geografia

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geografia
zurab laoSvili
geog raf i a
VII klasi
klio
2009
Sesavali
1
ras Seiswavlis
geografia
Seiyvare dedabuneba da sakuTari
TaviviT moufrTxildi mas.
dedamiwis bunebrivi zonebi dRemde
geografiis Seswavlis sagania.
rukaze aRniSne zomieri da
subtropikuli sartyebi
4
Znelad moiZebneba bavSvi, romelsac geografia ar uyvars. igi
yvelganaa: diliT saxlidan
rom gamodixar, amindis Sesaferisad icmev _ es ukve
geografiaa. sauzme, romelic diliT miirTvi da Seni
Casacmelic garkveulwilad geografiasTan gakavSirebs.
Tu fexburTi giyvars da megobrebTan erTad romelime
qveynis gunds gulSematkivrob, aqac geografias ver ascdeba. ardadegebze saqarTvelos romelime kuTxes ewvevi
Tu sazRvargareT waxval, yovel fexis nabijze geografia
dagxvdeba. yvelafers rom Tavi davaneboT, dedamiwa erTaderTi planetaa ukidegano samyaroSi; igi Seni saxlia da mis
Sesaxeb yvelaferi unda icode.
geografia yvelaze xandazmuli, Tumca marad axalgazrda
mecnierebaa. man bevri gaakeTa kacobriobis sakeTildReod da
gasakeTEebeli kidev bevri aqvs.
`geografia~ sityva-sityviT miwis aRweras niSnavs. igi sabunebismetyvelo da sazogadoebriv mecnierebaTa sferoa. imisaTvis, rom mecnierebam iarsebos mas unda hqondes kvlevis sagani,
obieqti. cxadia, geografiasac aqvs aseTi obieqti. esaa geografiuli garsi.
Tavdapirvelad geo­gra­fiiis amocanas ucnobi teritoriebis
aRmoCena da aRwera Seadgenda. xangrZlivi periodis ganmavlobaSi geografiulma aRmoCenebma pasuxi gasca kiTxvas, Tu sad ra
aris ganlagebuli, rogoria maTi miwa-wyali, simdidre da mosaxleoba. amiT ucnobi teritoriebis aRmoCenis da aRweris etapi
damTavrda.
axali miwebis aRmoCenam kacobriobas geografiis ganxriT didZali codna daugrova. antikuri droidan moyolebuli daiwera uamravi wigni, daixvewa rukis Seqmnis xelovneba. es yvelaferi, odesRac asazrdoebda sxva sabunebismetyvelo da
sazogadoebriv mecnierebebs (astronomias, fizikas, qimias,
biologias, maTematikas, istorias, filosofias da sxv.).
droTa ganmavlobaSi geografTa interesebis sfero gaizarda. maT daiwyes bunebaSi mimdinare movlenebisa da bunebis obieqtebis axsna. es etapi Tanamedrove geografiis dasawyisad SeiZleba miviCnioT. arsebuli informaciis analizis
safuZvelze geografia Camoyalibda mecnierebad, romlis Seswavlis obieqtic dedamiwis geografiuli garsi gaxda.
Tanamedrove geografiam pasuxi unda gasces Semdegs: rogor aris geografiuli garsi agebuli da mowyobili, ra elis mas
momavalSi? ramdenadac, dedamiwis garsi Cveni erTaderTi sacxovrisia, misi dRevandeli mdgomareobis da momavlis Seswavlas
didi yuradReEba unda mieqces. amisaTvis saWiroa garsis ganviTarebis zoga­di kanonzomierebebis, misi calkeuli elementebis da maT Soris arsebuli kavSirebis Seswavla.
magaliTad, kaxeTis regionSi xSiri setyva Turme
odesRaAc Tbilisis midameoebSi tyeebis ganadgurebis Sedegia. bunebaSi umizezod araferi xdeba.
dRes, rodesac bunebasa da adamians Soris
urTierToba Zalian daZabulia, rodesac globaluri ekologiuri problemebi dauyovnebel
gadaWras moiTxovs, rodesac dedamiwis mosaxleobis raodenoba katastrofulad matulobs,
xolo sarsebo garemo mcirdeba, geografias gansakuTrebuli roli akisria kacobriobis winaSe.
geografiam unda gaswavlos bunebasTan mSvidobiani da harmoniuli Tanacxovreba. unda SegeZlos dedabunebis sikeTeebi yairaTianad da gonivrulad gamoiyeno.
gaxsovdes: misi momavali Sens xelSia!
geografia
sabune­
bismetyvelo
geografia
sazogado­ebrivi
geografia
aRniSne dedamiwis
geosferoebi
leqsikoni
?
kiTxvebi
ra aris geografiis kvlevis obieqti?
ras swavlobda geografia Tavidan?
ras Seiswavlis Tanamedrove geografia?
ginda gaxde geografi? daasabuTe Seni azri.
geografiuli gar­­si
_ dedami­wis erT-er­Ti ga­
rsi, romelSic er­­­TmaneTs
ex­ebian da urTi­erTzemo­
qmedeben at­mo­s­feros qveda fenebi, liTosferos
zeda nawili, hid­rosfero
da biosfero.
