 96.9% for the EU; moreover, on the
third year after the implementation of the
KOR-EU FTA, Korea’s trade volume with the
EU increased by 10.3% (7.8% increase for
export, 12.5% increase for import) from the
previous year, proving that the KOR-EU FTA
promotes expansion of trade between Korea
and the EU.
The KOR-EU FTA prescribes that the items
imported into the EU or Korea originating
from Korea or the EU, respectively, are granted preferential tariff treatments based
on their origin declarations; therefore, the
exporters must voluntarily prove and indicate
the origins of the products in question on the
invoices, packing lists and the other relevant
commercial documents (Article 15 of the
Protocol Concerning the Definition of “Origination Products” and Methods of Administrative Cooperation (“Protocol”)).
The relevant provisions of the KOR-EU FTA
stipulate that preferential treatment may not
be granted (except in special circumstances)
if the customs authority of the exporting
country does not respond to a request for
verification of origin within 10 months of
receipt of such request or if the response
does not contain enough information to
verify the origin of the items in question.
Furthermore, during the three years following
the implementation of the KOR-EU FTA, there
was a rapid growth of interest shown by both
Customs officers of the importing country
may further request the competent customs
authorities of the exporting country to verify
The Korea-EU Free Trade Agreement (“the
KOR-EU FTA”) became effective on July 1,
2011 and will reach its fourth anniversary in
July this year. According to a press release
published by the Korean Ministry of Trade,
Industry & Energy on June 30, 2014, the EU
is the world’s largest market, comprising
23.1% of the world’s GDP, and is Korea’s
third largest trade partner.
Number of Post-Export Origin Verification Requests Received by Korea
FTA Signatories
EFTA
ASEAN
EU
USA
Total
24
KORUM Nr. 56 | April 2015
2011
24
19
41
84
2012
10
31
181
7
229
Unit: Number of Requests Made
Jan 2013~Sept 2013
3
39
164
84
290
The number of requests for verification of origins has been growing since, as noted above,
the FTA is utilized by a growing number of
interested parties. This is especially more so
for the KOR-EU FTA, where the individual
member states of the EU submit separate
verification requests to the Korean customs
authority, rendering the EU as Korea’s FTA
counter-signatory with the largest proportion of verification requests that Korea has
received.
Specifically, Korea received the largest
number of verification requests from Germany, Slovakia and Poland out of the EU
Kontakte
member states, whose requests tend to be
concentrated in the industries of manufactured goods. To be verified, an approved
exporter must show that, among others, 1)
such exporter is an “approved exporter”, as
such term is used in the KOR-EU FTA, 2)
the origin requirements are satisfied, 3) the
Principles of Territoriality (requiring all operations in making the export item in question
to be carried out in the export country) have
been satisfied, and 4) the exported goods are
directly transported between Korea and the
EU members. If any of the requirements set
out above is not fulfilled upon post-export
verification, the exporter may be at risk of
incurring substantial backdated tariff payment since the tariff reduction the exporter
enjoyed through preferential tariff treatment
will no longer apply with a retroactive effect.
Such events occasionally arise where the
exporter is a multinational corporation whose location is different from the location of
the production of the goods exported.
Below are some of the key issues that the
exporters must pay careful attention to
regarding post-export verification requests.
An erroneous use of the approved exporter number comprises a hefty proportion of
the numerous post-export verification cases
under the KOR-EU FTA regime, and recently,
an issue arose on selecting the appropriate method to address such error. In one
instance, Company A, with its headquarters
in Europe, acquired Company B, but continued to use the existing number issued to Company B instead of requesting a new approved exporter number after such acquisition,
which continued after the implementation
of the KOR-EU FTA. In this case, Company A
admitted its error and attempted to correct
the situation through voluntary reporting
and paying all outstanding customs duties.
For companies like Company A, the following
factors need to be taken into account.
First, Article 11 of the Act on Special Cases
of the Customs Act for the Implementation
of Free Trade Agreements (“Act on Special
Cases”) stipulates that when an importer
receives a notice of error in the applicable
documentary evidence of origin from a person who prepares the documentary evidence
of origin for any of the goods imported from
a signatory nation, such importer must file
an application for correction or modification
of the amount of duties “within 30 days of
notification and before a notice of document
examination on origin verification is received
from the customs authority”. If the application for correction or modification is made
within the prescribed date, the exporter will
not be subjected to a fine. Thus it is important to note that as long as the importer files
an application for modification or correction
within the prescribed time period, the exporter can be exempt from imposition of fines.