5
ratom vswavlobT
geografias
2
1980 wlis zafxuli iyo. goris
raionis erT-erTi soflidan borjomSi bebiasTan Seni toli gogona
isvenebda. erT dResac igi megobrebTan erTad tyeSi kevis (naZvis) mosagroveblad wavida. kevis ZebnaSi ise
gaerTo, sxvebs ascda da uRran tyeSi amoyo Tavi. mas gza aebna da ukan
veRar gamoaRwia. gogona mxolod 3
dRis Semdeg ipoves mSieri da gasacodavebuli. vwuxvar es saSineli ambavi
Sen rom giambe, magram mas rom tyeSi orientireba scodnoda, am dReSi ar Cavardeboda.
geografiis codna Sen bevr rameSi dagexmareba. amitom,
gulisxmierad moekide am saswavlo sagans. Seiyvare da ar
inaneb!
berZenma swavlulma strabonma
(Cvens eramde 63-24 ww) 17 wigni
miuZRvna sxvadasxva qveynebis
geografias. es iyo aRwerilobiTi
sakiTxebi.
„Tu kacsa codna ara aqvs, gastanjavs wuTisofeli...“ _ genia­
luri qarTveli mgosnis daviT guramiSvilis es brZnuli naTqvami yvela epoqaSi aqtualuria.
magram, ramdenadac kacobriobis arsebobis manZilze sxvada­
sxva dargSi kolosaluri codna dagrovda, amdenad erT adamains
ar xelewifeba yvelaferi iswavlos da icodes. magram, aris codnis dargebi, romelTa codna yvela adamianisaTvis iseve aucilebelia, rogorc mSobliuri enis codna. aseTia swored geogra-
globaluri daTboba mTeli
kacobriobriobis problemaa
da mas erTblivi ZalisxmeviT
Wirdeba gadaWra
C
0
-50
6
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-30
-20
-10
0
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20
30
fia. Sen am dargSi ucodinrobiT sakuTar Tavsac SeiZleba avno
da mTel qveyanasac. es naTqvami gadaWarbebuli rom ar gegonos,
modi magaliTEebi moviSvelioT da mere Tavad gansaje saWiroa Tu
ara geografiis codna.
adamianma bevrgan (maT Soris saqarTveloSi) ise aaSena didi
wyalsacavebi, rom mosalodneli Sedegebi, pirvel rigSi ki bunebis interesebi ar gauTvaliswinebia. Sedegad, Seicvala mikroklimati. aman gamoiwvia zogierTi mcenaris gadagvareba, cxovelebis gadaSeneba. Warbi sinestis gamo ziandeba istoriuli
Zeglebi. adamianebi da Sinauri cxovelebi daavaddnen.
1987 wels rionis wyalmovardnam arnaxuli zarali miayena
qveyanas. aseTi stiqia bolo periodSi gaxSirda. arada, verc erT
istoriul dokumentSi bwkarsac ver naxav rionis wyaldidobis
Sesaxeb. imas ki weren, rom rioni imdenad sufTa modis, rom zRvaosnebi sasmel wyals pirdapir SesarTavidan iRebdneno.
ram gaxela ase dasavleT saqarTvelos deda mdinare? _ tyeebis xelaRebiT gaCanagebam. uwin tyes ase vin gagakafinebda.
mosul wvimasac pirveli tye egebeboda da Tanabrad, nela anawilebda miwaze. axla ki naleqi TqeSad moedineba ferdobebze da
mdinaris gaavebis mizezic eg aris. mdinareSi ferdobebidan erTbaSad moxvedrili naleqi wyalmovardnad gadaiqceva.
adamianma imdeni fabrika-qarxana da manqana Seqmna, saTvalavi
aeria. Sedegad ki atmosfero gamonabolqvis buRiT daifara. WuWyiani haeri aqeT ki uSvebs mzis sxivebs, magram ukan aRar atarebs.
gairkva, rom aman haeris saSualowliuri temperaturis momateba
gamoiwvia. Tu ase gagrZelda myinvarebis dnoba daCqardeba, rac
msoflio okeanis donis matebas gamoiwvevs. saboloo Sedegi Sen
SegiZlia warmoidgino. swavlulebma mas „globaluri daTboba“
uwodes da gangaSis zaric Semokres.
kosmosis aTviseba kacobriobis didi xnis ocnebis axdenis kargi magaliTia. iqidan adamians bevri sikeTe moaqvs, magram savalalo
Sedegebmac ar daagviana. iq, sadac satelitebi orbitaze gadian (antarqtida) „ozonis xvreli“ gaCnda. arada, ozonis Txeli fena rom
ara, Cvens planetaze sicocxle saerTod ar iqneboda.
adamianma imdeni moaxerxa, rom araerTi saxeobis cxoveli Tu
mcenare gadaaSena dedamiwidan. amiT daarRvia bunebaSi arsebuli kanonzomiereba. Zneli saTqmelia, did
britaneTSi ukanaskneli mgeli rodis mokles, magram
faqtia, rom maTma ganadgurebam irmebis da sxva cxovelebis masiuri sikvdilianoba gamoiwvia. gvian gairkva,
rom mgeli erTgvari sanitaris rols asrulebda da
daavadebul cxovelebs musravda. ase daawesa bunebamadamianma ki uxeSad daarRvia es kanoni!
magaliTebis motana sxvac bevri SeiZleba. es sakmarisia imisTvis, rom dafiqrde: ratom unda iswavlo
geografia.
?
kiTxvebi da davalebebi
ra gaige axali geografiaze?
ratom aris aucilebeli geografiis codna?
moiZie informacia „ozonis xvrelze“?
odesme gamogdgomia geografiis codna?
aRwere adamianis da bunebis
urTierToba. gaakeTe cxrili,
romelsac Seavseb am urTierTobis
dadebiTi da uaryofiTi mxareebiT.
„ozonis xvreli“
TandaTanobiT farTovdeba.
werilobiT gadmoeci, ra
sargeblobis motana
SegiZlia Seni qveynisTvis,
Tuki mas geografiulad
kargad Seiswavli.
7
3
rogor viTardeboda
geografia
aristotele (Zveli welTaRricxviT
384-322 ww) iTvleba geografiis
dargebis: meteorologiis,
hidrologiis da okeanologiis
fuZemdeblad.
antikuri geografiis memkvidreebi
arabebi arian. maT zRAprebSic ki
bevri ramaa geografiuli.
aRwere antikuri navsadguri.
8
Tavis droze me-20 saukunis
udides mwerals _ Stefan cvaigs
sircxvilis grZnobam daawerina
SesaniSnavi wigni geografiul
Tematikaze: „kacobriobis svebednieri saaTebi“. masSi Tavganwiruli mogzaurebis magelanis,
vespuCis, skotis da sxv. gmirobis ambebia moTxrobili. mwerali evropidan amerikaSi miemgzavreboda keTilmowyobili
swrafmavali gemiT, magram ramdenime dRis Semdeg mobezrda
okeanis lurji erTferovneba da saSinelma sevdam da mowyenilobam Seipyro. sabednierod, sindisma maleve Seawuxa
da mixvda, rom misi ganwyoba sul cota umaduroba iyo im
zRvaosnebisadmi, romlebmac gausaZlis pirobebSi pirvelebma gadalaxes okeanis ukidegano sivrce. maT xSirad arc
ki icodnen, Tu ra elodebodaT win, ise micuravdnen ucxo
zRvebSi, romlebic yovelTvis rodi iyo stumarTmoyvare.
aTaswleulebi dasWirda Tanamedrove geografiis Camoyalibebas. varaudoben, rom Cven Soreul winapars Cvens eramde oTxi
aTasi wlis winaT ukve hqonda warmodgena geografiaze. am dros
sxvadasxva masalaze (xeze, qvaze, Zvalze, tyavsa da sxv.) ukve iqmneboda pirveli primitiuli rukebi. adamians imTaviTve ainteresebda garemo, sadac cxovrobda. cdilobda pasuxi gaeca yvelaferze, rac mis garSemo xdeboda.
geografiuli codna sazogadoebasTan erTad viATardeboda
da mWidro kavSirSi iyo sxva mecnierebTan. uZvelesi civilizaciis xalxebs asirielebs, egviptelebs, Sumerebs, finikielebs,
indoelebs, Cinelebs ukve garkveuli warmodgena hqondaT dedamiwis sidideze, formaze, moZraobaze. magaliTad, Zvelma egviptelebma jer kidev Cvens eramde aTaswleulebis winaT moipoves
mniSvnelovani geografiuli informacia afrikisa da xmelTaSua
zRvis sanapiroebis Sesaxeb.
Zveli welTaRricxviT XIII-VII sau­kuneebSi asirielebis (gaix­
sene, sad cxovrobdnen isini) laSqrobebma wina aziaSi kidev ufro
gaafarTova adamanis codna.
dedamiwis Seswavla aseve warmatebiT xorcieldeboda aRmosavleTSi. mdinare indis poeturi aRwera erTerTi uZvelesi werilobiTi geografiuli Zeglia.
samxedro laSqrobebis dros Zveli Cinelebic (meore da pirveli aTaswleulebi Cvens eramde) aseve Zvirfas geografiul informacias moipovebdnen dapyrobili
teritoriebis Sesaxeb. amave dros Cinelebi werilobiT
gadmoscemdnen nanaxsa Tu gagonils.
antikur xanaSi gansakuTrebiT berZnebma da romaelebma gamoiCines TaAvi. berZnebma Tavidan bolomde gadaamuSaves yvelaferi, rac ki manamde iyo Seqmnili.
ZvelberZnuli sabunebismetyvelo skolis Rirseuli warmomadgenlebi arian: Tales mileTeli, herodote, aristotele,
eratosTene, ptoleme, straboni.
pirvelad berZenebma ixmares sityva `geografia~, mogvces
swori warmodgena dedamiwis formaze, mis sidideze. maT Sesaleblad miaCndaT da­sav­leTis gziT indoeTSi moxvedra.