Second, the Ministry of Strategy and Finance
recently issued an authoritative interpretation on whether preferential tariff can
be granted to an exporter who applies for
the preferential tariff within a year after an
application for modification is made pursuant to Article 10(3) of the Act on Special
Cases, stipulating that preferential tariff shall
not be granted to any such preferential tariff
applications filed on and after December 1,
2014. It is important to note that, for those who filed for application for preferential
tariff before December 1, 2014, post facto
re-application of preferential tariff (reflecting modifications to the origin declaration)
is possible as long as such re-application is
filed within one year after applying for modification.
Also regarding the KOR-EU FTA, certain
issues have been raised in cases where products produced in Europe were imported
into Korea via a distribution hub in Hong
Kong or Singapore. Under such import structure, complications arose due to the potential violation of the direct transportation
requirement under the KOR-EU FTA. For the
KOR-EU FTA’s preferential tariff to apply, the
imported goods must be transported directly
from the exporting country to the importing
country (“direct consignment rule”). The
KOR-EU FTA provides only one exception to
such direct consignment rule — that there
are “transportation or geographical reasons
that the goods must transit (without entering into commerce) a third country and the
importing country party to the KOR-EU FTA
is the named destination of the transported
goods at the time of the export”. Korean
customs authority interprets the scope of
such exception narrowly and seems to be
taking a strict stance on whether opening
and repackaging a container at a transit stop
comes within the exception. It is important
to note that in such circumstances, it may
be easier to prove that one’s case falls within
the exception if “through B/L” is issued upon
the first shipment.
Lastly, origin declarations must contain the
precise wordings as agreed upon in the KOREU FTA, and the KOR-EU FTA cannot apply
to any declaration merely listing the origin
and the approved exporter number. In addition, origin declarations must be specified in
“commercial documents, including invoice
etc.” in accordance with the Korea Customs Service’s KOR-EU FTA execution guidelines. Such commercial documents include
packing lists, bill of lading, bill of parcels etc.
It should be noted that exporter-issued origin
verification documents which also contained
origin declaration wordings have been held
insufficient to satisfy the origin declaration
requirements under the KOR-EU FTA (i.e.,
such origin declarations must be specified in
commercial documents).
Jeung Jun Park
Senior associate at Kim & Chang law firm,
where his practice focuses on foreign direct
investment and corporate law. He is a
qualified lawyer admitted to the German Bar.
KORUM Nr. 56 | April 2015 25
Kontakte
News and People
█ Mr. Bernd Kapfenberger (47) will take over
the position as Representative Director at GrozBeckert Korea from July 1, 2015. Mr. Gianpaolo
Sciortino, who currently holds this position, will
be moving back to the German-based Headquarters by end of June this year. a transitional period will be starting from April. With a
textiles-related background, Mr. Kapfenberger
started his career at Groz-Beckert KG back in 1995. As an Area Sales
Manager responsible for products for the Nonwovens industry, he
travelled nearly all around the globe for the following 16 years. In
2011 he moved to Hong Kong looking after the Chinese Nonwovens
market as a Regional Vice President. Mr. Kapfenberger graduated as
Dipl.-Ing. in Textiles at the Fachhochschule Münchberg and as MBA
in Marketing at the Export-Academy Baden-Württemberg.
Mr. Stephen Gerard Sheppard (46) assumed
his position as President of Linde Korea on
March 1, 2015. Mr. Sheppard has been working
for Linde since 2000 in general management
and marketing roles across the South Pacific
and in the South & East Asia region. Prior to
Linde, he spent six years in Brambles in branch
management, as a financial controller of Recall
Australia, and prior to that at Johnson & Johnson Pacific in various
accounting roles. He holds a Bachelor of Economics (accounting)
from Macquarie University and a Master of Commerce in Marketing
from University of NSW in Australia.
█
█ Mr. Dong-cheon Lee (51) assumes his position as General Manager at Witzenmann Korea,
Cheonan on March 1, 2015. Mr. Lee has been
working for Witzenmann Korea since 2002 in
several functions and departments starting his
career with Taeyang Co. Ltd. In his previous
assignment, he spent five years managing sales
sales negotiations, purchasing and logistics and
further years managing technical sales. He holds a master degree in
applied industrial engineering at Namseoul University.
Mr. Holger R. Doerre (50) assumes his position as Director R&D Asia at LEONI Wiring
Systems Korea Inc. in Ansan-Si on March 2,
2015. He is taking the lead of the Asian-wide
R&D activities for the LEONI Group, which offers
customized solutions and compete systems with
fully compatible components - from cable itself
to all required connectors and mountings. Mr.