Sua saukuneebi didi geografiuli aRmoCenebis ganumeorebeli xanaa. vaWrobis ganviTarebam da axali miwebis dapyrobis
dauokebelma survilma araerT saxelovan geografiul aRmoCenas daudo safuZveli.
jer kidev me-10 saukuneSi uSiSarma vikingebma skandinaviis
naxevarkunZulidan islandia, grenlandia da CrdiloeTi amerika
aRmoaCines (ramdeni xniT adre moxda es?).
aRmosavleTis Soreul qveynebze geografiuli informaciis
SegrovebaSi udidesi wvlili miuZRvis italiel vaWars _ marko
polos. swored misi wignis gacnobam ganumtkica kolumbs dasavleTis gziT indoeTSi moxvedris rwmena.
axali miwebis aRmoCeniT gansa­kuTrebiT didi geo­gra­fiuli
aRmoCenebis epo­qa (XV-XVII) gamoirCeva (gaixsene yvelaze didi
aRmoCenebi), romelsac moyveba axali drois geografia (XVII–XIX
ss). am dros Caisaxa geo­grafiis dargebi. am periodis udidesi figuraa germaneli swavluli da mogzauri aleqsandre humboldti. igi ikvlevda evropis, centraluri da samxreTi amerikis da
sxv. regionebis bunebas. man mravali qveyana moiara da saintereso
wignebic dagvitova.
reaqtiuli
TviTmfrinavebi
bgeris
siCqareze
Tanamedrove geografia
XIX saukunidan
dRemde
grZeldeba.
aRwere suraTi. internetSi
moiZie Zveli xomaldebis
suraTebi da gaakeTe albomi.
swrafad dafrinaven.
?
kiTxvebi da davalebebi
ra ganapirobebda geografiis ganviTaArebas?
ramden ZiriTad etapad SegiZlia dayo geografiis istoria?
Seadgine cxrili, sadac geografiul aRmoCenebs epoqebis mixedviT ganaTavseb.
gaixsene da rukaze daitane:
vasko da gamas, magelanis
da kolumbis mogzaurobis
marSrutebi. aRniSne maTi
dabadebis da gardacvalebis
adgilebi.
9
4
Tanamedrove geografia
aero da kosmosuri suraTebidan
informaciis amoRebas
deSifrireba qvia.
ucxoeTis qveynebSi geografia saxelmwifo mniSvnelobis mecnierebaa.
iq arc erTi didi proeqti (kaSxlebisa
Tu gzebis mSenebloba, axali miwebis
aTviseba Tu dasaxlebuli punqtebis
dagegmareba), qveynis ekonomikuri
ganviTArebis strategiis gansazRvra
Tu saerTaSoriso urTierTobebi ge­
ografebis rekomendaciis gareSe ar
xorcieldeba. SeiZleba gagikvirdes,
magram iq zogieT kerZo pirsac geografi yavs daqiravebuli. magaliTAd, zogierT operis momReralisTvis geografi
im qveynis mikroklimats detalurad swavlobs, romleSic
mas gastrolebi aqvs dagegmili. haeris temperatura da sinotive xmis iogebze moqmedebs da momRerals yeli rom ar
dauziandes koncertisTvis Sesabamisi dro unda SeirCes.
moaxdine am suraTis deSifrireba:
gamoyavi tyis masivebi, dasaxlebebi
da baRvenaxebi.
radgan ukve viciT, rom geografia marad axalgazrda mecnierebaa, Zneli misaxvedri ar aris, rom mas jer kidev bevri aqvs gasakeTebeli.
geoinformaciuli sistema nebismier
informacias amuSavebs da analizs
ukeTEebs.
10
dedamiwis mosaxleobis raodenoba matulobs, sasicocxlo garemo ki mcirdeba. icvleba adamianebis moTxovnilebebi.
aseT dros geografias bevri saqme gauCnda. geografebma sworad unda dagegmon Cveni planetis momavali; bunebisa da sazogadoebis Tanacxovrebis kanonebi. dedamiwaze yvela kuTxekunWuli didi xania aRmoCenili da Seswavlilia. axla saWiroa
amis Wkvianurad moxmareba, ukve gafuWebulis gamosworeba,
Tuki es SesaZlebelia.
geoinformaciuli sistemebis
daxmarebiT kosmosuri suraTidan
(a) SegiZlia reliefis cifruli
modeli (b) miiRo, misgan ki
ferdobTa eqspoziciebis
(horizontis mxareebi) ruka (g).
a
Tanamedrove geografiis sawyis etapad me-19 saukune iTvleba. am etapze geografebma daiwyes obieqtebsa da movleneba Soris mizezSedegobrivi kavSiris axsna. atmosferos da
hidrosferos dapyrobam swavlulebs atmosferos calkeuli
Sreebis, okeanis siRrmeebis Seswavlis saSualeba misca. didi
miRwevebi iyo amindis Seswavlis saqmeSi. amindis prognozirebam adamianis cxovreba mniSvnelovnad gaaumjobesa.
amasobaSi adamianma liTosferoSic CaaRwia. TxuTmet kilometriani WaburRilidan dedamiwis qerqis agebulebaze
Zvirfasi informacia miiRo. geofizikuri meTodebis (miwaSi
seismuri talRebis gaSveba) gamoyenebam ki SesaZlebloba misca
dedamiwis SigneTis mTliani agebuleba Seeswavla.
b
dedamiwis kvlevis distanciuri meTodebis gamogonebam
Tanamedrove geografiuli kvlevebi axal safexurze aiyvana. distanciuri zondireba gulisxmobs dedamiwis Seswavlas
aero da kosmosuri suraTebiT. im obieqtebsa da movlenebze
dakvirveba, rac miwidan ar Cans, zemodanaa SesaZlebeli. kosmosidan dedamiwis nebismieri adgilis sxvadasxva saxis suraTebs viRebT. am meTodebiT geografebma Seiswavles iseTi miuvali adgilebic ki, sadac adamians fexi arasdros daudgavs.