Doerre has been working successfully in leading managing positions
for several years in Korea. For his strong efforts in developing reliable business relations between Korean and German companies he
received the Honorable Citizenship of Korea in June 2011. He holds a
profession as toolmaker and a Mechanical Engineering degree at the
University of Applied Sciences “Rudolf Diesel”, Meissen - Germany.
█
Please send news for this column to [email protected]
New Members
Jeollabuk-Do
D'art Design Seoul Ltd.
Kevin & Company, Inc.
Mr. Sukjin Kim, Expert Adviser
[email protected]
Government, Nonprofit organization, Foundations
en.jeonbuk.go.kr
Mr. Jin-Young Choi, Managing
Director (Seoul Branch)
[email protected]
Advertising, Communications, PR; Architecture,
Interior Design; Trade Fair, Exhibition
www.d-art-design.de/ko
Mr. Kevin Lim, CEO
Culture; Media, Publishing, Design; Trading
[email protected]
www.kevinnncompany.com
Dunlop Tech GmbH
Mr. Rolf Reitz, Manager Automotive Engineering
[email protected]
Automotive OEM; Automotive Supply
www.dunloptech.de
26
KORUM Nr. 56 | April 2015
Kontakte
Upcoming
April 22-23
April 21
Seminar “One year after Sewol: Corruption in South
Korea and the role of businesses on the road to
transparency" in cooperation with Transparency
International
6.00 pm - 9.00 pm
Millennium Seoul Hilton, Junior Ballroom
April 25
Intercultural Seminar in cooperation with
MindsGroup: “Work, Lead & Communicate
Successfully with Koreans”
KGCCI
April 28
May 29
Skat Turnier
Annual General Meeting & Reception
Asparagus Dinner
12.00 pm - 6.00 pm
Deutsches Wirtshaus Baerlin
5.00 pm Meeting
7.00 pm Reception
Conrad Seoul Hotel, Park Ballroom
5.30 pm
Grand Hyatt Seoul, Namsan I+II
7.00 pm
Reception following the Annual General Meeting
(incl. spouses)
Registration: www.kgcci.com/events | Contact: Ms. Sun-Hi Kim | [email protected]
Contacts
Breakfast Meeting with Commerzbank
Wirtschaftstag Frankfurt 2015
On March 10, KGCCI members met to discuss developments within the EU as well as global economic issues and their effect on financial markets at a breakfast meeting sponsored by Commerzbank. Guest speaker Mr. Simon Quijano-Evans, Commerzbank’s Global Head of Emerging Market
Research, provided his insights on the European Central Bank’s injection of 1.1 trillion Euros into
the ailing Eurozone economy and its likely impact on Europe and Asia.
On February 26, the Korean-German Chamber of Commerce and Industry together with IHK
Frankfurt, the German Asia-Pacific Business Association (OAV) an the German-Korean Business
Association (DKW) held its traditional “Wirtschaftstag Korea” (Business Day Korea) to inform
interested companies about current trends in selected industries. At this Wirtschaftstag, focus
was on the automotive sector, luxury goods and the topic “Korea - Digital Nation”. In addition,
Professor Rüdiger Frank of Korea University in Seoul discussed developments within the relationship between South and North Korea.
Regarding the global economic outlook, World Bank as well as IMF have adjusted their global
growth forecasts downwards in the light of slower Chinese economic growth. The World Bank
predicts the global economy to grow 3% in 2015 and 3.3% in 2015 while the IMF forecasts a
global growth of 3.5% for this year and 3.7% for 2016.
KORUM Nr. 56 | April 2015 27
Kontakte
Arbeitskreis Mittelstand (AKM) and Sundowner #1
At the first AKM (Workshop for Small and Medium Sized Enterprises) in 2015,
Ms. Elli Kwack of Kim & Chang talked about the impact of the new Anti-Corruption Legislation, the “Kim Young-ran Law”, which is scheduled to come into
effect in September 2016. German companies are encouraged to review their
related internal guidelines before the law is applied. Mr. Baek-Lim Whang of Shin
& Kim provided comprehensive information about the relevance of K-REACH (Act
on the Registration and Evaluation of Chemicals) for small and medium-sized
companies as users of chemical substances.
At the subsequent sundowner, more than 80 KGCCI members met on the KGCCI
veranda for a relaxed after-work gathering with beer and German food.
If you have any suggestions regarding possible topics for the next AKM please
contact us at [email protected]
Workshop “Green Cities in Terms of Urban Renewal”
Experts from various backgrounds such as architecture, city planning, and renewable energies discussed challenges
and opportunities in the field of urban renewal and the concept of a “green city” in this workshop co-organized by
KGCCI, Baden-Württemberg International, and Urban Voids on March 24-25, 2015.
Speakers from Germany and Korea introduced their projects and ideas for a more engaging, healthy and attractive
urban environment. Different from the old paradigm of “new is always better” which has dominated the Korean
construction sector over the past decades, this event focused on refurbishment of existing city quarters.
The Korean government over the past few years has introduced a number of regulations and support programs
in its bid to boost energy efficiency and the dissemination of renewable energies. In unison with an increasing
awareness of environmental issues, this has led to a growing interest for energy efficient solutions and renewable
energies by Korean customers.
With the goal of helping German companies to assess the potential of the Korean market for their specific products and solutions, KGCCI as part of the German Federal Ministry for Economic Affairs and Energy’s “Energy
Efficiency Export Initiative” offers a delegation visit to Korea from October 19-22, 2015 for German companies in
the renewables sector. Visit our website www.kgcci.com for further information or directly contact Ms. Jihee Jeong
at [email protected]
VDW Symposium “Innovations in Production Technology Machine Tools from Germany“
The German Machine Tool Builders’ Association (VDW) and the Korean-German Chamber of Commerce and Industry
jointly hosted a technology symposium on March 17-18, 2015 in Seoul.
After introductory addresses by Carl Martin Welcker, Deputy Chairman of VDW and Barbara Zollmann, KGCCI
Secretary General, the 200 Korean participants had ample opportunity to learn about state-of-the-art solutions in
the areas of machining, forming and control technology and particularly in the areas of Automotive and supplier
industry, shipbuilding industry, plant and electrical engineering and electronics, mechanical engineering and medical engineering.
23 leading German machine tool manufacturers, often still family- owned small and medium enterprises with great
attention to their products introduced their technologies and products to the audience. Among the main arguments
for the products made in Germany were their efficiency, long lifetimes, multifunctionality, high precision, dependability as well as the companies’ customer-focused service.
Traditionally, exports are a very significant part of the German machine tool sector, ranging from 60 to 70 per cent.
The majority of German machines are currently purchased by customers in China, the USA, Russia and Switzerland.
However, Germany for some years already has been South Korea’s second-most-important supplier of machine
tools. In recent years, almost a fifth of machine tool imports have come from Germany. “Following many years of
double-figure growth rates, our deliveries to South Korea did in fact show a decrease in 2014, but irrespective of
this South Korea continues to be one of the world’s most important markets for the German machine tool industry”,
Mr. Welcker pointed out.
Parallel to the lectures, B2B meetings were held in order to give participating companies the opportunity to “talk
business”.
28
KORUM Nr. 56 | April 2015
Kontakte
KGCCI Innovation Awards 2015
Innovation is a crucial topic in Korea – seen the efforts of the Korean Government to launch a creative economy. German companies are
admired for their technological advancement, whereas Korean companies are known for their strength in implementation and perfection
of existing concepts, combined with creative designs and contents. Therefore, great innovations in Korea shall be made public and be
awarded.
The KGCCI Innovation Awards, to be presented for the first time in 2015, provides a platform for
German as well as Korean companies and organizations in Korea to introduce
their innovative concepts and products to a larger public. A jury
consisting of high-ranking Korean and German representatives
will evaluate the nominations and choose the winners of the
KGCCI Innovation Awards 2015.
Nomination and award categories
Nominations are open from April 15 to June 15, 2015.
Nominate your own or another company for one of the
three categories:
1) Innovation in business (including products, processes,
organization, distribution, marketing & sales,
entrepreneurship, market development, services, etc.)
2) Innovation in green technologies (environment,
resources efficiency etc.),
3) Innovation in workforce development (activities,
sustainability, inclusiveness, personal development etc.).
The jury will make its evaluation based on four criteria:
degree of innovation, success in the market, positive
influence on the company, and benefit for society. The winners
will be publicly honored and awarded at the KGCCI Innovation Awards
Gala on September 9, 2015.
For more information and to submit a nomination please visit www.kgcci.com.
Sponsorship opportunities
The KGCCI Innovation Awards 2015 also offer great sponsorship opportunities in three categories:
Leading innovation!