distancuri zondirebis meTodi geogra­fi­u­li kvle­vis Tanamedrove meTodebs Soris sizustiT da gamoyenebis masStabiT gamoirCeva.
gasuli saukunis 70-iani wlebidan geoinformaciuli sistemebi (gis) geografiul kvlevebSi axali sityva iyo. dRes
geografis saqmianoba warmoudgenelia mis gareSe. gis-i kompiuteruli programaa, romelic monacemebis sacavia. amave
dros, misi gamoyenebiT xelgewifeba mravalnairi analizi gaakeTo. mas SeuZlia dagexmaros gadawyvetilebis miRebaSi, raime
obieqtis mSeneblobsaTvi saukeTeso adgilis SerCevaSi da a.S.
g
geoinformaciul sistemebs SeuZlia monacemTa sacavSi
arsebuli informacia rukad aqcios. Tanac am saqmes ganswavluli adamiani swrafad da iolad akeTebs. amitom aris, rom
zogjer geoinformaciul sistemebs cifrul (kompiuterul)
rukasac uwodeben.
am axali meTodebis daxmarebiT geografiis Tanamedrove
kvlevis ZiriTadi mizani geografiul garsSi mimdinare procesebis Seswavlaa.
?
kiTxvebi da davalebebi
ratomaa geografia marad axalgazrda mecniereba?
riT gansxvavdeba Tanamedrove geografia uwindelisgan?
Tanamedrove geografebze Tu gsmenia rame?
C
Ca sa s sd d Cd
g suraTze wiTeli feriT
gamosaxulia CrdiloeTis
eqspoziciis ferdobebi. gaarkvie,
romeli eqspoziciebia danarCeni
ferebiT gamosaxuli. Seadgine
legenda (Sesabamisi ferebiT
Seaferade marTkuTxedi).
11
5
geografiuli azrovneba
geografiuli azrovneba is fenomenia,
romelic yoveldRiur cxovrebaSi Tan
gvaxlavs. rogorc ki daiwyeb samuSao magidis milagebas an oTaxis mowyobas, Seni
goneba geografiulad azrovnebas iwyebs.
roca fiqrob, ra sad moaTavso, ukve iwyeb
Seni garemos sivrciT mowyobas.
geografiuli azrovneba adamianis erT-erTi
uZvelesi gonebrivi moTxovnilebaa da dResac
aqtualuria. jer kidev pirvelyofil adamians
ainteresebda sad, ra da ratom iyo. igi mudmivad
cdilobda Tavisi sacxovrebeli garemos gaumjobesebas. droTa ganmavlobaSi ixveweboda geografiuli azrovnebis formebi, Tumca kiTxvebi, rasac
geografiam unda upasuxos: sad, ra, vin, ratom, rogor _ adamians dRemde aRelvebs.
ratom aris sofeli kompaqturad,
mWidrod dasaxlebuli? suraTze
monaxe amis pasuxi.
kiTxvaze sad? – unda gaarkvio geografiuli an
istoriuli obieqtis da movlenis adgilmdebareoba, misi koordinatebi. unda SegeZlos rukaze, globusze an gegmaze misi moZebna. zogjer miTiTebuli
koordinatebiT maTi datana unda SeZlo.
kiTxvaze ra? – unda daadgino obieqtis an movlenis raoba (magaliTad, stiqiuri bunebrivi procesebis Seswavlisas, daadgino
romeli procesia igi: mewyeri, Rvarcofi, Tovlzvavi Tu sxva).
amis garkvevas arsebiTi mniSvneloba aqvs praqtikuli amocanebis gadasawyvetad (ratom?).
kiTxvaze vin? – unda gansazRvro, vin aris ama
Tu im movlenis an procesis Semoqmedi. magaliTad,
mewyeri SeiZleba rogorc bunebrivma pirobebma,
ise adamianma gamoiwvios. am kiTxvaze pasuxis gacema
procesebis swor Sefasebasa da Sesabamisi RonisZiebebis SemuSavebaSi dagexmareba. igive mewyers Tu
Tavsxma xasiaTis wvimebi iwvevs, mas naklebad vuSveliT. xolo Tu igi ferdobebis araswori moxvniT,
gadaZovebiT an morwyviT aris provocirebuli,
misi wamali gamoiZebneba (rogor fiqrob, ra?).
Sexede suraTs da axseni, ra
procesebs gamoiwevs ferdobis
gadaZoveba?
12
kiTxvaze ratom? – unda axsna, Tu ratom arsebobs esa Tu is obieqti Tu movlena im adgilas an
saerTod ratom xdeba is? magaliTad, mTawmindis
ferdobidan mowyvetilma mewyerma imitom gaaswora miwasTan benzingasamarTi sadguri da imsxverpla sami adamiani, rom mewyersaSiSi ferdobis Ziras misi aSeneba ar SeiZleboda.
reaqtiuli TviTmfrinavebi bgeris siCqareze
swrafad dafrinaven.
kiTxvaze rogor? – unda gansazRvro rogor viTardeba esa
Tu is obieqti an movlena. am kiTxvaze pasuxis gacema dagexmareba
dagegmo garemos ganviTareba. magaliTad, Tu daadgen, rom oTaxSi temperatura imisda mixedviT icvleba gareT rogori amindia,
am problemis mogvarebaze fiqri SegiZlia.
daakvirdi suraTs da gaeci
pasuxi kiTxvebs: ra, sad, ratom?
geografiuli azrovneba damokidebulia pirovnebis zogad ganaTlebaze, geografiul codnasa da zogadad azrovnebis
unarze. dRes amaSi didi daxmarebis gaweva SeuZlia kompiuters.
Tumca mas informacia Sen unda miawodo da amocanac dausaxo.
?
kiTxvebi da davalebebi
raSi exmareba adamans georafiuli azrovneba?
Sen raSi gexmareba geografiuli azrovneba?
ratom ar SeiZleba tyis umowyalod gaCexva?
sad aaSenebdi saqarTveloSi eleqtrosadgurs?
13
6
geografiuli garemo da
sazogadoebis ganviTareba
adamiani binas rodesac yidulobs an aSenebs, guldasmiT arCevs
mis mdebareobas: qalaqis an soflis romel ubanSia, axlos aris
Tu ara komunikaciebTan (gzasTan,
avtobusis gaCerebasTan an metros
sadgurTan), sasursaTo obieqtebTan. aseve did yuradRebas uTmobs sarTuls, eqspozicias (mziani mxarea Tu ara), haeris gaWuWyianebis xarisxs da
sxv. rogorc xedav, patara binis SeZenis drosac ki adamianisTvis, fassTan da binis mdgomareobasTan erTad, udidesi
mniSvneloba aqvs geografiul faqtorebs.
SeiZleba arc ki icode, rom arsebobs geografiis mimarTuleba _ geografistika. misi mimdevrebi amtkiceben, rom adamianTa sazogadoebis ganviTarebaSi geografiul garemos gadamwyveti mniSvneloba aqvs. am gadaWarbebul mosazrebas mravali
mowinaaRmdege hyavs. Tumca, geografistebis Teoria uyuradRebod ar unda davtovoT.
Znelbedobis JAms mTam bevrjer Seifara
istoriidan gaxsovs, rom uZvelesi civilizaciebi konkreCveni inaprebi.
tul geografiul garemoSi yalibdeboda da viTardeboda. amis
kargi magaliTia Zveli egvipte. misi arseboba mdinare nilosis
damsaxurebaa (gaixsene, ratom?) aseTi magaliTebis moyvana TviTonac mravlad SegiZlia.
ama Tu im saxelmwifos ganviTarebis donec geografiuli
kosmosur suraTze geografiuli
pirobebiT iyo gansazRvruli. sazogadoebebis ganviTarebaze
garemos Seswavlis Sedegad
Zvelad klimaturi pirobebi did gavlenas axdenda.
axali dasaxlebisTvis SearCie
saukeTeso adgili.
geografiulma faqtorma mniSvnelovnad ganapiroba zogierTi istoriuli
brZolis bedi da zogadad
eris, saxelmwifos yofnaaryofnac. magaliTad, sa­
qarTvelo
mravalricxovan mters rom gadaurCa,
qarTvelobis simamacesa da
gonierebasTan erTad, Cveni qveynis rTuli reliefis
wyalobac aris. qarTvelebs
araerTxel gamouyenebiaT
geografiuli garemo damxvdurTan brZolaSi. mtris uricxvi urdoebi viwro
xeobebSi gaSlilad brZolas
ver axerxebdnen. mTam araerTxel Seifara qarTveli
kaci.
14
bunebriv garemoze gansakuTrebiT soflis meurneoba iyo
damokidebuli (axseni ratom?). nawilobriv igive SeiZleba iTqvas vaWrobazec. vaWarTa araerTi xomaldi bunebis stiqias Seewira.
adamianma TandaTan daiwyo araxelsayrel bunebriv pirobebTan gamklaveba. teqnikisa da mecnierebis progresma adamians
saSualeba misca sul ufro naklebad yofiliyo damokidebuli
garemo pirobebze. Tanamedrove teqnologiebi eqstremalur
viTArebaSic normalurad cxovrebis saSualebas iZleva. nu gaocdebi, Tuki Suagul udabnoSi berberebis (gaixsene, vin arian
isini) karavSi Tanamedrove komfortis bevr elements naxav.
adamiani dRemde aTasgvar saSualebas eZebs, rom bunebaze
naklebad damokidebuli iyos. holandiis ayvavebuli mindvrebi adamianis stiqiasTan brZolis Tavdadebuli gmirobis magaliTia. aqaurebma zRvas uzarmazari teritoria gamoglijes da
dRes maTi qveyana erT-erTi mowinavea msoflioSi.
marTalia adamianma teqnologiuri ganviTarebis arnaxul
dones miaRwia, magram buneba sabolood mainc ver daimorCila.
is dRemde uZluria iseTi stiqiebis winaSe, rogoricaa wyalmovardna, miwisZvra, vulkanis amofrqveva, cunami, grigali da
sxv. ganviTarebad qveynebSi adamiani dRemde bunebriv pirobebzea damokidebuli (axseni, ratom?).
saqarTveloSi soflis meurneobis mdgomareobas klimatis
guneba-ganwyobileba gansazRvravs. setyva kaxeTSi xSiri movlenaa, rasac jer-jerobiT veraferi mouxerxes. Tumca, setyvis sawinaaRmdego qvemexebs dReniadag caSi isrodnen. bolo
dros gaxSirebuli wyalmovardnebis, mewyerebisa da sxva damangreveli procesebis gamo
araerTma ojaxma Tavisi karmidamo miatova.
geografiuli codna bunebis Sesaswavlad unda gamoiyeno. iswavle masTan harmoniuli Tanacxovreba da ar
ganarisxo igi.
bunebas nu moeqcevi rogorc mters. Sen misi nawili
xar da pativi eci mis kanonebs da, Tuki rames Secvli
masSi, es ise gaakeTe, rom arc
is daaziano da arc sakuTari
Tavi azaralo.