Creating innovation
Supporting innovation
Secure your favorite sponsorship package for the KGCCI Innovation Awards and Gala and benefit from it from day one! Some options are
limited, therefore first-come, first-serve basis applies. Sponsorship of this project will be particularly rewarding due to its timely focus,
media involvment and its long-term effect, from the opening of nominations in April until the Awards Ceremony in September 9th and
further.
For sponsorship information please contact Ms. Sun-hi Kim at [email protected] or by phone at 02-37804-659.
KORUM Nr. 56 | April 2015 29
KORUM
Media Data
Korea I Unternehmen I Märkte
KORUM, the bimonthly magazine of KGCCI publishes articles on Korea's economy,
markets, companies, technologies as well as on tax, legal or intercultural issues. The
journal also contains information on the activities of KGCCI and its member companies.
Nr. 56 l April 2015
KORUM target group consists of KGCCI members in Korea and abroad, decision
makers of companies doing business with Korea, business associations and relevant
public sector institutions.
Herausgeber:
Deutsch-Koreanische
Industrie- und Handelskammer
8th Fl., Hannam Plaza, 85, Dokseodang-ro,
Yongsan-gu, Seoul 140-884, Republic of Korea
www.kgcci.com
Circulation: Language: Pages: Frequency: 1,000 copies
German/English
minimum 32 (full colour)
bimonthly (February, April, June, August, October, December)
ADVERTISEMENT RATES
Rates per issue, all pages full colour. All prices are VAT excluded.
Advertisement type
Inside front cover + page 3
Outside back cover page
Page 30 + inside back cover page
Inside double page spread
Inside front cover page
Inside back cover page
Inside page
Inside ½ page
Prices (Mil. KRW)
Trim size
Non bleed size
Member Non-member (W x H mm) (W x H mm)
1.98
2.2
420 x 297
426 x 303
1.98
2.2
210 x 297
216 x 303
1.89
2.1
420 x 297
426 x 303
1.8
2.0
420 x 297
426 x 303
1.53
1.7
210 x 297
216 x 303
1.44
1.6
210 x 297
216 x 303
1.26
1.4
210 x 297
216 x 303
0.72
0.8
210 x 149
-
NEXT ISSUE
Redaktion:
Christian Leweling
Tel. +82-2-37804-630
Fax +82-2-37804-655
[email protected]
Anzeigen:
Jisun Moon
Tel. +82-2-37804-652
Fax +82-2-37804-655
[email protected]
Layout und Druck:
Design Sidae Co., Ltd.
Advertisements and contributions for issue 57: May 29th, 2015
Main topic: “Energy Efficiency”
PREMIUM PARTNER PROGRAM
KGCCI DEinternational has launched its Premium Partner Program. To learn more
on how to promote your company and support KGCCI please refer to our website or
contact:
Mr. Andreas Schäfer
[email protected]
Ms. Sun-Hi Kim
[email protected]
30
KORUM Nr. 56 | April 2015
©
Deutsch-Koreanische Industrie- und Handelskammer
Alle Rechte vorbehalten
Mit Namen gekennzeichnete Beiträge stellen die Meinung
des Autors, nicht unbedingt die Meinung der AHK Korea
wieder.
Strong
Sporty
Stylish
The new Audi S3 Sedan
강력한, 스포티한, 스타일리시한 S3
The new Audi S3 Sedan이 가진 매력은 하나로 정의될 수 없다.
최고출력 293마력, 최대토크 38.8kg.m, 0→100km/h 4.9초의 강력한 성능과
어떤 길에서도 정교한 드라이빙을 가능케 하는 풀타임 사륜구동 콰트로.
Audi S 모델만의 스포티한 감성을 선사하는 스포츠 시트와 19인치 5-트윈 스포크 스타 디자인 휠.
그리고 S3 Sedan의 스타일을 완성시켜주는 리어 스포일러와 LED 헤드라이트까지.
이것이 당신이 만나게 될 매력적인 S3, The new Audi S3 Sedan이다. www.audi.co.kr
전시장
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차종 및 표준연비 •차종명: 아우디 S3 (배기량: 1,984cc, 공차중량: 1,580kg, 자동6단), 복합연비: 10.6km/l (도심연비: 9.5km/l, 고속도로연비: 12.4km/l), 등급: 4등급, 복합CO2배출량: 165g/km •위 연비는 표준모드에 의한 연비로서 도로상태, 운전방법, 차량적재, 정비상태 및 외기온도에 따라
실주행연비와 차이가 있습니다•상기 이미지는 주문 사양에 따라 다소 상이할 수 있습니다

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