?
Cveni winaprebi sameTvalyureo
koSkebs ise aSenebdnen, rom
erTmaneTisTvis gangaSis niSani
gadaecaT. axseni, ra iZleoda amis
saSualebas?
daakvirdi klimatur rukas
da gaarkvie, romel klimatur
pirobebSi arsebobda maRal­
ganviTarebuli civili­zaciebi?
imsjele, moqmedebs Tu ara dRes
qveynis ganviTebaze klimaturi
pirobebi?
kiTxvebi da davalebebi
gaixseneT Zveli istoriis magaliTebi: sad Seiqmna pirveli saxelmwifoebi?
egviptis garda, kidev romeli uZvelesi saxelmwifoebis Seqmna aris dakavSirebuli mdinaresTan?
gaixsene msoflios istoriidan, romel brZolaSi, vin da rogor gamoiyena geografiuli garemo mterTan brZolaSi?
15
16
1
d ro da sivrce
17
7
dedamiwis adgili
samyaroSi
iupiteri
venera
sikaSkaSis gamo planetebi iupiteri
da venera bevrs varskvlavi hgonia.
es Tbilisia _ saqarTvelos
dedaqalaqi, sadac rusTAvelis
gamziri mdebareobs.
am gakveTilSi Sen kidev erTxel gaecnobi dedamiwis
mdebareobas samyaros ukidegano sivrceSi. nebismier sagans
aqvs Tavisi sivrciTi mdebareoba, adgili sivrceSi, romlis
codnas didi geografiuli mniSvneloba aqvs. Sen gaerkvevi,
Tu sad mdebareobs dedamiwa mzis sistemasa da kosmosuri
samyaros ufro did dajgufebebSi. gaigeb, Tu ra geografiuli mniSvneloba aqvs mis mdebareobas da ra iqneboda dedamiwa sxvagan rom yofiliyo.
da mainc sad mdebareobs Cveni planeta samyaros ukidegano
sivrceSi?
es saqarTveloa, sadac Tbilisi mdebareobs.
es dedamiwaa, sadac Cveni samSoblo
saqarTvelocaa.
merkuri yvelaze
patara (4 880 km)
da mzesTan uax­
loesi (58 mi­­lioni
kilometri) planetaa.
mis ze­dapirs mze 427 0-iT acxunebs. mzis
ga­r­Semo brunvas 88 dRes andomebs.
venera mzi­dan
da­­SorebiT meo­rea
(108 milioni km).
misi diametri 12100
kilometria. mas na­
xSirorJangis at­mosfero aqvs. ve­nera,
romelic kaS­kaSa varskvlaviviT ana­
Tebs, advili SesamCnevia gariJraJze an
Sebindebisas. gogirdmJavas sqeli Rru­
blebi mzis sxivebs areklavs da venerac
amitom varskvlavs mogvagonebs.
18
es mzis sistemaa. ase uwodeben mzis ojaxs, sadac dedamiwa da
kidev rva planeta Sedis. mze Cvengan yvelaze axlos mdebare varskvlavia (150 milioni km), romlis garSemoc planetebi sxvadasxva
siCqariT moZraoben.
mzis sistema spiraliseburi formis galaqtikaSi mdebareobs,
romelsac irmis naxtomi hqvia da misi centridan 32 aTasi sinaTlis weliwadiTaa daSorebuli.
es Tbilisis pirvel sajaro skolaa
rusTaAvelis gamzirze.
es mzis sistemaa, sadac
dedamiwa mdebareobs.
es rusTavelis gamziria TbilisSi,
sadac es skola mdebareobs.
es ki galaqtikaa _
varskvlavebis uzarmazari jgufi, sadac mzis
sistema Sedis.
marsi sididiT dedamiwis naxevaria.
mzidan 228 milioni
km-Taa daSorebuli
da mis garSemo
Semovlas 687 dReRames andomebs.
mas zogjer wiTel
planetasac
uwodeben mis
zedapirze
arsebuli mowiTalo
mtvris gamo. marsis
zedapirs XX saukunis 60-iani wlebidan
Seiswavlian kosmosuri zondebiT
da TviTmavalebiT. varaudoben, rom
odesRac marsze wyali unda yofiliyo,
rac marsis aTvisebis Soreul
perspeqtivebs usaxavs adamians.
iupiteri
mzidan 775
milioni km-Taa
daSorebuli.
igi mzis
sistemis
udidesi
(diametri 142
984 km) planetaa.
iupiteris fotoebi
1995 wels gaSvebul
zondma gadaiRo. iupiteris garSemo 28
mTvare moZraobs. iupiteri kargad CaAns
SeuiaraRebeli TvaliTac.
pirveli sajaro skolis maqsimaluri sigrZe 120 metria da mis
gadakveTas sul raRac 2 wuTi moundebi. galaqtikis erTi kididan
meoremde misvlas ki, Tuki sinaTlis siCqariT mimavali kosmosuri xomaldiT movindomebT, ramdenime aTasidan ramdenime aseuli aTasi sinaTlis weli dasWirdeba. samyaros ukidegano sivrcis ganzomilebebi bolomde aravin icis. erTis Tqma ki SeiZleba,
rom adamianma jerjerobiT TiToeul galaqtikaSi miliardobiT
varskvlavi daiTvala. galaqtikebis raodenoba ki samyaroSi 100
miliardamdea daTvlili.
saturni sididiT meore planetaa.
misi diametri 120 536 kilometria.
mzisgan 1429 milioni kilometriTaa
daSorebuli. saturni sxva planetebze
gacilebiT msubuqia, radgan msubuqi
gazebisgan Sedgeba. mis garSemo 1 km
sisqis rgolebia, romlebic mtvrisgan,
kldisa da yinulis natexebisgan
Sedgeba. saturns 18 mTvare gaaCnia.
19
urani mxolod
1781 wels iqna
aRmoCenili.
igi mzidan 2
870 milioni
kilometriTaa
daSorebuli.
sididiT mesamea
planetebs Soris. is
Zalian nela moZraobs
_ wamSi daaxloebiT 7 kilometrs
gadis da mzis garESemovlas 84
dedamiwis weliwads andomebs. urani
unikaluri imiTaa, rom mzis garSemo
ki ar bzrialebs, kasriviT gverdze
gadaxrili migoravs.
neptuni uranze
odnav pataraa.
mzidan 4
504 milioni
kilometriTaa
daSorebuli
da mis garSemo
erT Semobrunebas 165
wels andomebs. neptunis danaxva
mxolod teleskopiT SeiZleba.
mis atmosferoSi Semavali meTani
planetas lurj Seferilobas
aZlevs.
plutoni,
romelic 1930
wels iqna
aRmoCenili,
mzis sistemis
uSoresi (mzidan
saSualo manZili
5900 milioni kilometria) da yvelaze
patara planetaa. misi diametri 2 274
kilometria. mas zogierTi swavluli
asteroidad miiCnevs, xolo 2006
wlidan plutoidad iwodeba.
dedamiwidan plutonis danaxva
mxolod uZlieresi teleskopebiTaa
SesaZlebeli.
20
mTvare dedamiwis erTaderTi bunebrivi Tanamgzavria, romelic dedamiwis garsSemovlas erT Tves andomebs. am xnis ganmavlobaSi igi sxvadasxva formiT warmogvidgeba, romelTac uxsovari droidan mTvaris fazebs uwodeben. mcire zomis (dedamiwis
meoTxedi) miuxedavad, imis gamo, rom mTvare Cvengan uaxloesi
(384 aTasi kilometri) ciuri sxeulia, igi did gavlenas axdens
dedamiwaze. es gavlena mTvaris sxvadasxva fazaSi gansxvavebulia. Zvelad glexi xvna-Tesvas Tu mosavlis aReba-dabinavebas
mTvaris fazebs uxamebda. aRmosavleTis zogierT qveyanaSi savsemTvareobisas, dResac ki, mZime operacias ar akeTeben. mTvaris
wyalobiT dedamiwis klimati stabiluria, radgan igi dedamiwis
polusebis ucvlel mdebareobas uzrunvelyofs. mis fazebzea
damokidebuli amindis sezonuri mkveTri cvlilebebi. mTvarezea damokidebuli „mTvareuli“ adamianebis qceva. mZinare mdgomareobaSi maT SeuZliaT gaucnobierebeli ram Caidinon.
mzis sistemaSi orbitaze moZravi planetebisa da
mTvareebis garda milionobiT mcire zomis kosmosuri sxeulebi _ asteroidebi, kometebi da meteoritebia.
meteoritebi mci­
re zomis myari
kosmosuri sxeulebia, romlebic
zogjer dedamiwis
zedapirzec vardeba.
asteroidi varskvlavis msgavss niSnavs da kldis an
liTonis natexebia.
maTi umravlesoba
mzis garSemo marssa
da iupiters Soris
mdebareobs. erT­
erTi udidesi asteroidi (19 km siganis)
gaspraa.
kometa
WuWyiani
yinulis sferoa
da mzis garSemo
ovalur orbitaze brunavs. rodesac igi mzes uaxlovdeba, dnobas
iwyebs, gazi da
mtveri kosmosSi
gamoityorcneba
da kometis kudi
warmo­iqmneba.
aRniSneT planetebi, romlebsac mzidan daSorebis mixedviT naxazze ar
ukavia Sesabamisi adgili
leqsikoni
sinaTlis weliwadi
— manZili, romelsac
si­naTle gaivlis erT we­
liwadSi wamSi 300 000 kilometr siCqariT.
?
kiTxvebi da davalebebi
mzis diametri 1 316 284 kilometria. ramdeni kilometri iqneba mzis sistemis diametri?
ra bunebriv movlenas iwvevs mTvaris mizidulobis Zala zRvebisa da okeaneebis sanapiroze?
ratom ver aRweven dedamiwamde meteoritebi?
21

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